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For other uses, see Tokelau (disambiguation).

Coordinates:09°10′S171°50′W /9.167°S 171.833°W /-9.167; -171.833

Tokelau (; lit.'north-northeast' or 'north wind'; known previously as the Union Islands, and, until 1976, known officially as the Tokelau Islands) is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls: Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo. They have a combined land area of 10 km2 (4 sq mi). The capital rotates yearly among the three atolls. In addition to these three, Swains Island, which forms part of the same archipelago, is the subject of an ongoing territorial dispute; it is currently administered by the United States as part of American Samoa. Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands.

Tokelau
Motto:
"Tokelau mo te Atua"(Tokelauan)
("Tokelau for the Almighty")
Territorial anthem: "Te Atua o Tokelau"
Map of all Tokelau Islands. Swains Island is shown to the south.
Sovereign stateNew Zealand
Protectorate createdJune 1889
British colony29 February 1916
Assigned to New Zealand11 February 1926
New Zealand sovereignty1 January 1949
CapitalNone
Largest cityAtafu
Official languages
Demonym(s)Tokelauan
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary dependency under a constitutional monarchy
Elizabeth II
Ross Ardern
Kerisiano Kalolo
LegislatureGeneral Fono
Area
• Total
10 km2 (3.9 sq mi)
• Water (%)
negligible
Highest elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
• 2016 census
1,499 (237th)
• Density
115/km2 (297.8/sq mi) (86th)
GDP(PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
US$10 million
• Per capita
US$6,275 (not ranked)
GDP (nominal)estimate
• Total
US$9,406,225
CurrencyNew Zealand dollar (NZ$) (NZD)
Time zoneUTC+13:00
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+690
ISO 3166 codeTK
Internet TLD.tk

Tokelau has a population of approximately 1,500 people; it has the fourth-smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency in the world. As of the 2016 census, around 45% of its residents had been born overseas, mostly in Samoa or New Zealand. The populace has a life expectancy of 69, which is comparable to that of other Oceanian island nations. Approximately 94% of the population speak Tokelauan as their first language. Tokelau has the smallest economy of any sovereign nation, although it is a leader in renewable energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world.

Tokelau is officially referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government. It is a free and democratic nation with elections every three years. However, in 2007, the United Nations General Assembly included Tokelau on its list of non-self-governing territories. Its inclusion on this list is controversial, as Tokelauans have twice narrowly voted against further self-determination, and the islands' small population makes the viability of self-government challenging. The basis of Tokelau's legislative, administrative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, which has been amended on a number of occasions. Since 1993, the territory has annually elected its own head of government, the Ulu-o-Tokelau. Before 1993, the administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government and the territory was directly administered by a New Zealand government department.

Contents

Tokelau is a word meaning "north wind" in the native Tokelau language. The Tokelau islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an earlier time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the islands’ official name in 1946. The name was officially shortened to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.

Pre-history

Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau – Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo – were settled about 1,000 years ago from Samoa and may have been a gateway into Eastern Polynesia. The inhabitants embrace Polynesian mythology and the local god, Tui Tokelau. Over time, they developed distinctive musical and art forms. The three atolls have historically functioned separately politically, while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society has been governed by chiefly clans, and there have been occasional skirmishes and wars between the atolls, as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island", held some dominion over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was historically subsistence-based, with a diet that relied mainly on fish and coconut.

Contact with other cultures

Fakaofo islanders, drawn in 1841 by the United States Exploring Expedition

The first European to sight Atafu was Commodore John Byron, on 24 June 1765. He called the island "Duke of York's Island". Parties from his expedition who ventured ashore reported that there were no signs of current or previous inhabitants. Captain Edward Edwards, having learned of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 in search of the Bounty mutineers. They found no inhabitants, but saw that there were houses containing canoes and fishing gear, which suggested to them that the island was being used as a temporary residence by fishing parties from other, nearby islands. On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed farther south, and sighted Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island". A landing party that went ashore was unable to make contact with the inhabitants, but saw "morais", burying places, and canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the island's lagoons.

On 29 October 1825, August R. Strong of the USS Dolphin and his crew arrived at the atoll Nukunonu. He wrote:

Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, which was quite small, and put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon. They would frequently come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation.

On 14 February 1835, Captain Smith, of the United States whaling ship the General Jackson, wrote of having sighted Fakaofo, which he chose to call "D'Wolf's Island". On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu, and discovered a small population living on the island. The residents appeared to be there only temporarily, because there was no chief among them, and they had the kind of double canoes that were typically used for inter-island travel. They appeared to have interacted with foreigners in the past, because they expressed a desire to engage in barter with the expedition crew, and they possessed items that were apparently of foreign origin: blue beads and a plane-iron. A few days later, French explorer Captain Morvan sighted Fakaofo. The American expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841, but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition sighted Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch". The Fakaofo islanders were found to be similar in appearance and behavior to the Atafu islanders.

Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1870s. French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island (also known as 'Uvea) and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations. The Rev. Samuel James Whitmee, of the London Missionary Society, visited Tokelau in 1870.

Helped by Swains Island-based Eli Jennings senior, Peruvian "blackbird" slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all (253) of the able-bodied men to work as labourers, depopulating the atolls. The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox, and very few returned. With that loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", on which individual families on each atoll were represented. During that time, Polynesian immigrants settled, followed by American, Scottish, French, Portuguese and German beachcombers, marrying local women and repopulating the atolls.

Between 1856 and 1979, the United States claimed that it held sovereignty over the island and the other Tokelauan atolls. In 1979, the U.S. conceded that Tokelau was under New Zealand sovereignty, and a maritime boundary between Tokelau and American Samoa was established by the Treaty of Tokehega.

The square in the centre of the village of Fakaofo

Tropical cyclones

Cyclone Percy struck and severely damaged Tokelau in late February and early March 2005. Forecasters underestimated the cyclone's strength and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau. It coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two villages on Fakaofo and Nukunonu under a metre of seawater. The cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three atolls, damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and telecommunications systems. The cyclone did significant and widespread damage to food crops including bananas, coconuts and pandanus. It did not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of property.

No significant land is more than two metres (6.6 feet) above high water of ordinary tides. This means Tokelau is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises.

Time zone

Main article: Time in New Zealand

Until December 2011, Tokelau was 11 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). At midnight 29 December 2011 Tokelau shifted to UTC+13:00 in response to Samoa's decision to switch sides of the International Dateline. This brought Tokelau closer to New Zealand time (and in the process omitted 30 December).

