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This article is about the administrative region of China. For the ethno-cultural region, see Tibet. For other uses, see Tibet (disambiguation).

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, often shortened to Tibet or Xizang, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in Southwest China. It was overlayed on the traditional Tibetan regions of Ü-Tsang and Kham.

Tibet Autonomous Region
Chinese transcription(s)
Chinese characters西藏自治区
(abbreviation:)
Hanyu pinyinXīzàng Zìzhìqū
(abbreviation: XZ /Zàng)
Tibetan transcription(s)
Tibetan scriptབོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས།
Wylie transliterationbod rang skyong ljongs
Tibetan pinyinPoi Ranggyong Jong
Location of the Tibet Autonomous Region in China (land claimed but uncontrolled is striped)
CountryChina
Capital
(and largest city)
Lhasa
Divisions5 prefecture-level cities, 2 prefectures, 6 districts, 68 counties, 692 townships
Government
• TypeAutonomous region
• BodyTibet Autonomous Region People's Congress
CCP SecretaryWang Junzheng
• Congress ChairmanLosang Jamcan
• Government ChairmanYan Jinhai
CPPCC ChairmanPagbalha Geleg Namgyai
Area
• Total1,228,400 km2 (474,300 sq mi)
• Rank2nd
Highest elevation8,848 m (29,029 ft)
Population
(2020)
• Total3,648,100
• Rank32nd
• Density3.0/km2 (7.7/sq mi)
• Rank33rd
Demographics
• Ethnic composition90% Tibetan
8% Han
0.3% Monpa
0.3% Hui
0.2% others
• Languages and dialectsTibetan, Mandarin Chinese
ISO 3166 codeCN-XZ
GDP(2021)CN¥208 billion
US$32.24 billion (31st)
GDP per capitaCN¥56,835
US$8,808 (25th)
GDP growth 6.7%
HDI (2019) 0.608
medium · 31st
Websitewww.xizang.gov.cn
Tibet
"Tibet" in Chinese (top) and Tibetan (bottom)
Chinese name
Chinese西藏
Hanyu PinyinXīzàng
Literal meaning"Western Tsang"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXīzàng
Bopomofoㄒㄧ ㄗㄤˋ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhShitzanq
Wade–GilesHsi1-tsang4
Yale RomanizationSyīdzàng
Wu
RomanizationSizaon
Hakka
RomanizationSî-tshông
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSāi-johng
JyutpingSai1-zong6
Southern Min
Hokkien POJSe-chōng
Teochew Peng'imSai-tsăng
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCSă̤-câung
Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR)
Simplified Chinese西藏自治区
Traditional Chinese西藏自治區
Hanyu PinyinXīzàng Zìzhìqū
Literal meaning"Western Tsang" Autonomous Region
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinXīzàng Zìzhìqū
Bopomofoㄒㄧ ㄗㄤˋ
ㄗˋ ㄓˋ ㄑㄩ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhShitzanq Tzyhjyhchiu
Wade–GilesHsi1-tsang4
Tzŭ4-chih4-chʻü1
Yale RomanizationSyīdzàng Dz̀jr̀chyū
Wu
RomanizationSizaon Zyzychiu
Hakka
RomanizationSî-tshông Tshṳ-tshṳ-khî
Yue: Cantonese
JyutpingSai1zong6 Zi6zi6keoi1
Southern Min
Hokkien POJSe-chōng Chū-tī-khu
Teochew Peng'imSai-tsăng Tsĕu-tī-khu
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCSă̤-câung Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆
Tibetan name
Tibetanབོད་
Transcriptions
WylieBod
Tibetan PinyinPoi
Lhasa
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᠸᠠᡵᡤᡳ
ᡩᡯᠠᠩ
Romanizationwargi Dzang
Mongolian name
Mongolianᠲᠢᠪᠧᠲ
Tibyet
This article contains Tibetan script. Without proper , you may see very small fonts, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Tibetan characters.

It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area, the former administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC) established after the annexation of Tibet. The establishment was about five years after the 1959 Tibetan uprising and the dismissal of the Kashag, and about 13 years after the original annexation.

The current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were generally established in the 18th century and include about half of historic Tibet, or the ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet Autonomous Region spans over 1,200,000 km2 (460,000 sq mi) and is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, after Xinjiang. Due to its harsh and rugged terrain, it is sparsely populated at just over 3.5 million people with a population density of 3 inhabitants per square kilometre (7.8/sq mi).

Contents

Main article: History of Tibet

Yarlung kings founded the Tibetan Empire in 618. By the end of the 8th century, the empire reached its greatest extent. After a civil war, the empire broke up in 842. The royal lineage fragmented and ruled over small kingdoms such as Guge, Maryul and Nyingma. The Mongol Empire conquered Tibet in 1244 but the region was granted a degree of political autonomy. Kublai Khan later incorporated the region into his Yuan empire. The Sakya lama Drogön Chögyal Phagpa became religious teacher to Kublai, and was made the head of the region.

From 1354 to 1642, Central Tibet (Ü-Tsang) was ruled by a succession of dynasties from Nêdong, Shigatse and Lhasa. In 1642, the Ganden Phodrang court of the 5th Dalai Lama was established by Güshi Khan of the Khoshut Khanate, who was enthroned as King (chogyal) of Tibet. The Khoshuts ruled until 1717 when they were overthrown by the Dzungar Khanate. The Dzungar forces were in turn expelled by the Manchu expedition to Tibet during the Dzungar–Qing Wars. This began Qing rule over Tibet and marked the first time that Tibet was controlled by the central Chinese government.

Despite some politically charged historical debate on the exact nature of Sino-Tibetan relations, most historians agree that[who?] Tibet under the Ganden Phodrang was an independent state, albeit under different foreign suzerainties, for most of its history and including the Ming dynasty period (1368–1644).

From 1912 to 1950, the State of Tibet became de facto independent after the fall of the Qing dynasty, like many other warlord-controlled regions under the successor Republic of China. The Republic of China was too preoccupied with fractious warlordism (1916–1928), Chinese Civil War (1927–1949) and Japanese invasion to have been able to assert any authority in Tibet. Other smaller kingdoms of ethno-cultural Tibet in eastern Kham and Amdo had been under de jure administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid-18th century; today they are distributed among the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan. (See also: Xikang Province)

In 1950, after the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo. In 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Central People's Government affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet and the reincorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later. After a failed violent uprising, the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet a provincial-level division of China.

Main article: Geography of Tibet

The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on Earth. In northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres (15,000 ft). Mount Everest is located on Tibet's border with Nepal.

China's provincial-level areas of Xinjiang, Qinghai and Sichuan lie to the north, northeast and east, respectively, of the Tibet AR. There is also a short border with Yunnan Province to the southeast. The countries to the south and southwest are Myanmar, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. China claims Arunachal Pradesh administered by India as part of the Tibet Autonomous Region. It also claims several areas adjoining the Chumbi Valley that are recognised as Bhutan's territory. China administers several border areas of Ladakh claimed by India.

Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts: the lakes region in the west and north-west and the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east, south and west. Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas; however, the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures, and also in contrasting their different cultural uses: nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region. On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, and on the north by a broad mountain system. The system at no point narrows to a single range; generally there are three or four across its breadth. As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean — the Indus, Brahmaputra and Salween and its tributaries — and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north.

