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Wikipedia

For the bridge in Sacramento, California, see Tower Bridge (California). For the station in Co. Cork, Ireland, see Tower Bridge railway station.

Tower Bridge is a Grade I listed combined bascule and suspension bridge in London, built between 1886 and 1894, designed by Horace Jones and engineered by John Wolfe Barry with the help of Henry Marc Brunel. It crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and is one of five London bridges owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust founded in 1282. The bridge was constructed to give better access to the East End of London, which had expanded its commercial potential in the 19th century. The bridge was opened by Edward, Prince of Wales and Alexandra, Princess of Wales in 1894.

Tower Bridge
View from Shad Thames
Coordinates51°30′20″N0°04′31″W /51.5055°N 0.075406°W /51.5055; -0.075406
CarriesLondon Inner Ring Road
CrossesRiver Thames
LocaleLondon boroughs:
– north side: Tower Hamlets
– south side: Southwark
Named forTower of London
Maintained byBridge House Estates
Heritage statusGrade I listed building
Websitewww.towerbridge.org.uk
Preceded byLondon Bridge
Followed byElizabeth II Bridge
Characteristics
DesignBascule bridge / Suspension Bridge
Total length800 feet (240 m)
Height213 feet (65 m)
History
ArchitectHorace Jones
Construction start21 June 1886
Construction end1894
Opened30 June 1894
Location

The bridge is 800 feet (240 m) in length and consists of two 213-foot (65 m) bridge towers connected at the upper level by two horizontal walkways, and a central pair of bascules that can open to allow shipping. Originally hydraulically powered, the operating mechanism was converted to an electro-hydraulic system in 1972. The bridge is part of the A100 London Inner Ring Road and thus the boundary of the London congestion charge zone, and remains an important traffic route with 40,000 crossings every day. The bridge deck is freely accessible to both vehicles and pedestrians, whereas the bridge's twin towers, high-level walkways and Victorian engine rooms form part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition.

Tower Bridge has become a recognisable London landmark. It is sometimes confused with London Bridge, about 0.5 miles (0.80 km) upstream, which has led to a popular urban legend about an American purchasing the wrong bridge. Several stunt pilots have flown underneath the bridge, including the pioneering Francis McClean.

Contents

Inception

Elevation, with dimensions

In the late 19th century, commercial development in the East End of London increased, leading to demand for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge. A traditional fixed bridge at street level could not be built because it would cut off access by sailing ships to the port facilities in the Pool of London between London Bridge and the Tower of London.

A Special Bridge or Subway Committee chaired by Sir Albert Joseph Altman was formed in 1877 to find a solution. More than fifty designs were submitted, including one from civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, which was rejected because of a lack of sufficient headroom. A design was not approved until 1884, when it was decided to build a bascule bridge. Sir John Wolfe Barry was appointed engineer and Sir Horace Jones the architect (who was also one of the judges). An Act of Parliament authorising construction was passed in 1885. It specified that the opening span would provide a clear width of 200 feet (61 m) and headroom of 135 feet (41 m). The design had to be in a Gothic style. Construction was funded by the Bridge House Estates, a charity established in 1282 for maintenance of London Bridge that subsequently expanded to cover Tower Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, Southwark Bridge and the Millennium Bridge.

Barry designed a bridge with two bridge towers built on piers. The central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves, which could be raised to allow river traffic to pass. The two side spans were suspension bridges, with rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained in the bridge's upper walkways.

Construction

Tower Bridge under construction, 1892

Construction started in 1886, with the foundation stone laid by the Prince of Wales on 21 June, and took eight years. Major contractors included Sir John Jackson (foundations), Armstrong, Mitchell and Company (hydraulics), William Webster, and Sir William Arrol & Co. 432 people worked on the site; E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the construction.

Two piers, containing over 70,000 long tons (78,400 short tons; 71,123 t) of concrete, were sunk into the riverbed to support the construction. More than 11,000 long tons (12,320 short tons; 11,177 t) of steel were used in the framework for the towers and walkways, which were then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone to protect the underlying steelwork.

Jones died in 1887, and George D. Stevenson took over the project. Stevenson replaced Jones's original brick façade with the more ornate Victorian Gothic style, which made the bridge a distinctive landmark, and was intended to harmonise the bridge with the nearby Tower of London. The total cost of construction was £1,184,000 (equivalent to £143 million in 2021).

Opening

1895 painting of the opening of Tower Bridge, William Lionel Wyllie

Tower Bridge was officially opened on 30 June 1894 by the Prince and Princess of Wales. The opening ceremony was attended by the Lord Chamberlain, the Lord Carrington and the Home Secretary, H. H. Asquith. An Act of Parliament stipulated that a tug boat should be on station to assist vessels in danger when crossing the bridge, a requirement that remained in place until the 1960s.

The bridge connected Iron Gate, on the north bank of the river, with Horselydown Lane, on the south – now known as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road, respectively. Until the bridge was opened, the Tower Subway – 0.25 mi (400 m) to the west – was the shortest way to cross the river from Tower Hill to Tooley Street in Southwark. Opened in 1870, Tower Subway was among the world's earliest underground ("tube") railways, but it closed after just three months and was reopened as a tolled pedestrian foot tunnel. Once Tower Bridge was open, the majority of foot traffic transferred to using the bridge, as there was no toll to cross. Having lost most of its income, the tunnel was closed in 1898.

The high-level open-air walkways between the towers gained a reputation for prostitutes and pickpockets. Since they were only accessible by stairs, the walkways were seldom used by regular pedestrians and were closed in 1910. The walkway reopened in 1982 as part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition.

20th century

Tower Bridge during the first mass air raid on London, 7 September 1940
Tower Bridge – 1950, BW Lee
A Short Sunderland of No. 201 Squadron RAF moored at Tower Bridge during the 1956 commemoration of the Battle of Britain

During the Second World War, Tower Bridge was seen as a major transport link to the Port of London, and consequently was a target for enemy action. In 1940, the high-level span took a direct hit, severing the hydraulic mechanism and taking the bridge out of action. In April 1941, a parachute mine exploded close to the bridge, causing serious damage to the bascule, towers and engine room. In 1942, a third engine was installed in case the existing ones were damaged by enemy action. It was a 150 hp horizontal cross-compound engine, built by Vickers Armstrong Ltd. at their Elswick works in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was fitted with a flywheel having a 9-foot (2.7 m) diameter and weighing 9 tons, and was governed to a speed of 30 rpm. The engine became redundant when the rest of the system was modernised in 1974, and was donated to the Forncett Industrial Steam Museum by the City of London Corporation.

