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For other uses, see Third World (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Developing country.

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact. The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Western European nations and their allies represented the "First World", while the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam and their allies represented the "Second World". This terminology provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on political divisions. Strictly speaking, "Third World" was a political, rather than an economic, grouping. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the term Third World has decreased in use. It is being replaced with terms such as developing countries, least developed countries or the Global South. The concept itself has become outdated as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world and historically poor countries have transited different income stages.

The "Three Worlds" of the Cold War era, AprilAugust 1975
First World: Western Bloc led by the USA, Japan, United Kingdom and their allies
Second World: Eastern Bloc led by the USSR, China, and their allies
Third World: Non-Aligned Movement (led by India and Yugoslavia) and other neutral countries

The Third World was normally seen to include many countries with colonial pasts in Africa, Latin America, Oceania and Asia. It was also sometimes taken as synonymous with countries in the Non-Aligned Movement. In the dependency theory of thinkers like Raúl Prebisch, Walter Rodney, Theotônio dos Santos, and Andre Gunder Frank, the Third World has also been connected to the world-systemic economic division as "periphery" countries dominated by the countries comprising the economic "core".

Due to the complex history of evolving meanings and contexts, there is no clear or agreed-upon definition of the Third World. Some countries in the Communist Bloc, such as Cuba, were often regarded as "Third World". Because many Third World countries were economically poor and non-industrialized, it became a stereotype to refer to developing countries as "third world countries", yet the "Third World" term is also often taken to include newly industrialized countries like Brazil, China and India now more commonly referred to as part of BRIC. In the Cold War, some European democracies (Austria, Finland, Republic of Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland) were neutral in the sense of not joining NATO, but were prosperous, never joined the Non-Aligned Movement, and seldom self-identified as part of the Third World.

Contents

French demographer, anthropologist, and historian Alfred Sauvy, in an article published in the French magazine L'Observateur, August 14, 1952, coined the term third world (tiers monde), referring to countries that were playing little role on the international scene. His usage was a reference to the Third Estate (tiers état), the commoners of France who, before and during the French Revolution, opposed the clergy and nobles, who composed the First Estate and Second Estate, respectively (hence the use of the older form tiers rather than the modern troisième for "third"). Sauvy wrote, "This third world ignored, exploited, despised like the third estate also wants to be something." In the context of the Cold War, he conveyed the concept of political non-alignment with either the capitalist or communist bloc. Simplistic interpretations quickly led to the term merely designating these unaligned countries.

Third World vs. Three Worlds

The "Three Worlds Theory" developed by Mao Zedong is different from the Western theory of the Three Worlds or Third World. For example, in the Western theory, China and India belong respectively to the second and third worlds, but in Mao's theory both China and India are part of the Third World which he defined as consisting of exploited nations.

Third Worldism

Main article: Third-Worldism

Third Worldism is a political movement that argues for the unity of third-world nations against first-world influence and the principle of non-interference in other countries' domestic affairs. Groups most notable for expressing and exercising this idea are the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Group of 77 which provide a base for relations and diplomacy between not just the third-world countries, but between the third-world and the first and second worlds. The notion has been criticized as providing a fig leaf for human rights violations and political repression by dictatorships.

Since 1990, this term has been redefined to make it more correct politically. Initially, the term “third world” meant that a nation is “under-developed”. However, today it is replaced by the term “developing.” The world today is more plural[citation needed], and so the third world is not just an economic state. These nations have overcome many setbacks and are now developing rapidly. Thus, this categorization becomes anachronistic in a diverse society.[clarification needed].

That being said, the term "Third World" is preferred by many to "Developing Countries", as the latter implies only one route to development, and indeed raises the point as to what is considered 'development'. For instance, so-called third world countries have a much lower incidence of personal depression, alienation and single parent families than the 'developed countries' (aka the West), by virtue of stronger family and community bonds. Furthermore, the mode of industrialized and technological development in the West has been facilitated by lower population and funded by their role as colonists for more than four centuries, and also have negative environmental and social effects. Hence, the term "developing nations" also indicates a pro-West bias of moral, intellectual and technological superiority.[citation needed]

Great Divergence and Great Convergence

Density function of the world's income distribution in 1970 by continent, logarithmic scale: The division of the world into "rich" and "poor" is striking, and the world's poverty is concentrated in Asia. Density function of the world's income distribution in 2015 by continent, logarithmic scale: The division of the world into "rich" and "poor" has vanished, and the world's poverty can be found mainly in Africa.
Asia and Oceania
Africa
America
Europe

Many times there is a clear distinction between First and Third Worlds. When talking about the Global North and the Global South, the majority of the time the two go hand in hand. People refer to the two as "Third World/South" and "First World/North" because the Global North is more affluent and developed, whereas the Global South is less developed and often poorer.

