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Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene, and many other names (and abbreviations such as "perc" or "PERC", and "PCE"), is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C=CCl2 . It is a colorless liquid widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics, hence it is sometimes called "dry-cleaning fluid". It also has its uses as an effective automotive brake cleaner. It has a sweet odor detectable by most people at a concentration of 1 part per million (1 ppm). Worldwide production was about 1 million metric tons (980,000 long tons; 1,100,000 short tons) in 1985.

Tetrachloroethylene
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Tetrachloroethene
Other names
Perchloroethene; perchloroethylene; perc; PCE
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
1304635
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.004.388
EC Number
  • 204-825-9
101142
KEGG
RTECS number
  • KX3850000
UNII
UN number 1897
  • InChI=1S/C2Cl4/c3-1(4)2(5)6 Y
    Key: CYTYCFOTNPOANT-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y
  • InChI=1/C2Cl4/c3-1(4)2(5)6
    Key: CYTYCFOTNPOANT-UHFFFAOYAO
  • ClC(Cl)=C(Cl)Cl
Properties
C2Cl4
Molar mass 165.82 g/mol
Appearance Clear, colorless liquid
Odor Mild, chloroform-like
Density 1.622g/cm3
Melting point −19 °C (−2 °F; 254 K)
Boiling point 121.1 °C (250.0 °F; 394.2 K)
0.15g/L (25°C)
Vapor pressure 14mmHg (20°C)
−81.6·10−6cm3/mol
Viscosity 0.89cP at 25°C
Hazards
GHS labelling:
Warning
H351, H411
P201, P202, P273, P281, P308+P313, P391, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
2
0
0
Flash point Not flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4000ppm (rat, 4hr)
5200ppm (mouse, 4hr)
4964ppm (rat, 8hr)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 100ppm
C 200ppm (for 5 minutes in any 3-hour period), with a maximum peak of 300ppm
REL (Recommended)
Ca Minimize workplace exposure concentrations.
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Ca [150 ppm]
Safety data sheet (SDS) External MSDS
Related compounds
Related Related organohalides
Tetrabromoethylene
Tetraiodoethylene
Related compounds
Trichloroethylene
Dichloroethene
Tetrachloroethane
Supplementary data page
Tetrachloroethylene (data page)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Nverify (what is YN ?)

Contents

British physicist and chemist Michael Faraday first synthesized tetrachloroethylene in 1821 by thermal decomposition of hexachloroethane.

C2Cl6 → C2Cl4 + Cl2

Most tetrachloroethylene is produced by high temperature chlorinolysis of light hydrocarbons. The method is related to Faraday's discovery since hexachloroethane is generated and thermally decomposes. Side products include carbon tetrachloride, hydrogen chloride, and hexachlorobutadiene.

Several other methods have been developed When 1,2-dichloroethane is heated to 400 °C with chlorine, tetrachloroethylene is produced by the chemical reaction:

ClCH2CH2Cl + 3 Cl2 → Cl2C=CCl2 + 4 HCl

This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride or by activated carbon. Trichloroethylene is a major byproduct, which is separated by distillation.

According to a United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report of 1976, the quantity of tetrachloroethylene produced in the United States in 1973 totaled 320,000 metric tons (706 million lb). By 1993, the volume produced in the United States had dropped to 123,000 metric tons (271 million lb).

Tetrachloroethylene is an excellent solvent for organic materials. Otherwise it is volatile, highly stable, and nonflammable. For these reasons, it is widely used in dry cleaning. It is also used to degrease metal parts in the automotive and other metalworking industries, usually as a mixture with other chlorocarbons. It appears in a few consumer products including paint strippers and spot removers. It is also used in aerosol preparations.

It is used in neutrino detectors where a neutrino interacts with a neutron in the chlorine atom and converts it to a proton to form argon.

Historical applications

Tetrachloroethylene was once extensively used as an intermediate in the manufacture of HFC-134a and related refrigerants. In the early 20th century, tetrachloroethene was used for the treatment of hookworm infestation.