The lake region extends from the Pangong Tso Lake in Ladakh, Lake Rakshastal, Yamdrok Lake and Lake Manasarovar near the source of the Indus River, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtze. Other lakes include Dagze Co, Namtso, and Pagsum Co. The lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang (Byang sang) or 'Northern Plateau' by the people of Tibet. It is 1,100 km (680 mi) broad and covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its great distance from the ocean it is extremely arid and possesses no river outlet. The mountain ranges are spread out, rounded, disconnected, and separated by relatively flat valleys.

The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, and intersected by streams. Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled. The lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent. The deposits consist of soda, potash, borax and common salt. The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs, which are widely distributed between the Himalaya and 34° N, but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor (north-west of Lhasa). So intense is the cold in this part of Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice, the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection.

The river region is characterized by fertile mountain valleys and includes the Yarlung Tsangpo River (the upper courses of the Brahmaputra) and its major tributary, the Nyang River, the Salween, the Yangtze, the Mekong, and the Yellow River. The Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, formed by a horseshoe bend in the river where it flows around Namcha Barwa, is the deepest and possibly longest canyon in the world. Among the mountains there are many narrow valleys. The valleys of Lhasa, Xigazê, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are free from permafrost, covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.

The South Tibet Valley is formed by the Yarlung Tsangpo River during its middle reaches, where it travels from west to east. The valley is approximately 1,200 km (750 mi) long and 300 km (190 mi) wide. The valley descends from 4,500 m (14,760 ft) above sea level to 2,800 m (9,190 ft). The mountains on either side of the valley are usually around 5,000 m (16,400 ft) high. Lakes here include Lake Paiku and Lake Puma Yumco.

The Tibet Autonomous Region is a province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. Chinese law nominally guarantees some autonomy in the areas of education and language policy. Like other subdivisions of China, routine administration is carried out by a People's Government, headed by a chairman, who has been an ethnic Tibetan except for an interregnum during the Cultural Revolution. As with other Chinese provinces, the Chairman carries out work under the direction of the regional secretary of the Chinese Communist Party. The regional standing committee of the Communist Party serves as the top rung of political power in the region. The current Chairman is Yan Jinhai and the current party secretary is Wang Junzheng.

Administrative divisions

The Autonomous Region is divided into seven prefecture-level divisions: six prefecture-level cities and one prefecture.

These in turn are subdivided into a total of 66 counties and 8 districts (Chengguan, Doilungdêqên, Dagzê, Samzhubzê, Karub, Bayi, Nêdong, and Seni).

Administrative divisions of Tibet Autonomous Region
Division code Division Area in km2 Population 2010 Seat Divisions
Districts Counties
540000 Tibet Autonomous Region 1,228,400.00 3,002,166 Lhasa city 8 66
540100 Lhasa city 29,538.90 559,423 Chengguan District 3 5
540200 Shigatse / Xigazê city 182,066.26 703,292 Samzhubzê District 1 17
540300 Chamdo / Qamdo city 108,872.30 657,505 Karuo District 1 10
540400 Nyingchi city 113,964.79 195,109 Bayi District 1 6
540500 Shannan / Lhoka city 79,287.84 328,990 Nêdong District 1 11
540600 Nagqu city 391,816.63 462,382 Seni District 1 10
542500 Ngari Prefecture 296,822.62 95,465 Gar County 7
Administrative divisions in Tibetan, Chinese, and varieties of romanizations
English Tibetan Tibetan Pinyin Wylie transliteration Chinese Pinyin
Tibet Autonomous Region བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས། Poi Ranggyongjong bod rang skyong ljongs 西藏自治区 Xīzàng Zìzhìqū
Lhasa city ལྷ་ས་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། Lhasa Chongkyir lha sa grong khyer 拉萨市 Lāsà Shì
Xigazê city གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། Xigazê Chongkyir ggzhis ka rtse grong khyer 日喀则市 Rìkāzé Shì
Qamdo city ཆབ་མདོ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། Qamdo Chongkyir chab mdo grong khyer 昌都市 Chāngdū Shì
Nyingchi city ཉིང་ཁྲི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། Nyingchi Chongkyir nying khri grong khyer 林芝市 Línzhī Shì
Shannan city ལྷོ་ཁ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། Lhoka Chongkyir lho kha grong khyer 山南市 Shānnán Shì
Nagqu city ནག་ཆུ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། Nagqu Chongkyir nag chu grong khyer 那曲市 Nàqū Shì
Ngari Prefecture མངའ་རིས་ས་ཁུལ། Ngari Sakü mnga' ris sa khul 阿里地区 Ālǐ Dìqū

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities
# City Urban area District area City proper Census date
1 Lhasa 199,159 279,074 559,423 2010-11-01
(1) Lhasa(new districts) 21,093 78,957 see Lhasa 2010-11-01
2 Xigazê 63,967 120,374 703,292 2010-11-01
(3) Qamdo 44,028 116,500 657,505 2010-11-01
(4) Nagqu 42,984 108,781 462,381 2010-11-01
(5) Nyingchi 35,179 54,702 195,109 2010-11-01
(6) Shannan 30,646 59,615 328,990 2010-11-01
  1. New districts established after census: Doilungdêqên (Doilungdêqên County), Dagzê (Dagzê County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.
  2. Xigazê Prefecture is currently known as Xigazê PLC after census; Xigazê CLC is currently known as Samzhubzê after census.
  3. Qamdo Prefecture is currently known as Qamdo PLC after census; Qamdo County is currently known as Karuo after census.
  4. Nagqu Prefecture is currently known as Nagqu PLC after census; Nagqu County is currently known as Seni after census.
  5. Nangchen Prefecture is currently known as Nangchen PLC after census; Nangchen County is currently known as Bayi after census.
  6. Shannan Prefecture is currently known as Shannan PLC after census; Nêdong County is currently known as Nêdong after census.
Historical population
YearPop.±%
1912 1,160,000
1928 372,000−67.9%
1936–37 372,000+0.0%
1947 1,000,000+168.8%
1954 1,273,969+27.4%
1964 1,251,225−1.8%
1982 1,892,393+51.2%
1990 2,196,010+16.0%
2000 2,616,329+19.1%
2010 3,002,166+14.7%
2020 3,648,100+21.5%
Xikang Province / Chuanbian SAR was established in 1923 from parts of Tibet / Lifan Yuan; dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Tibet AR.

With an average of only two people per square kilometer, Tibet has the lowest population density among any of the Chinese province-level administrative regions, mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain.

In 2011 the Tibetan population was three million. The ethnic Tibetans, comprising 90.48% of the population, mainly adhere to Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, although there is an ethnic Tibetan Muslim community. Other Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and the Salar have inhabited the region. There is also a tiny Tibetan Christian community in eastern Tibet. Smaller tribal groups such as the Monpa and Lhoba, who follow a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and spirit worship, are found mainly in the southeastern parts of the region.

Historically, the population of Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag, are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group reside in Tibet include Bai people, Blang, Bonan, Dongxiang, Han, Hui people, Lhoba, Lisu people, Miao, Mongols, Monguor (Tu people), Menba (Monpa), Mosuo, Nakhi, Qiang, Nu people, Pumi, Salar, and Yi people.

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition published between 1910 and 1911, the total population of the Tibetan capital of Lhasa, including the lamas in the city and vicinity, was about 30,000, and the permanent population also included Chinese families (about 2,000).

Most Han people in the TAR (8.17% of the total population) are recent migrants, because all of the Han were expelled from "Outer Tibet" (Central Tibet) following the British invasion until the establishment of the PRC. Only 8% of Han people have household registration in TAR, others keep their household registration in place of origin.