Many sources claim that Tokelau is 14 hours ahead of UTC (UTC−10 before the 2011 date switch), but the correct time zone offset is UTC+13:00.

In 1877, the islands were included under the protection of the United Kingdom by an Order in Council that claimed jurisdiction over all unclaimed Pacific Islands. Commander C. F. Oldham on HMS Egeria landed at each of the three atolls in June 1889 and officially raised the Union Flag, declaring the group a British protectorate. In conformity with desire expressed by "the Native government" they were annexed by the United Kingdom and included in the Gilbert Islands by the Tokelau Islands (Union Islands) Order in Council, 1916. The annexation took place on 29 February 1916. From the point in time that the islands were annexed, their people had the status of British subjects. Tokelau was removed from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony and placed under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of New Zealand in 1925, two Orders in Council being made for the purpose on the same day. This step meant that New Zealand took over administration of Tokelau from the British on 11 February 1926. At this point, Tokelau was still a territory under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom but administered by New Zealand.

The Union Islands (Revocation) Order in Council, 1948 after reciting the agreement by the governments of the United Kingdom and New Zealand that the islands should become part of New Zealand, revoked the Union Islands (No. 2) Order in Council, 1925, with effect from a date fixed by the Governor-General of New Zealand after he was satisfied that the New Zealand Parliament had provided for the incorporation of the islands with New Zealand, as it did by the Tokelau Islands Act 1948. Tokelau formally became part of New Zealand on 1 January 1949.

The Dominion of New Zealand, of which Tokelau formerly was a part, has since been superseded by the Realm of New Zealand, of which Tokelau remains a part. Defence is the responsibility of New Zealand. When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949, Tokelauans who were British subjects gained New Zealand citizenship; a status they still hold.

Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily lives and New Zealand law only applies where it has been extended by specific enactment. Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons, and offenders are publicly rebuked, fined or made to work.

Main article: Politics of Tokelau

The head of state is Elizabeth II, the Queen in right of New Zealand, who also reigns over the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in the territory by the Administrator – currently Ross Ardern. The current head of government is Kerisiano Kalolo, who presides over the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, which functions as a cabinet. The Council consists of the faipule (leader) and pulenuku (village mayor) of each of the three atolls. The administrator is appointed by the minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of New Zealand, and the role of head of government rotates between the three faipule for a one-year term.

The Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono, a unicameral body. The number of seats each atoll receives in the Fono is determined by population – at present, Fakaofo and Atafu each have seven and Nukunonu has six. Faipule and pulenuku also sit in the Fono.

On 11 November 2004, Tokelau and New Zealand took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau from a non-self-governing territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Besides the treaty, a United Nations-sponsored referendum on self-determination took place, with the three islands voting on successive days starting 13 February 2006. (Tokelauans in Apia, Samoa, voted on 11 February.) Out of 581 votes cast, 349 were for Free Association, being short of the two-thirds majority required for the measure to pass. The referendum was profiled (somewhat light-heartedly) in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker magazine. A repeat referendum took place on 20–24 October 2007, again narrowly failing to approve self-government. This time the vote was short by just 16 votes or 3%.

In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories", including Tokelau. This led The New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence". In April 2008, speaking as leader of the National Party, future New Zealand Prime Minister John Key stated that New Zealand had "imposed two referenda on the people of the Tokelau Islands", and questioned "the accepted wisdom that small states should undergo a de-colonisation process".

Atafu atoll
Nukunonu atoll
Fakaofo atoll

Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes and 10° S, about midway between Hawaii and New Zealand. From Atafu in the north to Fakaofo in the south, Tokelau extends for less than 200 km. The atolls lie about 500 kilometres (311 miles) north of Samoa. The atolls are Atafu, Nukunonu, both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island. Their combined land area is 10.8 km2 (4.2 sq mi). The atolls each have a number of coral islands, where the villages are situated. The highest point of Tokelau is just 5 metres (16 feet) above sea level. There are no ports or harbours for large vessels, however, all three atolls have a jetty to and from which supplies and passengers are shipped. Tokelau lies in the Pacific tropical cyclone belt. A fourth island that is culturally, historically, and geographically, but not politically, part of the Tokelau chain is Swains Island (Olohega), under United States control since about 1900 and administered as part of American Samoa since 1925.

Swains Island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act, as were the other three islands of Tokelau; the latter three claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979. In the draft constitution of Tokelau subject to the Tokelauan self-determination referendum in 2006, Olohega (Swains Island) was also claimed as a part of Tokelau, though the claim was surrendered in the same 1979 treaty. This established a clearly defined boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau.

Tokelau's claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall Islands' claim to US-administered Wake Island, but the re-emergence of this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonisation in Tokelau. Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm: recent decolonisation moves have mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons. But at the same time, Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language.

Tokelau is located in the Western Polynesian tropical moist forests ecoregion. Most of the original vegetation has been replaced by coconut plantations, some of which have been abandoned and became scrubby forests. The atolls of Tokelau provide habitat for 38 indigenous plant species, over 150 insect species and 10 land crab species. One of the greatest threats to biodiversity is posed by introduced mammalian predators such as the Polynesian Rat.

In 2011 Tokelau declared its entire exclusive economic zone of 319,031 km2 (123,179 sq mi) a shark sanctuary.

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2017)
A proportional representation of Tokelau exports, 2019

According to the US Central Intelligence Agency's list of countries by GDP (PPP) Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world. Tokelau has an annual purchasing power of about US$1,000 (674) per capita. The government is almost entirely dependent on subsidies from New Zealand. It has annual revenues of less than US$500,000 (€336,995) against expenditures of some US$2.8 million (€1.9 million). The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand.

Tokelau annually exports around US$100,000 (€67,000) of stamps, copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US$300,000 (€202,000) of foodstuffs, building materials, and fuel to, and from, New Zealand. New Zealand also pays directly for the cost of medical and education services. Local industries include small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods, stamps, coins, and fishing. Agriculture and livestock produces coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papayas, bananas, figs, pigs, poultry and a few goats. Many Tokelauans live in New Zealand and support their families in Tokelau through remittances.

Solar power

The goal of 100% renewable electricity was met on 7 November 2012, according to the Foreign Affairs Minister of New Zealand, Murray McCully. Previously electricity was generated using diesel generators and was only available about 16 hours/day.

