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Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) based on type (motor or phonic) and duration of tics (sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements). Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization (ICD-10 codes).

Tic disorder
Examples of tics
SpecialtyNeurology, psychiatry

Contents

DSM-5

The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, classifies Tourette syndrome and tic disorders as motor disorders listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category.

Tic disorders, in ascending order of severity, are:

  • 307.20 Other specified tic disorder (specify reason)
  • 307.20 Unspecified tic disorder
  • 307.21 Provisional tic disorder
  • 307.22 Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder (specify motor or vocal)
  • 307.23 Tourette's disorder

Developmental coordination disorder and stereotypic movement disorder are also classified as motor disorders.

ICD-10

ICD10 diagnosis codes are:

  • F95.0 Transient tic disorder
  • F95.1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder
  • F95.2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder [Gilles de la Tourette]
  • F95.8 Other tic disorders
  • F95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified
Further information: Tic § Differential diagnosis

Tics should be distinguished from other causes of tourettism, stereotypies, chorea, dyskinesias, myoclonus and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Education, and a "watch and wait" strategy, are the only treatment needed for many, and the majority of individuals with tics do not seek treatment. When needed, management of tic disorders is similar to management of Tourette syndrome.

Tic disorders are more commonly diagnosed in males than females.

At least one in five children experience some form of tic disorder, most frequently between the ages of seven and twelve. As many as 1 in 100 people may experience some form of tic disorder, usually before the onset of puberty. Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders, which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability. Nevertheless, most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe. Although a significant amount of investigative work indicates genetic linkage of the various tic disorders, further study is needed to confirm the relationship.

DSM-IV-TR

In the fourth revision of the DSM (DSM-IV-TR), tic disorders were classified as follows:

  • Transient tic disorder consisted of multiple motor and/or phonic tics with duration of at least 4 weeks, but less than 12 months.
  • Chronic tic disorder was either single or multiple motor or phonic tics, but not both, which were present for more than a year.
  • Tourette syndrome was diagnosed when both motor and phonic tics were present for more than a year.
  • Tic disorder NOS was diagnosed when tics were present, but did not meet the criteria for any specific tic disorder.

From DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5

DSM-5 was published in 2013, updating DSM-IV-TR, which was published in 2000. The following changes were made:

  • The word stereotyped was removed from tic definition: stereotypies and stereotypic movement disorder are frequently misdiagnosed as tics or Tourette syndrome. The definition of tic was made consistent for all tic disorders, and the word stereotyped was removed to help distinguish between stereotypies (common in autism spectrum disorders) and tic disorders.
  • Provisional tic disorder approximately replaced transient tic disorder: because initially presenting tics may eventually be diagnosed as chronic tic disorder or Tourette's, transient suggested it could only be defined in retrospect (though that perception did not follow the DSM-IV-TR definition). The term provisional "satisfies experts with a more systematic epidemiological approach to disorders", but should not imply that treatment might not be called for.
  • Differentiation of chronic motor or vocal tic disorder: DSM-5 added a specifier to distinguish between vocal and motor tics that are chronic. This distinction was added because higher rates of comorbid diagnoses are present with vocal tics relative to motor tics.
  • Now includes as Tourette's Disorder patients with tics who experienced a 3-month or longer remission since the first tic, as long as the first tic was at least a year ago.
  • Stimulant use as a cause removed: there is no evidence that the use of stimulants causes tic disorders.
  • New categories, Other specified and Unspecified: for tic disorders that result in significant impairment to the individual yet do not meet the full criteria for other tic disorders. The new categories account for tics with onset in adulthood, or tics triggered by other medical conditions or illicit drug use.
  1. American Psychiatric Association (2000). DSM-IV-TR: Tourette's Disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (DSM-IV-TR), ISBN 0-89042-025-4. Available at BehaveNet.com Retrieved on August 10, 2009.
  2. Swain JE, Scahill L, Lombroso PJ, King RA, Leckman JF. "Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: a decade of progress". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;46(8):947–68 doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e318068fbcc PMID 17667475
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  4. "Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5"(PDF). American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 3, 2013. RetrievedJune 5, 2013.
  5. Robertson MM, Eapen V (October 2014). "Tourette's: syndrome, disorder or spectrum? Classificatory challenges and an appraisal of the DSM criteria"(PDF). Asian J Psychiatr (Review). 11: 106–13. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2014.05.010. PMID 25453712.
  6. ICD Version 2006. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  7. Roessner V1, Plessen KJ, Rothenberger A, et al. "European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011 Apr;20(4):173-96. PMID 21445724.
  8. Black KJ, Black ER, Greene DJ, Schlaggar BL. Provisional Tic Disorder: What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing. F1000Research 2016, 5:696 doi:10.12688/f1000research.8428.1
  9. Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Retrieved on 2005-03-23.
  10. Swerdlow NR. "Tourette syndrome: current controversies and the battlefield landscape". Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. 5 (5): 329-31. doi:10.1007/s11910-005-0054-8 PMID 16131414
  11. Evidente VG. "Is it a tic or Tourette's? Clues for differentiating simple from more complex tic disorders". Postgraduate medicine. 108 (5): 175-6, 179-82. PMID 11043089 Retrieved on 2007-05-24
  12. Neurodevelopmental disorders. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved on December 29, 2011.
  13. Moran, M. "DSM-5 provides new take on neurodevelopment disorders". Psychiatric News. January 18, 2013;48(2):6–23. doi:10.1176/appi.pn.2013.1b11
  14. Ellis CR, Pataki C. "Background: Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder". Medscape. RetrievedOctober 6, 2013.
  15. Plessen KJ. Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;22 Suppl 1:S55–60. doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0362-x
  16. Black, KJ. ADHD medications and tics. February 17, 2018.tics.wustl.edu/adhd-medications-and-tics/