Tibetan scholars and exiles claim that, with the 2006 completion of the Qingzang Railway connecting the TAR to Qinghai Province, there has been an "acceleration" of Han migration into the region. The Tibetan government-in-exile based in northern India asserts that the PRC is promoting the migration of Han workers and soldiers to Tibet to marginalize and assimilate the locals.

Religion

Main article: Religion in Tibet
Religion in Tibet (2012 estimates)
Tibetan Buddhism
78.5%
Bon
12.5%
Chinese folk religion
8.58%
Islam
0.4%
Christianity
0.02%

The main religion in Tibet has been Buddhism since its outspread in the 8th century AD. Before the arrival of Buddhism, the main religion among Tibetans was an indigenous shamanic and animistic religion, Bon, which now comprises a sizeable minority and influenced the formation of Tibetan Buddhism.

According to estimates from the International Religious Freedom Report of 2012, most of Tibetans (who comprise 91% of the population of the Tibet Autonomous Region) are adherents of Tibetan Buddhism, while a minority of 400,000 people (12.5% of the total population of the TAR) are followers the native Bon or folk religions which share the image of Confucius (Tibetan: Kongtse Trulgyi Gyalpo) with Chinese folk religion, though in a different light. According to some reports, the government of China has been promoting the Bon religion, linking it with Confucianism.

Most of the Han Chinese who reside in Tibet practice their native Chinese folk religion (神道; shén dào; 'Way of the Gods'). There is a Guandi Temple of Lhasa (拉萨关帝庙) where the Chinese god of war Guandi is identified with the cross-ethnic Chinese, Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu deity Gesar. The temple is built according to both Chinese and Tibetan architecture. It was first erected in 1792 under the Qing dynasty and renovated around 2013 after decades of disrepair.

Built or rebuilt between 2014 and 2015 is the Guandi Temple of Qomolangma (Mount Everest), on Ganggar Mount, in Tingri County.

There are four mosques in the Tibet Autonomous Region with approximately 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim adherents, although a 2010 Chinese survey found a higher proportion of 0.4%. There is a Catholic church with 700 parishioners, which is located in the traditionally Catholic community of Yanjing in the east of the region.

Main article: Human rights in Tibet

Before the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951, Tibet was ruled by a theocracy and had a caste-like social hierarchy. Human rights in Tibet prior to its incorporation into the People's Republic of China differed considerably from those in the modern era. Due to tight control of press in mainland China, including the Tibet Autonomous Region, it is difficult to accurately determine the scope of human rights abuses.

Critics of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) say the CCP's official aim to eliminate "the three evils of separatism, terrorism and religious extremism" is used as a pretext for human rights abuses. A 1992 Amnesty International report stated that judicial standards in the TAR were not up to "international standards". The report charged the CCP government with keeping political prisoners and prisoners of conscience; ill-treatment of detainees, including torture, and inaction in the face of ill-treatment; the use of the death penalty; extrajudicial executions; and forced abortion and sterilization.

Comfortable Housing Program

Beginning in 2006, 280,000 Tibetans who lived in traditional villages and as nomadic herdsmen have been forcefully relocated into villages and towns. In those areas, new housing was built and existing houses were remodelled to serve a total of 2 million people. Those living in substandard housing were required to dismantle their houses and remodel them to government standards. Much of the expense was borne by the residents themselves, often through bank loans. The population transfer program, which was first implemented in Qinghai where 300,000 nomads were resettled, is called "Comfortable Housing", which is part of the "Build a New Socialist Countryside" program. Its effect on Tibetan culture has been criticized by exiles and human rights groups. Finding employment is difficult for relocated persons who have only agrarian skills. Income shortfalls are offset by government support programs. It was announced that in 2011 that 20,000 Communist Party cadres will be placed in the new towns.

Main article: Economy of Tibet
Development of GDP
Year GDP in
billions of yuan
1995 5.61
2000 11.78
2005 24.88
2010 50.75
2015 102.64
2020 190.27
Source:

The Tibetans traditionally depended upon agriculture for survival. Since the 1980s, however, other jobs such as taxi-driving and hotel retail work have become available in the wake of Chinese economic reform. In 2011, Tibet's nominal GDP topped 60.5 billion yuan (US$9.60 billion), nearly more than seven times as big as the 11.78 billion yuan (US$1.47 billion) in 2000. Economic growth since the beginning of the 21st century has averaged over 10 percent a year. By 2020 the GDP of the region surpassed 190 billion yuan (US$29.2 billion).

While traditional agriculture and animal husbandry continue to lead the area's economy, in 2005 the tertiary sector contributed more than half of its GDP growth, the first time it surpassed the area's primary industry. Rich reserves of natural resources and raw materials have yet to lead to the creation of a strong secondary sector, due in large part to the province's inhospitable terrain, low population density, an underdeveloped infrastructure and the high cost of extraction.

The collection of caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis, known in Tibetan as Yartsa Gunbu) in late spring / early summer is in many areas the most important source of cash for rural households. It contributes an average of 40% to rural cash income and 8.5% to the TAR's GDP.

The re-opening of the Nathu La pass (on southern Tibet's border with India) should facilitate Sino-Indian border trade and boost Tibet's economy.

In 2008, Chinese news media reported that the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents in Tibet averaged 12,482 yuan (US$1,798) and 3,176 yuan (US$457) respectively.

The China Western Development policy was adopted in 2000 by the central government to boost economic development in western China, including the Tibet Autonomous Region.

There are 4 universities and 3 special colleges in Tibet, including Tibet University, Tibet University for Nationalities, Tibet Tibetan Medical University, Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry College, Lhasa Teachers College, Tibet Police College and Tibet Vocational and Technical College.

Foreign tourists were first permitted to visit the Tibet Autonomous Region in the 1980s. While the main attraction is the Potala Palace in Lhasa, there are many other popular tourist destinations including the Jokhang Temple, Namtso Lake, and Tashilhunpo Monastery. Nonetheless, tourism in Tibet is still restricted for non-Chinese passport holders and Republic of China citizens, and currently foreigners must apply for a Tibet Entry Permit.

Airports

Lhasa Gonggar Airport, the biggest airport in TAR

The civil airports in Tibet are Lhasa Gonggar Airport, Qamdo Bangda Airport, Nyingchi Airport, and the Gunsa Airport.

Gunsa Airport in Ngari Prefecture began operations on 1 July 2010, to become the fourth civil airport in China's Tibet Autonomous Region.

The Peace Airport for Xigazê was opened for civilian use on 30 October 2010.

Announced in 2010, Nagqu Dagring Airport was expected to become the world's highest altitude airport, at 4,436 meters above sea level. However, in 2015 it was reported that construction of the airport has been delayed due to the necessity to develop higher technological standards.

Railway

The Qinghai–Tibet Railway from Golmud to Lhasa was completed on 12 October 2005. It opened to regular trial service on 1 July 2006. Five pairs of passenger trains run between Golmud and Lhasa, with connections onward to Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xining and Lanzhou. The line includes the Tanggula Pass, which, at 5,072 m (16,640 ft) above sea level, is the world's highest railway.

The Lhasa–Xigazê Railway branch from Lhasa to Xigazê was completed in 2014. It opened to regular service on 15 August 2014. The planned China–Nepal railway will connect Xigazê to Kathmandu, capital of Nepal, and is expected to be completed around 2027.

The construction of the Sichuan–Tibet Railway began in 2015. The line is expected to be completed around 2025.