The acute toxicity of tetrachloroethylene "is moderate to low". "Reports of human injury are uncommon despite its wide usage in dry cleaning and degreasing".

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified tetrachloroethylene as a Group 2A carcinogen, which means that it is probably carcinogenic to humans. Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons, tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant and can enter the body through respiratory or dermal exposure. Tetrachloroethylene dissolves fats from the skin, potentially resulting in skin irritation.

Animal studies and a study of 99 twins showed there is a "lot of circumstantial evidence" that exposure to tetrachloroethylene increases the risk of developing Parkinson's disease ninefold. Larger population studies are planned. Also, tetrachloroethylene has been shown to cause liver tumors in mice and kidney tumors in male rats.

At temperatures over 315 °C (599 °F), such as in welding, tetrachloroethylene can be oxidized into phosgene, an extremely poisonous gas.

The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has compiled extensive health and safety information for tetrachloroethylene, including recommendations for dry cleaning establishments.

Tetrachloroethylene exposure has been linked to pronounced acquired color vision deficiencies after chronic exposure.

Testing for exposure

Tetrachloroethylene exposure can be evaluated by a breath test, analogous to breath-alcohol measurements. Because it is stored in the body's fat and slowly released into the bloodstream, tetrachloroethylene can be detected in the breath for weeks following a heavy exposure. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a breakdown product of tetrachloroethylene, can be detected in the blood.

In Europe, the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) recommends for tetrachloroethylene an occupational exposure limit (8 hour time-weighted average) of 20 ppm and a short-term exposure limit (15 min) of 40 ppm.

Tetrachloroethylene is a problematic soil contaminant because its density causes it to sink below the water table, inhibiting cleanup activities.

Estimates[which?] state that 85% of tetrachloroethylene produced is released into the atmosphere; while models from OECD assumed that 90% is released into the air and 10% to water. Based on these models, its distribution in the environment is estimated to be in the air (76.39% - 99.69%), water (0.23% - 23.2%), soil (0.06-7%), with the remainder in the sediment and biota. Estimates of lifetime in the atmosphere vary, but a 1987 survey estimated the lifetime in the air to be about 2 months in the Southern Hemisphere and 5–6 months in the Northern Hemisphere. Degradation products observed in a laboratory include phosgene, trichloroacetyl chloride, hydrogen chloride, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Tetrachloroethylene is degraded by hydrolysis, and is persistent under aerobic conditions. It is degraded by reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions, with degradation products such as trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, ethylene, and ethane. It has an ozone depletion potential of 0.005, where CFC-11 (CCl3F) is 1.

In principle, tetrachloroethylene contamination can be remediated by chemical treatment or bioremediation. Bioremediation entails reductive dechlorination by Dehalococcoides sp. under aerobic conditions by cometabolism by Pseudomonas sp. Partial degradation daughter products include trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride; full degradation converts tetrachloroethylene to ethylene and chloride. Implementation of bioremediation strategies would entail inoculation of contaminated sites.

