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"Henshin Hero" redirects here. For henshin heroines, see Magical girl.

Tokusatsu (特撮, lit.'special effects') is a Japanese term for live action film or television drama that makes heavy use of practical special effects.Tokusatsu entertainment often deals with science fiction, fantasy or horror, but films and television shows in other genres can sometimes count astokusatsu as well. The most popular subgenres oftokusatsu include kaiju such as the Godzilla and Gamera series; superhero such as the Kamen Rider and Metal Hero series; and mecha like Giant Robo and Super Robot Red Baron. Sometokusatsu television programs combine several of these subgenres, for example the Ultraman and Super Sentai series.

Godzilla in 1954's Godzilla. The techniques developed by Eiji Tsuburaya for Toho Studios continue to be used in thetokusatsu film and television industry.

Tokusatsu is one of the most popular forms of Japanese entertainment, but only a small proportion oftokusatsu films and television programs are widely known outside of Japan. Nevertheless, certain properties have attained popularity outside of Japan; Godzilla is featured in popular American-made movies, and the Super Sentai Series was adapted into the Power Rangers series and broadcast internationally beginning in 1993.

Contents

Tokusatsu has origins in early Japanese theater, specifically in kabuki (with its action and fight scenes) and inbunraku, which utilized some of the earliest forms of special effects, specifically puppetry. Moderntokusatsu, however, did not begin to take shape until the late 1940s, with the conceptual and creative birth of Godzilla, one of the most famous monsters (kaiju) of all time.

The special-effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya and the director Ishirō Honda became the driving forces behind 1954's Godzilla. Tsuburaya, inspired by the American film King Kong, formulated many of the techniques that would become staples of the genre, such as so-called suitmation—the use of a human actor in a costume to play a giant monster—combined with the use of miniatures and scaled-down city sets. Godzilla forever changed the landscape of Japanese science fiction, fantasy, and cinema by creating a uniquely Japanese vision in a genre typically dominated by American cinema.

Godzilla kickstarted thekaiju genre in Japan, creating the "Monster Boom", which remained extremely popular for several decades, with characters such as the aforementioned Godzilla, Gamera and King Ghidorah leading the market. However, in 1957 Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in popularity that favored masked heroes over giant monsters called the "Henshin Boom" started by Kamen Rider in 1971, though giant monsters, aliens and humanoid creatures dubbed lit.'strange person"' or '怪人' or 'kaijin' remained an integral part of the genre. Along with the anime Astro Boy, the Super Giant serials had a profound effect on the world oftokusatsu. The following year, Moonlight Mask premiered, the first of numerous televised superhero dramas that would make up one of the most populartokusatsu subgenres. Created by Kōhan Kawauchi, he followed up its success with thetokusatsu superhero shows Seven Color Mask (1959) and Messenger of Allah (1960), both starring a young Sonny Chiba.

These original productions preceded the first color-televisiontokusatsu series, Ambassador Magma and Ultraman, which heralded the Kyodai Hero subgenre, wherein a regular-sized protagonist grows to larger proportions to fight equally large monsters. Populartokusatsu superhero shows in the 1970s included Kamen Rider (1971), Warrior of Love Rainbowman (1972), Super Sentai (1975, trademarked in 1979) and Spider-Man (1978).

Suitmation technology

Main article: Suitmation

Suitmation (スーツメーション,Sūtsumēshon) is the term used to describe the process intokusatsu movies and television programs used to portray a monster using suit acting. The exact origin of the term remains unknown. At the least, it was used to promote the Godzilla suit from The Return of Godzilla.[citation needed]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(December 2021) ()

The many productions oftokusatsu series have general themes common throughout different groups.

Kaiju

Main article: Kaiju

Kaiju (怪獣,kaijū, literally "mysterious beast") productions primarily feature monsters, or giant monsters (大怪獣,daikaijū). Such series include Ultra Q, the Godzilla film series, the Gamera series, the Daimajin series, and films such as Mothra, War of the Gargantuas, and The X from Outer Space (宇宙大怪獣ギララ,Uchu Daikaijū Girara).

Kaijin

Kaijin (怪人, literally "mysterious person") productions primarily feature supervillains as their central character. This includes films such as The Secret of the Telegian, The Human Vapor, The H-Man, Half Human, and Tomei Ningen.