  1. Chinese:西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng,Mandarin pronunciation:; lit. 'Western Tsang'; Tibetan: བོད་, Wylie: Bod, ZYPY: Poi, Tibetan pronunciation:

Citations

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  2. "Communiqué of the Seventh National Population Census (No. 3)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 11 May 2021. Retrieved11 May 2021.
  3. GDP-2021 is a preliminary data "Home – Regional – Quarterly by Province" (Press release). China NBS. 1 March 2022. Retrieved23 March 2022.
  4. "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved13 September 2018.
  5. "What is Tibet? – Fact and Fancy", Excerpt from Goldstein, Melvyn, C. (1994). Change, Conflict and Continuity among a Community of Nomadic Pastoralist: A Case Study from Western Tibet, 1950–1990. pp. 76–87.
  6. Wylie, Turrell V. (2003), "Lama Tribute in the Ming Dynasty", in McKay, Alex (ed.), The History of Tibet: Volume 2, The Medieval Period: c. AD 850–1895, the Development of Buddhist Paramountcy, New York: Routledge, p. 470, ISBN 978-0-415-30843-4.
  7. Wang, Jiawei; Nyima, Gyaincain (1997), The Historical Status of China's Tibet, Beijing: China Intercontinental Press, pp. 1–40, ISBN 978-7-80113-304-5.
  8. Laird (2006), pp. 106–107
  9. Grunfeld, A. Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, M.E. Sharpe, p245.
  10. Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV, interview, 25 July 1981.
  11. Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, p. 812-813.
  12. "Tibet: Agricultural Regions". Archived from the original on 24 August 2007. Retrieved6 August 2007.
  13. "The World's Biggest Canyon". china.org. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved29 June 2007.
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Sources

Look up Tibet Autonomous Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tibet.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tibet Autonomous Region.

