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A test card, also known as a test pattern or start-up/closedown test, is a television test signal, typically broadcast at times when the transmitter is active but no program is being broadcast (often at sign-on and sign-off).

SMPTE color bars: common NTSC test pattern
PM5544: common PAL test pattern

Used since the earliest TV broadcasts, test cards were originally physical cards at which a television camera was pointed, allowing for simple adjustments of picture quality. Such cards are still often used for calibration, alignment, and matching of cameras and camcorders. From the 1950s, test card images were built into in monoscope tubes which freed up the use of TV cameras which would otherwise have to be rotated to continuously broadcast physical test cards during downtime hours.

Electronically generated test patterns, used for calibrating or troubleshooting the downstream signal path, were introduced in the late-1960s. These are generated by test signal generators, which do not depend on the correct configuration (and presence) of a camera, and can also test for additional parameters such as correct color decoding, sync, frames per second, and frequency response. These patterns are specially tailored to be used in conjunction with devices such as a vectorscope, allowing precise adjustments of image equipment.

The audio broadcast while test cards are shown is typically a sine wave tone, radio (if associated or affiliated with the television channel) or music (usually instrumental, though some also broadcast with jazz or popular music).

Digitally generated cards came later, associated with digital television, and add a few features specific of digital signals, like checking for error correction, chroma subsampling, aspect ratio signaling, surround sound, etc. More recently, the use of test cards has also expanded beyond television to other digital displays such as large LED walls and video projectors.

Contents

Test cards typically contain a set of patterns to enable television cameras and receivers to be adjusted to show the picture correctly (see SMPTE color bars). Most modern test cards include a set of calibrated color bars which will produce a characteristic pattern of "dot landings" on a vectorscope, allowing chroma and tint to be precisely adjusted between generations of videotape or network feeds. SMPTE bars—and several other test cards—include analog black (a flat waveform at 7.5 IRE, or the NTSC setup level), full white (100 IRE), and a "sub-black", or "blacker-than-black" (at 0 IRE), which represents the lowest low-frequency transmission voltage permissible in NTSC broadcasts (though the negative excursions of the colorburst signal may go below 0 IRE). Between the color bars and proper adjustment of brightness and contrast controls to the limits of perception of the first sub-black bar, an analog receiver (or other equipment such as VTRs) can be adjusted to provide impressive fidelity.

They are also used in the broader context of video displays for concerts and live events. There are a variety of different test patterns, each testing a specific technical parameter: gradient monotone bars for testing brightness and color; a crosshatch pattern for aspect ratio, alignment, focus, and convergence; and a single-pixel border for over-scanning and dimensions.

The famous RCA Indian-head test pattern used mainly in North America from 1940 to the 1970s with its elements labelled, describing the use of each element in aligning a black & white analog TV receiver.
First RTF test card (1953) for the 819-line tv system.
A 1952 Philips TD1410U television set showing the optical monochrome Telefunken test card T05.

Test cards are as old as TV broadcasts, with documented use by the BBC in the United Kingdom in its early 30-line mechanical Baird transmissions from 1934 as well as in Occupied France during World War II. They evolved to include gratings for resolution testing, grids to assist with picture geometry adjustments, and grayscale for brightness and contrast adjustments. For example, all these elements can be seen in a Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française 819-line test card introduced in 1953.

In North America, most test cards such as the famous Indian-head test pattern of the 1950s and 1960s have long been relegated to history. The SMPTE color bars occasionally turn up, but with most North American broadcasters now following a 24-hour schedule, these too have become a rare sight.

With the introduction of color tv electronically generated test cards were introduced. They are named after their generating equipment (ex: Grundig VG1000, Philips PM5544, Telefunken FuBK, etc.), TV station (ex: BBC test card) or organization (ex: SMPTE color bars, EBU test card)

In developed countries such as Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, the financial imperatives of commercial television broadcasting mean that air-time is now typically filled with programmes and commercials (such as infomercials) 24 hours a day, and non-commercial broadcasters have to match this.

A late test card design, introduced in 2005 and fully adapted for HD, SD, 16:9 and 4:3 broadcasts, is defined on ITU-R Rec. BT.1729. It offers markings specificity design to test format conversions, chroma sampling, etc.