The southern section of the bridge, in the London Borough of Southwark, was Grade I listed on 6 December 1949. The remainder of the bridge, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, was listed on 27 September 1973. In 1974, the original operating mechanism was largely replaced by a new electro-hydraulic drive system, designed by BHA Cromwell House, with the original final pinions driven by modern hydraulic motors.

In 1982, the Tower Bridge Exhibition opened, housed in the bridge's twin towers, the long-closed high-level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms. The latter still house the original steam engines and some of the original hydraulic machinery.

21st century

The bridge closed for a month in 2000 to repair the bascules and perform other maintenance. A computer system was installed to control the raising and lowering of the bascules remotely. However, the system proved unreliable, resulting in the bridge being stuck in the open or closed positions on several occasions during 2005 until its sensors were replaced.

Tower Bridge with LED lighting

In April 2008, authorities announced that the bridge would undergo a £4 million refurbishment that would take four years to complete. The work entailed stripping existing paint down to bare metal and repainting in blue and white. Before this, the bridge's colour scheme dated from 1977, when it was painted red, white and blue for Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee. Its colours were subsequently restored to blue and white. Each section was enshrouded in scaffolding and plastic sheeting to prevent the old paint falling into the Thames and causing pollution. Starting in mid-2008, contractors worked on a quarter of the bridge at a time to minimise disruption, but some road closures were inevitable. The completed work should stand for 25 years.

The renovation of the walkway interior was completed in mid-2009. Eleni Shiarlis designed a new lighting system based on RGB LED luminaires for use in exhibitions and functions. These are concealed within the bridge superstructure and attached without drilling holes, owing to the bridge's Grade I listing. The renovation of the four suspension chains was completed in March 2010 using a state-of-the-art coating system requiring up to six different layers of paint.

Tower Bridge with Olympic Rings during the 2012 London Olympics

On 8 July 2012, as part of the London Olympics, the west walkway was transformed into a 200-foot-long (61 m) Live Music Sculpture by the British composer Samuel Bordoli. 30 classical musicians were arranged along the length of the bridge 138 feet (42 m) above the Thames behind the Olympic rings. The sound travelled backwards and forwards along the walkway, echoing the structure of the bridge.

Following the Olympics, the rings were removed from Tower Bridge and replaced by the emblem of the Paralympic Games for the 2012 Summer Paralympics.

In 2016, Tower Bridge was closed to all road traffic from 1 October to 30 December. This was to allow structural maintenance work to take place on the timber decking, lifting mechanism and waterproofing the brick arches on the bridge's approaches. During this, the bridge was still open to waterborne traffic. It was open to pedestrians for all but three weekends, when a free ferry service was in operation.

Structure

Tower Bridge at dawn

The bridge is 800 feet (240 m) in length with two towers each 213 feet (65 m) high, built on piers. The central span of 200 feet (61 m) between the towers is split into two equal bascules, or leaves, which can be raised to an angle of 86 degrees to allow river traffic to pass. The bascules, weighing over 1,000 tons each, are counterbalanced to minimise the force required and allow raising in five minutes.

The two side spans are suspension bridges, each 270 feet (82 m) long, with the suspension rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained within the bridge's upper walkways. The pedestrian walkways are 143 feet (44 m) above the river at high tide, and accessed by lifts and staircases.

One of the chimneys on the bridge connects up to an old fireplace in a guardroom of the Tower of London. It is long-disused.

Hydraulic system

One of the original steam engines

The original raising mechanism was powered by pressurised water stored in several hydraulic accumulators. The system was designed and installed by Hamilton Owen Rendel while working for Armstrong, Mitchell and Company of Newcastle upon Tyne. Water at a pressure of 750 psi (5.2 MPa) was pumped into the accumulators by a pair of stationary steam engines. Each drove a force pump from its piston tail rod. The accumulators each comprise a 20-inch (51 cm) ram on which sits a very heavy weight to maintain the desired pressure.

The entire hydraulic system along with the gas lighting system was installed by William Sugg & Co Ltd. The gas lighting was initially by open-flame burners within the lanterns, but was soon updated to the later incandescent system.

In 1974, the original operating mechanism was largely replaced by a new electro-hydraulic drive system, designed by BHA Cromwell House. The only remaining parts of the old system are the final pinions, which fit into the racks on the bascules and were driven by hydraulic motors and gearing. Oil is now used in place of water as the hydraulic fluid.

Signalling and control

Originally, river traffic passing beneath the bridge was required to follow a number of rules and signals. Daytime control was provided by red semaphore signals, mounted on small control cabins on either end of both bridge piers. At night, coloured lights were used, in either direction, on both piers: two red lights to show that the bridge was closed, and two green to show that it was open. In foggy weather, a gong was sounded as well.

Vessels passing through the bridge were required to display signals. By day, a black ball at least 2 feet (0.61 m) in diameter was mounted high up where it could be seen. Night passage called for two red lights in the same position. Foggy weather required repeated blasts from the ship's steam whistle. If a black ball was suspended from the middle of each walkway (or a red light at night) this indicated that the bridge could not be opened. These signals were repeated about 1,000 yards (910 m) downstream, at Cherry Garden Pier, where boats needing to pass through the bridge had to hoist their signals/lights and sound their horn, as appropriate, to alert the Bridge Master.

Some of the control mechanism for the signalling equipment has been preserved and is housed in the bridge's museum.

The tall ship Wylde Swan passing under Tower Bridge decorated for the London Olympics in August 2012. Note the Olympic rings folded up to allow passage of the mast.

Road

Tower Bridge is still a busy crossing of the Thames, used by more than 40,000 people (motorists, cyclists and pedestrians) every day. The bridge is on the London Inner Ring Road, and is on the eastern boundary of the London congestion charge zone (drivers do not incur the charge by crossing the bridge).

To maintain the integrity of the structure, the City of London Corporation has imposed a 20-mile-per-hour (32 km/h) speed restriction, and an 18-tonne (20-short-ton) weight limit on vehicles using the bridge. A camera system measures the speed of traffic crossing the bridge, using a number plate recognition system to send fixed penalty charges to speeding drivers.

A second system monitors other vehicle parameters. Induction loops and piezoelectric sensors are used to measure the weight, the height of the chassis above ground level, and the number of axles of each vehicle, with drivers of overweight vehicles also receiving fixed penalty notices.