To counter this mode of thought, some scholars began proposing the idea of a change in world dynamics that began in the late 1980s, and termed it the Great Convergence. As Jack A. Goldstone and his colleagues put it, "in the twentieth century, the Great Divergence peaked before the First World War and continued until the early 1970s, then, after two decades of indeterminate fluctuations, in the late 1980s, it was replaced by the Great Convergence as the majority of Third World countries reached economic growth rates significantly higher than those in most First World countries".

Others have observed a return to Cold War-era alignments (MacKinnon, 2007; Lucas, 2008), this time with substantial changes between 1990–2015 in geography, the world economy and relationship dynamics between current and emerging world powers; not necessarily redefining the classic meaning of First, Second, and Third World terms, but rather which countries belong to them by way of association to which world power or coalition of countries — such as G7, the European Union, OECD; G20, OPEC, N-11, BRICS, ASEAN; the African Union, and the Eurasian Union.

Most Third World countries are former colonies. Having gained independence, many of these countries, especially smaller ones, were faced with the challenges ofnation- and institution-building on their own for the first time. Due to this common background, many of these nations were "developing" in economic terms for most of the 20th century, and many still are. This term, used today, generally denotes countries that have not developed to the same levels as OECD countries, and are thus in the process of developing.

In the 1980s, economist Peter Bauer offered a competing definition for the term "Third World". He claimed that the attachment of Third World status to a particular country was not based on any stable economic or political criteria, and was a mostly arbitrary process. The large diversity of countries considered part of the Third World — from Indonesia to Afghanistan — ranged widely from economically primitive to economically advanced and from politically non-aligned toSoviet- or Western-leaning. An argument could also be made for how parts of the U.S. are more like the Third World.

The only characteristic that Bauer found common in all Third World countries was that their governments "demand and receive Western aid," the giving of which he strongly opposed. Thus, the aggregate term "Third World" was challenged as misleading even during the Cold War period, because it had no consistent or collective identity among the countries it supposedly encompassed.

Development aid

Main article: Development aid
Least Developed Countries in blue, as designated by the United Nations. Countries formerly considered Least Developed in green.

During the Cold War, unaligned countries of the Third World were seen as potential allies by both the First and Second World. Therefore, the United States and the Soviet Union went to great lengths to establish connections in these countries by offering economic and military support to gain strategically located alliances (e.g., the United States in Vietnam or the Soviet Union in Cuba). By the end of the Cold War, many Third World countries had adopted capitalist or communist economic models and continued to receive support from the side they had chosen. Throughout the Cold War and beyond, the countries of the Third World have been the priority recipients of Western foreign aid and the focus of economic development through mainstream theories such as modernization theory and dependency theory.

By the end of the 1960s, the idea of the Third World came to represent countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that were considered underdeveloped by the West based on a variety of characteristics (low economic development, low life expectancy, high rates of poverty and disease, etc.). These countries became the targets for aid and support from governments, NGOs and individuals from wealthier nations. One popular model, known as Rostow's stages of growth, argued that development took place in 5 stages (Traditional Society; Pre-conditions for Take-off; Take-off; Drive to Maturity; Age of High Mass Consumption). W. W. Rostow argued that Take-off was the critical stage that the Third World was missing or struggling with. Thus, foreign aid was needed to help kick-start industrialization and economic growth in these countries.

Perceived "End of the Third World"

Since 1990 the term "Third World" has been redefined in many evolving dictionaries in several languages to refer to countries considered to be underdeveloped economically and/or socially. From a "political correctness" standpoint the term "Third World" may be considered outdated, which its concept is mostly a historical term and cannot fully address what means by developing and less-developed countries today. Around the early 1960s, the term "underdeveloped countries" occurred and the Third World serves to be its synonym, but after it has been officially used by politicians, 'underdeveloped countries' is soon been replaced by 'developing' and 'less-developed countries,' because the prior one shows hostility and disrespect, in which the Third World is often characterized with stereotypes. The whole 'Four Worlds' system of classification has also been described as derogatory because the standard mainly focused on each nations' Gross National Product.