Formerly a common sight, test cards are now only rarely seen outside of television studios, post-production, and distribution facilities. In particular, they are no longer intended to assist viewers in calibration of television sets. Several factors have led to their demise for this purpose:

  • Modern microcontroller-controlled analog televisions rarely if ever need adjustment, so test cards are much less important than previously. Likewise, modern cameras and camcorders seldom need adjustment for technical accuracy, though they are often adjusted to compensate for scene light levels, and for various artistic effects.
  • Use of digital interconnect standards, such as CCIR 601 and SMPTE 292M, which operate without the non-linearities and other issues inherent to analog broadcasting, do not introduce color shifts or brightness changes; thus the requirement to detect and compensate for them using this reference signal has been virtually eliminated. (Compare with the obsolescence of stroboscopes as used to adjust the speed of record players.) On the other hand, digital test signal generators do include test signals which are intended to stress the digital interface, and many sophisticated generators allow the insertion of jitter, bit errors, and other pathological conditions that can cause a digital interface to fail.
  • Likewise, use of digital broadcasting standards, such as DVB and ATSC, eliminates the issues introduced by modulation and demodulation of analog signals.
  • Test cards including large circles were used to confirm the linearity of the set's deflection systems. As solid-state components replaced vacuum tubes in receiver deflection circuits, linearity adjustments were less frequently required (few newer sets have user-adjustable "VERT SIZE" and "VERT LIN" controls, for example). In LCD and other deflectionless displays, the linearity is a function of the display panel's manufacturing quality; for the display to work, the tolerances will already be far tighter than human perception.

For custom-designed video installations, such as LED displays in buildings or at live events, some test images are custom-made to fit the specific size and shape of the setup in question. These custom test images can also be an opportunity for the technicians to hide inside jokes for the crew to see while installing equipment for a show.

Main article: Monoscope

Rather than physical test cards, which had to be televised using a camera, television stations often used a special purpose camera tube which had the test pattern painted on the inside screen of the tube. Each tube was only capable of generating the one test image, hence it was called a monoscope.

Monoscopes were similar in construction to an ordinary cathode ray tube (CRT), only instead of displaying an image on its screen it scanned a built-in image. The monoscope contained a formed metal target in place of the phosphor coating at its "screen" end and as the electron beam scanned the target, rather than displaying an image, a varying electrical signal was produced generating a video signal from the etched pattern. Monoscope tubes had the advantage over test cards that a full TV camera was not needed, and the image was always properly framed and in focus. They fell out of use in the 1960s as they were not able to produce color images.

  • Close-up of the test-card image from a monoscope

A lesser-known kind of test pattern is used for the calibration of photocopiers. Photocopier test patterns are physical sheets that are photocopied, with the difference in the resulting photocopy revealing any telltale deviations or defects in the machine's ability to copy.

Television has had such an impact in today's life that it has been the main motif for numerous collectors' coins and medals. One of the most recent examples is The 50 Years of Television commemorative coin minted on 9 March 2005, in Austria. The obverse of the coin shows a "test pattern", while the reverse shows several milestones in the history of television.

The Philips Pattern is widely recognized as one of the iconic popular culture symbols of the 1980s and 1990s. Numerous novelty and collectible items has been patterned after the famous test card, including wall clocks, bedsheets, wristwatches, and clothing.

The BBC Test Card F features throughout 2006-07 TV sci-fi detective series Life on Mars.

In Britain, music - rather than radio sound - was usually played with the test card. The music played by the BBC, and afterwards ITV, was library music, which was licensed on more favourable terms for frequent use than commercially available alternatives. Later, Channel 4 used UK library LPs from publishers like KPM, Joseph Weinberger and Ready Music.

Until September 1955, the BBC used live playing 78 RPM commercial records as an audio background to the test cards. After that date, they switched to using recorded music on tape. The following year, the BBC began to build up its own library of specially produced music for the half hour tapes - initially three tunes in similar style, followed by an identification sign (the three notes B-B-C played on celesta). ITV (which began its first trade transmissions in 1957) continued to use commercially available recordings until the late 1960s, when it also began to make specially produced tapes.

For rights reasons, much of the music was recorded by light music orchestras in France and Germany, though sometimes by British musicians, or top international session players using pseudonyms, such as The Oscar Brandenburg Orchestra (an amalgamation of Neil Richardson, Alan Moorhouse and Johnny Pearson) or the Stuttgart Studio Orchestra. Other composers and bandleaders commissioned for this type of work included Gordon Langford, Ernest Tomlinson. Roger Roger, Heinz Kiessling, Werner Tautz, Frank Chacksfield and Syd Dale.

During the 1980s, the test card was gradually seen less and less - it was pushed out first by Teletext pages, then extended programme hours. The same tapes were used to accompany both the test card and Ceefax on BBC channels, but some fans argue that new tapes introduced after Ceefax became the norm in 1983 were less musically interesting.