Popular franchises

Protagonists of the populartokusatsu franchises mostly of the late 1970s (from back to front, left to right): Ultraman Joneus (Ultra Series), Battle Fever J (Super Sentai), Kamen Rider Stronger and Kamen Rider V3 (Kamen Rider Series), and Spider-Man. The photo also features anime character Doraemon on the far left.

Since about 1960, several long-running television-series have combined various other themes. Tsuburaya Productions has had the Ultra Series starting with Ultra Q and Ultraman in 1966. P Productions began their foray intotokusatsu in 1966 with the series Ambassador Magma. They also had involvement in the Lion-Maru series which concluded in November 2006.

Toei Company has several series that fall under their Toei Superheroes category of programming, starting in 1958 with the film series, Moonlight Mask. Then, they produced several other long running series, starting with Shotaro Ishinomori's Kamen Rider Series in 1971, the Super Sentai series in 1975, the Metal Hero Series in 1982, and the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series in 1981. Toei also produced several other television series based on Ishinomori's works, including Android Kikaider and Kikaider 01, Robot Detective, Inazuman and Inazuman Flash, and Kaiketsu Zubat. Toei was also involved in the Spider-Man television series, which influenced their subsequent Super Sentai series. In 2003, TV Asahi began broadcasting the Super Sentai and Kamen Rider series in a one-hour block airing each week known as Super Hero Time. Toho, the creators of Godzilla, also had their hands in creating the Chouseishin Series of programs from 2003 to 2006 and the Zone Fighter franchise.

In 2006, Keita Amemiya's Garo, a mature late-night tokusatsu drama was released, starting a franchise composed of several television series and films. Other mature late-night series followed, including a revival of Lion-Maru in Lion-Maru G, the Daimajin Kanon television series (based on the Daimajin film series), and Shougeki Gouraigan!! (also created by Amemiya).

Tokusatsu movies

Various movies classified astokusatsu can include disaster movies and science fiction films. These include Warning from Space (宇宙人東京に現わる,Uchūjin Tokyo ni arawaru, Spacemen Appear in Tokyo) (1956), Invasion of the Neptune Men (宇宙快速船,Uchū Kaisokusen, High Speed Spaceship), The Green Slime (ガンマー第3号 宇宙大作戦,Ganmā daisan gō: uchū daisakusen, Ganma 3 Space Mission), The Birth of Japan (日本誕生,Nippon Tanjō), The Last War (世界大戦争,Sekai Daisensō, The Great World War), Japan Sinks (日本沈没,Nihon Chinbotsu, Japan Sinks), Virus (復活の日,Fukkatsu no Hi, Day of Resurrection), Sayonara Jupiter (さよならジュピター,Sayonara Jupitā), The War in Space (惑星大戦争,Wakusei Daisensō, War of the Planets), and Samurai Commando: Mission 1549 (戦国自衛隊1549,Sengoku Jieitai 1549, Sengoku Self-Defense Forces 1549).

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(December 2021) ()

Non-traditionaltokusatsu productions

Non-traditionaltokusatsu films and television programs may not use conventional special effects or may not star human actors. Though suitmation typifiestokusatsu, some productions may use stop-motion to animate their monsters instead, for example Majin Hunter Mitsurugi in 1973. TV shows may use traditionaltokusatsu techniques, but are cast with puppets or marionettes: Uchuusen Silica (1960); Ginga Shonen Tai (1963); Kuchuu Toshi 008 (1969); and Go Nagai's X Bomber (1980). Sometokusatsu may employ animation in addition to its live-action components: Tsuburaya Productions' Dinosaur Expedition Team Bornfree (1976), Dinosaur War Aizenborg (1977) and Pro-Wrestling Star Aztekaiser (1976).

Japanese fan films

As the popularity oftokusatsu increased in Japan, a number of fan film projects have been produced over the years. Hideaki Anno, Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, Takami Akai, and Shinji Higuchi set up a fan-based group called Daicon Film, which they renamed Gainax in 1985 and turned into an animation studio. Besides anime sequences, they also produced a series oftokusatsu shorts parodying monster movies and superhero shows. These productions include Swift Hero Noutenki (1982), Patriotic Squadron Dai-Nippon (1983), Return of Ultraman (1983) and The Eight-Headed Giant Serpent Strikes Back (1985).