Three solar power stations provide 100% of current electrical demand from photovoltaics, with battery backup. The first power station was completed in August 2012. In total, 4,032 solar panels are used and 1,344 batteries weighing 250 kilograms (550 lb) each. The systems are designed to withstand winds of 230 km/h (143 mph). Tokelau's electricity is 93% generated by photovoltaics, with the remainder generated from coconut oil.

  • Nukunonu Lagoon in Tokelau.

  • Atafu street at dawn

Internet domain name

Main article: .tk
Access to internet in Tokelau, 2011

Tokelau has increased its GDP by more than 10% through registrations of domain names under its top-level domain, .tk. Registrations can be either free, in which case the user owns only usage rights and not the domain itself, or paid, which grants full rights. Free domains are pointed to Tokelau name servers, which redirects the domain via HTML frames to a specified address or to a specified A or NS record, and the redirection of up to 250 email addresses to an external address (not at a .tk domain).

In September 2003 Fakaofo became the first part of Tokelau with a high-speed Internet connection. Foundation Tokelau financed the project. Tokelau gives most domain names under its authority away to anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory. This has allowed the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies, such as more computers and Internet access for Tokelauan residents. By 2012, there were about 120 computers, mostly laptops, and 1/6th of the economy consists of income from .tk domain names.

According to a 2016 analysis of domain name registration performed by the .uk registrar Nominet using data from ZookNIC, tk domains are the "world's largest country-code domain ... almost as large as second and third place holders China (.cn) and Germany (.de) combined".

Language statistics in Tokelau, 2006 and 2011

According to the 2016 Tokelau Census, Tokelau has a de jure usually resident population of 1,499 people. The census shows a 6.2% increase in the de jure usually resident population between 2011 and 2016.

The nationals of Tokelau are called Tokelauans, and the major ethnic group is Polynesian; it has no recorded minority groups. About 84% of inhabitants are of wholly or partly Tokelauan ethnicity; people of Samoan ethnicity make up 6.7% of the population, and Tuvaluans 2.8%. The main language—spoken by over 90% of inhabitants—is Tokelauan, but almost 60% also speak English.

The less than 1,500 Polynesian inhabitants live in three villages. Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level. The very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand and Samoa. In the 2013 New Zealand census, more than 7,000 people identified as Tokelauan, almost five times as many as live in Tokelau itself. Depletion of tuna has made fishing for food more difficult.

A significant proportion (44.9% in 2016) of the population were born overseas, mostly in Samoa (15.3% of total population) and New Zealand (11.5%).

While slightly more females than males live on Atafu and Fakaofo, males make up 57% of Nukunonu residents. Only 9% of Tokelauans aged 40 or more have never been married. One-quarter of the population were born overseas; almost all the rest live on the same atoll they were born on. Most households own five or more pigs.

Despite its low income, Tokelau has a life expectancy of 69 years, comparable with other Oceania islands.

Religion

Catholic Church on Nukunonu in Tokelau

Tokelau is predominantly Christian. On the island of Atafu almost all inhabitants are members of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa (corresponding to 62% of the total population). On Nukunonu almost all are Roman Catholic (corresponding to 34% of the total population). On Fakaofo both denominations are present with the Congregational Christian Church predominant. 5% of the population follow other religions.

Healthcare and education

Main article: Healthcare in Tokelau
Literacy by age in Tokelau, 2011 census

Each atoll has a school and hospital. The health services have a Director of Health in Apia and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each hospital. In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and locums were appointed to fill the gaps.

Many Tokelauan youth travel to New Zealand to further their education and Tokelau is most populated around the Christmas season, with students returning home and then heading off for another year of study.

Sport

Cricket in Tokelau, 1966

Due to its small size, Tokelau is unaffiliated to most international sports organisations, and rarely takes part in international events. The only significant international competition Tokelau takes part in is the Pacific Games. Tokelau won its first ever gold medals at the 2007 Pacific Games in Apia, winning a total of five medals (three gold, a silver and a bronze), all in lawn bowls, and finishing 12th (out of 22) on the overall medal table. This included two gold medals for Violina Linda Pedro (in the women's pairs and the women's singles), making her Tokelau's most successful individual athlete to date.

In October 2010, table tennis became "the first sport in Tokelau to be granted membership at a Continental or World level", when the Tokelau Table Tennis Association was formally established and became the 23rd member of the Oceania Table Tennis Federation.

Tokelau was due to take part, for the first time, in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, in Delhi, but, for unknown reasons, ultimately did not do so.

Tokelau does have a National Sports Federation, and a significant sporting event is the Tokelau Games, which are held yearly. When they are held, "all of Tokelau virtually stands still", as "[i]n excess of 50% of the population take part and all work and school stops at the time". The 2010 Games included competitions in rugby sevens, netball and kilikiti, alongside "a cultural evening [...] where each atoll showcases their traditional songs and dances".

Netball is thought to have been introduced to Tokelau by the British, but became more popular when New Zealand's government took over the territory. The sport is often played during inter-island sport competitions, alongside other sports like rugby league and volleyball.

In Tokelau, there are two levels to the football league. From Fale, Fakaofo, two of the best clubs are Hakava Club and Matalele Club.

A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukunonu to collect cargo and passengers from the MV Tokelau

Tokelau has a radio telephone service between the islands and to Samoa. In 1997, a government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok) with three satellite earth stations was established. Each atoll has a radio-broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports and every household has a radio or access to one. News is disseminated through the government newsletter Te Vakai.

Tokelau has the international calling code of 690, and has had five-digit telephone numbers from November 2015 (the existing four-digit numbers were prefixed by the digit "2").

Tokelau is served by the MV Mataliki, delivered new in 2016 as a replacement of the smaller MV Tokelau and jointly managed by the Tokelau Transport Department and the company Transport and Marine. The vessel, which has a capacity of 60 passengers on international cruises and 120 for transport between the atolls of Tokelau, operates fortnightly between Tokelau and Apia, with the trip taking a little over a day. A dedicated cargo vessel, the MV Kalopaga, will enter service in 2018 and replace chartered freight vessels.

Ships load and unload cargo by motoring up to the down-wind (leeward) side of the islet where the people live and maintaining station, by intermittent use of engines, close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore. On returning to shore, the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the beach. Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching requires considerable skill and, often, coral abrasions to bodies. When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip, the ship stands off to wait for suitable weather or goes off to one of the other atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo, or both.