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  2. "TEST CARD | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary".
  3. Claiborne, Vickie (9 November 2019). "Video Testing Images". PLSN. Retrieved16 March 2020.
  4. "BBC Tuning Signals". Meldrum. 29 March 2000. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. Retrieved13 February 2022.
  5. "Rétrospective : la mire à la télévision (1953 – 2002)". VivelaPub. January 5, 2012.
  6. "Test signal generator".
  7. "Grundig 72010-016.80 TV Service manual PDF View/Download, Page # 30". all-guidesbox.com.
  8. "Combined colour/monochrome pattern generator PM 5544"(PDF).
  9. Union, European Broadcasting (February 6, 1988). "EBU Review". Administrative Office of the European Broadcasting Union – via Google Books.
  10. "ITU-R Rec. BT.1729"(PDF).
  11. "Samsung SF531P PCSTATS Review – Printer Test Patterns". Pcstats.com. 2007-10-15. Retrieved2010-01-01.
  12. "Projection: Room A / Room B". Thing.net. Retrieved2010-01-01.
  13. "Life on Mars questions". BBC Drama. Retrieved24 July 2020.
  14. Griffiths, Nick (1 April 2007). "Did you spot the clues?". The Radio Times. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008.
  15. "Currie, Tony. 'The Girl, The Doll, The Music' (1998), essay included as the notes for Test Card Classics, Chandos CD FBCD 2000"(PDF).
  16. Roberts, Neville. A History of Test Card Music
  17. "Royal Daffodil - Gordon Langford - Stuttgart Studio Orchestra/Ralph Elman - CBL 024" – via www.youtube.com.
  18. "EEV Test Chart for CCTV Cameras"(PDF). Electronics Australia (12): 57. 1970.
  19. "ГОСТ 20466-75 - Таблица телевизионная испытательная универсальная ИТ-72. Диапозитивы. Общие технические условия". engenegr.ru.
  20. "ГОСТ 28459-90 Таблица телевизионная испытательная универсальная 0286. Общие технические требования". allgosts.ru.
  21. Bowden-Smith, AUTHOR: Kif. "Forward march". Transdiffusion.
  22. "UK Broadcasting History". www.ambisonic.net.
  23. Glick, Jerome. "Television & Video - Test Cards & Signals".
  24. Test Charts(PDF). Marconi. 1960. p. 60.
  25. Archives, RTÉ (July 5, 2012). "RTÉ Archives". stillslibrary.rte.ie.
  26. "Philips PM 5534 Pal colour pattern generator" – via www.youtube.com.
  27. "Sweden". March 16, 2015 – via Flickr.
  28. "Philips TV-Measuring Equipment, 1980"(PDF).
  29. "Philips PM5552 Test Pattern".
  30. "Hungarian ETC's". ing-sat.what.hu.
  31. "Czechoslovakia". August 11, 2012 – via Flickr.
  32. "CST EZO TEST PATTERN" – via www.youtube.com.
  33. "KCTV screencap". January 17, 2016 – via Flickr.
  34. "DPRK TV - Test Card" – via www.youtube.com.
  35. SuperVisor Multi-Standard Display Processor Manual(PDF). Snell & Wilcox. 2001.
  36. "DFF Electronic Test Pattern".
  37. "DFF Monochrome Test Pattern".
  38. "DFF Color Test Pattern".
Wikimedia Commons has media related toTelevision test patterns.