Pedestrian

From the outset, the high-level connection was a pedestrian route and was intended to allow pedestrian movement to continue while the bridge was open. This was closed in 1910 due to growing crime in this hidden area, but was reopened in 1982 when a glass floor was also installed.

River

The bascules are raised about a thousand times a year. River traffic is now much reduced, but it still takes priority over road traffic. Today, 24 hours' notice is required before opening the bridge, and opening times are published in advance on the bridge's website; there is no charge for vessels to open the bridge.

Proximity to Underground

The nearest London Underground tube stations to Tower Bridge are Tower Hill on the Circle and District lines, London Bridge on the Jubilee and Northern lines and Bermondsey on the Jubilee line, and the nearest Docklands Light Railway station is Tower Gateway. The nearest National Rail stations are at Fenchurch Street and London Bridge.

Transport for London have proposed Cycle Superhighway 4 to run across Tower Bridge.

Interior of high-level walkway (used as an exhibition space)

The Tower Bridge Exhibition is a display housed in the bridge's twin towers, the high-level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms. It uses films, photos and interactive displays to explain why and how Tower Bridge was built. Visitors can access the original steam engines that once powered the bridge bascules, housed in a building close to the south end of the bridge.

The exhibition charges an admission fee. Entrance is from the west side of the bridge deck to the northern tower, from where visitors ascend to level 4 by lift before crossing the high-level walkways to the southern tower. In the towers and walkways is an exhibition on the history of the bridge. The walkways also provide views over the city, the Tower of London and the Pool of London, and include a glass-floored section. From the south tower, visitors can visit the engine rooms, with the original steam engines, which are situated in a separate building beside the southern approach to the bridge.

Aerial view of Tower Bridge
Aerial view at night, with bridge open

Although Tower Bridge is an undoubted landmark, professional commentators in the early 20th century were critical of its aesthetics. "It represents the vice of tawdriness and pretentiousness, and of falsification of the actual facts of the structure", wrote Henry Heathcote Statham, while Frank Brangwyn stated that "A more absurd structure than the Tower Bridge was never thrown across a strategic river".

Benjamin Crisler, the New York Times film critic, wrote in 1938: "Three unique and valuable institutions the British have that we in America have not: Magna Carta, the Tower Bridge and Alfred Hitchcock." Architectural historian Dan Cruickshank selected Tower Bridge as one of his four choices for the 2002 BBC television documentary series Britain's Best Buildings.

Tower Bridge has been mistaken for the next bridge upstream, London Bridge. A popular urban legend is that in 1968, Robert P. McCulloch, the purchaser of the old London Bridge that was later shipped to Lake Havasu City in Arizona, believed that he was in fact buying Tower Bridge. This was denied by McCulloch himself and has been debunked by Ivan Luckin, the vendor of the bridge.

A partial replica of Tower Bridge has been built in the city of Suzhou in China. The replica differs from the original in having no lifting mechanism and four separate towers. The Suzhou replica was renovated in 2019, giving it a new look that differs from the original London design.

On 10 August 1912, the pioneering stunt pilot Francis McClean flew between the bascules and the high-level walkways in his Short Brothers S.33 floatplane. McClean became a celebrity overnight because of the stunt, and went on to fly underneath London Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge and Waterloo Bridge.

On 3 August 1922, a 13-year-old boy fell off a slipway next to the south side of Tower Bridge. A man jumped into the Thames to save him, but both were pulled under a barge by Butler's Wharf and drowned.

In December 1952, the bridge opened while a number 78 double-decker bus was crossing from the south bank. At that time, the gateman would ring a warning bell and close the gates when the bridge was clear before the watchman ordered the raising of the bridge. The process failed while a relief watchman was on duty. The bus was near the edge of the south bascule when it started to rise; driver Albert Gunter made a split-second decision to accelerate, clearing a 3-foot (0.91 m) gap to drop 6 feet (1.8 m) onto the north bascule, which had not yet started to rise. There were no serious injuries. Gunter was given £10 (equivalent to £310 in 2021) by the City Corporation to honour his act of bravery.

On 5 April 1968, a Royal Air Force Hawker Hunter FGA.9 jet fighter from No. 1 Squadron made an unauthorised flight through Tower Bridge. Unimpressed that senior staff were not going to celebrate the RAF's 50th birthday with a flypast, the pilot flew at low altitude down the Thames without authorisation, past the Houses of Parliament, and continued on towards the bridge. He flew beneath the walkway, at an estimated 300 miles per hour (480 km/h). He was placed under arrest upon landing, and discharged from the RAF on medical grounds without the chance to defend himself at a court martial.

On 31 July 1973, a single-engined Beagle Pup was twice flown under the pedestrian walkway of Tower Bridge by 29-year-old stockbroker's clerk Peter Martin. Martin, who was on bail following accusations of stock market fraud, then "buzzed" buildings in the city before flying north towards the Lake District, where he died when his aircraft crashed some two hours later.

In May 1997, the motorcade of United States President Bill Clinton was divided by the opening of the bridge. The Thames sailing barge Gladys, on her way to a gathering at St Katharine Docks, arrived on schedule and the bridge was opened for her. Returning from a Thames-side lunch at Le Pont de la Tour restaurant with UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, President Clinton was less punctual and arrived just as the bridge was rising. The bridge opening split the motorcade in two, much to the consternation of security staff. A spokesman for Tower Bridge is quoted as saying: "We tried to contact the American Embassy, but they wouldn't answer the phone."

On 19 August 1999, Jef Smith, a Freeman of the City of London, drove a flock of two sheep across the bridge. He was exercising a claimed ancient permission, granted as a right to freemen, to make a point about the powers of older citizens and the way their rights were being eroded.

Before dawn on 31 October 2003, David Chick, a Fathers 4 Justice campaigner, climbed a 100-foot (30 m) tower crane near Tower Bridge at the start of a six-day protest dressed as Spider-Man. Fearing for his safety, and that of motorists should he fall, police cordoned off the area, closing the bridge and surrounding roads and causing widespread traffic congestion across the City and East London. David Mellor criticised the Metropolitan Police for the inconvenience of the cordon in place.

On 11 May 2009, six people were trapped and injured after a lift fell 10 feet (3 m) inside the north tower.

On 9 August 2021, the bridge remained open after a technical failure. The bridge had opened to let the Jubilee Trust Tall Ship through from 2 p.m. before getting stuck. The bridge was closed and reopened to traffic approximately 12 hours later.