There is no airport in Tokelau, so boats are the main means of travel and transport. Some seaplanes and amphibious aircraft are able to land in the island's lagoons. An airstrip was considered by the New Zealand Government in 2010. In 2016, plans to link the atolls with Samoa by helicopter had to be abandoned because of high costs, leading in the following years to renewed calls to the New Zealand government for help with establishing air services.

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Tokelau Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Tokelau disambiguation Coordinates 09 10 S 171 50 W 9 167 S 171 833 W 9 167 171 833 Tokelau ˈ t oʊ k e l aʊ lit north northeast or north wind 5 6 known previously as the Union Islands and until 1976 known officially as the Tokelau Islands 7 is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean It consists of three tropical coral atolls Atafu Nukunonu and Fakaofo They have a combined land area of 10 km2 4 sq mi The capital rotates yearly among the three atolls 8 In addition to these three Swains Island which forms part of the same archipelago is the subject of an ongoing territorial dispute it is currently administered by the United States as part of American Samoa Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands east of Tuvalu south of the Phoenix Islands southwest of the more distant Line Islands and northwest of the Cook Islands TokelauDependent territory of New ZealandFlagBadgeMotto Tokelau mo te Atua Tokelauan Tokelau for the Almighty Territorial anthem Te Atua o Tokelau 1 Map of all Tokelau Islands Swains Island is shown to the south Sovereign stateNew ZealandProtectorate createdJune 1889British colony29 February 1916Assigned to New Zealand11 February 1926New Zealand sovereignty1 January 1949CapitalNone note 1 Largest cityAtafuOfficial languagesTokelauanEnglish 2 Demonym s TokelauanGovernmentDevolved parliamentary dependency under a constitutional monarchy MonarchElizabeth II AdministratorRoss Ardern Ulu o TokelauKerisiano KaloloLegislatureGeneral FonoArea Total10 km2 3 9 sq mi Water negligibleHighest elevation5 m 16 ft Population 2016 census1 499 3 237th Density115 km2 297 8 sq mi 86th GDP PPP 2017 estimate TotalUS 10 million 4 Per capitaUS 6 275 not ranked GDP nominal estimate TotalUS 9 406 225 4 CurrencyNew Zealand dollar NZ NZD Time zoneUTC 13 00Date formatdd mm yyyyDriving sideleftCalling code 690ISO 3166 codeTKInternet TLD tk Tokelau has a population of approximately 1 500 people it has the fourth smallest population of any sovereign state or dependency in the world As of the 2016 census around 45 of its residents had been born overseas mostly in Samoa or New Zealand 9 The populace has a life expectancy of 69 which is comparable to that of other Oceanian island nations Approximately 94 of the population speak Tokelauan as their first language Tokelau has the smallest economy of any sovereign nation although it is a leader in renewable energy being the first 100 solar powered nation in the world 10 Tokelau is officially referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government 10 11 12 It is a free and democratic nation with elections every three years However in 2007 the United Nations General Assembly included Tokelau on its list of non self governing territories 13 Its inclusion on this list is controversial as Tokelauans have twice narrowly voted against further self determination and the islands small population makes the viability of self government challenging The basis of Tokelau s legislative administrative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 which has been amended on a number of occasions Since 1993 the territory has annually elected its own head of government the Ulu o Tokelau Before 1993 the administrator of Tokelau was the highest official in the government and the territory was directly administered by a New Zealand government department Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 Pre history 2 2 Contact with other cultures 2 3 Tropical cyclones 2 4 Time zone 3 Government 4 Politics 5 Geography 6 Environment 7 Economy 7 1 Solar power 7 2 Internet domain name 8 Demography 8 1 Religion 9 Culture 9 1 Healthcare and education 9 2 Sport 10 Communication and transportation 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links 15 1 Governance 15 2 AtollsEtymology EditTokelau is a word meaning north wind in the native Tokelau language The Tokelau islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an earlier time 14 Tokelau Islands was adopted as the islands official name in 1946 The name was officially shortened to Tokelau on 9 December 1976 History EditMain article British Western Pacific Territories Pre history Edit Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau Atafu Nukunonu and Fakaofo were settled about 1 000 years ago from Samoa and may have been a gateway into Eastern Polynesia 15 The inhabitants embrace Polynesian mythology and the local god Tui Tokelau 16 Over time they developed distinctive musical and art forms The three atolls have historically functioned separately politically while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion Tokelauan society has been governed by chiefly clans and there have been occasional skirmishes and wars between the atolls as well as inter marriage Fakaofo the chiefly island 17 held some dominion over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu Life on the atolls was historically subsistence based with a diet that relied mainly on fish and coconut 18 Contact with other cultures Edit Fakaofo islanders drawn in 1841 by the United States Exploring Expedition The first European to sight Atafu was Commodore John Byron on 24 June 1765 He called the island Duke of York s Island Parties from his expedition who ventured ashore reported that there were no signs of current or previous inhabitants 19 20 Captain Edward Edwards having learned of Byron s discovery visited Atafu on 6 June 1791 21 in search of the Bounty mutineers They found no inhabitants but saw that there were houses containing canoes and fishing gear which suggested to them that the island was being used as a temporary residence by fishing parties from other nearby islands 20 On 12 June 1791 Edwards sailed farther south and sighted Nukunonu naming it Duke of Clarence s Island 22 A landing party that went ashore was unable to make contact with the inhabitants but saw morais burying places and canoes with stages in their middle sailing across the island s lagoons 20 On 29 October 1825 August R Strong of the USS Dolphin and his crew arrived at the atoll Nukunonu He wrote Upon examination we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement which was quite small and put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon They would frequently come near the shore but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation 23 On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaling ship the General Jackson wrote of having sighted Fakaofo which he chose to call D Wolf s Island 24 25 On 25 January 1841 the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island The residents appeared to be there only temporarily because there was no chief among them and they had the kind of double canoes that were typically used for inter island travel They appeared to have interacted with foreigners in the past because they expressed a desire to engage in barter with the expedition crew and they possessed items that were apparently of foreign origin blue beads and a plane iron A few days later French explorer Captain Morvan sighted Fakaofo 26 The American expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants On 29 January 1841 the expedition sighted Fakaofo and named it Bowditch 27 The Fakaofo islanders were found to be similar in appearance and behavior to the Atafu islanders 28 Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1870s French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island also known as Uvea and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations 29 The Rev Samuel James Whitmee of