Test card Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Test card news newspapers books scholar JSTOR March 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article has an unclear citation style The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting January 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Learn how and when to remove this template message A test card also known as a test pattern or start up closedown test is a television test signal typically broadcast at times when the transmitter is active but no program is being broadcast often at sign on and sign off 1 SMPTE color bars common NTSC test patternPM5544 common PAL test patternEBU colour bars 4 3 Used since the earliest TV broadcasts test cards were originally physical cards at which a television camera was pointed allowing for simple adjustments of picture quality 2 Such cards are still often used for calibration alignment and matching of cameras and camcorders From the 1950s test card images were built into in monoscope tubes which freed up the use of TV cameras which would otherwise have to be rotated to continuously broadcast physical test cards during downtime hours Electronically generated test patterns used for calibrating or troubleshooting the downstream signal path were introduced in the late 1960s These are generated by test signal generators which do not depend on the correct configuration and presence of a camera and can also test for additional parameters such as correct color decoding sync frames per second and frequency response 3 These patterns are specially tailored to be used in conjunction with devices such as a vectorscope allowing precise adjustments of image equipment The audio broadcast while test cards are shown is typically a sine wave tone radio if associated or affiliated with the television channel or music usually instrumental though some also broadcast with jazz or popular music Digitally generated cards came later associated with digital television and add a few features specific of digital signals like checking for error correction chroma subsampling aspect ratio signaling surround sound etc More recently the use of test cards has also expanded beyond television to other digital displays such as large LED walls and video projectors 3 Contents 1 Technical details 2 History 3 Monoscope 4 Test patterns for photocopiers 5 In numismatics 6 In popular culture 7 Test card music 8 List of TV test cards 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksTechnical details EditTest cards typically contain a set of patterns to enable television cameras and receivers to be adjusted to show the picture correctly see SMPTE color bars Most modern test cards include a set of calibrated color bars which will produce a characteristic pattern of dot landings on a vectorscope allowing chroma and tint to be precisely adjusted between generations of videotape or network feeds SMPTE bars and several other test cards include analog black a flat waveform at 7 5 IRE or the NTSC setup level full white 100 IRE and a sub black or blacker than black at 0 IRE which represents the lowest low frequency transmission voltage permissible in NTSC broadcasts though the negative excursions of the colorburst signal may go below 0 IRE Between the color bars and proper adjustment of brightness and contrast controls to the limits of perception of the first sub black bar an analog receiver or other equipment such as VTRs can be adjusted to provide impressive fidelity They are also used in the broader context of video displays for concerts and live events There are a variety of different test patterns each testing a specific technical parameter gradient monotone bars for testing brightness and color a crosshatch pattern for aspect ratio alignment focus and convergence and a single pixel border for over scanning and dimensions 3 History Edit The famous RCA Indian head test pattern used mainly in North America from 1940 to the 1970s with its elements labelled describing the use of each element in aligning a black amp white analog TV receiver First RTF test card 1953 for the 819 line tv system A 1952 Philips TD1410U television set showing the optical monochrome Telefunken test card T05 Test cards are as old as TV broadcasts with documented use by the BBC in the United Kingdom in its early 30 line mechanical Baird transmissions from 1934 4 as well as in Occupied France during World War II 5 They evolved to include gratings for resolution testing grids to assist with picture geometry adjustments and grayscale for brightness and contrast adjustments For example all these elements can be seen in a Radiodiffusion Television Francaise 819 line test card introduced in 1953 5 In North America most test cards such as the famous Indian head test pattern of the 1950s and 1960s have long been relegated to history The SMPTE color bars occasionally turn up but with most North American broadcasters now following a 24 hour schedule these too have become a rare sight With the introduction of color tv electronically generated test cards were introduced They are named after their generating equipment ex Grundig VG1000 6 7 Philips PM5544 8 Telefunken FuBK 9 etc TV station ex BBC test card or organization ex SMPTE color bars EBU test card In developed countries such as Australia Canada the United Kingdom and the United States the financial imperatives of commercial television broadcasting mean that air time is now typically filled with programmes and commercials such as infomercials 24 hours a day and non commercial broadcasters have to match this A late test card design introduced in 2005 and fully adapted for HD SD 