  1. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0599". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. "Tetrachloroethylene". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. "Compound Summary: Tetrachloroethylene". PubChem. Retrieved9 September 2020.
  4. M. Rossberg et al. "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a06_233.pub2
  5. "Assessment of Hazardous Waste Practices: Organic Chemicals, Pesticides and Explosives Industries" prebpublication issue for EPA Libraries and Solid Waste Management Agencies under contract # 68-01-2919, USEPA 1976
  6. "Toxicological Profile For Tetrachloroethylene"(PDF). Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. September 1997. p. 174. Retrieved2012-09-16. citing C&EN, 1994, Facts and Figures for the Chemical Industry, Chemical and Engineering News, July 4, 1994.
  7. Young, M.D.; et al. (1960). "The Comparative Efficacy of Bephenium Hydroxynaphthoate and Tetrachloroethylene against Hookworm and other Parasites of Man". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 9 (5): 488–491. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1960.9.488. PMID 13787477.
  8. "Clinical Aspects and Treatment of the More Common Intestinal Parasites of Man (TB-33)". Veterans Administration Technical Bulletin 1946 & 1947. 10: 1–14. 1948.
  9. E.-L. Dreher; T. R. Torkelson; K. K. Beutel (2011). "Chlorethanes and Chloroethylenes". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.o06_o01. ISBN 978-3527306732.
  10. IARC monograph. Tetrachloroethylene, Vol. 63, p. 159. Last Updated May 20, 1997. Last retrieved June 22, 2007.
  11. Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning Archived September 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Hazard Controls: Publication 97-157. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  12. "Industrial Solvent Linked to Increased Risk of Parkinson's Disease". Los Angeles Times. February 7, 2010. Archived from the original on March 15, 2010.
  13. "Solvents: the hazardous chemicals to avoid in everyday life - Meds News". Meds News. Retrieved2016-01-22.
  14. "ATSDR - Medical Management Guidelines (MMGs): Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)".
  15. "OSH Answers:4-Working Safely with Tetrachloroethylene". Government of Canada, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Archived from the original on 2007-07-15. Retrieved2011-10-13.
  16. "Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)". CDC / NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic. October 25, 2010. Retrieved2016-07-15.
  17. "Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (76-185)". CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products. June 6, 2014. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB76128. Retrieved2016-07-15.
  18. "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (97-154)". CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products. June 6, 2014. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB97154. Retrieved2016-07-15.
  19. "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (Substitution) (97-155)". CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products. June 6, 2014. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB97155. Retrieved2016-07-15.
  20. "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (Machine Design) (97-156)". CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products. June 6, 2014. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB97156. Retrieved2016-07-15.
  21. "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (Ventilation) (97-157)". CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products. June 6, 2014. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB97157. Retrieved2016-07-15.
  22. Iregren, A (Dec 2002). "Color Vision and Occupational Chemical Exposure: An Overview of Tests and Effects". Neurotoxicity. 23 (6): 719–33. doi:10.1016/S0161-813X(02)00088-8. PMID 12520762.
  23. "SCOEL recommendations". 2011-04-22. Retrieved2011-04-22.
  24. Watts P. (2006). Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 68: TETRACHLOROETHENE, World Health Organization