Tokusatsu techniques have spread outside Japan due to the popularity of the Godzilla films.

Adaptations

Godzilla, King of the Monsters! first appeared in English in 1956. Rather than a simple dub of the Japanese-language original, this work represented an entirely re-edited version which restructured the plot to incorporate a new character played by a native English-speaking actor, Raymond Burr. Ultraman gained popularity when United Artists dubbed it for American audiences in the 1960s.

In the 1990s, Haim Saban acquired the distribution rights for the Super Sentai series from Toei Company and combined the original Japanese action footage with new footage featuring American actors, resulting in the Power Rangers franchise which has continued since then into sequel TV series (with Power Rangers Beast Morphers premiering in 2019 and Power Rangers Dino Fury premiering in 2021), comic books, video games, and three feature films, with a further cinematic universe planned. Following from the success of Power Rangers, Saban acquired the rights to more of Toei's library, creating VR Troopers and Big Bad Beetleborgs from several Metal Hero Series shows and Masked Rider from Kamen Rider Series footage. DIC Entertainment joined this boom by acquiring the rights to Gridman the Hyper Agent and turning it into Superhuman Samurai Syber-Squad.

In 2002, 4Kids Entertainment bought the rights to Ultraman Tiga, but simply produced a dub of the Japanese footage, broadcast on the Fox Box. And in 2009, Adness Entertainment took 2002's Kamen Rider Ryuki and turned it into Kamen Rider: Dragon Knight, which began broadcast on The CW4Kids in 2009. It won the first Daytime Emmy for "Outstanding Stunt Coordination" for its original scenes.

Original productions

In 1961 England-based film-makers produced the Godzilla-style film, Gorgo, which used the same suitmation technique as the Godzilla films. That same year, Saga Studios in Denmark made another Godzilla-style giant monster film, Reptilicus, bringing its monster to life using a marionette on a miniature set. In 1967, South Korea produced its own monster movie titled Yonggary. In 1975, Shaw Brothers produced a superhero film called The Super Inframan, based on the huge success of Ultraman and Kamen Rider there. The film starred Danny Lee in the title role. Although there were several other similar superhero productions in Hong Kong, The Super Inframan came first. With help from Japanese special effects artists under Sadamasa Arikawa, they also produced a Japanese-styled monster movie, The Mighty Peking Man, in 1977.

Concurrent with their work on Superhuman Samurai Syber-Squad, DIC attempted an original concept based on the popularity of Power Rangers in 1994's Tattooed Teenage Alien Fighters from Beverly Hills. In 1998, video from an attempted Power Rangers-styled adaptation of Sailor Moon surfaced, combining original footage of American actresses with original animated sequences.

Saban also attempted at making their own uniquetokusatsu series entitled Mystic Knights of Tir Na Nog, set in medieval Ireland and featured four, later five knights who transform using the power of the elements (for the most part) at they protected their kingdom from evil. Saban had also produced the live action Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation, which was known in the turtles fandom for introducing a female turtle exclusive to that series called Venus de Milo and eliminating the fact that the other turtles were brothers. The show primarily featured actors in costumes most of the time, but featured similar choreographed fights like othertokusatsu shows.

In the 2000s, production companies in other East Asian countries began producing their own originaltokusatsu-inspired television series: Thailand's Sport Ranger and South Korea's Erexion in 2006; the Philippines' Zaido: Pulis Pangkalawakan (itself a sanctioned spinoff of Toei's Space Sheriff Shaider) in 2007; China's Armor Hero (Chinese:铠甲勇士; pinyin: Kǎi Jiǎ Yǒng Shì) in 2008, Battle Strike Team: Giant Saver (Chinese:巨神战击队; pinyin: Jùshén zhàn jí duì) in 2012, Metal Kaiser (Chinese:五龙奇剑士; pinyin: Wǔ Lóng Qí Jiàn Shì); and Indonesia's Bima Satria Garuda which began in 2013.

On July the 1st, 2019, Vietnam's Transform Studio co-operating with Dive Into Eden announced their own originaltokusatsu series, Mighty Guardian (Vietnamese:Chiến Thần). The first season in the series is Mighty Guardian: Lost Avian (Vietnamese:Chiến Thần Lạc Hồng), using Vietnamese Mythologies as the main concept.