Tibet Autonomous Region Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the administrative region of China For the ethno cultural region see Tibet For other uses see Tibet disambiguation The Tibet Autonomous Region TAR or Xizang Autonomous Region often shortened to Tibet or Xizang note 1 is a province level autonomous region of the People s Republic of China in Southwest China It was overlayed on the traditional Tibetan regions of U Tsang and Kham Tibet Autonomous RegionAutonomous regionChinese transcription s Chinese characters西藏自治区 abbreviation 藏 Hanyu pinyinXizang Zizhiqu abbreviation XZ Zang Tibetan transcription s Tibetan scriptབ ད རང ས ང ལ ངས Wylie transliterationbod rang skyong ljongs Tibetan pinyinPoi Ranggyong JongThe Potala PalaceLocation of the Tibet Autonomous Region in China land claimed but uncontrolled is striped Country ChinaCapital and largest city LhasaDivisions5 prefecture level cities 2 prefectures 6 districts 68 counties 692 townshipsGovernment TypeAutonomous region BodyTibet Autonomous Region People s Congress CCP SecretaryWang Junzheng Congress ChairmanLosang Jamcan Government ChairmanYan Jinhai CPPCC ChairmanPagbalha Geleg NamgyaiArea 1 Total1 228 400 km2 474 300 sq mi Rank2ndHighest elevation Mount Everest 8 848 m 29 029 ft Population 2020 2 Total3 648 100 Rank32nd Density3 0 km2 7 7 sq mi Rank33rdDemographics Ethnic composition90 Tibetan8 Han 0 3 Monpa 0 3 Hui 0 2 others Languages and dialectsTibetan Mandarin ChineseISO 3166 codeCN XZGDP 2021 CN 208 billion US 32 24 billion 31st 3 GDP per capitaCN 56 835 US 8 808 25th GDP growth6 7 HDI 2019 0 608 4 medium 31stWebsitewww wbr xizang wbr gov wbr cnTibet Tibet in Chinese top and Tibetan bottom Chinese nameChinese西藏Hanyu PinyinXizangLiteral meaning Western Tsang TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinXizangBopomofoㄒㄧ ㄗㄤˋGwoyeu RomatzyhShitzanqWade GilesHsi1 tsang4Yale RomanizationSyidzangIPA ɕi tsa ŋ WuRomanizationSi平zaon去HakkaRomanizationSi tshongYue CantoneseYale RomanizationSai johngJyutpingSai1 zong6IPA sɐ i tsɔ ːŋ Southern MinHokkien POJSe chōngTeochew Peng imSai tsăngEastern MinFuzhou BUCSă caungTibet Autonomous Region TAR Simplified Chinese西藏自治区Traditional Chinese西藏自治區Hanyu PinyinXizang ZizhiquLiteral meaning Western Tsang Autonomous RegionTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinXizang ZizhiquBopomofoㄒㄧ ㄗㄤˋ ㄗˋ ㄓˋ ㄑㄩGwoyeu RomatzyhShitzanq TzyhjyhchiuWade GilesHsi1 tsang4 Tzŭ4 chih4 chʻu1Yale RomanizationSyidzang Dz jr chyuIPA ɕi tsa ŋ tsɹ ʈʂɻ tɕʰy WuRomanizationSi平zaon去 Zy去zy去chiu平HakkaRomanizationSi tshong Tshṳ tshṳ khiYue CantoneseJyutpingSai1zong6 Zi6zi6keoi1Southern MinHokkien POJSe chōng Chu ti khuTeochew Peng imSai tsăng Tsĕu ti khuEastern MinFuzhou BUCSă caung Ce ṳ de kṳ Tibetan nameTibetanབ ད TranscriptionsWylieBodTibetan PinyinPoiLhasa IPA pʰo ʔ Manchu nameManchu scriptᠸᠠᡵᡤᡳ ᡩᡯᠠᠩRomanizationwargi DzangMongolian nameMongolianᠲᠢᠪᠧᠲ Tibyet The template Contains special characters is being considered for merging This article contains Tibetan script Without proper rendering support you may see very small fonts misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Tibetan characters It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area the former administrative division of the People s Republic of China PRC established after the annexation of Tibet The establishment was about five years after the 1959 Tibetan uprising and the dismissal of the Kashag and about 13 years after the original annexation The current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were generally established in the 18th century 5 and include about half of historic Tibet or the ethno cultural Tibet The Tibet Autonomous Region spans over 1 200 000 km2 460 000 sq mi and is the second largest province level division of China by area after Xinjiang Due to its harsh and rugged terrain it is sparsely populated at just over 3 5 million people with a population density of 3 inhabitants per square kilometre 7 8 sq mi Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Government 3 1 Administrative divisions 3 1 1 Urban areas 4 Demographics 4 1 Religion 5 Human rights 6 Towns and villages in Tibet 6 1 Comfortable Housing Program 7 Economy 8 Education 9 Tourism 10 Transportation 10 1 Airports 10 2 Railway 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 13 1 Citations 13 2 Sources 14 Further reading 15 External linksHistory EditMain article History of Tibet Yarlung kings founded the Tibetan Empire in 618 By the end of the 8th century the empire reached its greatest extent After a civil war the empire broke up in 842 The royal lineage fragmented and ruled over small kingdoms such as Guge Maryul and Nyingma The Mongol Empire conquered Tibet in 1244 but the region was granted a degree of political autonomy Kublai Khan later incorporated the region into his Yuan empire The Sakya lama Drogon Chogyal Phagpa became religious teacher to Kublai and was made the head of the region From 1354 to 1642 Central Tibet U Tsang was ruled by a succession of dynasties from Nedong Shigatse and Lhasa In 1642 the Ganden Phodrang court of the 5th Dalai Lama was established by Gushi Khan of the Khoshut Khanate who was enthroned as King chogyal of Tibet The Khoshuts ruled until 1717 when they were overthrown by the Dzungar Khanate The Dzungar forces were in turn expelled by the Manchu expedition to Tibet during the Dzungar Qing Wars This began Qing rule over Tibet and marked the first time that Tibet was controlled by the central Chinese government Despite some politically charged historical debate on the exact nature of Sino Tibetan relations 6 7 8 most historians agree that who Tibet under the Ganden Phodrang was an independent state albeit under different foreign suzerainties for most of its history and including the Ming dynasty period 1368 1644 From 1912 to 1950 the State of Tibet became de facto independent after the fall of the Qing dynasty like many other warlord controlled regions under the successor Republic of China The Republic of China was too preoccupied with fractious warlordism 1916 1928 Chinese Civil War 1927 1949 and Japanese invasion to have been able to assert any authority in Tibet Other smaller kingdoms of ethno cultural Tibet in eastern Kham and Amdo had been under de jure administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid 18th century 9 today they are distributed among the provinces of Qinghai Gansu Sichuan and Yunnan See also Xikang Province In 1950 after the establishment of the People s Republic of China the People s Liberation Army marched into Tibet and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo In 1951 the Tibetan representatives signed a 17 point agreement with the Central People s Government affirming China s sovereignty over Tibet and the reincorporation of Tibet The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later 10 11 After a failed violent uprising the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17 point agreement Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965 thus making Tibet a provincial level division of China Geography EditMain article Geography of Tibet The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau the highest region on Earth In northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4 572 metres 15 000 ft Mount Everest is located on Tibet s border with Nepal China s provincial level areas of Xinjiang Qinghai and Sichuan lie to the north northeast and east respectively of the Tibet AR There is also a short border with Yunnan Province to the southeast The countries to the south and southwest are Myanmar India Bhutan and Nepal China claims Arunachal Pradesh administered by India as part of the Tibet Autonomous Region It also claims several areas adjoining the Chumbi Valley that are recognised as Bhutan s territory China administers several border areas of Ladakh claimed by India Mount Everest Physically the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts the lakes region in the west and north west and the river region which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east south and west Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas however the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures and also in contrasting their different cultural uses nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region 12 On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas and on the north by a broad mountain system The system at no point narrows to a single range generally there are three or four across its breadth As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean the Indus Brahmaputra and Salween and its tributaries and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north The lake region extends from the Pangong Tso Lake in Ladakh Lake Rakshastal Yamdrok Lake and Lake Manasarovar near the source of the Indus River to the sources of the Salween the Mekong and the Yangtze Other lakes include Dagze Co Namtso and Pagsum Co The lake region is a wind swept Alpine grassland This region is called the Chang Tang Byang sang or Northern Plateau by the people of Tibet It is 1 100 km 680 mi broad and covers an area about equal to that of France Due to its great distance from the ocean it is extremely arid and possesses no river outlet The mountain ranges are spread out rounded disconnected and separated by relatively flat valleys The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes generally salt or alkaline and intersected by streams Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass thus resembling the Siberian tundra Salt and fresh water lakes are intermingled The lakes are generally without outlet or have only a small effluent The deposits consist of soda potash borax and common salt The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs which are widely distributed between the Himalaya