  25. Ryoo, D., Shim, H., Arenghi, F. L. G., Barbieri, P., Wood T. K. (2001). "Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene, and Chlorinated Phenols Induce Toluene-o-xylene Monooxoygenase Activity in Pseudomonas Stutzeri OX1". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 56 (3–4): 545–549. doi:10.1007/s002530100675. PMID 11549035. S2CID 23770815.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. Deckard, L. A., Wills, J. C., Rivers, D. B. (1994). "Evidence for aerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene by bacterial isolate". Biotechnol. Lett. 16 (11): 1221–1224. doi:10.1007/BF01020855. S2CID 29470943.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Tetrachloroethylene Article Talk Language Watch Edit Tetrachloroethylene also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene or perchloroethylene and many other names and abbreviations such as perc or PERC and PCE is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C CCl2 It is a colorless liquid widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics hence it is sometimes called dry cleaning fluid It also has its uses as an effective automotive brake cleaner It has a sweet odor detectable by most people at a concentration of 1 part per million 1 ppm Worldwide production was about 1 million metric tons 980 000 long tons 1 100 000 short tons in 1985 4 Tetrachloroethylene NamesPreferred IUPAC name TetrachloroetheneOther names Perchloroethene perchloroethylene perc PCEIdentifiersCAS Number 127 18 4 Y3D model JSmol Interactive imageBeilstein Reference 1304635ChEBI CHEBI 17300 NChEMBL ChEMBL114062 YChemSpider 13837281 YECHA InfoCard 100 004 388EC Number 204 825 9Gmelin Reference 101142KEGG C06789 YPubChem CID 31373RTECS number KX3850000UNII TJ904HH8SN YUN number 1897CompTox Dashboard EPA DTXSID2021319InChI InChI 1S C2Cl4 c3 1 4 2 5 6 YKey CYTYCFOTNPOANT UHFFFAOYSA N YInChI 1 C2Cl4 c3 1 4 2 5 6Key CYTYCFOTNPOANT UHFFFAOYAOSMILES ClC Cl C Cl ClPropertiesChemical formula C 2Cl 4Molar mass 165 82 g molAppearance Clear colorless liquidOdor Mild chloroform like 1 Density 1 622 g cm3Melting point 19 C 2 F 254 K Boiling point 121 1 C 250 0 F 394 2 K Solubility in water 0 15 g L 25 C Vapor pressure 14 mmHg 20 C 1 Magnetic susceptibility x 81 6 10 6 cm3 molViscosity 0 89 cP at 25 CHazardsGHS labelling PictogramsSignal word WarningHazard statements H351 H411Precautionary statements P201 P202 P273 P281 P308 P313 P391 P405 P501NFPA 704 fire diamond 3 200Flash point Not flammableLethal dose or concentration LD LC LC50 median concentration 4000 ppm rat 4 hr 5200 ppm mouse 4 hr 4964 ppm rat 8 hr 2 NIOSH US health exposure limits PEL Permissible TWA 100 ppm C 200 ppm for 5 minutes in any 3 hour period with a maximum peak of 300 ppm 1 REL Recommended Ca Minimize workplace exposure concentrations 1 IDLH Immediate danger Ca 150 ppm 1 Safety data sheet SDS External MSDSRelated compoundsRelated Related organohalides Tetrabromoethylene TetraiodoethyleneRelated compounds Trichloroethylene Dichloroethene TetrachloroethaneSupplementary data pageTetrachloroethylene data page Except where otherwise noted data are given for materials in their standard state at 25 C 77 F 100 kPa N verify what is Y N Infobox references Contents 1 Production 2 Uses 2 1 Historical applications 3 Health and safety 3 1 Testing for exposure 4 Environmental contamination 5 Remediation and degradation 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksProduction EditBritish physicist and chemist Michael Faraday first synthesized tetrachloroethylene in 1821 by thermal decomposition of hexachloroethane C2Cl6 C2Cl4 Cl2 Most tetrachloroethylene is produced by high temperature chlorinolysis of light hydrocarbons The method is related to Faraday s discovery since hexachloroethane is generated and thermally decomposes 4 Side products include carbon tetrachloride hydrogen chloride and hexachlorobutadiene Several other methods have been developed When 1 2 dichloroethane is heated to 400 C with chlorine tetrachloroethylene is produced by the chemical reaction ClCH2CH2Cl 3 Cl2 Cl2C CCl2 4 HCl This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride or by activated carbon Trichloroethylene is a major byproduct which is separated by distillation According to a United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA report of 1976 the quantity of tetrachloroethylene produced in the United States in 1973 totaled 320 000 metric tons 706 million lb 5 By 1993 the volume produced in the United States had dropped to 123 000 metric tons 271 million lb 6 Uses EditTetrachloroethylene is an excellent solvent for organic materials Otherwise it is volatile highly stable and nonflammable For these reasons it is widely used in dry cleaning It is also used to degrease metal parts in the automotive and other metalworking industries usually as a mixture with other chlorocarbons It appears in a few consumer products including paint strippers and spot removers It is also used in aerosol preparations It is used in neutrino detectors where a neutrino interacts with a neutron in the chlorine atom and converts it to a proton to form argon Historical applications Edit Tetrachloroethylene was once extensively used as an