Influence

Kaiju andtokusatsu films, notably Warning from Space (1956), sparked Stanley Kubrick's interest in science fiction films and influenced 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). According to his biographer John Baxter, despite their "clumsy model sequences, the films were often well-photographed in colour ... and their dismal dialogue was delivered in well-designed and well-lit sets."

Steven Spielberg cited Godzilla as an inspiration for Jurassic Park (1993), specifically Godzilla, King of the Monsters! (1956), which he grew up watching. During its production, Spielberg described Godzilla as "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was really happening." Godzilla also influenced the Spielberg film Jaws (1975).

Japanesetokusatsu movies also influenced one of the first video games, Spacewar! (1961), inspiring its science fiction theme. According to the game's programmer Martin Graetz, "we would be off to one of Boston's seedier cinemas to view the latest trash from Toho" as Japanese studios "churned out a steady diet of cinematic junk food of which Rodan and Godzilla are only the best-known examples."

Homage and parody

In 2001, Buki X-1 Productions, a French fan-based production company, produced its own series, Jushi Sentai France Five (now called Shin Kenjushi France Five), a tribute to Toei's long running Super Sentai series. The low-budget television series Kaiju Big Battel directly parodies monster and Kyodai Hero films and series by immersing their own costumed characters in professional wrestling matches among cardboard buildings. In 2006, Mighty Moshin' Emo Rangers premiered on the internet as a Power Rangers spoof, but was quickly picked up by MTV UK for broadcast. In 2006, Insector Sun, a low-budget tribute to Kamen Rider was produced by Brazilian fans.

Peyton Reed, the director of the Ant-Man films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, said that Ant-Man's costume design was influenced by twotokusatsu superheroes, Ultraman and Inframan.