The general definition of the Third World can be traced back to the history that nations positioned as neutral and independent during the Cold War were considered as Third World Countries, and normally these countries are defined by high poverty rates, lack of resources, and unstable financial standing. However, based on the rapid development of modernization and globalization, countries that were used to be considered as Third World countries achieve big economic growth, such as Brazil, India, and Indonesia, which can no longer be defined by poor economic status or low GNP today. The differences among nations of the Third World are continually growing throughout time, and it will be hard to use the Third World to define and organize groups of nations based on their common political arrangements since most countries live under diverse creeds in this era, such as Mexico, El Salvador, and Singapore, which they all have their own political system. The Third World categorization becomes anachronistic since its political classification and economic system are distinct to be applied in today's society. Based on the Third World standards, any region of the world can be categorized into any of the four types of relationships among state and society, and will eventually end in four outcomes: praetorianism, multi-authority, quasi-democratic and viable democracy. However, political culture is never going to be limited by the rule and the concept of the Third World can be circumscribed.

  1. Silver, Marc (4 January 2015). "If You Shouldn't Call It The Third World, What Should You Call It?". NPR. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved5 March 2020.
  2. Tomlinson, B.R. (2003). "What was the Third World", Journal of Contemporary History, 38(2): 307–321.
  3. Literal translation from French
  4. Wolf-Phillips, Leslie (1987). "Why 'Third World'?: Origin, Definition and Usage", Third World Quarterly, 9(4): 1311-1327.
  5. Gregory, Derek et al. (Eds.) (2009). Dictionary of Human Geography (5th Ed.), Wiley-Blackwell.
  6. Pithouse, Richard (2005). Report Back from the Third World Network Meeting Accra, 2005 Archived 2011-10-28 at the Wayback Machine. Centre for Civil Society : 1-6.
  7. Nash, Andrew (2003-01-01). "Third Worldism". African Sociological Review. 7 (1). doi:10.4314/asr.v7i1.23132. ISSN 1027-4332.
  8. Mimiko, Oluwafemi (2012). "Globalization: The Politics of Global Economic Relations and International Business". Carolina Academic Press: 49.
  9. Korotayev A., Zinkina J. On the structure of the present-day convergence. Campus-Wide Information Systems. Vol. 31 No. 2/3, 2014, pp. 139-152 Archived 2014-10-08 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Phases of global demographic transition correlate with phases of the Great Divergence and Great Convergence. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. Volume 95, June 2015, Page 163 Archived 2015-07-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. "Third World America" Archived 2014-02-13 at the Wayback Machine, MacLeans, September 14, 2010
  12. Westernizing the Third World (Ch 2), Routledge
  13. Wolf-Phillips, Leslie (1979). "Why Third World?". Third World Quarterly. 1 (1): 105–115. doi:10.1080/01436597908419410. ISSN 0143-6597. JSTOR 3990587.
  14. Wolf-Phillips, Leslie (1987). "Why 'Third World'?: Origin, Definition and Usage". Third World Quarterly. 9 (4): 1311–1327. doi:10.1080/01436598708420027. ISSN 0143-6597. JSTOR 3991655.
  15. Drakakis-Smith, D. W.; Drakakis-Smith, the late David W. (2000). Third World Cities. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-19882-0. Archived from the original on 2021-07-15. Retrieved2020-11-22.
  16. RIEFF, DAVID (1989). "In The Third World". Salmagundi (81): 61–65. ISSN 0036-3529. JSTOR 40548016.
  17. Kamrava, Mehran (1995). "Political Culture and a New Definition of the Third World". Third World Quarterly. 16 (4): 691–701. doi:10.1080/01436599550035906. ISSN 0143-6597. JSTOR 3993172.
Wikiquote has quotations related to Third World.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toThird World.