intermediate in the manufacture of HFC 134a and related refrigerants In the early 20th century tetrachloroethene was used for the treatment of hookworm infestation 7 8 Health and safety EditThe acute toxicity of tetrachloroethylene is moderate to low Reports of human injury are uncommon despite its wide usage in dry cleaning and degreasing 9 The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified tetrachloroethylene as a Group 2A carcinogen which means that it is probably carcinogenic to humans 10 Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant and can enter the body through respiratory or dermal exposure 11 Tetrachloroethylene dissolves fats from the skin potentially resulting in skin irritation Animal studies and a study of 99 twins showed there is a lot of circumstantial evidence that exposure to tetrachloroethylene increases the risk of developing Parkinson s disease ninefold Larger population studies are planned 12 Also tetrachloroethylene has been shown to cause liver tumors in mice and kidney tumors in male rats 13 At temperatures over 315 C 599 F such as in welding tetrachloroethylene can be oxidized into phosgene an extremely poisonous gas 14 15 The U S National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has compiled extensive health and safety information for tetrachloroethylene 16 17 including recommendations for dry cleaning establishments 18 19 20 21 Tetrachloroethylene exposure has been linked to pronounced acquired color vision deficiencies after chronic exposure 22 Testing for exposure Edit Tetrachloroethylene exposure can be evaluated by a breath test analogous to breath alcohol measurements Because it is stored in the body s fat and slowly released into the bloodstream tetrachloroethylene can be detected in the breath for weeks following a heavy exposure Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid TCA a breakdown product of tetrachloroethylene can be detected in the blood In Europe the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits SCOEL recommends for tetrachloroethylene an occupational exposure limit 8 hour time weighted average of 20 ppm and a short term exposure limit 15 min of 40 ppm 23 Environmental contamination EditTetrachloroethylene is a problematic soil contaminant because its density causes it to sink below the water table inhibiting cleanup activities Remediation and degradation EditEstimates which state that 85 of tetrachloroethylene produced is released into the atmosphere while models from OECD assumed that 90 is released into the air and 10 to water Based on these models its distribution in the environment is estimated to be in the air 76 39 99 69 water 0 23 23 2 soil 0 06 7 with the remainder in the sediment and biota Estimates of lifetime in the atmosphere vary but a 1987 survey estimated the lifetime in the air to be about 2 months in the Southern Hemisphere and 5 6 months in the Northern Hemisphere Degradation products observed in a laboratory include phosgene trichloroacetyl chloride hydrogen chloride carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide Tetrachloroethylene is degraded by hydrolysis and is persistent under aerobic conditions It is degraded by reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions with degradation products such as trichloroethylene dichloroethylene vinyl chloride ethylene and ethane 24 It has an ozone depletion potential of 0 005 where CFC 11 CCl3F is 1 In principle tetrachloroethylene contamination can be remediated by chemical treatment or bioremediation Bioremediation entails reductive dechlorination by Dehalococcoides sp under aerobic conditions by cometabolism by Pseudomonas sp 25 26 Partial degradation daughter products include trichloroethylene cis 1 2 dichloroethene and vinyl chloride full degradation converts tetrachloroethylene to ethylene and chloride Implementation of bioremediation strategies would entail inoculation of contaminated sites See also EditTetrachlorodinitroethaneReferences Edit a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards 0599 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH Tetrachloroethylene Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations IDLH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH Compound Summary Tetrachloroethylene PubChem Retrieved 9 September 2020 a b M Rossberg et al Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006 Wiley VCH Weinheim doi 10 1002 14356007 a06 233 pub2 Assessment of Hazardous Waste Practices Organic Chemicals Pesticides and Explosives Industries prebpublication issue for EPA Libraries and Solid Waste Management Agencies under contract 68 01 2919 USEPA 1976 Toxicological Profile For