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Tokusatsu Article Talk Language Watch Edit Henshin Hero redirects here For henshin heroines see Magical girl Tokusatsu 特撮 lit special effects is a Japanese term for live action film or television drama that makes heavy use of practical special effects Tokusatsu entertainment often deals with science fiction fantasy or horror but films and television shows in other genres can sometimes count as tokusatsu as well The most popular subgenres of tokusatsu include kaiju such as the Godzilla and Gamera series superhero such as the Kamen Rider and Metal Hero series and mecha like Giant Robo and Super Robot Red Baron Some tokusatsu television programs combine several of these subgenres for example the Ultraman and Super Sentai series Godzilla in 1954 s Godzilla The techniques developed by Eiji Tsuburaya for Toho Studios continue to be used in the tokusatsu film and television industry Tokusatsu is one of the most popular forms of Japanese entertainment but only a small proportion of tokusatsu films and television programs are widely known outside of Japan Nevertheless certain properties have attained popularity outside of Japan Godzilla is featured in popular American made movies and the Super Sentai Series was adapted into the Power Rangers series and broadcast internationally beginning in 1993 Contents 1 History 2 Techniques 2 1 Suitmation technology 3 Franchises and productions 3 1 Kaiju 3 2 Kaijin 3 3 Popular franchises 3 4 Tokusatsu movies 4 Similar productions 4 1 Non traditional tokusatsu productions 4 2 Japanese fan films 5 Outside of Japan 5 1 Adaptations 5 2 Original productions 5 3 Influence 5 4 Homage and parody 6 References 7 Further readingHistory EditTokusatsu has origins in early Japanese theater specifically in kabuki with its action and fight scenes and in bunraku which utilized some of the earliest forms of special effects specifically puppetry Modern tokusatsu however did not begin to take shape until the late 1940s 1 with the conceptual and creative birth of Godzilla one of the most famous monsters kaiju of all time The special effects artist Eiji Tsuburaya and the director Ishirō Honda became the driving forces behind 1954 s Godzilla Tsuburaya inspired by the American film King Kong formulated many of the techniques that would become staples of the genre such as so called suitmation the use of a human actor in a costume to play a giant monster combined with the use of miniatures and scaled down city sets Godzilla forever changed the landscape of Japanese science fiction fantasy and cinema by creating a uniquely Japanese vision in a genre typically dominated by American cinema 2 Godzilla kickstarted the kaiju genre in Japan creating the Monster Boom which remained extremely popular for several decades with characters such as the aforementioned Godzilla Gamera and King Ghidorah leading the market 3 However in 1957 Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the superhero character Super Giant signaling a shift in popularity that favored masked heroes over giant monsters called the Henshin Boom started by Kamen Rider in 1971 though giant monsters aliens and humanoid creatures dubbed lit strange person or 怪人 or kaijin remained an integral part of the genre Along with the anime Astro Boy the Super Giant serials had a profound effect on the world of tokusatsu The following year Moonlight Mask premiered the first of numerous televised superhero dramas that would make up one of the most popular tokusatsu subgenres 4 Created by Kōhan Kawauchi he followed up its success with the tokusatsu superhero shows Seven Color Mask 1959 and Messenger of Allah 1960 both starring a young Sonny Chiba These original productions preceded the first color television tokusatsu series Ambassador Magma and Ultraman which heralded the Kyodai Hero subgenre wherein a regular sized protagonist grows to larger proportions to fight equally large monsters 5 Popular tokusatsu superhero shows in the 1970s included Kamen Rider 1971 Warrior of Love Rainbowman 1972 Super Sentai 1975 trademarked in 1979 and Spider Man 1978 Techniques EditSuitmation technology Edit Main article Suitmation Suitmation スーツメーション Sutsumeshon is the term used to describe the process in tokusatsu movies and television programs used to portray a monster using suit acting The exact origin of the term remains unknown At the least it was used to promote the Godzilla suit from The Return of Godzilla citation needed Franchises and productions EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message The many productions of tokusatsu series have general themes common throughout different groups Kaiju Edit Main article Kaiju Kaiju 怪獣 kaiju literally mysterious beast productions primarily feature monsters or giant monsters 大怪獣 daikaiju Such series include Ultra Q the Godzilla film series the Gamera series the Daimajin series and films such as Mothra War of the Gargantuas and The X from Outer Space 宇宙大怪獣ギララ Uchu Daikaiju Girara Kaijin Edit Kaijin 怪人 