16 9 and 4 3 broadcasts is defined on ITU R Rec BT 1729 10 It offers markings specificity design to test format conversions chroma sampling etc Formerly a common sight test cards are now only rarely seen outside of television studios post production and distribution facilities In particular they are no longer intended to assist viewers in calibration of television sets Several factors have led to their demise for this purpose Modern microcontroller controlled analog televisions rarely if ever need adjustment so test cards are much less important than previously Likewise modern cameras and camcorders seldom need adjustment for technical accuracy though they are often adjusted to compensate for scene light levels and for various artistic effects Use of digital interconnect standards such as CCIR 601 and SMPTE 292M which operate without the non linearities and other issues inherent to analog broadcasting do not introduce color shifts or brightness changes thus the requirement to detect and compensate for them using this reference signal has been virtually eliminated Compare with the obsolescence of stroboscopes as used to adjust the speed of record players On the other hand digital test signal generators do include test signals which are intended to stress the digital interface and many sophisticated generators allow the insertion of jitter bit errors and other pathological conditions that can cause a digital interface to fail Likewise use of digital broadcasting standards such as DVB and ATSC eliminates the issues introduced by modulation and demodulation of analog signals Test cards including large circles were used to confirm the linearity of the set s deflection systems As solid state components replaced vacuum tubes in receiver deflection circuits linearity adjustments were less frequently required few newer sets have user adjustable VERT SIZE and VERT LIN controls for example In LCD and other deflectionless displays the linearity is a function of the display panel s manufacturing quality for the display to work the tolerances will already be far tighter than human perception For custom designed video installations such as LED displays in buildings or at live events some test images are custom made to fit the specific size and shape of the setup in question These custom test images can also be an opportunity for the technicians to hide inside jokes for the crew to see while installing equipment for a show 3 Monoscope EditMain article Monoscope Rather than physical test cards which had to be televised using a camera television stations often used a special purpose camera tube which had the test pattern painted on the inside screen of the tube Each tube was only capable of generating the one test image hence it was called a monoscope Monoscopes were similar in construction to an ordinary cathode ray tube CRT only instead of displaying an image on its screen it scanned a built in image The monoscope contained a formed metal target in place of the phosphor coating at its screen end and as the electron beam scanned the target rather than displaying an image a varying electrical signal was produced generating a video signal from the etched pattern Monoscope tubes had the advantage over test cards that a full TV camera was not needed and the image was always properly framed and in focus They fell out of use in the 1960s as they were not able to produce color images A monoscope Close up of the test card image from a monoscopeTest patterns for photocopiers EditA lesser known kind of test pattern is used for the calibration of photocopiers 11 12 Photocopier test patterns are physical sheets that are photocopied with the difference in the resulting photocopy revealing any telltale deviations or defects in the machine s ability to copy In numismatics EditTelevision has had such an impact in today s life that it has been the main motif for numerous collectors coins and medals One of the most recent examples is The 50 Years of Television commemorative coin minted on 9 March 2005 in Austria The obverse of the coin shows a test pattern while the reverse shows several milestones in the history of television In popular culture EditThe Philips Pattern is widely recognized as one of the iconic popular culture symbols of the 1980s and 1990s Numerous novelty and collectible items has been patterned after the famous test card including wall clocks bedsheets wristwatches and clothing The BBC Test Card F features throughout 2006 07 TV sci fi detective series Life on Mars 13 14 Test card music EditIn Britain music rather than radio sound was usually played with the test card The music played by the BBC and afterwards ITV was library music which was licensed on more favourable terms for frequent use than commercially available alternatives Later Channel 4 used UK library LPs from publishers like KPM Joseph Weinberger and Ready Music 15 Until September 1955 the BBC used live playing 78 RPM commercial records as an audio background to the test cards After that date they switched to using recorded music on tape 16 The following year the BBC began to build up its own library of specially produced music for the half hour tapes initially three tunes in similar style followed by an identification sign the three notes B B C played on celesta ITV which began its first trade transmissions in 1957 continued to use commercially available recordings until the late 1960s when it also began to make specially produced tapes 16 For rights reasons much of the music was recorded by light music orchestras in France and Germany though sometimes by British musicians or top international session players using pseudonyms