and 34 N but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor north west of Lhasa So intense is the cold in this part of Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection The river region is characterized by fertile mountain valleys and includes the Yarlung Tsangpo River the upper courses of the Brahmaputra and its major tributary the Nyang River the Salween the Yangtze the Mekong and the Yellow River The Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon formed by a horseshoe bend in the river where it flows around Namcha Barwa is the deepest and possibly longest canyon in the world 13 Among the mountains there are many narrow valleys The valleys of Lhasa Xigaze Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are free from permafrost covered with good soil and groves of trees well irrigated and richly cultivated The South Tibet Valley is formed by the Yarlung Tsangpo River during its middle reaches where it travels from west to east The valley is approximately 1 200 km 750 mi long and 300 km 190 mi wide The valley descends from 4 500 m 14 760 ft above sea level to 2 800 m 9 190 ft The mountains on either side of the valley are usually around 5 000 m 16 400 ft high 14 15 Lakes here include Lake Paiku and Lake Puma Yumco Government EditSee also People s Government of Tibet Autonomous Region List of modern political leaders of Tibet and List of current Chinese provincial leaders The Tibet Autonomous Region is a province level entity of the People s Republic of China Chinese law nominally guarantees some autonomy in the areas of education and language policy Like other subdivisions of China routine administration is carried out by a People s Government headed by a chairman who has been an ethnic Tibetan except for an interregnum during the Cultural Revolution As with other Chinese provinces the Chairman carries out work under the direction of the regional secretary of the Chinese Communist Party The regional standing committee of the Communist Party serves as the top rung of political power in the region The current Chairman is Yan Jinhai and the current party secretary is Wang Junzheng Administrative divisions Edit For a more comprehensive list see List of administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region and List of township level divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region The Autonomous Region is divided into seven prefecture level divisions six prefecture level cities and one prefecture These in turn are subdivided into a total of 66 counties and 8 districts Chengguan Doilungdeqen Dagze Samzhubze Karub Bayi Nedong and Seni Administrative divisions of Tibet Autonomous Region Lhasa Shigatse Xigaze Chamdo Qamdo Nyingchi Shannan Lhoka Nagqu Ngari Prefecture Disputed areas claimed or controlled by China India or Bhutan see Sino Indian border dispute amp Bhutanese enclaves Division code 16 Division Area in km2 17 Population 2010 18 Seat Divisions 19 Districts Counties540000 Tibet Autonomous Region 1 228 400 00 3 002 166 Lhasa city 8 66540100 Lhasa city 29 538 90 559 423 Chengguan District 3 5540200 Shigatse Xigaze city 182 066 26 703 292 Samzhubze District 1 17540300 Chamdo Qamdo city 108 872 30 657 505 Karuo District 1 10540400 Nyingchi city 113 964 79 195 109 Bayi District 1 6540500 Shannan Lhoka city 79 287 84 328 990 Nedong District 1 11540600 Nagqu city 391 816 63 462 382 Seni District 1 10542500 Ngari Prefecture 296 822 62 95 465 Gar County 7 Yamdrok Lake Namtso Lake Administrative divisions in Tibetan Chinese and varieties of romanizationsEnglish Tibetan Tibetan Pinyin Wylie transliteration Chinese PinyinTibet Autonomous Region བ ད རང ས ང ལ ངས Poi Ranggyongjong bod rang skyong ljongs 西藏自治区 Xizang ZizhiquLhasa city ལ ས ག ང ཁ ར Lhasa Chongkyir lha sa grong khyer 拉萨市 Lasa ShiXigaze city གཞ ས ཀ ར ག ང ཁ ར Xigaze Chongkyir ggzhis ka rtse grong khyer 日喀则市 Rikaze ShiQamdo city ཆབ མད ག ང ཁ ར Qamdo Chongkyir chab mdo grong khyer 昌都市 Changdu ShiNyingchi city ཉ ང ཁ ག ང ཁ ར Nyingchi Chongkyir nying khri grong khyer 林芝市 Linzhi ShiShannan city ལ ཁ ག ང ཁ ར Lhoka Chongkyir lho kha grong khyer 山南市 Shannan ShiNagqu city ནག ཆ ག ང ཁ ར Nagqu Chongkyir nag chu grong khyer 那曲市 Naqu ShiNgari Prefecture མངའ ར ས ས ཁ ལ Ngari Saku mnga ris sa khul 阿里地区 Alǐ DiquUrban areas Edit Population by urban areas of prefecture amp county cities City Urban area 20 District area 20 City proper 20 Census date1 Lhasa a 199 159 279 074 559 423 2010 11 01 1 Lhasa new districts a 21 093 78 957 see Lhasa 2010 11 012 Xigaze b 63 967 120 374 703 292 2010 11 01 3 Qamdo c 44 028 116 500 657 505 2010 11 01 4 Nagqu d 42 984 108 781 462 381 2010 11 01 5 Nyingchi e 35 179 54 702 195 109 2010 11 01 6 Shannan f 30 646 59 615 328 990 2010 11 01 a b New districts established after census Doilungdeqen Doilungdeqen County Dagze Dagze County These new districts not included in the urban area amp district area count of the pre expanded city Xigaze Prefecture is currently known as Xigaze PLC after census Xigaze CLC is currently known as Samzhubze after census Qamdo Prefecture is currently known as Qamdo PLC after census Qamdo County is currently known as Karuo after census Nagqu Prefecture is currently known as Nagqu PLC after census Nagqu County is currently known as Seni after census Nangchen Prefecture is currently known as Nangchen PLC after census Nangchen County is currently known as Bayi after census Shannan Prefecture is currently known as Shannan PLC after census Nedong County is currently known as Nedong after census Demographics EditHistorical populationYearPop 1912 21 1 160 000 1928 22 372 000 67 9 1936 37 23 372 000 0 0 1947 24 1 000 000 168 8 1954 25 1 273 969 27 4 1964 26 1 251 225 1 8 1982 27 1 892 393 51 2 1990 28 2 196 010 16 0 2000 29 2 616 329 19 1 2010 30 3 002 166 14 7 2020 31 3 648 100 21 5 Xikang Province Chuanbian SAR was established in 1923 from parts of Tibet Lifan Yuan dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Tibet AR With an average of only two people per square kilometer Tibet has the lowest population density among any of the Chinese province level administrative regions mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain 32 In 2011 the Tibetan population was three million 33 The ethnic Tibetans comprising 90 48 of the population 34 mainly adhere to Tibetan Buddhism and Bon although there is an ethnic Tibetan Muslim community 35 Other Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and the Salar have inhabited the region There is also a tiny Tibetan Christian community in eastern Tibet Smaller tribal groups such as the Monpa and Lhoba who follow a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and spirit worship are found mainly in the southeastern parts of the region Historically the population of Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag are the Se Mu Dong Tong Dru and Ra Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group reside in Tibet include Bai people Blang Bonan Dongxiang Han Hui people Lhoba Lisu people Miao Mongols Monguor Tu people Menba Monpa Mosuo Nakhi Qiang Nu people Pumi Salar and Yi people According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition published between 1910 and 1911 the total population of the Tibetan capital of Lhasa including the lamas in the city and vicinity was about 30 000 and the permanent population also included Chinese families about 2 000 36 Most Han people in the TAR 8 17 of the total population 34 are recent migrants because all of the Han were expelled from Outer Tibet Central Tibet following the British invasion until the establishment of the PRC 37 Only 8 of Han people have household registration in TAR others keep their household registration in place of origin 34 Tibetan scholars and exiles claim that with the 2006 completion of the Qingzang Railway connecting the TAR to Qinghai Province there has been an acceleration of Han migration into the region 38 The Tibetan government in exile based in northern India asserts that the PRC is promoting the migration of Han workers and soldiers to Tibet to marginalize and assimilate the locals 39 Religion Edit Main article Religion in Tibet Religion in Tibet 2012 estimates 40 Tibetan Buddhism 78 5 Bon 12 5 Chinese folk religion 8 58 Islam 41 0 4 Christianity 0 02 Maitreya Buddha statue of Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse The main religion in Tibet has been Buddhism since its outspread in the 8th century AD Before the arrival of Buddhism the main religion among Tibetans was an indigenous shamanic and animistic religion Bon which now comprises a sizeable minority and influenced the formation of Tibetan Buddhism According to estimates from the International Religious Freedom Report of 2012 most of Tibetans who comprise 91 of the population of the Tibet Autonomous Region are adherents of Tibetan Buddhism while a minority of 400 000 people 12 5 of the total population of the TAR are followers the native Bon or folk religions which share the image of Confucius Tibetan Kongtse Trulgyi Gyalpo with Chinese folk religion though in a different light 42 43 According to some reports the government of China has been promoting the Bon religion linking it with Confucianism 44 Most of the Han Chinese who reside in Tibet practice their native Chinese folk religion 神道 shen dao Way of the Gods There is a Guandi Temple of Lhasa 拉萨关帝庙 where the Chinese god of war Guandi is identified with the cross ethnic Chinese Tibetan Mongol and Manchu deity Gesar The temple is built according to both Chinese and Tibetan architecture It was first erected in 1792 under the Qing dynasty and renovated around 2013 after decades of disrepair 45 46 Built or rebuilt between 2014 and 2015 is the Guandi Temple of Qomolangma Mount Everest on Ganggar Mount in Tingri County 47 48 There are four mosques in the Tibet Autonomous Region with approximately 4 