literally mysterious person productions primarily feature supervillains as their central character This includes films such as The Secret of the Telegian The Human Vapor The H Man Half Human and Tomei Ningen Popular franchises Edit Protagonists of the popular tokusatsu franchises mostly of the late 1970s from back to front left to right Ultraman Joneus Ultra Series Battle Fever J Super Sentai Kamen Rider Stronger and Kamen Rider V3 Kamen Rider Series and Spider Man The photo also features anime character Doraemon on the far left Since about 1960 several long running television series have combined various other themes Tsuburaya Productions has had the Ultra Series starting with Ultra Q and Ultraman in 1966 P Productions began their foray into tokusatsu in 1966 with the series Ambassador Magma They also had involvement in the Lion Maru series which concluded in November 2006 Toei Company has several series that fall under their Toei Superheroes category of programming starting in 1958 with the film series Moonlight Mask Then they produced several other long running series starting with Shotaro Ishinomori s Kamen Rider Series in 1971 the Super Sentai series in 1975 the Metal Hero Series in 1982 and the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series in 1981 Toei also produced several other television series based on Ishinomori s works including Android Kikaider and Kikaider 01 Robot Detective Inazuman and Inazuman Flash and Kaiketsu Zubat Toei was also involved in the Spider Man television series which influenced their subsequent Super Sentai series In 2003 TV Asahi began broadcasting the Super Sentai and Kamen Rider series in a one hour block airing each week known as Super Hero Time Toho the creators of Godzilla also had their hands in creating the Chouseishin Series of programs from 2003 to 2006 and the Zone Fighter franchise In 2006 Keita Amemiya s Garo a mature late night tokusatsu drama was released starting a franchise composed of several television series and films Other mature late night series followed including a revival of Lion Maru in Lion Maru G the Daimajin Kanon television series based on the Daimajin film series and Shougeki Gouraigan also created by Amemiya Tokusatsu movies Edit Various movies classified as tokusatsu can include disaster movies and science fiction films These include Warning from Space 宇宙人東京に現わる Uchujin Tokyo ni arawaru Spacemen Appear in Tokyo 1956 Invasion of the Neptune Men 宇宙快速船 Uchu Kaisokusen High Speed Spaceship The Green Slime ガンマー第3号 宇宙大作戦 Ganma daisan gō uchu daisakusen Ganma 3 Space Mission The Birth of Japan 日本誕生 Nippon Tanjō The Last War 世界大戦争 Sekai Daisensō The Great World War Japan Sinks 日本沈没 Nihon Chinbotsu Japan Sinks Virus 復活の日 Fukkatsu no Hi Day of Resurrection Sayonara Jupiter さよならジュピター Sayonara Jupita The War in Space 惑星大戦争 Wakusei Daisensō War of the Planets and Samurai Commando Mission 1549 戦国自衛隊1549 Sengoku Jieitai 1549 Sengoku Self Defense Forces 1549 Similar productions EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Non traditional tokusatsu productions Edit Non traditional tokusatsu films and television programs may not use conventional special effects or may not star human actors Though suitmation typifies tokusatsu some productions may use stop motion to animate their monsters instead for example Majin Hunter Mitsurugi in 1973 TV shows may use traditional tokusatsu techniques but are cast with puppets or marionettes Uchuusen Silica 1960 Ginga Shonen Tai 1963 Kuchuu Toshi 008 1969 and Go Nagai s X Bomber 1980 Some tokusatsu may employ animation in addition to its live action components Tsuburaya Productions Dinosaur Expedition Team Bornfree 1976 Dinosaur War Aizenborg 1977 and Pro Wrestling Star Aztekaiser 1976 Japanese fan films Edit As the popularity of tokusatsu increased in Japan a number of fan film projects have been produced over the years Hideaki Anno Yoshiyuki Sadamoto Takami Akai and Shinji Higuchi set up a fan based group called Daicon Film which they renamed Gainax in 1985 and turned into an animation studio Besides anime sequences they also produced a series of tokusatsu shorts parodying monster movies and superhero shows These productions include Swift Hero Noutenki 1982 Patriotic Squadron Dai Nippon 1983 Return of Ultraman 1983 and The Eight Headed Giant Serpent Strikes Back 1985 Outside of Japan EditTokusatsu techniques have spread outside Japan due to the popularity of the Godzilla films Adaptations Edit Godzilla King of the Monsters first appeared in English in 1956 Rather than a simple dub of the Japanese language original this work represented an entirely re edited version which restructured the plot to incorporate a new character played by a native English speaking actor Raymond Burr Ultraman gained popularity when United Artists dubbed it for American audiences in the 1960s In the 1990s Haim Saban acquired the distribution rights for the Super Sentai series from Toei Company and combined the original Japanese action footage with new footage featuring