such as The Oscar Brandenburg Orchestra an amalgamation of Neil Richardson Alan Moorhouse and Johnny Pearson or the Stuttgart Studio Orchestra 17 Other composers and bandleaders commissioned for this type of work included Gordon Langford Ernest Tomlinson Roger Roger Heinz Kiessling Werner Tautz Frank Chacksfield and Syd Dale During the 1980s the test card was gradually seen less and less it was pushed out first by Teletext pages then extended programme hours The same tapes were used to accompany both the test card and Ceefax on BBC channels but some fans argue that new tapes introduced after Ceefax became the norm in 1983 were less musically interesting 16 List of TV test cards EditBBC Tuning Signals and Test Cards A B C D E F G H G W X 1934 2006 Mechanical Monochrome PAL SDTV HDTV 405 and 625 lines Indian head test pattern 1939 525 lines RMA 1946 resolution chart 1946 Marconi Resolution Chart No 1 English Electric Valve Company Test Chart 18 c 1947 c 1970 TIT 0249 IT 72 19 and tablica 0286 20 monochrome test cards 1949 1978 1990 used in Soviet Union and Russia Radiodiffusion Television Francaise Marly Horses test card 1953 819 lines Associated Rediffusion Marconi diamond monochrome test card versions 1 2 and 3 21 22 23 1955 1958 625 lines Version 1 also used in British Hong Kong Crown Colony of Malta and the western part of Colonial Nigeria 24 EIA 1956 resolution chart 1956 Chequerboard optical and electronic test cards 1950s 60s monochrome 625 lines used in varying forms in West Germany Italy Portugal and Spain SMPTE optical monochrome test card 1950s 525 lines 1962 625 lines 25 Philips PM 5534 26 27 PM 5538 PM 5540 28 PM 5543 PM 5544 PM 5552 29 28 PM 5634 PM 5644 1960s 525 line 625 line PAL PALplus SECAM NTSC Telefunken T 05 early 1960s monochrome EBU electronic monochrome test pattern 1960s 625 lines Telefunken FuBK late 1960s PAL UEIT Universal Electronic Test Chart 1970 SECAM HTV TR 0782 test card 1970s SECAM used in Hungary Poland East Germany and Romania 30 EZO test card 1971 PAL used in Czechoslovakia 31 32 BNT electronic test card 1972 SECAM used in Bulgaria TVE colour test card 1975 PAL SMPTE color bars 1977 NTSC HDTV SDTV EBU colour bars Electronic Test Pattern 1 1979 PAL Grundig VG 1001 1980 PAL KCTV test card c 1980s SECAM then PAL used in North Korea 33 34 Snell amp Wilcox SW2 and SW4 Zone Plate 2000s NTSC PAL SDTV 35 DFF Deutscher Fernsehfunk monochrome and colour test patterns SECAM used in East Germany 36 37 38 See also Edit Television portal Blue only mode Colour chart List of BBC test cards Test Card F Webdriver Torso YouTube account used for automated performance testingReferences Edit TCC A Very Concise History of Test Cards www testcardcircle org uk TEST CARD meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary a b c d Claiborne Vickie 9 November 2019 Video Testing Images PLSN Retrieved 16 March 2020 BBC Tuning Signals Meldrum 29 March 2000 Archived from the original on 23 February 2009 Retrieved 13 February 2022 a b Retrospective la mire a la television 1953 2002 VivelaPub January 5 2012 Test signal generator Grundig 72010 016 80 TV Service manual PDF View Download Page 30 all guidesbox com Combined colour monochrome pattern generator PM 5544 PDF Union European Broadcasting February 6 1988 EBU Review Administrative Office of the European Broadcasting Union via Google Books ITU R Rec BT 1729 PDF Samsung SF531P PCSTATS Review Printer Test Patterns Pcstats com 2007 10 15 Retrieved 2010 01 01 Projection Room A Room B Thing net Retrieved 2010 01 01 Life on Mars questions BBC Drama Retrieved 24 July 2020 Griffiths Nick 1 April 2007 Did you spot the clues The Radio Times Archived from the original on 21 November 2008 Currie Tony The Girl The Doll The Music 1998 essay included as the notes for Test Card Classics Chandos CD FBCD 2000 PDF a b c Roberts Neville A History of Test Card Music Royal Daffodil Gordon Langford Stuttgart Studio Orchestra Ralph Elman CBL 024 via www youtube com EEV Test Chart for CCTV Cameras PDF Electronics Australia 12 57 1970 GOST 20466 75 Tablica televizionnaya ispytatelnaya universalnaya IT 72 Diapozitivy Obshie tehnicheskie usloviya engenegr ru GOST 28459 90 Tablica televizionnaya ispytatelnaya universalnaya 0286 Obshie tehnicheskie trebovaniya allgosts ru Bowden Smith AUTHOR Kif Forward march Transdiffusion UK Broadcasting History www ambisonic net Glick Jerome Television amp Video Test Cards amp Signals Test Charts PDF Marconi 1960 p 60 Archives RTE July 5 2012 RTE Archives stillslibrary rte ie Philips PM 5534 Pal colour pattern generator via www youtube com Sweden March 16 2015 via Flickr a b Philips TV Measuring Equipment 1980 PDF Philips PM5552 Test Pattern Hungarian ETC s ing sat what hu Czechoslovakia August 11 2012 via Flickr CST EZO TEST PATTERN via www youtube com KCTV screencap January 17 2016 via Flickr DPRK TV Test Card via www youtube com SuperVisor Multi Standard Display Processor Manual PDF Snell amp Wilcox 2001 DFF Electronic Test Pattern DFF Monochrome Test Pattern DFF Color Test Pattern External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Television test patterns The Test Card Circle a UK fan site details of the UK s Trade Test Transmissions including the history of the BBC and ITA Test Cards a look at the music used and full details about the Trade Test Colour Films shown from the late fifties to 1973 The Test Card Gallery Nostalgia TV Television testikuva test cards in Finland in Finnish language only Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Test card amp oldid 1093265365, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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