Historic places adjacent to Tower Bridge

Comparison of the side elevations of the Tower Bridge and some notable bridges at the same scale. (click for interactive version)

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Television

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Tower Bridge Article Talk Language Watch Edit For the bridge in Sacramento California see Tower Bridge California For the station in Co Cork Ireland see Tower Bridge railway station Tower Bridge is a Grade I listed combined bascule and suspension bridge in London built between 1886 and 1894 designed by Horace Jones and engineered by John Wolfe Barry with the help of Henry Marc Brunel 1 It crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and is one of five London bridges owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates a charitable trust founded in 1282 The bridge was constructed to give better access to the East End of London which had expanded its commercial potential in the 19th century The bridge was opened by Edward Prince of Wales and Alexandra Princess of Wales in 1894 Tower BridgeView from Shad ThamesCoordinates51 30 20 N 0 04 31 W 51 5055 N 0 075406 W 51 5055 0 075406CarriesLondon Inner Ring RoadCrossesRiver ThamesLocaleLondon boroughs north side Tower Hamlets south side SouthwarkNamed forTower of LondonMaintained byBridge House EstatesHeritage statusGrade I listed buildingWebsitewww wbr towerbridge wbr org wbr ukPreceded byLondon BridgeFollowed byElizabeth II BridgeCharacteristicsDesignBascule bridge Suspension BridgeTotal length800 feet 240 m Height213 feet 65 m HistoryArchitectHorace JonesConstruction start21 June 1886Construction end1894Opened30 June 1894Location The bridge is 800 feet 240 m in length and consists of two 213 foot 65 m bridge towers connected at the upper level by two horizontal walkways and a central pair of bascules that can open to allow shipping Originally hydraulically powered the operating mechanism was converted to an electro hydraulic system in 1972 The bridge is part of the A100 2 London Inner Ring Road and thus the boundary of the London congestion charge zone and remains an important traffic route with 40 000 crossings every day The bridge deck is freely accessible to both vehicles and pedestrians whereas the bridge s twin towers high level walkways and Victorian engine rooms form part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition Tower Bridge has become a recognisable London landmark It is sometimes confused with London Bridge about 0 5 miles 0 80 km upstream which has led to a popular urban legend about an American purchasing the wrong bridge Several stunt pilots have flown underneath the bridge including the pioneering Francis McClean Contents 1 History 1 1 Inception 1 2 Construction 1 3 Opening 1 4 20th century 1 5 21st century 2 Design 2 1 Structure 2 2 Hydraulic system 2 3 Signalling and control 3 Traffic 3 1 Road 3 2 Pedestrian 3 3 River 3 4 Proximity to Underground 4 Exhibition 5 Reaction 6 Incidents 7 Gallery 8 See also 8 1 Historic places adjacent to Tower Bridge 9 References 9 1 Citations 9 2 Sources 9 2 1 Books 9 2 2 Journals 9 2 3 Television 10 External linksHistory EditInception Edit Elevation with dimensions In the late 19th century commercial development in the East End of London increased leading to demand for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge A traditional fixed bridge at street level could not be built because it would cut off access by sailing ships to the port facilities in the Pool of London between London Bridge and the Tower of London 3 A Special Bridge or Subway Committee chaired by Sir Albert Joseph Altman was formed in 1877 to find a solution 4 More than fifty designs were submitted including one from civil engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette which was rejected because of a lack of sufficient headroom A design was not approved until 1884 when it was decided to build a bascule bridge 3 5 Sir John Wolfe Barry was appointed engineer and Sir Horace Jones the architect who was also one of the judges 6 7 An Act of Parliament authorising construction was passed in 1885 It specified that the opening span would provide a clear width of 200 feet 61 m and headroom of 135 feet 41 m The design had to be in a Gothic style 6 Construction was funded by the Bridge House Estates a charity established in 1282 for maintenance of London Bridge that subsequently expanded to cover Tower Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Southwark Bridge and the Millennium Bridge 8 Barry designed a bridge with two bridge towers built on piers The central span was split into two equal bascules or leaves which could be raised to allow river traffic to pass The two side spans were suspension bridges with rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained in the bridge s upper walkways 6 Construction Edit Tower Bridge under construction 1892 Construction started in 1886 with the foundation stone laid by the Prince of Wales on 21 June and took eight years 9 10 Major contractors included Sir John Jackson foundations 11 Armstrong Mitchell and Company hydraulics William Webster 12 and Sir William Arrol amp Co 13 432 people worked on the site E W Crutwell was the resident engineer for the construction 14 Two piers containing over 70 000 long tons 78 400 short tons 71 123 t of concrete were sunk into the riverbed to support the construction 15 More than 11 000 long tons 12 320 short tons 11 177 t of steel were used in the framework for the towers and walkways which were then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone to protect the underlying steelwork 16 Jones died in 1887 and George D Stevenson took over the project 17 Stevenson replaced Jones s original brick facade with the more ornate Victorian Gothic style which made the bridge a distinctive landmark and was intended to harmonise the bridge with the nearby Tower of London 14 17 The total cost of construction was 1 184 000 10 14 equivalent to 143 million in 2021 18 Opening Edit 1895 painting of the opening of Tower Bridge William Lionel Wyllie Tower Bridge was officially opened on 30 June 1894 by the Prince and Princess of Wales 6 19 The opening ceremony was attended by the Lord Chamberlain the Lord Carrington and the Home Secretary H H Asquith 10 An Act of Parliament stipulated that a tug boat should be on station to assist vessels in danger when crossing the bridge a requirement that remained in place until the 1960s 19 The bridge connected Iron Gate on the north bank of the river with Horselydown Lane on the south now known as Tower Bridge Approach and Tower Bridge Road respectively 14 Until the bridge was opened the Tower Subway 0 25 mi 400 m to the west was the shortest way to cross the river from Tower Hill to Tooley Street in Southwark Opened in 1870 Tower Subway was among the world s earliest underground tube railways but it closed after just three months and was reopened as a tolled pedestrian foot tunnel Once Tower Bridge was open the majority of foot traffic transferred