American actors resulting in the Power Rangers franchise 6 which has continued since then into sequel TV series with Power Rangers Beast Morphers premiering in 2019 7 and Power Rangers Dino Fury premiering in 2021 comic books 8 video games and three feature films with a further cinematic universe planned 9 Following from the success of Power Rangers Saban acquired the rights to more of Toei s library creating VR Troopers and Big Bad Beetleborgs from several Metal Hero Series shows and Masked Rider from Kamen Rider Series footage DIC Entertainment joined this boom by acquiring the rights to Gridman the Hyper Agent and turning it into Superhuman Samurai Syber Squad In 2002 4Kids Entertainment bought the rights to Ultraman Tiga but simply produced a dub of the Japanese footage broadcast on the Fox Box And in 2009 Adness Entertainment took 2002 s Kamen Rider Ryuki and turned it into Kamen Rider Dragon Knight which began broadcast on The CW4Kids in 2009 It won the first Daytime Emmy for Outstanding Stunt Coordination for its original scenes 10 11 Original productions Edit In 1961 England based film makers produced the Godzilla style film Gorgo which used the same suitmation technique as the Godzilla films That same year Saga Studios in Denmark made another Godzilla style giant monster film Reptilicus bringing its monster to life using a marionette on a miniature set In 1967 South Korea produced its own monster movie titled Yonggary In 1975 Shaw Brothers produced a superhero film called The Super Inframan based on the huge success of Ultraman and Kamen Rider there The film starred Danny Lee in the title role Although there were several other similar superhero productions in Hong Kong The Super Inframan came first With help from Japanese special effects artists under Sadamasa Arikawa they also produced a Japanese styled monster movie The Mighty Peking Man in 1977 Concurrent with their work on Superhuman Samurai Syber Squad DIC attempted an original concept based on the popularity of Power Rangers in 1994 s Tattooed Teenage Alien Fighters from Beverly Hills In 1998 video from an attempted Power Rangers styled adaptation of Sailor Moon surfaced combining original footage of American actresses with original animated sequences Saban also attempted at making their own unique tokusatsu series entitled Mystic Knights of Tir Na Nog set in medieval Ireland and featured four later five knights who transform using the power of the elements for the most part at they protected their kingdom from evil Saban had also produced the live action Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series Ninja Turtles The Next Mutation which was known in the turtles fandom for introducing a female turtle exclusive to that series called Venus de Milo and eliminating the fact that the other turtles were brothers The show primarily featured actors in costumes most of the time but featured similar choreographed fights like other tokusatsu shows In the 2000s production companies in other East Asian countries began producing their own original tokusatsu inspired television series Thailand s Sport Ranger and South Korea s Erexion in 2006 the Philippines Zaido Pulis Pangkalawakan itself a sanctioned spinoff of Toei s Space Sheriff Shaider in 2007 12 China s Armor Hero Chinese 铠甲勇士 pinyin Kǎi Jiǎ Yǒng Shi in 2008 Battle Strike Team Giant Saver Chinese 巨神战击队 pinyin Jushen zhan ji dui in 2012 Metal Kaiser Chinese 五龙奇剑士 pinyin Wǔ Long Qi Jian Shi and Indonesia s Bima Satria Garuda which began in 2013 13 14 On July the 1st 2019 Vietnam s Transform Studio co operating with Dive Into Eden announced their own original tokusatsu series Mighty Guardian Vietnamese Chiến Thần The first season in the series is Mighty Guardian Lost Avian Vietnamese Chiến Thần Lạc Hồng using Vietnamese Mythologies as the main concept 15 16 17 18 Influence Edit Kaiju and tokusatsu films notably Warning from Space 1956 sparked Stanley Kubrick s interest in science fiction films and influenced 2001 A Space Odyssey 1968 According to his biographer John Baxter despite their clumsy model sequences the films were often well photographed in colour and their dismal dialogue was delivered in well designed and well lit sets 19 Steven Spielberg cited Godzilla as an inspiration for Jurassic Park 1993 specifically Godzilla King of the Monsters 1956 which he grew up watching 20 During its production Spielberg described Godzilla as the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was really happening 21 Godzilla also influenced the Spielberg film Jaws 1975 22 23 Japanese tokusatsu movies also influenced one of the first video games Spacewar 1961 inspiring its science fiction theme According to the game s programmer Martin Graetz we would be off to one of Boston s seedier cinemas to view the latest trash from Toho as Japanese studios churned out a steady diet of cinematic junk food of which Rodan and Godzilla are only the best known examples 24 Homage and parody Edit In 2001 Buki X 1 Productions a French fan based production