the London Missionary Society visited Tokelau in 1870 30 Helped by Swains Island based Eli Jennings senior Peruvian blackbird slave traders arrived in 1863 and kidnapped nearly all 253 of the able bodied men to work as labourers depopulating the atolls 31 The Tokelauan men died of dysentery and smallpox and very few returned With that loss the system of governance became based on the Taupulega or Councils of Elders on which individual families on each atoll were represented 18 25 During that time Polynesian immigrants settled followed by American Scottish French Portuguese and German beachcombers marrying local women and repopulating the atolls 25 Between 1856 and 1979 the United States claimed that it held sovereignty over the island and the other Tokelauan atolls In 1979 the U S conceded that Tokelau was under New Zealand sovereignty and a maritime boundary between Tokelau and American Samoa was established by the Treaty of Tokehega The square in the centre of the village of Fakaofo Tropical cyclones Edit Cyclone Percy struck and severely damaged Tokelau in late February and early March 2005 Forecasters underestimated the cyclone s strength and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau It coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two villages on Fakaofo and Nukunonu under a metre of seawater The cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three atolls damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and telecommunications systems The cyclone did significant and widespread damage to food crops including bananas coconuts and pandanus It did not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of property No significant land is more than two metres 6 6 feet above high water of ordinary tides This means Tokelau is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises Time zone Edit Main article Time in New Zealand Until December 2011 Tokelau was 11 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time UTC 32 At midnight 29 December 2011 Tokelau shifted to UTC 13 00 in response to Samoa s decision to switch sides of the International Dateline 33 This brought Tokelau closer to New Zealand time and in the process omitted 30 December 34 Many sources claim that Tokelau is 14 hours ahead of UTC UTC 10 before the 2011 date switch but the correct time zone offset is UTC 13 00 35 Government EditMain article Constitutional history of Tokelau In 1877 the islands were included under the protection of the United Kingdom by an Order in Council that claimed jurisdiction over all unclaimed Pacific Islands Commander C F Oldham on HMS Egeria landed at each of the three atolls in June 1889 36 and officially raised the Union Flag declaring the group a British protectorate 37 In conformity with desire expressed by the Native government they were annexed by the United Kingdom and included in the Gilbert Islands by the Tokelau Islands Union Islands Order in Council 1916 37 38 The annexation took place on 29 February 1916 39 From the point in time that the islands were annexed their people had the status of British subjects Tokelau was removed from the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony and placed under the jurisdiction of the Governor General of New Zealand in 1925 two Orders in Council being made for the purpose on the same day 37 40 This step meant that New Zealand took over administration of Tokelau from the British on 11 February 1926 41 At this point Tokelau was still a territory under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom but administered by New Zealand 41 The Union Islands Revocation Order in Council 1948 42 after reciting the agreement by the governments of the United Kingdom and New Zealand that the islands should become part of New Zealand revoked the Union Islands No 2 Order in Council 1925 with effect from a date fixed by the Governor General of New Zealand after he was satisfied that the New Zealand Parliament had provided for the incorporation of the islands with New Zealand as it did by the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 43 Tokelau formally became part of New Zealand on 1 January 1949 41 The Dominion of New Zealand of which Tokelau formerly was a part has since been superseded by the Realm of New Zealand of which Tokelau remains a part Defence is the responsibility of New Zealand When the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948 came into effect on 1 January 1949 Tokelauans who were British subjects gained New Zealand citizenship a status they still hold 44 Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily lives and New Zealand law only applies where it has been extended by specific enactment Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons and offenders are publicly rebuked fined or made to work 45 Politics EditMain article Politics of Tokelau The head of state is Elizabeth II the Queen in right of New Zealand who also reigns over the other Commonwealth realms The Queen is represented in the territory by the Administrator currently Ross Ardern The current head of government is Kerisiano Kalolo who presides over the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau which functions as a cabinet The Council consists of the faipule leader and pulenuku village mayor of each of the three atolls 46 The administrator is appointed by the minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of New Zealand and the role of head of government rotates between the three faipule for a one year term 46 The Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono a unicameral body The number of seats each atoll receives in the Fono is determined by population at present Fakaofo and Atafu each have seven and Nukunonu has six 46 Faipule and pulenuku also sit in the Fono 46 On 11 November 2004 Tokelau and New Zealand took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau from a non self governing territory to a self governing state in free association with New Zealand Besides the treaty a United Nations sponsored referendum on self determination took place with the three islands voting on successive days starting 13 February 2006 Tokelauans in Apia Samoa voted on 11 February 47 Out of 581 votes cast 349 were for Free Association being short of the two thirds majority required for the measure to pass 48 The referendum was profiled somewhat light heartedly in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker magazine 49 A repeat referendum took place on 20 24 October 2007 again narrowly failing to approve self government This time the vote was short by just 16 votes or 3 50 In May 2008 the United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki moon urged colonial powers to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non Self Governing Territories including Tokelau 51 This led The New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence 52 In April 2008 speaking as leader of the National Party future New Zealand Prime Minister John Key stated that New Zealand had imposed two referenda on the people of the Tokelau Islands and questioned the accepted wisdom that small states should undergo a de colonisation process 53 Geography Edit Atafu atoll Nukunonu atoll Fakaofo atoll Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171 and 173 W and between latitudes 8 and 10 S about midway between Hawaii and New Zealand From Atafu in the north to Fakaofo in the south Tokelau extends for less than 200 km The atolls lie about 500 kilometres 311 miles north of Samoa The atolls are Atafu Nukunonu both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence Group and Fakaofo once Bowditch Island Their combined land area is 10 8 km2 4 2 sq mi The atolls each have a number of coral islands where the villages are situated The highest point of Tokelau is just 5 metres 16 feet above sea level 54 There are no ports or harbours for large vessels however all three atolls have a jetty to and from which supplies and passengers are shipped 55 56 57 Tokelau lies in the Pacific tropical cyclone belt A fourth island that is culturally historically and