to using the bridge as there was no toll to cross Having lost most of its income the tunnel was closed in 1898 20 The high level open air walkways between the towers gained a reputation for prostitutes and pickpockets Since they were only accessible by stairs the walkways were seldom used by regular pedestrians and were closed in 1910 21 22 The walkway reopened in 1982 as part of the Tower Bridge Exhibition 21 23 20th century Edit Tower Bridge during the first mass air raid on London 7 September 1940 Tower Bridge 1950 BW Lee A Short Sunderland of No 201 Squadron RAF moored at Tower Bridge during the 1956 commemoration of the Battle of Britain During the Second World War Tower Bridge was seen as a major transport link to the Port of London and consequently was a target for enemy action In 1940 the high level span took a direct hit severing the hydraulic mechanism and taking the bridge out of action In April 1941 a parachute mine exploded close to the bridge causing serious damage to the bascule towers and engine room In 1942 a third engine was installed in case the existing ones were damaged by enemy action 24 It was a 150 hp horizontal cross compound engine built by Vickers Armstrong Ltd at their Elswick works in Newcastle upon Tyne It was fitted with a flywheel having a 9 foot 2 7 m diameter and weighing 9 tons and was governed to a speed of 30 rpm The engine became redundant when the rest of the system was modernised in 1974 and was donated to the Forncett Industrial Steam Museum by the City of London Corporation 25 The southern section of the bridge in the London Borough of Southwark was Grade I listed on 6 December 1949 26 The remainder of the bridge in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets was listed on 27 September 1973 27 In 1974 the original operating mechanism was largely replaced by a new electro hydraulic drive system designed by BHA Cromwell House with the original final pinions driven by modern hydraulic motors 28 29 In 1982 the Tower Bridge Exhibition opened housed in the bridge s twin towers the long closed high level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms The latter still house the original steam engines and some of the original hydraulic machinery 30 31 32 21st century Edit The bridge closed for a month in 2000 to repair the bascules and perform other maintenance 33 A computer system was installed to control the raising and lowering of the bascules remotely However the system proved unreliable resulting in the bridge being stuck in the open or closed positions on several occasions during 2005 until its sensors were replaced 34 Tower Bridge with LED lighting In April 2008 authorities announced that the bridge would undergo a 4 million refurbishment that would take four years to complete The work entailed stripping existing paint down to bare metal and repainting in blue and white 35 36 Before this the bridge s colour scheme dated from 1977 when it was painted red white and blue for Queen Elizabeth II s Silver Jubilee Its colours were subsequently restored to blue and white 35 36 Each section was enshrouded in scaffolding and plastic sheeting to prevent the old paint falling into the Thames and causing pollution Starting in mid 2008 contractors worked on a quarter of the bridge at a time to minimise disruption but some road closures were inevitable The completed work should stand for 25 years 37 The renovation of the walkway interior was completed in mid 2009 Eleni Shiarlis designed a new lighting system based on RGB LED luminaires for use in exhibitions and functions These are concealed within the bridge superstructure and attached without drilling holes owing to the bridge s Grade I listing 38 The renovation of the four suspension chains was completed in March 2010 using a state of the art coating system requiring up to six different layers of paint 35 Tower Bridge with Olympic Rings during the 2012 London Olympics On 8 July 2012 as part of the London Olympics the west walkway was transformed into a 200 foot long 61 m Live Music Sculpture by the British composer Samuel Bordoli 30 classical musicians were arranged along the length of the bridge 138 feet 42 m above the Thames behind the Olympic rings The sound travelled backwards and forwards along the walkway echoing the structure of the bridge 39 40 Following the Olympics the rings were removed from Tower Bridge and replaced by the emblem of the Paralympic Games for the 2012 Summer Paralympics 41 In 2016 Tower Bridge was closed to all road traffic from 1 October to 30 December 42 This was to allow structural maintenance work to take place on the timber decking lifting mechanism and waterproofing the brick arches on the bridge s approaches During this the bridge was still open to waterborne traffic It was open to pedestrians for all but three weekends when a free ferry service was in operation 43 Design EditStructure Edit Tower Bridge at dawn The bridge is 800 feet 240 m in length with two towers each 213 feet 65 m high built on piers 44 The central span of 200 feet 61 m between the towers is split into two equal bascules or leaves which can be raised to an angle of 86 degrees to allow river traffic to pass 45 The bascules weighing over 1 000 tons each are counterbalanced to minimise the force required and allow raising in five minutes 46 The two side spans are suspension bridges each 270 feet 82 m long with the suspension rods anchored both at the abutments and through rods contained within the bridge s upper walkways The pedestrian walkways are 143 feet 44 m above the river at high tide and accessed by lifts and staircases 6 14 One of the chimneys on the bridge connects up to an old fireplace in a guardroom of the Tower of London It is long disused 47 Hydraulic system Edit One of the original steam engines The original raising mechanism was powered by pressurised water stored in several hydraulic accumulators 48 The system was designed and installed by Hamilton Owen Rendel while working for Armstrong Mitchell and Company of Newcastle upon Tyne 49 50 Water at a pressure of 750 psi 5 2 MPa was pumped into the accumulators by a pair of stationary steam engines 51 Each drove a force pump from its piston tail rod The accumulators each comprise a 20 inch 51 cm ram on which sits a very heavy weight to maintain the desired pressure 46 The entire hydraulic system along with the gas lighting system was installed by William Sugg amp Co Ltd The gas lighting was initially by open flame burners within the lanterns but was soon updated to the later incandescent system 52 In 1974 the original operating mechanism was largely replaced by a new electro hydraulic drive system designed by BHA Cromwell House 51 The only remaining parts of the old system are the final pinions which fit into the racks on the bascules and were driven by hydraulic motors and gearing Oil is now used in place of water as the hydraulic fluid 53 Signalling and control Edit Originally river traffic passing beneath the bridge was required to follow a number of rules and signals Daytime