Tic disorder Article Talk Language Watch Edit Tic disorders are defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM based on type motor or phonic and duration of tics sudden rapid nonrhythmic movements 1 Tic disorders are defined similarly by the World Health Organization ICD 10 codes 2 Tic disorder source source source source source source Examples of ticsSpecialtyNeurology psychiatry Contents 1 Classification 1 1 DSM 5 1 2 ICD 10 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 Epidemiology 5 History 5 1 DSM IV TR 5 2 From DSM IV TR to DSM 5 6 References 7 External linksClassification EditDSM 5 Edit The fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM 5 published in May 2013 classifies Tourette syndrome and tic disorders as motor disorders listed in the neurodevelopmental disorder category 3 Tic disorders in ascending order of severity are 3 307 20 Other specified tic disorder specify reason 307 20 Unspecified tic disorder 307 21 Provisional tic disorder 307 22 Persistent chronic motor or vocal tic disorder specify motor or vocal 307 23 Tourette s disorder Developmental coordination disorder and stereotypic movement disorder are also classified as motor disorders 4 5 ICD 10 Edit ICD10 diagnosis codes are 6 F95 0 Transient tic disorder F95 1 Chronic motor or vocal tic disorder F95 2 Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder Gilles de la Tourette F95 8 Other tic disorders F95 9 Tic disorder unspecifiedDiagnosis EditFurther information Tic Differential diagnosis Tics should be distinguished from other causes of tourettism stereotypies chorea dyskinesias myoclonus and obsessive compulsive disorder 3 Treatment EditEducation and a watch and wait strategy are the only treatment needed for many and the majority of individuals with tics do not seek treatment When needed management of tic disorders is similar to management of Tourette syndrome 7 Epidemiology EditTic disorders are more commonly diagnosed in males than females 3 At least one in five children experience some form of tic disorder most frequently between the ages of seven and twelve 8 9 As many as 1 in 100 people may experience some form of tic disorder usually before the onset of puberty 9 Tourette syndrome is the more severe expression of a spectrum of tic disorders which are thought to be due to the same genetic vulnerability Nevertheless most cases of Tourette syndrome are not severe Although a significant amount of investigative work indicates genetic linkage of the various tic disorders further study is needed to confirm the relationship 10 History EditDSM IV TR Edit In the fourth revision of the DSM DSM IV TR tic disorders were classified as follows 11 Transient tic disorder consisted of multiple motor and or phonic tics with duration of at least 4 weeks but less than 12 months Chronic tic disorder was either single or multiple motor or phonic tics but not both which were present for more than a year Tourette syndrome was diagnosed when both motor and phonic tics were present for more than a year Tic disorder NOS was diagnosed when tics were present but did not meet the criteria for any specific tic disorder From DSM IV TR to DSM 5 Edit DSM 5 was published in 2013 updating DSM IV TR which was published in 2000 The following changes were made 3 12 13 4 The word stereotyped was removed from tic definition stereotypies and stereotypic movement disorder are frequently misdiagnosed as tics or Tourette syndrome 14 The definition of tic was made consistent for all tic disorders and the word stereotyped was removed to help distinguish between stereotypies common in autism spectrum disorders and tic disorders 15 Provisional tic disorder approximately replaced transient tic disorder because initially presenting tics may eventually be diagnosed as chronic tic disorder or Tourette s transient suggested it could only be defined in retrospect though that perception did not follow the DSM IV TR definition 8 The term provisional satisfies experts with a more systematic epidemiological approach to disorders