Third World Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Third World disambiguation Not to be confused with Developing country The term Third World arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non aligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact The United States Canada Japan South Korea Western European nations and their allies represented the First World while the Soviet Union China Cuba North Korea Vietnam and their allies represented the Second World This terminology provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on political divisions Strictly speaking Third World was a political rather than an economic grouping 1 Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War the term Third World has decreased in use It is being replaced with terms such as developing countries least developed countries or the Global South The concept itself has become outdated as it no longer represents the current political or economic state of the world and historically poor countries have transited different income stages The Three Worlds of the Cold War era April August 1975 First World Western Bloc led by the USA Japan United Kingdom and their allies Second World Eastern Bloc led by the USSR China and their allies Third World Non Aligned Movement led by India and Yugoslavia and other neutral countries The Third World was normally seen to include many countries with colonial pasts in Africa Latin America Oceania and Asia It was also sometimes taken as synonymous with countries in the Non Aligned Movement In the dependency theory of thinkers like Raul Prebisch Walter Rodney Theotonio dos Santos and Andre Gunder Frank the Third World has also been connected to the world systemic economic division as periphery countries dominated by the countries comprising the economic core 2 Due to the complex history of evolving meanings and contexts there is no clear or agreed upon definition of the Third World 2 Some countries in the Communist Bloc such as Cuba were often regarded as Third World Because many Third World countries were economically poor and non industrialized it became a stereotype to refer to developing countries as third world countries yet the Third World term is also often taken to include newly industrialized countries like Brazil China and India now more commonly referred to as part of BRIC In the Cold War some European democracies Austria Finland Republic of Ireland Sweden and Switzerland were neutral in the sense of not joining NATO but were prosperous never joined the Non Aligned Movement and seldom self identified as part of the Third World Contents 1 Etymology 2 Related concepts 2 1 Third World vs Three Worlds 2 2 Third Worldism 2 3 Great Divergence and Great Convergence 3 History 3 1 Development aid 3 2 Perceived End of the Third World 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further readingEtymology EditFrench demographer anthropologist and historian Alfred Sauvy in an article published in the French magazine L Observateur August 14 1952 coined the term third world tiers monde referring to countries that were playing little role on the international scene His usage was a reference to the Third Estate tiers etat the commoners of France who before and during the French Revolution opposed the clergy and nobles who composed the First Estate and Second Estate respectively hence the use of the older form tiers rather than the modern troisieme for third Sauvy wrote This third world ignored exploited despised like the third estate also wants to be something 3 In the context of the Cold War he conveyed the concept of political non alignment with either the capitalist or communist bloc 4 Simplistic interpretations quickly led to the term merely designating these unaligned countries 5 Related concepts EditThird World vs Three Worlds Edit See also Three World Model and Three Worlds Theory The Three Worlds Theory developed by Mao Zedong is different from the Western theory of the Three Worlds or Third World For example in the Western theory China and India belong respectively to the second and third worlds but in Mao s theory both China and India are part of the Third World which he defined as consisting of exploited nations Third Worldism Edit Main article Third Worldism Third Worldism is a political movement that argues for the unity of third world nations against first world influence and the principle of non interference in other countries domestic affairs Groups most notable for expressing and exercising this idea are the Non Aligned Movement NAM and the Group of 77 which provide a base for relations and diplomacy between not just the third world countries but between the third world and the first and second worlds The notion has been criticized as providing a fig leaf for human rights violations and political repression by dictatorships 6 Since 1990 this term has been redefined to make it more correct politically Initially the term third world meant that a nation is under developed 7 However today it is replaced by the term developing The world today is more plural citation needed and so the third world is not just an economic state These nations have overcome many setbacks and are now developing rapidly Thus this categorization becomes anachronistic in a diverse society clarification needed That being said the term Third World is preferred by many to Developing Countries as the latter implies only one route to development and indeed raises the point as to what is considered development For instance so called third world countries have a much lower incidence of personal depression alienation and single parent families than the developed countries aka the West by virtue of stronger family and community bonds Furthermore the mode of industrialized and technological development in the West has been facilitated by lower population and funded