control was provided by red semaphore signals mounted on small control cabins on either end of both bridge piers At night coloured lights were used in either direction on both piers two red lights to show that the bridge was closed and two green to show that it was open In foggy weather a gong was sounded as well 14 Vessels passing through the bridge were required to display signals By day a black ball at least 2 feet 0 61 m in diameter was mounted high up where it could be seen Night passage called for two red lights in the same position Foggy weather required repeated blasts from the ship s steam whistle If a black ball was suspended from the middle of each walkway or a red light at night this indicated that the bridge could not be opened These signals were repeated about 1 000 yards 910 m downstream at Cherry Garden Pier where boats needing to pass through the bridge had to hoist their signals lights and sound their horn as appropriate to alert the Bridge Master 14 Some of the control mechanism for the signalling equipment has been preserved and is housed in the bridge s museum 54 Traffic Edit The tall ship Wylde Swan passing under Tower Bridge decorated for the London Olympics in August 2012 Note the Olympic rings folded up to allow passage of the mast 55 Road Edit Tower Bridge is still a busy crossing of the Thames used by more than 40 000 people motorists cyclists and pedestrians every day 34 The bridge is on the London Inner Ring Road and is on the eastern boundary of the London congestion charge zone drivers do not incur the charge by crossing the bridge 56 To maintain the integrity of the structure the City of London Corporation has imposed a 20 mile per hour 32 km h speed restriction and an 18 tonne 20 short ton weight limit on vehicles using the bridge A camera system measures the speed of traffic crossing the bridge using a number plate recognition system to send fixed penalty charges to speeding drivers 57 A second system monitors other vehicle parameters Induction loops and piezoelectric sensors are used to measure the weight the height of the chassis above ground level and the number of axles of each vehicle with drivers of overweight vehicles also receiving fixed penalty notices 57 Pedestrian Edit From the outset the high level connection was a pedestrian route and was intended to allow pedestrian movement to continue while the bridge was open This was closed in 1910 due to growing crime in this hidden area but was reopened in 1982 when a glass floor was also installed 58 River Edit The bascules are raised about a thousand times a year 59 River traffic is now much reduced but it still takes priority over road traffic Today 24 hours notice is required before opening the bridge and opening times are published in advance on the bridge s website 60 there is no charge for vessels to open the bridge 61 Proximity to Underground Edit The nearest London Underground tube stations to Tower Bridge are Tower Hill on the Circle and District lines London Bridge on the Jubilee and Northern lines and Bermondsey on the Jubilee line and the nearest Docklands Light Railway station is Tower Gateway 62 The nearest National Rail stations are at Fenchurch Street and London Bridge 63 Transport for London have proposed Cycle Superhighway 4 to run across Tower Bridge 64 Exhibition Edit Interior of high level walkway used as an exhibition space The Tower Bridge Exhibition is a display housed in the bridge s twin towers the high level walkways and the Victorian engine rooms It uses films photos and interactive displays to explain why and how Tower Bridge was built Visitors can access the original steam engines that once powered the bridge bascules housed in a building close to the south end of the bridge 32 The exhibition charges an admission fee Entrance is from the west side of the bridge deck to the northern tower from where visitors ascend to level 4 by lift before crossing the high level walkways to the southern tower In the towers and walkways is an exhibition on the history of the bridge The walkways also provide views over the city the Tower of London and the Pool of London and include a glass floored section From the south tower visitors can visit the engine rooms with the original steam engines which are situated in a separate building beside the southern approach to the bridge 65 Reaction Edit Aerial view of Tower Bridge Aerial view at night with bridge open Although Tower Bridge is an undoubted landmark professional commentators in the early 20th century were critical of its aesthetics It represents the vice of tawdriness and pretentiousness and of falsification of the actual facts of the structure wrote Henry Heathcote Statham 66 while Frank Brangwyn stated that A more absurd structure than the Tower Bridge was never thrown across a strategic river 67 Benjamin Crisler the New York Times film critic wrote in 1938 Three unique and valuable institutions the British have that we in America have not Magna Carta the Tower Bridge and Alfred Hitchcock 68 Architectural historian Dan Cruickshank selected Tower Bridge as one of his four choices for the 2002 BBC television documentary series Britain s Best Buildings 69 70 Tower Bridge has been mistaken for the next bridge upstream London Bridge 71 A popular urban legend is that in 1968 Robert P McCulloch the purchaser of the old London Bridge that was later shipped to Lake Havasu City in Arizona believed that he was in fact buying Tower Bridge This was denied by McCulloch himself and has been debunked by Ivan Luckin the vendor of the bridge 72 A partial replica of Tower Bridge has been built in the city of Suzhou in China The replica differs from the original in having no lifting mechanism and four separate towers 73 The Suzhou replica was renovated in 2019 giving it a new look that differs from the original London design 74 Incidents EditOn 10 August 1912 the pioneering stunt pilot Francis McClean flew between the bascules and the high level walkways in his Short Brothers S 33 floatplane McClean became a celebrity overnight because of the stunt and went on to fly underneath London Bridge Blackfriars Bridge and Waterloo Bridge 75 76 On 3 August 1922 a 13 year old boy fell off a slipway next to the south side of Tower Bridge A man jumped into the Thames to save him but both were pulled under a barge by Butler s Wharf and drowned 77 In December 1952 the bridge opened while a number 78 double decker bus was crossing from the south bank At that time the gateman would ring a warning bell and close the gates when the bridge was clear before the watchman ordered the raising of the bridge The process failed while a relief watchman was on duty The bus was near the edge of the south bascule when it started to rise driver Albert Gunter made a split second decision to accelerate clearing a 3 foot 0 91 m gap to drop 6 feet 1 8 m onto the north bascule which had not yet started to rise There were no serious injuries Gunter was given 10 equivalent to 310 in 2021 18 by the City Corporation to honour his act of bravery 78 79 On 