company produced its own series Jushi Sentai France Five now called Shin Kenjushi France Five a tribute to Toei s long running Super Sentai series The low budget television series Kaiju Big Battel directly parodies monster and Kyodai Hero films and series by immersing their own costumed characters in professional wrestling matches among cardboard buildings In 2006 Mighty Moshin Emo Rangers premiered on the internet as a Power Rangers spoof but was quickly picked up by MTV UK for broadcast 25 In 2006 Insector Sun a low budget tribute to Kamen Rider was produced by Brazilian fans Peyton Reed the director of the Ant Man films in the Marvel Cinematic Universe said that Ant Man s costume design was influenced by two tokusatsu superheroes Ultraman and Inframan 26 References Edit The Invisible Man Appears 1949 The Invisible Man vs The Human Fly 1957 Frame Rated March 12 2021 Retrieved July 8 2021 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link Millennial Monsters Japanese Toys and the Global Imagination pp 47 8 ISBN 0 520 24565 2 Meet Godzilla ISBN 1 4042 0269 2 Japan Pop Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture p 262 ISBN 0 7656 0560 0 Porter Hal The Actors an image of the new Japan pg 168 ISBN 0 207 95014 8 Heffley Lynne November 25 1993 Low Tech Equals High Ratings Fox s Offbeat Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Flexes Its Kidvid Muscle Los Angeles Times Retrieved August 28 2012 Kelley Shamus February 17 2018 Power Rangers Beast Morphers Confirmed Den of Geek Retrieved February 17 2018 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Comics Coming From BOOM Studios Retrieved 19 January 2017 New Power Rangers films are coming after Hasbro acquires the franchise from Lionsgate Digital Spy June 1 2018 Retrieved June 12 2018 WINNERS Daytime Entertainment Creative Arts Emmy Awards June 26 2010 Retrieved 27 June 2010 KAMEN RIDER DRAGON KNIGHT 第37回デイタイム エミー賞において最優秀スタントコーディネーション賞を受賞 東映 テレビ 2010 06 29 Archived from the original on 2010 07 01 Retrieved 2010 07 04 GMA 7 acquires exclusive rights to Shaider pep ph Retrieved 2007 09 20 Pewarta Nanien Yuniar Bandai buat mainan BIMA Satria Garuda ANTARA News Retrieved 2013 06 08 Pewarta Nanien Yuniar BIMA Satria Garuda Ksatria Baja Hitam Indonesia ANTARA News Retrieved 2013 06 08 Chiến Thần Lạc Hồng Mighty Guardian www facebook com Retrieved 2019 07 08 Chiến Thần Lạc Hồng Dự an phim đang được cộng đồng đặt ten 5 anh em sieu nhan Việt Nam Game4V 2019 09 04 Retrieved 2019 09 26 CHIẾN THẦN LẠC HỒNG MIGHTY GUARDIAN LOST AVIAN TEASER TRAILER retrieved 2019 09 26 Alpha Prime Anons novogo vetnamskogo toku seriala Mighty Guardian Lost Avian Babylon Fiction in Russian Retrieved 2019 09 26 Baxter John 1997 Stanley Kubrick A Biography New York Basic Books p 200 ISBN 0786704853 Ryfle Steve 1998 Japan s Favorite Mon Star The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G ECW Press p 15 ISBN 9781550223484 Ryfle Steve 1998 Japan s Favorite Mon star The Unauthorized Biography of The Big G ECW Press p 17 ISBN 9781550223484 Freer Ian 2001 The Complete Spielberg Virgin Books p 48 ISBN 9780753505564 Derry Charles 1977 Dark Dreams A Psychological History of the Modern Horror Film A S Barnes p 82 ISBN 9780498019159 Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games Electronic Games Vol 1 no 2 March 1982 p 36 ISSN 0730 6687 Mighty Moshin Emo Rangers MTV UK MTV UK Archived from the original on 2007 03 19 Retrieved 2013 05 16 Kelley Shamus October 2 2018 The Surprising Tokusatsu Influences of Ant Man Den of Geek Retrieved 16 November 2019 Further reading EditAllison Anne 2006 Millennial Monsters Japanese Toys and the Global Imagination Asia Local Studies Global Themes 13 Berkeley Calif University of California Press ISBN 0 520 24565 2 OCLC 690263415 Craig Timothy J ed 2015 2000 Japan Pop Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture Reprint ed New York Routledge ISBN 0 7656 0560 0 OCLC 1099932333 Grays Kevin Summer 1990 Welcome to the Wonderful World of Japanese Fantasy Markalite The Magazine of Japanese Fantasy Vol 1 Kaiju Productions Pacific Rim Publishing Godziszewski Ed November December 1994 The Making of Godzilla G FAN No 12 Daikaiju Enterprises Martinez D P ed 2003 1998 The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture Gender Shifting Boundaries and Global Cultures Contemporary Japanese Society Reprint ed Cambridge Cambridge Univ Press ISBN 0 521 63729 5 OCLC 634442451 Ryfle Steve 1999 Japan s Favorite Mon Star The Unauthorized Biography of The Big G Toronto ECW Press ISBN 1 55022 348 8 OCLC 38748971 AKA Japan s Favorite Mon Star The Unauthorized Biography of Godzilla Yoshida Makoto Ikeda Noriyoshi Ragone August Summer 1990 The Making of Godzilla Vs Biollante They Call it Tokusatsu Markalite The Magazine of Japanese Fantasy Vol 1 Kaiju Productions Pacific Rim Publishing Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tokusatsu amp oldid 1091082771, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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