000 to 5 000 Muslim adherents 40 although a 2010 Chinese survey found a higher proportion of 0 4 41 There is a Catholic church with 700 parishioners which is located in the traditionally Catholic community of Yanjing in the east of the region 40 Human rights EditMain article Human rights in Tibet Before the annexation of Tibet by the People s Republic of China in 1951 Tibet was ruled by a theocracy 49 and had a caste like social hierarchy 50 Human rights in Tibet prior to its incorporation into the People s Republic of China differed considerably from those in the modern era Due to tight control of press in mainland China including the Tibet Autonomous Region 51 it is difficult to accurately determine the scope of human rights abuses 52 Critics of the Chinese Communist Party CCP say the CCP s official aim to eliminate the three evils of separatism terrorism and religious extremism is used as a pretext for human rights abuses 53 A 1992 Amnesty International report stated that judicial standards in the TAR were not up to international standards The report charged the CCP 54 government with keeping political prisoners and prisoners of conscience ill treatment of detainees including torture and inaction in the face of ill treatment the use of the death penalty extrajudicial executions 54 55 and forced abortion and sterilization 56 57 58 59 60 Towns and villages in Tibet EditFurther information List of populated places in the Tibet Autonomous Region Comfortable Housing Program Edit Beginning in 2006 280 000 Tibetans who lived in traditional villages and as nomadic herdsmen have been forcefully relocated into villages and towns In those areas new housing was built and existing houses were remodelled to serve a total of 2 million people Those living in substandard housing were required to dismantle their houses and remodel them to government standards Much of the expense was borne by the residents themselves 61 often through bank loans The population transfer program which was first implemented in Qinghai where 300 000 nomads were resettled is called Comfortable Housing which is part of the Build a New Socialist Countryside program Its effect on Tibetan culture has been criticized by exiles and human rights groups 61 Finding employment is difficult for relocated persons who have only agrarian skills Income shortfalls are offset by government support programs 62 It was announced that in 2011 that 20 000 Communist Party cadres will be placed in the new towns 61 Economy EditMain article Economy of Tibet Development of GDPYear GDP in billions of yuan1995 5 612000 11 782005 24 882010 50 752015 102 642020 190 27Source 63 The Tibetans traditionally depended upon agriculture for survival Since the 1980s however other jobs such as taxi driving and hotel retail work have become available in the wake of Chinese economic reform In 2011 Tibet s nominal GDP topped 60 5 billion yuan US 9 60 billion nearly more than seven times as big as the 11 78 billion yuan US 1 47 billion in 2000 Economic growth since the beginning of the 21st century has averaged over 10 percent a year 32 By 2020 the GDP of the region surpassed 190 billion yuan US 29 2 billion 64 While traditional agriculture and animal husbandry continue to lead the area s economy in 2005 the tertiary sector contributed more than half of its GDP growth the first time it surpassed the area s primary industry 65 66 Rich reserves of natural resources and raw materials have yet to lead to the creation of a strong secondary sector due in large part to the province s inhospitable terrain low population density an underdeveloped infrastructure and the high cost of extraction 32 The collection of caterpillar fungus Cordyceps sinensis known in Tibetan as Yartsa Gunbu in late spring early summer is in many areas the most important source of cash for rural households It contributes an average of 40 to rural cash income and 8 5 to the TAR s GDP 67 The re opening of the Nathu La pass on southern Tibet s border with India should facilitate Sino Indian border trade and boost Tibet s economy 68 In 2008 Chinese news media reported that the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents in Tibet averaged 12 482 yuan US 1 798 and 3 176 yuan US 457 respectively 69 The China Western Development policy was adopted in 2000 by the central government to boost economic development in western China including the Tibet Autonomous Region Lhasa Economic and Technological Development ZoneEducation EditThere are 4 universities and 3 special colleges in Tibet 70 including Tibet University Tibet University for Nationalities Tibet Tibetan Medical University Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry College Lhasa Teachers College Tibet Police College and Tibet Vocational and Technical College Tourism Edit The Yarlung Tsangpo in Shigatse Foreign tourists were first permitted to visit the Tibet Autonomous Region in the 1980s While the main attraction is the Potala Palace in Lhasa there are many other popular tourist destinations including the Jokhang Temple Namtso Lake and Tashilhunpo Monastery 71 Nonetheless tourism in Tibet is still restricted for non Chinese passport holders and Republic of China citizens and currently foreigners must apply for a Tibet Entry Permit Transportation EditAirports Edit Lhasa Gonggar Airport the biggest airport in TAR The civil airports in Tibet are Lhasa Gonggar Airport 72 Qamdo Bangda Airport Nyingchi Airport and the Gunsa Airport Gunsa Airport in Ngari Prefecture began operations on 1 July 2010 to become the fourth civil airport in China s Tibet Autonomous Region 73 The Peace Airport for Xigaze was opened for civilian use on 30 October 2010 74 Announced in 2010 Nagqu Dagring Airport was expected to become the world s highest altitude airport at 4 436 meters above sea level 75 However in 2015 it was reported that construction of the airport has been delayed due to the necessity to develop higher technological standards 76 Railway Edit The Qinghai Tibet Railway from Golmud to Lhasa was completed on 12 October 2005 It opened to regular trial service on 1 July 2006 Five pairs of passenger trains run between Golmud and Lhasa with connections onward to Beijing Chengdu Chongqing Guangzhou Shanghai Xining and Lanzhou The line includes the Tanggula Pass which at 5 072 m 16 640 ft above sea level is the world s highest railway The Lhasa Xigaze Railway branch from Lhasa to Xigaze was completed in 2014 It opened to regular service on 15 August 2014 The planned China Nepal railway will connect Xigaze to Kathmandu capital of Nepal and is expected to be completed around 2027 77 The construction of the Sichuan Tibet Railway began in 2015 The line is expected to be completed around 2025 78 See also Edit Geography portal Asia portal China portal China Tibetology Research Center Annexation of Tibet by the People s Republic of China History of Tibet 1950 present Kazara List of prisons in the Tibet Autonomous Region List of universities and colleges in Tibet Tibet Area administrative division Tibetan independence movement Sinicization of Tibet Shigatse Photovoltaic Power PlantNotes Edit Chinese 西藏 pinyin Xizang Mandarin pronunciation ɕi tsa ŋ lit Western Tsang Tibetan བ ད Wylie Bod ZYPY Poi Tibetan pronunciation pʰo ʔ References EditCitations Edit 西藏概况 2007年 Overview of Tibet 2007 in Chinese People s Government of Tibet Autonomous Region 11 September 2008 Archived from the original on 22 December 2015 Retrieved 18 December 2015 Communique of the Seventh National Population Census No 3 National Bureau of Statistics of China 11 May 2021 Retrieved 11 May 2021 GDP 2021 is a preliminary data Home Regional Quarterly by Province Press release China NBS 1 March 2022 Retrieved 23 March 2022 Sub national HDI Area Database Global Data Lab hdi globaldatalab org Archived from the original on 23 September 2018 Retrieved 13 September 2018 What is Tibet Fact and Fancy Excerpt from Goldstein Melvyn C 1994 Change Conflict and Continuity among a Community of Nomadic Pastoralist A Case Study from Western Tibet 1950 1990 pp 76 87 Wylie Turrell V 2003 Lama Tribute in the Ming Dynasty in McKay Alex ed The History of Tibet Volume 2 The Medieval Period c AD 850 1895 the Development of Buddhist Paramountcy New York Routledge p 470 ISBN 978 0 415 30843 4 Wang Jiawei Nyima Gyaincain 1997 The Historical Status of China s Tibet Beijing China Intercontinental Press pp 1 40 ISBN 978 7 80113 304 5 Laird 2006 pp 106 107 Grunfeld A Tom The Making of Modern Tibet M E Sharpe p245 Gyatso Tenzin Dalai Lama XIV interview 25 July 1981 Goldstein Melvyn C A History of Modern Tibet 1913 1951 University of California Press 1989 p 812 813 Tibet Agricultural Regions Archived from the original on 24 August 2007 Retrieved 6 August 2007 The World s Biggest Canyon china org Archived from the original on 12 October 2007 Retrieved 29 June 2007 Yang Qinye Zheng Du 2004 Tibetan Geography China Intercontinental Press pp 30 31 ISBN 978 7 5085 0665 4 Zheng Du Zhang Qingsong Wu Shaohong Mountain Geoecology and Sustainable Development of the Tibetan Plateau Kluwer 2000 ISBN 0 7923 6688 3 p 312 中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码 in Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 Retrieved 7 April 2015 Shenzhen City Bureau of Statistics 深圳统计年鉴2014 in Chinese China Statistics Print Archived from the original on 12 May 2015 Retrieved 29 May 2015 Census Office of the State Council Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics eds 2012 中国2010人口普查分乡 镇 街道资料 1st ed Beijing China Statistics Print ISBN 978 7 5037 6660 2 Ministry of Civil Affairs August 2014 中国民政统计年鉴2014 in Chinese China Statistics Print ISBN 978 7 5037 7130 9 a b c Census Office of the State Council Population and Society Science and Technology Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics eds 2012 中国2010年人口普查分县资料 Beijing China