geographically but not politically part of the Tokelau chain is Swains Island Olohega under United States control since about 1900 and administered as part of American Samoa since 1925 58 Swains Island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act as were the other three islands of Tokelau the latter three claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979 In the draft constitution of Tokelau subject to the Tokelauan self determination referendum in 2006 Olohega Swains Island was also claimed as a part of Tokelau though the claim was surrendered in the same 1979 treaty This established a clearly defined boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau Tokelau s claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall Islands claim to US administered Wake Island but the re emergence of this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the United Nations recent efforts to promote decolonisation in Tokelau Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm recent decolonisation moves have mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons But at the same time Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language Geographic locations of Tokelau s atolls Atoll CoordinatesAtafu 8 33 6 S 172 30 3 W 8 55167 S 172 50083 W 8 55167 172 50083 Atafu Nukunonu 9 10 6 S 171 48 35 W 9 16833 S 171 80972 W 9 16833 171 80972 Nukunonu Fakaofo 9 21 55 S 171 12 54 W 9 36528 S 171 21500 W 9 36528 171 21500 Fakaofo Environment EditSee also List of birds of Tokelau and List of mammals of Tokelau Tokelau is located in the Western Polynesian tropical moist forests ecoregion 59 Most of the original vegetation has been replaced by coconut plantations some of which have been abandoned and became scrubby forests The atolls of Tokelau provide habitat for 38 indigenous plant species over 150 insect species and 10 land crab species One of the greatest threats to biodiversity is posed by introduced mammalian predators such as the Polynesian Rat 60 In 2011 Tokelau declared its entire exclusive economic zone of 319 031 km2 123 179 sq mi a shark sanctuary 61 Economy EditThis section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information June 2017 A proportional representation of Tokelau exports 2019 According to the US Central Intelligence Agency s list of countries by GDP PPP Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world Tokelau has an annual purchasing power of about US 1 000 674 per capita The government is almost entirely dependent on subsidies from New Zealand It has annual revenues of less than US 500 000 336 995 against expenditures of some US 2 8 million 1 9 million The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand Tokelau annually exports around US 100 000 67 000 of stamps copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US 300 000 202 000 of foodstuffs building materials and fuel to and from New Zealand New Zealand also pays directly for the cost of medical and education services Local industries include small scale enterprises for copra production wood work plaited craft goods stamps coins and fishing Agriculture and livestock produces coconuts copra breadfruit papayas bananas figs pigs poultry and a few goats Many Tokelauans live in New Zealand and support their families in Tokelau through remittances Solar power Edit The goal of 100 renewable electricity was met on 7 November 2012 according to the Foreign Affairs Minister of New Zealand Murray McCully 62 Previously electricity was generated using diesel generators and was only available about 16 hours day 63 64 Three solar power stations provide 100 of current electrical demand from photovoltaics with battery backup The first power station was completed in August 2012 In total 4 032 solar panels are used and 1 344 batteries weighing 250 kilograms 550 lb each The systems are designed to withstand winds of 230 km h 143 mph 65 Tokelau s electricity is 93 generated by photovoltaics with the remainder generated from coconut oil 66 Nukunonu Lagoon in Tokelau Atafu street at dawnInternet domain name Edit Main article tk Access to internet in Tokelau 2011 Tokelau has increased its GDP by more than 10 through registrations of domain names under its top level domain tk 67 Registrations can be either free in which case the user owns only usage rights and not the domain itself or paid which grants full rights Free domains are pointed to Tokelau name servers which redirects the domain via HTML frames to a specified address or to a specified A or NS record and the redirection of up to 250 email addresses to an external address not at a tk domain In September 2003 Fakaofo became the first part of Tokelau with a high speed Internet connection Foundation Tokelau financed the project Tokelau gives most domain names under its authority away to anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory This has allowed the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies such as more computers and Internet access for Tokelauan residents By 2012 there were about 120 computers mostly laptops and 1 6th of the economy consists of income from tk domain names 68 According to a 2016 analysis of domain name registration performed by the uk registrar Nominet using data from ZookNIC 69 tk domains are the world s largest country code domain almost as large as second and third place holders China cn and Germany de combined 70 Demography Edit Language statistics in Tokelau 2006 and 2011 According to the 2016 Tokelau Census Tokelau has a de jure usually resident population of 1 499 people The census shows a 6 2 increase in the de jure usually resident population between 2011 and 2016 71 The nationals of Tokelau are called Tokelauans and the major ethnic group is Polynesian it has no recorded minority groups About 84 of inhabitants are of wholly or partly Tokelauan ethnicity people of Samoan ethnicity make up 6 7 of the population and Tuvaluans 2 8 72 The main language spoken by over 90 of inhabitants is Tokelauan but almost 60 also speak English The less than 1 500 Polynesian inhabitants live in three villages Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level The very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand and Samoa In the 2013 New Zealand census more than 7 000 people identified as Tokelauan almost five times as many as live in Tokelau itself 9 Depletion of tuna has made fishing for food more difficult A significant proportion 44 9 in 2016 of the population were born overseas mostly in Samoa 15 3 of total population and New Zealand 11 5 9 While slightly more females than males live on Atafu and Fakaofo males make up 57 of Nukunonu residents 73 Only 9 of Tokelauans aged 40 or more have never been married 74 One quarter of the population were born overseas almost all the rest live on the same atoll they were born on 75 Most households own five or more pigs 76 Despite its low income Tokelau has a life expectancy of 69 years comparable with other Oceania islands 77 Religion Edit Catholic Church on Nukunonu in Tokelau Tokelau is predominantly Christian On the island of Atafu almost all inhabitants are members of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa corresponding to 62 of the total population On Nukunonu almost all are Roman Catholic corresponding to 34 of the total population On Fakaofo both denominations are present with the Congregational Christian Church predominant 5 of the population follow other religions 78 Culture EditHealthcare and education Edit Main article Healthcare in Tokelau Literacy by age in Tokelau 2011 census Each atoll has a school and hospital The health services have a Director of Health in Apia and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each hospital In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and locums were appointed to fill the gaps Many Tokelauan youth travel to New Zealand to further their education and Tokelau is most populated around the Christmas season with students returning home and then heading off for another year of study Sport Edit See also Rugby union in Tokelau and Rugby league in Tokelau