5 April 1968 a Royal Air Force Hawker Hunter FGA 9 jet fighter from No 1 Squadron made an unauthorised flight through Tower Bridge Unimpressed that senior staff were not going to celebrate the RAF s 50th birthday with a flypast the pilot flew at low altitude down the Thames without authorisation past the Houses of Parliament and continued on towards the bridge He flew beneath the walkway at an estimated 300 miles per hour 480 km h He was placed under arrest upon landing and discharged from the RAF on medical grounds without the chance to defend himself at a court martial 80 81 On 31 July 1973 a single engined Beagle Pup was twice flown under the pedestrian walkway of Tower Bridge by 29 year old stockbroker s clerk Peter Martin Martin who was on bail following accusations of stock market fraud then buzzed buildings in the city before flying north towards the Lake District where he died when his aircraft crashed some two hours later 82 83 In May 1997 the motorcade of United States President Bill Clinton was divided by the opening of the bridge The Thames sailing barge Gladys on her way to a gathering at St Katharine Docks arrived on schedule and the bridge was opened for her Returning from a Thames side lunch at Le Pont de la Tour restaurant with UK Prime Minister Tony Blair President Clinton was less punctual and arrived just as the bridge was rising The bridge opening split the motorcade in two much to the consternation of security staff A spokesman for Tower Bridge is quoted as saying We tried to contact the American Embassy but they wouldn t answer the phone 84 On 19 August 1999 Jef Smith a Freeman of the City of London drove a flock of two sheep across the bridge He was exercising a claimed ancient permission granted as a right to freemen to make a point about the powers of older citizens and the way their rights were being eroded 85 Before dawn on 31 October 2003 David Chick a Fathers 4 Justice campaigner climbed a 100 foot 30 m tower crane near Tower Bridge at the start of a six day protest dressed as Spider Man 86 Fearing for his safety and that of motorists should he fall police cordoned off the area closing the bridge and surrounding roads and causing widespread traffic congestion across the City and East London David Mellor criticised the Metropolitan Police for the inconvenience of the cordon in place 87 88 On 11 May 2009 six people were trapped and injured after a lift fell 10 feet 3 m inside the north tower 89 On 9 August 2021 the bridge remained open after a technical failure 90 The bridge had opened to let the Jubilee Trust Tall Ship through from 2 p m before getting stuck 91 92 The bridge was closed and reopened to traffic approximately 12 hours later 93 Gallery Edit See also Edit London portal List of bridges in London Crossings of the River Thames Moveable bridges Pool of LondonHistoric places adjacent to Tower Bridge Edit HMS Belfast London Bridge Shad Thames St Katharine Docks Tower of London Comparison of the side elevations of the Tower Bridge and some notable bridges at the same scale click for interactive version References EditCitations Edit Portman Derek 2004 Henry Marc Brunel Civil Engineer Construction History 20 71 83 JSTOR 41613878 A100 Roader s Digest The SABRE Wiki The Society for All British and Irish Road Enthusiasts a b Bracken 2011 p 56 Welch Barry amp Benham 1894 p 159 Welch Barry amp Benham 1894 pp 158 160 a b c d e Weinreb et al 2008 p 922 Roberts 2005 p 148 Bridge House Estates Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 1 July 2021 Thames Bridges Tower Bridge Victorian London Retrieved 29 June 2021 Further communication across the Thames at this point had been urgently needed for many years The necessary Act was passed in 1885 the foundation stone laid by the Prince of Wales on June 21 1886 and the work completed at a cost of about a million sterling in 1894 a b c The Opening Of The Towerbridge The Times 2 July 1894 p 11 Retrieved 23 June 2021 The Divers Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 23 June 2021 Welch Barry amp Benham 1894 p 219 Sir William Arrol Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 24 June 2021 a b c d e f g Tower Bridge 1994 p 47 Jepson amp Porges 2014 Jones 2005 p 285 a b Roberts 2005 p 150 a b UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark Gregory 2017 The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain 1209 to Present New Series MeasuringWorth Retrieved 11 June 2022 a b Robins 2017 p 17 Smith 2001 pp 22 23 a b Smith Oliver 8 January 2018 Tower Bridge fascinating facts and figures The Telegraph Archived from the original on 11 January 2022 Rough Guides 1998 p 152 Hickman Matt 12 November 2014 Vertigo calling Walkways at London s Tower Bridge outfitted with glass floors Mother Nature Network Retrieved 24 October 2019 Milne 2020 p 153 The Tower Bridge Engine Forncett Industrial Steam Museum Archived from the original on 25 February 2010 Retrieved 27 February 2007 Historic England Tower Bridge that part that lies within the Borough of Southwark 1385980 National Heritage List for England Retrieved 24 October 2019 Historic England Tower Bridge that part that lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets 1357515 National Heritage List for England Retrieved 24 October 2019 Weinreb et al 2008 p 923 London s Tower Bridge Phoenix Hydraulics Retrieved 24 October 2014 The Firm BHA Cromwell House G M Beresford Hartwell Retrieved 30 June 2015 Hartwell Geoffrey Tower Bridge London Archived from the original on 8 December 2013 Retrieved 27 February 2007 a b About Us Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 14 July 2015 Waller Martin 12 September 2000 Tower Bridge stays down The Times p 31 Retrieved 14 September 2020 a b Fix to stop bridge getting stuck BBC News 17 January 2006 Retrieved 25 September 2007 a b c Tower Bridge restored to true colours Tower Bridge Restoration Harris Digital Productions 10 March 2010 Retrieved 8 February 2017 a b Finishing touches to Tower Bridge Tower Bridge Restoration Harris Digital Productions Retrieved 8 February 2017 Tower Bridge to get 4m facelift BBC News 7 April 2008 Retrieved 8 April 2008 Tower Bridge lighting Interior Event amp Exhibition Lighting Design scheme ES Lighting Design 29 April 2009 Retrieved 27 August 2009 Tower Bridge is London s Latest Venue Classic FM Retrieved 28 May 2013 Tower Bridge as a musical instrument Classical Music com Retrieved 28 May 2013 Topping Alexandra 13 August 2012 London 2012 let the Paralympics preparations begin The Guardian London Retrieved 18 August 2012 Tower Bridge closure Transport for London Archived from the original on 11 October 2016 Tower Bridge closes until December for maintenance work BBC News 1 October 2016 Retrieved 28 January 2020 Cohen 2014 p 50 Langmead amp Garnaut 2001 p 345 a b London s Tower Bridge Phoenix Hydraulics Retrieved 28 January 2020 11 Secret Features of Famous London Landmarks Londonist 20 October 2015 Bridge History Tower Bridge City of London Corporation 1 February 2003 Archived from the original on 20 June 2012 Retrieved 