Statistics Print ISBN 978 7 5037 6659 6 1912年中国人口 Archived from the original on 24 September 2015 Retrieved 6 March 2014 1928年中国人口 Archived from the original on 24 September 2015 Retrieved 6 March 2014 1936 37年中国人口 Archived from the original on 24 September 2015 Retrieved 6 March 2014 1947年全国人口 Archived from the original on 13 September 2013 Retrieved 6 March 2014 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报 National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on 5 August 2009 第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字 National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on 14 September 2012 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报 National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on 10 May 2012 中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九 年人口普查主要数据的公报 National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on 19 June 2012 现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下 National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on 29 August 2012 Communique of the National Bureau of Statistics of People s Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census National Bureau of Statistics of China Archived from the original on 27 July 2013 FACTBOX Key takeaways from China s 2020 population census Reuters 11 May 2021 a b c China Economy China Perspective Thechinaperspective com Retrieved on 18 July 2013 Wang Guanqun Tibet s population tops three million 90 are Tibetans news xinhuanet com Xinhua Archived from the original on 13 May 2011 Retrieved 4 May 2011 a b c 西藏自治区常住人口超过300万 Xizang gov Xizang gov Archived from the original on 16 February 2013 Retrieved 6 May 2011 Hannue Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han Yule Henry Waddell Laurence 1911 Lhasa In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 16 11th ed Cambridge University Press p 531 Grunfeld A Tom 1996 The Making of Modern Tibet East Gate Books pp 114 119 Johnson Tim 28 March 2008 Tibetans see Han invasion as spurring violence McClatchy Mcclatchydc com Archived from the original on 15 November 2009 Retrieved 11 October 2011 Population Transfer Programmes Central Tibetan Administration 2003 Archived from the original on 30 July 2010 Retrieved 29 July 2010 a b c Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012 Archived 28 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine by the US government p 20 Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism although a sizeable minority practices Bon an indigenous religion and very small minorities practice Islam Catholicism or Protestantism Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400 000 Bon followers across the Tibetan Plateau Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5 000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR a b Min Junqing The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China JISMOR 8 2010 Islam by province page 29 Archived 27 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine Data from Yang Zongde Study on Current Muslim Population in China Jinan Muslim 2 2010 Te Ming TSENG Shen Yu LIN December 2007 臺灣東亞文明研究學刊 第4卷第2期 總第8期 The Image of Confucius in Tibetan Culture PDF National Taiwan University pp 169 207 Archived from the original PDF on 4 March 2016 Shenyu Lin The Tibetan Image of Confucius Archived 13 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine Revue d Etudes Tibetaines China Tibet Online Confucius ruled as a divine king in Tibet permanent dead link 4 November 2014 World Guangong Culture Lhasa Tibet Guandi temple was inaugurated Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine China Tibet Online Tibet s largest Guandi Temple gets repaired permanent dead link 13 March 2013 World Guangong Culture Dingri Tibet Cornerstone Laying Ceremony being Grandly Held for the Reconstruction of Qomolangma Guandi Temple Archived 7 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine World Guangong Culture Wuhan China Yang Song Meets Cui Yujing to Discuss Qomolangma Guandi Temple Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Samten G Karmay Religion and Politics commentary Archived 2016 03 05 at the Wayback Machine September 2008 from 1642 the Ganden Potrang the official seat of the government in Drepung Monastery came to symbolize the supreme power in both the theory and practice of a theocratic government This was indeed a political triumph that Buddhism had never known in its history in Tibet Fjeld Heidi 2003 Commoners and Nobles Hereditary Divisions in Tibet Nordic Institute of Asian Studies p 5 ISBN 9788791114175 Regions and territories Tibet bbc http news bbc co uk 2 hi asia pacific country profiles 4152353 stm Archived 2011 04 22 at the Wayback Machine US State Department Bureau of Democracy Human Rights and Labor 2008 Human Rights Report China includes Tibet Hong Kong and Macau February 25 2009 Simon Denyer China cracks down on aggrieved party cadres in Xinjiang and Tibet Archived 2016 12 29 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian 8 December 2015 a b Amnesty International Amnesty International China Amnesty International s concerns in Tibet Archived 2009 09 12 at the Wayback Machine Secretary General s Report Situation in Tibet E CN 4 1992 37 Amnesty International Documents Hrweb org Archived from the original on 15 March 2012 Retrieved 9 December 2012 Goldstein Melvyn Cynthia Beall March 1991 China s Birth Control Policy in the Tibet Autonomous Region Asian Survey 31 3 285 303 doi 10 2307 2645246 JSTOR 2645246 Human Rights Violations in Tibet Human Rights Watch 13 June 2000 Database of NGO Reports presented to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child PDF Archive Archived from the original PDF on 19 January 2012 China must urgently address rights violations in Tibet UN senior official UN News 2 November 2012 European Parliament resolution of 10 April 2008 on Tibet Publications Office of the EU 10 April 2008 a b c They Say We Should Be Grateful Human Rights Watch 27 June 2013 Retrieved 14 August 2020 Jacobs Andrew 27 June 2013 Rights Report Faults Mass Relocation of Tibetans The New York Times Archived from the original on 27 June 2013 Retrieved 28 June 2013 Historical GDP of Provinces Home Regional Annual by Province Press release China NBS 31 January 2020 Retrieved 31 January 2020 Xinhua Tibet s GDP grows 7 8 pct in 2020 xinhuanet com Xinhua 20 January 2020 Retrieved 31 January 2020 Xinhua Per capita GDP tops 1 000 in Tibet news xinhuanet com Xinhua 31 January 2006 Archived from the original on 9 June 2011 Retrieved 11 October 2011 Tibet posts fixed assets investment rise news xinhuanet com Xinhua 31 January 2006 Archived from the original on 9 June 2011 Retrieved 11 October 2011 Winkler D 2008 Yartsa gunbu Cordyceps sinenis and the fungal commodification of rural Tibet Economic Botany 62 3 See also Hannue Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han Maseeh Rahman in New Delhi 19 June 2006 China and India to trade across Himalayas World news The Guardian London Retrieved 11 October 2011 Tibetans report income rises news nen com cn Archived from the original on 21 July 2011 Retrieved 11 October 2011 全国高等学校名单 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站 www moe gov cn Retrieved 18 June 2022 Birgit Zotz Destination Tibet Hamburg Kovac 2010 ISBN 978 3 8300 4948 7 d nb wbr info wbr 999787640 wbr 04 Archived copy Archived from the original on 17 January 2012 Retrieved 27 October 2011 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Gongkhar Airport in Tibet enters digital communication age Xinhua News Agency 12 May 2009 Archived from the original on 15 December 2010 Retrieved 12 December 2010 Tibet s fourth civil airport opens Xinhua News Agency 1 July 2010 Archived from the original on 14 December 2010 Retrieved 11 December 2010 Tibet to have fifth civil airport operational before year end 2010 Xinhua News Agency 26 July 2010 Archived from the original on 15 December 2010 Retrieved 12 December 2010 World s highest altitude airport planned on Tibet news xinhuanet com Xinhua News Agency 12 January 2010 Archived from the original on 15 December 2010 Retrieved 12 December 2010 China to stop building extremely high plateau airports www chinadaily com cn China Daily 24 April 2015 Retrieved 17 September 2021 Giri A Giri S 24 August 2018 Nepal China agree on rail study The Kathmandu Post Archived from the original on 22 September 2018 Retrieved 22 September 2018 Chu China Approves New Railway for Tibet english cri cn CRI Archived from the original on 9 November 2014 Retrieved 9 November 2014 Sources Edit Laird Thomas 2006 The Story of Tibet Conversations with the Dalai Lama 1st ed New York Grove Press ISBN 978 0 8021 1827 1 Further reading EditDialogues Tibetan dialogues Han Erscheinungsort nicht ermittelbar Hannu 2008 ISBN 978 988 97999 3 9 travelogue from Tibet by a woman who s been travelling around Tibet for over a decade Wilby Sorrel 1988 Journey Across Tibet A Young Woman s 1900 Mile Trek Across the Rooftop of the World Chicago Contemporary Books ISBN 0 8092 4608 2 hardcover 236 pages Hillman Ben 1 June 2010 China s many Tibets Diqing as a model for development with Tibetan characteristics Asian Ethnicity 11 2 269 277 doi 10 1080 14631361003779604 ISSN 1463 1369 S2CID 145011878 Retrieved 30 April 2021 External links EditLook up Tibet Autonomous Region in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tibet Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tibet Autonomous Region Tibet Autonomous Region official website Economic profile for Tibet Autonomous Region at HKTDC Population Structure and Changes in the Tibet Autonomous Region Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tibet Autonomous Region amp oldid 1093795234, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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