Tetrachloroethylene PDF Atlanta GA Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry September 1997 p 174 Retrieved 2012 09 16 citing C amp EN 1994 Facts and Figures for the Chemical Industry Chemical and Engineering News July 4 1994 Young M D et al 1960 The Comparative Efficacy of Bephenium Hydroxynaphthoate and Tetrachloroethylene against Hookworm and other Parasites of Man American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 9 5 488 491 doi 10 4269 ajtmh 1960 9 488 PMID 13787477 Clinical Aspects and Treatment of the More Common Intestinal Parasites of Man TB 33 Veterans Administration Technical Bulletin 1946 amp 1947 10 1 14 1948 E L Dreher T R Torkelson K K Beutel 2011 Chlorethanes and Chloroethylenes Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Weinheim Wiley VCH doi 10 1002 14356007 o06 o01 ISBN 978 3527306732 IARC monograph Tetrachloroethylene Vol 63 p 159 Last Updated May 20 1997 Last retrieved June 22 2007 Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning Archived September 1 2009 at the Wayback Machine Hazard Controls Publication 97 157 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Industrial Solvent Linked to Increased Risk of Parkinson s Disease Los Angeles Times February 7 2010 Archived from the original on March 15 2010 Solvents the hazardous chemicals to avoid in everyday life Meds News Meds News Retrieved 2016 01 22 ATSDR Medical Management Guidelines MMGs Tetrachloroethylene PERC OSH Answers 4 Working Safely with Tetrachloroethylene Government of Canada Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety Archived from the original on 2007 07 15 Retrieved 2011 10 13 Tetrachloroethylene perchloroethylene CDC NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic October 25 2010 Retrieved 2016 07 15 Criteria for a Recommended Standard Occupational Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene Perchloroethylene 76 185 CDC NIOSH Publications and Products June 6 2014 doi 10 26616 NIOSHPUB76128 Retrieved 2016 07 15 Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning 97 154 CDC NIOSH Publications and Products June 6 2014 doi 10 26616 NIOSHPUB97154 Retrieved 2016 07 15 Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning Substitution 97 155 CDC NIOSH Publications and Products June 6 2014 doi 10 26616 NIOSHPUB97155 Retrieved 2016 07 15 Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning Machine Design 97 156 CDC NIOSH Publications and Products June 6 2014 doi 10 26616 NIOSHPUB97156 Retrieved 2016 07 15 Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning Ventilation 97 157 CDC NIOSH Publications and Products June 6 2014 doi 10 26616 NIOSHPUB97157 Retrieved 2016 07 15 Iregren A Dec 2002 Color Vision and Occupational Chemical Exposure An Overview of Tests and Effects Neurotoxicity 23 6 719 33 doi 10 1016 S0161 813X 02 00088 8 PMID 12520762 SCOEL recommendations 2011 04 22 Retrieved 2011 04 22 Watts P 2006 Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 68 TETRACHLOROETHENE World Health Organization Ryoo D Shim H Arenghi F L G Barbieri P Wood T K 2001 Tetrachloroethylene Trichloroethylene and Chlorinated Phenols Induce Toluene o xylene Monooxoygenase Activity in Pseudomonas Stutzeri OX1 Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 56 3 4 545 549 doi 10 1007 s002530100675 PMID 11549035 S2CID 23770815 a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Deckard L A Wills J C Rivers D B 1994 Evidence for aerobic degradation of tetrachloroethylene by bacterial isolate Biotechnol Lett 16 11 1221 1224 doi 10 1007 BF01020855 S2CID 29470943 a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Further reading Edit Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethene Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 1997 Doherty R E 2000 A History of the Production and Use of Carbon Tetrachloride Tetrachloroethylene Trichloroethylene and 1 1 1 Trichloroethane in the United States Part 1 Historical Background Carbon Tetrachloride and Tetrachloroethylene Environmental Forensics 1 2 69 81 doi 10 1006 enfo 2000 0010 S2CID 97680726 External links EditATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine Tetrachloroethylene Toxicity U S Department of Health and Human Services Tetrachloroethylene Perchloroethylene U S Department of Health and Human Services Australian National Pollutant Inventory NPI page Toxic Fumes May Have Made Gunman Snap by Julian Kesner New York Daily News April 20 2007 Sustainable uses and Industry recommendations Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tetrachloroethylene amp oldid 1092766395, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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