13 June 2012 Obituary Hamilton Owen Rendel The Times 19 September 1902 p 8 Retrieved 24 June 2021 Spencer Silver amp Stephens 2005 p 85 a b Peacock 2011 p 24 History William Sugg amp Co Westminster gas lighting cooking heating appliance manufacturer Peacock 2011 p 25 Engine Rooms Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 30 January 2020 Fleet Sail Royal Greenwich Nautisch Evenementen Bureau Archived from the original on 9 October 2012 Transport for London cracks down on damage to Tower Bridge Transport for London 6 February 2007 Retrieved 24 October 2019 a b Speed Check Services Bridge Protection Scheme PDF Archived from the original PDF on 31 March 2012 Retrieved 18 November 2010 London s Greatest Bridges 2021 Bridge Lifts Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Archived from the original on 12 September 2007 Retrieved 25 September 2007 Bridge Lift Times Tower Bridge Exhibition City of London Retrieved 10 November 2014 How often does Tower Bridge open Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 29 December 2020 Tower Bridge Exhibition Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Archived from the original on 12 November 2010 Retrieved 18 November 2010 Getting Here Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 2 July 2021 Have your say on Cycle Superhighway Route 4 from Tower Bridge to Greenwich Transport for London 1 August 2019 Retrieved 28 June 2021 Step Inside Tower Bridge City of London Corporation Retrieved 14 July 2015 Smith 1953 p 153 Wade 2016 p 129 Crisler B R 12 June 1938 Hitchcock Master Melodramatist The New York Times Cruickshank Dan 1 November 2002 Choosing Britain s Best Buildings BBC History Archived from the original on 13 May 2007 Retrieved 3 June 2008 Britain s Best Buildings 2002 Frommer amp Cochran 2007 p 184 How London Bridge was sold to the States Watford Observer 27 March 2002 Retrieved 13 June 2012 Silk Michael Manley Andrew 3 June 2014 From Tower Bridge to Sydney Harbour welcome to China s city of clones The Guardian Retrieved 14 July 2015 Renovations of Tower Bridge in Suzhou nears completion China Plus 30 January 2019 Retrieved 9 November 2020 Stewart 1964 p 40 Butt Gerald 25 February 2013 Frank McClean Forgotten pioneer of the sky BBC News Retrieved 25 June 2021 Man And Boy Drowned At Tower Bridge The Times 4 August 1922 p 5 Retrieved 14 September 2020 The Jumping Bus Time 12 January 1953 Archived from the original on 22 December 2008 Leafe David 19 April 2011 Tower Bridge a towering boy s toy Daily Telegraph Archived from the original on 11 January 2022 Retrieved 14 September 2020 Shaw 1985 p 157 sfn error no target CITEREFShaw1985 help RAF fighter buzzes Thames bridges The Times 6 April 1968 p 2 Retrieved 14 September 2020 Beagle Pup G AXIC Keswick www yorkshire aircraft co uk Gives Suicide Plan To Crash Plane into Tower of London Dies in Crash 240 Miles Away Lundington Daily News 1 August 1973 Retrieved 14 February 2010 Shore John July 1997 Gladys takes the rise out of Bill Regatta Online 100 Retrieved 25 September 2007 Protest Freeman herds sheep over Tower Bridge BBC News 19 August 1999 Retrieved 6 November 2009 Spiderman protest closes Tower Bridge BBC News 31 October 2003 Retrieved 31 October 2008 Spiderman cordon criticised BBC News 3 November 2003 Retrieved 31 October 2008 Spiderman cleared over protest BBC News 14 May 2004 Retrieved 31 October 2008 Six injured in Tower Bridge lift BBC News 11 May 2009 Retrieved 14 September 2020 London s Tower Bridge stuck open after technical failure BBC News 9 August 2021 Retrieved 9 August 2021 Tower Bridge is stuck open after technical fault Retrieved 9 August 2021 Tower Bridge reopens after 11 hours of being stuck open because of technical fault MyLondon Reach plc Retrieved 9 August 2021 London s Tower Bridge reopens after technical failure BBC News 9 August 2021 Retrieved 10 August 2021 Sources Edit Books Edit Bamber Judith ed 1998 Europe Rough Guides ISBN 978 1 858 28348 7 Bracken G Byrne 2011 Walking Tour London Sketches of the city s architectural treasures Journey Through London s Urban Landscapes Marshall Cavendish ISBN 978 9 814 43536 9 Cohen Robert D 2014 The History and Science of Elevation Troubador Publishing ISBN 978 1 783 06325 3 Frommer Pauline Cochran Jason 2007 Pauline Frommer s London Frommer s ISBN 978 0 470 05228 0 Jepson Tim Porges Larry 2014 London Book of Lists The City s Best Worst Oldest Greatest and Quirkiest National Geographic Society ISBN 9781426213823 Jones Nigel R 2005 Architecture of England Scotland and Wales Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 978 0 313 31850 4 Langmead Donald Garnaut Christine 2001 Encyclopedia of Architectural and Engineering Feats ABC Clio ISBN 978 1 576 07112 0 Milne Gustav 2020 The Thames at War Saving London From the Blitz Pen and Sword ISBN 978 1 526 7 6805 6 Peacock Chris 2011 Tower Bridge London 10 Amazing Bridges Andrews UK Limited pp 24 26 ISBN 978 1 849 89386 2 Roberts Christ 2005 Cross River Traffic A History of London s Bridges Granta Books ISBN 978 1 862 07800 0 Robins Chris 2017 The Ships That Came to the Pool of London From the Roman Galley to HMS Belfast Amberley Publishing ISBN 978 1 445 66462 0 Shaw Michael 1986 No 1 Squadron Ian Allan p 157 Smith Denis 2001 Civil Engineering Heritage London and the Thames Valley Thomas Telford ISBN 0 7277 2876 8 Smith Hubert Shirley 1953 The World s Great Bridges Phoenix House p 153 Spencer Silver Patricia Stephens John Hall 2005 Tower Bridge to Babylon The Life and Work of Sir John Jackson Civil Engineer Six Martlets Publishing for the Newcomen Society ISBN 978 0 954 48561 0 Stewart Oliver 1964 Of Flight and Flyers An Aerospace Anthology Newnes p 40 Wade John 2016 The Ingenious Victorians Weird and Wonderful Ideas from the Age of Innovation Pen and Sword ISBN 978 1 473 84902 0 Weinreb Ben Hibbert Christopher Keay John Keay Julia 2008 The London Encyclopaedia 3rd ed Pan Macmillan ISBN 978 1 405 04924 5 Welch Charles Barry John Wolfe Benham William 1894 History of the Tower Bridge and of Other Bridges Over the Thames Built by the Corporation of London Including an Account of the Bridge House Trust from the Twelfth Century Smith Elder and Company Journals Edit Tower Bridge Archive the Quarterly Journal for British Industrial and Transport History Lightmoor Press 3 1994 ISSN 1352 7991 Winchester Clarence ed 13 July 1937 Building the Tower Bridge Wonders of World Engineering London Amalgamated Press 1 20 575 580 Television Edit Cruickshank Dan 2 November 2002 Tower Bridge Britain s Best Buildings Season 1 Episode 1 BBC Bell Rob 13 January 2021 Tower Bridge Gateway to London London s Greatest Bridges Season 1 Episode 2 Channel 5 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Tower Bridge Official Tower Bridge Exhibition website Bridge Lift Times Video showing the interior of a bascule chamber as the bridge lifts Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tower Bridge amp oldid 1092308879, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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