Cricket in Tokelau 1966 Due to its small size Tokelau is unaffiliated to most international sports organisations and rarely takes part in international events The only significant international competition Tokelau takes part in is the Pacific Games Tokelau won its first ever gold medals at the 2007 Pacific Games in Apia winning a total of five medals three gold a silver and a bronze all in lawn bowls and finishing 12th out of 22 on the overall medal table This included two gold medals for Violina Linda Pedro in the women s pairs and the women s singles making her Tokelau s most successful individual athlete to date 79 In October 2010 table tennis became the first sport in Tokelau to be granted membership at a Continental or World level when the Tokelau Table Tennis Association was formally established and became the 23rd member of the Oceania Table Tennis Federation 80 Tokelau was due to take part for the first time in the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi 81 but for unknown reasons ultimately did not do so 82 Tokelau does have a National Sports Federation and a significant sporting event is the Tokelau Games which are held yearly When they are held all of Tokelau virtually stands still as i n excess of 50 of the population take part and all work and school stops at the time The 2010 Games included competitions in rugby sevens netball and kilikiti alongside a cultural evening where each atoll showcases their traditional songs and dances 80 Netball is thought to have been introduced to Tokelau by the British but became more popular when New Zealand s government took over the territory The sport is often played during inter island sport competitions alongside other sports like rugby league and volleyball 83 In Tokelau there are two levels to the football league From Fale Fakaofo two of the best clubs are Hakava Club and Matalele Club 84 Communication and transportation Edit A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukunonu to collect cargo and passengers from the MV Tokelau Tokelau has a radio telephone service between the islands and to Samoa In 1997 a government regulated telephone service TeleTok with three satellite earth stations was established Each atoll has a radio broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports and every household has a radio or access to one News is disseminated through the government newsletter Te Vakai Tokelau has the international calling code of 690 and has had five digit telephone numbers from November 2015 the existing four digit numbers were prefixed by the digit 2 85 Tokelau is served by the MV Mataliki delivered new in 2016 as a replacement of the smaller MV Tokelau and jointly managed by the Tokelau Transport Department and the company Transport and Marine The vessel which has a capacity of 60 passengers on international cruises and 120 for transport between the atolls of Tokelau operates fortnightly between Tokelau and Apia with the trip taking a little over a day 86 A dedicated cargo vessel the MV Kalopaga will enter service in 2018 and replace chartered freight vessels 87 Ships load and unload cargo by motoring up to the down wind leeward side of the islet where the people live and maintaining station by intermittent use of engines close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore On returning to shore the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the beach Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching requires considerable skill and often coral abrasions to bodies When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip the ship stands off to wait for suitable weather or goes off to one of the other atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo or both There is no airport in Tokelau so boats are the main means of travel and transport Some seaplanes and amphibious aircraft are able to land in the island s lagoons 88 An airstrip was considered by the New Zealand Government in 2010 89 In 2016 plans to link the atolls with Samoa by helicopter had to be abandoned because of high costs leading in the following years to renewed calls to the New Zealand government for help with establishing air services 87 See also Edit Geography portal Islands portal Oceania portal Badge of Tokelau Outline of TokelauNotes Edit Each atoll has its own administrative centre References Edit Government of Tokelau www tokelau org nz Retrieved 20 September 2017 Tokelau Info Tokelau info tk Archived from the original on 26 October 2013 Retrieved 30 December 2011 Final population counts 2016 Tokelau Census PDF Report Statistics New Zealand November 2016 p 3 a b Tokelau s Gross Domestic Product determined for first time this century www tokelau org nz Culture of Tokelau history people clothing traditions women beliefs food family social www everyculture com Retrieved 28 February 2017 Tokelau means north northeast Tokelau OCHA 20 February 2018 Retrieved 5 February 2022 Tokelau Amendment Act 1976 Welcome to sunny Tokelau an untouched Pacific Paradise Archived from the original on 11 January 2010 a b c Profile of Tokelau PDF Tokelau National Statistics Office April 2017 Retrieved 19 March 2022 a b Tokelau world first solar power nation New Zealand Trade and Enterprise Nzte govt nz 12 July 2012 Archived from the original on 21 May 2017 Retrieved 11 December 2016 Government of Tokelau Tokelau org nz Retrieved 11 December 2016 Tokelauans Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand Teara govt nz Retrieved 11 December 2016 Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government Archived from the original on 20 February 2014 Retrieved 4 November 2007 Tokelau facts information pictures Encyclopedia com articles about Tokelau www encyclopedia com Retrieved 29 November 2017 Archeology of Atafu Tokelau Some Initial Results 2008 Archived from the original on 21 June 2013 Retrieved 12 November 2010 Smith S Percy 1920 Notes on the Ellice and Tokelau Groups translated from the Karere Mangaia 1899 Journal of the Polynesian Society 29 144 148 Fakaofo Archived 16 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine a b Tokelau New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived from the original on 7 August 2011 Retrieved 29 September 2007 Byron John Wallis John Samuel Carteret Philip Cook James Banks Sir Joseph 1773 An Account of the Voyages Undertaken W Strahan pp 132 133 a b c MacGregor 30 Schellinger Paul Salkin Robert eds 1996 International Dictionary of Historic Places Volume 5 Asia and Oceania Chicago Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers p 819 ISBN 1 884964 04 4 Sharp Andrew 1960 The Discovery of the Pacific Islands Clarendon Press p 164 ISBN 978 0 19 821519 6 The Journal of the South Pacific 110 3 p 296 Polynesian Society N Z 1961 The Journal of the Polynesian Society Polynesian Society p 102 a b c Information Bulletin on Tokelau New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived from the original on 13 May 2014 Retrieved 29 September 2007 Fraser Peter 1948 Tokelau Islands Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives 1948 Session I A 04a p 4 Nathaniel Bowditch 1773 1838 was an American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation Wilkes Charles 1849 Voyage Round the World Geo W Gorton p 538 People Archived 6 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Whitmee Rev Samuel James 1871 A missionary cruise in the South Pacific being the report of a voyage amongst the Tokelau Ellice and Gilbert Islands in the missionary barque John Williams during 1870 Sydney Joseph Cook amp Co H E Maude s Slavers in Paradise A N U Canberra 1981 UTC offset for years 2000 2009 in Fakaofo Tokelau Retrieved 7 August 2012 UTC offset for years 2010 2019 in Fakaofo Tokelau Retrieved 7 August 2012 Tokelau to join Samoa and leap forward over dateline BBC News 6 October 2011 Archived from the original on 29 October 2012 Retrieved 1 November 2011 Tokelau Wrong local time for over 100 years Archived from the original on 2 April 2014 Retrieved 7 August 2012 Lister J J 1892 Notes on the Natives of Fakaofu Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 