by their role as colonists for more than four centuries and also have negative environmental and social effects Hence the term developing nations also indicates a pro West bias of moral intellectual and technological superiority citation needed Great Divergence and Great Convergence Edit Density function of the world s income distribution in 1970 by continent logarithmic scale The division of the world into rich and poor is striking and the world s poverty is concentrated in Asia Density function of the world s income distribution in 2015 by continent logarithmic scale The division of the world into rich and poor has vanished and the world s poverty can be found mainly in Africa Asia and Oceania Africa America Europe Many times there is a clear distinction between First and Third Worlds When talking about the Global North and the Global South the majority of the time the two go hand in hand People refer to the two as Third World South and First World North because the Global North is more affluent and developed whereas the Global South is less developed and often poorer 8 To counter this mode of thought some scholars began proposing the idea of a change in world dynamics that began in the late 1980s and termed it the Great Convergence 9 As Jack A Goldstone and his colleagues put it in the twentieth century the Great Divergence peaked before the First World War and continued until the early 1970s then after two decades of indeterminate fluctuations in the late 1980s it was replaced by the Great Convergence as the majority of Third World countries reached economic growth rates significantly higher than those in most First World countries 10 Others have observed a return to Cold War era alignments MacKinnon 2007 Lucas 2008 this time with substantial changes between 1990 2015 in geography the world economy and relationship dynamics between current and emerging world powers not necessarily redefining the classic meaning of First Second and Third World terms but rather which countries belong to them by way of association to which world power or coalition of countries such as G7 the European Union OECD G20 OPEC N 11 BRICS ASEAN the African Union and the Eurasian Union History EditMost Third World countries are former colonies Having gained independence many of these countries especially smaller ones were faced with the challenges of nation and institution building on their own for the first time Due to this common background many of these nations were developing in economic terms for most of the 20th century and many still are This term used today generally denotes countries that have not developed to the same levels as OECD countries and are thus in the process of developing In the 1980s economist Peter Bauer offered a competing definition for the term Third World He claimed that the attachment of Third World status to a particular country was not based on any stable economic or political criteria and was a mostly arbitrary process The large diversity of countries considered part of the Third World from Indonesia to Afghanistan ranged widely from economically primitive to economically advanced and from politically non aligned to Soviet or Western leaning An argument could also be made for how parts of the U S are more like the Third World 11 The only characteristic that Bauer found common in all Third World countries was that their governments demand and receive Western aid the giving of which he strongly opposed Thus the aggregate term Third World was challenged as misleading even during the Cold War period because it had no consistent or collective identity among the countries it supposedly encompassed Development aid Edit Main article Development aid Least Developed Countries in blue as designated by the United Nations Countries formerly considered Least Developed in green During the Cold War unaligned countries of the Third World 2 were seen as potential allies by both the First and Second World Therefore the United States and the Soviet Union went to great lengths to establish connections in these countries by offering economic and military support to gain strategically located alliances e g the United States in Vietnam or the Soviet Union in Cuba 2 By the end of the Cold War many Third World countries had adopted capitalist or communist economic models and continued to receive support from the side they had chosen Throughout the Cold War and beyond the countries of the Third World have been the priority recipients of Western foreign aid and the focus of economic development through mainstream theories such as modernization theory and dependency theory 2 By the end of the 1960s the idea of the Third World came to represent countries in Africa Asia and Latin America that were considered underdeveloped by the West based on a variety of characteristics low economic development low life expectancy high rates of poverty and disease etc 5 These countries became the targets for aid and support from governments NGOs and individuals from wealthier nations One popular model known as Rostow s stages of growth argued that development took place in 5 stages Traditional Society Pre conditions for Take off Take off Drive to Maturity Age of High Mass Consumption 12 W W Rostow argued that Take off was the critical stage that the Third World was missing or struggling with Thus foreign aid was needed to help kick start industrialization and economic growth in these countries 12 Perceived End of the Third World Edit Since 1990 the term Third World has been redefined in many evolving dictionaries in several languages to refer to countries considered to be underdeveloped economically and or socially From a political correctness standpoint the term Third World may be considered outdated which its concept is mostly a historical term and cannot fully address what means by developing and less developed countries