but should not imply that treatment might not be called for 15 Differentiation of chronic motor or vocal tic disorder DSM 5 added a specifier to distinguish between vocal and motor tics that are chronic This distinction was added because higher rates of comorbid diagnoses are present with vocal tics relative to motor tics 15 Now includes as Tourette s Disorder patients with tics who experienced a 3 month or longer remission since the first tic as long as the first tic was at least a year ago Stimulant use as a cause removed there is no evidence that the use of stimulants causes tic disorders 15 16 New categories Other specified and Unspecified for tic disorders that result in significant impairment to the individual yet do not meet the full criteria for other tic disorders 3 The new categories account for tics with onset in adulthood 3 or tics triggered by other medical conditions or illicit drug use 15 References Edit American Psychiatric Association 2000 DSM IV TR Tourette s Disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed text revision DSM IV TR ISBN 0 89042 025 4 Available at BehaveNet com Retrieved on August 10 2009 Swain JE Scahill L Lombroso PJ King RA Leckman JF Tourette syndrome and tic disorders a decade of progress J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007 Aug 46 8 947 68 doi 10 1097 chi 0b013e318068fbcc PMID 17667475 a b c d e f g American Psychiatric Association 2013 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth ed Arlington VA American Psychiatric Publishing pp 81 85 ISBN 978 0 89042 555 8 a b Highlights of changes from DSM IV TR to DSM 5 PDF American Psychiatric Association 2013 Archived from the original PDF on February 3 2013 Retrieved June 5 2013 Robertson MM Eapen V October 2014 Tourette s syndrome disorder or spectrum Classificatory challenges and an appraisal of the DSM criteria PDF Asian J Psychiatr Review 11 106 13 doi 10 1016 j ajp 2014 05 010 PMID 25453712 ICD Version 2006 World Health Organization Retrieved on 2007 05 24 Roessner V1 Plessen KJ Rothenberger A et al European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders Part II pharmacological treatment Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011 Apr 20 4 173 96 PMID 21445724 a b Black KJ Black ER Greene DJ Schlaggar BL Provisional Tic Disorder What to tell parents when their child first starts ticcing F1000Research 2016 5 696 doi 10 12688 f1000research 8428 1 a b Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet National Institutes of Health NIH Retrieved on 2005 03 23 Swerdlow NR Tourette syndrome current controversies and the battlefield landscape Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 5 5 329 31 doi 10 1007 s11910 005 0054 8 PMID 16131414 Evidente VG Is it a tic or Tourette s Clues for differentiating simple from more complex tic disorders Postgraduate medicine 108 5 175 6 179 82 PMID 11043089 Retrieved on 2007 05 24 Neurodevelopmental disorders American Psychiatric Association Retrieved on December 29 2011 Moran M DSM 5 provides new take on neurodevelopment disorders Psychiatric News January 18 2013 48 2 6 23 doi 10 1176 appi pn 2013 1b11 Ellis CR Pataki C Background Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder Medscape Retrieved October 6 2013 a b c d e Plessen KJ Tic disorders and Tourette s syndrome Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2013 Feb 22 Suppl 1 S55 60 doi 10 1007 s00787 012 0362 x Black KJ ADHD medications and tics February 17 2018 tics wbr wustl wbr edu wbr adhd medications and tics wbr External links EditThe Tourette Syndrome Classification Study Group Definitions and classification of tic disorders Arch Neurol 1993 Oct 50 10 1013 6 PMID 8215958 Retrieved on 2005 03 22 Walkup JT Ferrao Y Leckman JF Stein DJ Singer H Tic disorders some key issues for DSM V PDF Depress Anxiety 2010 Jun 27 6 600 10 PMID 20533370 doi 10 1002 da 20711 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tic disorder amp oldid 1075733215, wikipedia, wiki, 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