21 43 63 JSTOR 2842209 a b c Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts Wray London Stevens 1966 P 894 S R O 1916 No 167 S R O amp S I Rev IX 661 made under the Colonial Boundaries Act 1895 Tokelau Act 1948 Preamble The Union Islands Order in Council Nos 1 and 2 S R O 1925 pp 511 and 1768 No 1 Order in S R O S I Rev IX 663 a b c Tokelau A history of Government The constitutional history and legal development of Tokelau Compiled and recorded for the Tokelau Law Team by Tony Angelo and Talei Pasikale 2008 S R O amp S I Rev XVI 866 Act No 24 of 1948 Green David 13 July 2012 Citizenship Aliens and citizens Te Ara the Encyclopedia of New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Retrieved 27 August 2016 Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government Archived from the original on 20 February 2014 Retrieved 4 November 2007 The legislation and judicial systems are based on the Tokelau Act 1948 and its amendments A major law reform project is continuing its purpose is to ensure that Tokelau has a coherent body of law which responds to current needs and gives due recognition to local custom Unless it is expressly extended to Tokelau New Zealand statute law does not apply to the territory In practice no New Zealand legislation is extended to Tokelau without Tokelauan consent The villages have the statutory power to enact their own laws covering village affairs International covenants on economic social and cultural rights and civil and political rights ratified by New Zealand in December 1978 apply in Tokelau Civil and criminal jurisdiction is exercised by commissioners and the New Zealand high court a b c d How Tokelau is Governed Tokelauan Council of Ongoing Governance Archived from the original on 7 May 2013 Retrieved 29 June 2010 Fono decisions Archived from the original on 22 August 2007 Retrieved 29 September 2007 Tokelau rejects self rule Television New Zealand Archived from the original on 13 May 2014 Retrieved 29 September 2007 Parker Ian 1 May 2006 Letter from Polynesia Birth of a nation The New Yorker Archived from the original on 3 June 2013 Retrieved 29 September 2007 Tokelau stays as NZ s last colony Television New Zealand Archived from the original on 13 May 2014 Retrieved 25 October 2007 Colonialism has no place in today s world says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia United Nations press release 14 May 2008 Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda The New Zealand Herald NZPA 17 May 2008 Retrieved 23 November 2011 John Key s speech to the NZ Institute of International Affairs 8 April 2008 Archived 30 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Tokelau High Point Peakbagger com www peakbagger com Port of Atafu MarineTraffic com Archived from the original on 9 March 2017 Retrieved 9 March 2017 WPS Nukunonu Harbor World Port Source Archived from the original on 10 June 2016 Retrieved 9 March 2017 Port of Fakaofo MarineTraffic com Archived from the original on 9 March 2017 Retrieved 9 March 2017 United States Code Title 48 section 1662 Mar 4 1925 ch 563 43 Stat 1357 as referred to in Tokelau A history of Government The constitutional history and legal development of Tokelau Compiled and recorded for the Tokelau Law Team by Tony Angelo and Talei Pasikale 2008 Dinerstein Eric et al 2017 An Ecoregion Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm BioScience 67 6 534 545 doi 10 1093 biosci bix014 ISSN 0006 3568 PMC 5451287 PMID 28608869 Western Polynesian tropical moist forests Terrestrial Ecoregions World Wildlife Fund Retrieved 27 May 2012 PEW Tokelau Declares Shark Sanctuary 7 September 2011 Archived 26 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine BBC Archived 20 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine NZ company turns on first Tokelau solar system TEDx Talks 7 August 2013 Tokelau bringing solar power to a nation Dean Parchomchuk and Charlotte Yates at TEDxTauranga Archived from the original on 31 October 2021 via YouTube ABC Pacific News reports Tokelau target of 100 renewable energy Abcasiapacificnews com 9 December 2011 Archived from the original on 12 May 2014 Retrieved 30 December 2011 Coconuts and sunshine will power South Pacific islands New Scientist published 2011 09 13 accessed 14 September 2011 Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine Net gains for tiny Pacific nation BBC News 14 September 2007 Archived from the original on 12 May 2014 Retrieved 24 May 2008 Andres Tommy The tiny island with a huge Web presence CNN 13 June 2012 Retrieved on 15 June 2012 Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine Zooknic Internet Geography Project Zooknic com 23 April 2011 Retrieved 11 December 2016 byRussell Haworth Chief Executive Officer 9 March 2016 Mapping the online world Nominet Nominet uk Retrieved 11 December 2016 Final count for 2011 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings 2011 Tokelau Census Statistics New Zealand Archived from the original on 3 February 2014 Retrieved 16 December 2011 Australia Oceania TOKELAU CIA The World Factbook 18 October 2021 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings Table 1 3 1 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings Table 1 5 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings Table 3 2 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings Table 6 13 Regions and territories Tokelau BBC News 16 June 2011 Archived from the original on 13 October 2011 Retrieved 23 November 2011 2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings PDF 20 December 2006 pp Table 2 5 Archived from the original PDF on 12 October 2013 Retrieved 11 November 2009 Medals at the 2007 Pacific Games official website Archived 20 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine a b Tokelau a Speck in the Ocean but an Important New Member for Oceania International Table Tennis Federation 7 October 2010 Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine SPORT OUR QUEST FOR GOLD Islands Business Archived 8 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Participants website of the 2010 Commonwealth Games Archived 6 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine McQuarrie Peter 2007 Tokelau People Atolls and History Wellington New Zealand Publications Committee of MacMillan Browne Centre for Pacific Studies ISBN 978 1 877449 41 3 Tokelau Rec Sport Soccer Statistics Foundation 29 July 2010 Pacific Islands Telecommunications Association PITA Retrieved 11 December 2016 Tokelau receives new ferry from NZ govt Government of Tokelau 25 February 2016 Retrieved 30 April 2018 a b Tokelau still pushing for air services in talks with NZ Radio NZ 8 March 2018 Retrieved 30 April 2018 Tokelau Southseas co uk Retrieved 11 December 2016 New Zealand looking into feasibility of air service to Tokelau Radio New Zealand News Radionz co nz 4 August 2010 Retrieved 11 December 2016 Further reading EditHeller Maxwell H 2005 Where on Earth Is Tokelau A Doctor s Experiences in the South Seas ISBN 978 0 901100 58 0 Huntsman Judith Hooper Antony 1996 Tokelau A Historical Ethnography ISBN 978 1 86940 153 5 Huntsman Judith Kalolo Kelihiano 2007 The Future of Tokelau Decolonising Agendas 1975 2006 ISBN 978 1 86940 398 0 McQuarrie Peter 2007 Tokelau People Atolls and History ISBN 978 1 877449 41 3 External links EditLook up Tokelau or tokelau in Wiktionary the free dictionary Tokelauat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Tokelau The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Tokelau from UCB Libraries GovPubs Tokelau at Curlie Wikimedia Atlas of Tokelau Ethnology of Tokelau IslandsGovernance Edit Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government executive branch of the government The Administrator of Tokelau Tokelau website of the NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and TradeAtolls Edit Fakaofo Nukunonu Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tokelau amp oldid 1084667456, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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