today Around the early 1960s the term underdeveloped countries occurred and the Third World serves to be its synonym but after it has been officially used by politicians underdeveloped countries is soon been replaced by developing and less developed countries because the prior one shows hostility and disrespect in which the Third World is often characterized with stereotypes 13 The whole Four Worlds system of classification has also been described as derogatory because the standard mainly focused on each nations Gross National Product 14 The general definition of the Third World can be traced back to the history that nations positioned as neutral and independent during the Cold War were considered as Third World Countries and normally these countries are defined by high poverty rates lack of resources and unstable financial standing 15 However based on the rapid development of modernization and globalization countries that were used to be considered as Third World countries achieve big economic growth such as Brazil India and Indonesia which can no longer be defined by poor economic status or low GNP today The differences among nations of the Third World are continually growing throughout time and it will be hard to use the Third World to define and organize groups of nations based on their common political arrangements since most countries live under diverse creeds in this era such as Mexico El Salvador and Singapore which they all have their own political system 16 The Third World categorization becomes anachronistic since its political classification and economic system are distinct to be applied in today s society Based on the Third World standards any region of the world can be categorized into any of the four types of relationships among state and society and will eventually end in four outcomes praetorianism multi authority quasi democratic and viable democracy 17 However political culture is never going to be limited by the rule and the concept of the Third World can be circumscribed See also Edit World portal Fourth WorldNotes Edit Silver Marc 4 January 2015 If You Shouldn t Call It The Third World What Should You Call It NPR Archived from the original on 1 April 2020 Retrieved 5 March 2020 a b c d e Tomlinson B R 2003 What was the Third World Journal of Contemporary History 38 2 307 321 Literal translation from French Wolf Phillips Leslie 1987 Why Third World Origin Definition and Usage Third World Quarterly 9 4 1311 1327 a b Gregory Derek et al Eds 2009 Dictionary of Human Geography 5th Ed Wiley Blackwell Pithouse Richard 2005 Report Back from the Third World Network Meeting Accra 2005 Archived 2011 10 28 at the Wayback Machine Centre for Civil Society 1 6 Nash Andrew 2003 01 01 Third Worldism African Sociological Review 7 1 doi 10 4314 asr v7i1 23132 ISSN 1027 4332 Mimiko Oluwafemi 2012 Globalization The Politics of Global Economic Relations and International Business Carolina Academic Press 49 Korotayev A Zinkina J On the structure of the present day convergence Campus Wide Information Systems Vol 31 No 2 3 2014 pp 139 152 Archived 2014 10 08 at the Wayback Machine Phases of global demographic transition correlate with phases of the Great Divergence and Great Convergence Technological Forecasting and Social Change Volume 95 June 2015 Page 163 Archived 2015 07 03 at the Wayback Machine Third World America Archived 2014 02 13 at the Wayback Machine MacLeans September 14 2010 a b Westernizing the Third World Ch 2 Routledge Wolf Phillips Leslie 1979 Why Third World Third World Quarterly 1 1 105 115 doi 10 1080 01436597908419410 ISSN 0143 6597 JSTOR 3990587 Wolf Phillips Leslie 1987 Why Third World Origin Definition and Usage Third World Quarterly 9 4 1311 1327 doi 10 1080 01436598708420027 ISSN 0143 6597 JSTOR 3991655 Drakakis Smith D W Drakakis Smith the late David W 2000 Third World Cities Psychology Press ISBN 978 0 415 19882 0 Archived from the original on 2021 07 15 Retrieved 2020 11 22 RIEFF DAVID 1989 In The Third World Salmagundi 81 61 65 ISSN 0036 3529 JSTOR 40548016 Kamrava Mehran 1995 Political Culture and a New Definition of the Third World Third World Quarterly 16 4 691 701 doi 10 1080 01436599550035906 ISSN 0143 6597 JSTOR 3993172 Further reading EditWikiquote has quotations related to Third World Wikimedia Commons has media related to Third World Aijaz Ahmad 1992 In theory Classes nations literatures London Verso Bauer Peter T 1981 Equality the Third World and economic delusion Cambridge MA Harvard University Press ISBN 9780674259850 Buchanan Pat J 2006 State of emergency The Third World invasion and conquest of America New York Thomas Dunne Books St Martin s Press ISBN 9780312360030 Escobar Arturo 2011 Encountering development The making and unmaking of the Third World revised ed Princeton NJ Princeton University Press Furtado Celso 1964 Development and underdevelopment Berkeley University of California Press Huffington Arianna S 2010 Third World America How our politicians are abandoning the middle class and betraying the American dream New York Crown Publishers ISBN 9780307719829 Melkote Srinivas R amp Steeves H Leslie 1991 Communication for development in the Third World Theory and practice for Empowerment New Delhi SAGE Publications Sheppard Eric amp Porter Wayland P 1998 A world of difference Society nature development New York Guilford Press Rangel Carlos 1986 Third World Ideology and Western Reality New Brunswick Transaction Books Smith Brian C 2013 Understanding Third World Politics Theories of Political Change and Development 4th ed London Palgrave Macmillan Aijaz Charles K 1973 The political economy of development and underdevelopment New York Random House Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Third World amp oldid 1089831655, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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