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For other uses, see Trafalgar Square (disambiguation).

Trafalgar Square ( ) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. At its centre a high column bearing a statue of Admiral Nelson commemorates his victory at Battle of Trafalgar, the British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar.

Trafalgar Square
View of the square in 2009
Location within Central London
Former name(s) Charing Cross
Namesake Battle of Trafalgar
Maintained by Greater London Authority
Location City of Westminster, London, England
Postal code WC2
Coordinates51°30′29″N00°07′41″W /51.50806°N 0.12806°W /51.50806; -0.12806Coordinates: 51°30′29″N00°07′41″W /51.50806°N 0.12806°W /51.50806; -0.12806
North Charing Cross Road
East The Strand
South Northumberland Avenue
Whitehall
West The Mall
Construction
Completion c. 1840
Other
Designer Sir Charles Barry
Websitewww.london.gov.uk/trafalgarsquare

The site around Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 1200s. For centuries, distances measured from Charing Cross have served as location markers. The site of the present square formerly contained the elaborately designed, enclosed courtyard, King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson's Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999. Prominent buildings facing the square include the National Gallery, St Martin-in-the-Fields, Canada House, and South Africa House.

The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday in 1887, the culmination of the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, and campaigns against climate change. A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve. It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removal in the early 21st century.

Contents

The square is named after the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, southwest Spain, although it was not named as such until 1835.

The name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar (طرف الغار 'cape of the cave/laurel') or Taraf al-Gharb (طرف الغرب 'extremity of the west').

Trafalgar Square is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown and managed by the Greater London Authority, while Westminster City Council owns the roads around the square, including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace. The square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square form part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London. Originally having roadways on all four sides, traffic travelled in both directions around the square until a one-way clockwise gyratory system was introduced on 26 April 1926. Works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic.

Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939 (replacements for two of Peterhead granite, now in Canada) and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer. At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson, who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar.

Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields Church to the east. Also on the east is South Africa House, and facing it across the square is Canada House. To the south west is The Mall, which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east. Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery and the church.

London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square. The lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line, which was rerouted to Westminster in 1999. Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines.

London bus routes 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453 are only some among the bus routes that pass through Trafalgar Square.

A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital.

Trafalgar Square, 1908
A 360-degree view of Trafalgar Square in 2009
A painting by James Pollard showing the square before the erection of Nelson's Column

Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial period. Among the findings were the remains of cave lions, rhinoceroses, straight-tusked elephants and hippopotami.

The site has been significant since the 13th century. During Edward I's reign it hosted the King's Mews, running north from the T-junction in the south, Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City meets Whitehall coming north from Westminster. From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. The name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting; "mew" is an old word for this. After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace.

Clearance and development

After 1732, the King's Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent. Its site is occupied by the National Gallery.

In 1826 the Commissioners of H.M. Woods, Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, and as far east as St Martin's Lane. His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy. The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road (now called Duncannon Street) across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields. The Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after. Nash died soon after construction started, impeding its progress. The square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830. Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the French and Spanish in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars.

Ten frames of Trafalgar Square shot by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1890

After the clearance, development progressed slowly. The National Gallery was built on the north side between 1832 and 1838 to a design by William Wilkins, and in 1837 the Treasury approved Wilkins' plan for the laying out of the square, but it was not put into effect. In April 1840, following Wilkins' death, new plans by Charles Barry were accepted, and construction started within weeks. For Barry, as for Wilkins, a major consideration was increasing the visual impact of the National Gallery, which had been widely criticised for its lack of grandeur. He dealt with the complex sloping site by excavating the main area to the level of the footway between Cockspur Street and the Strand, and constructing a 15-foot (4.6 m) high balustraded terrace with a roadway on the north side, and steps at each end leading to the main level. Wilkins had proposed a similar solution with a central flight of steps. Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting. One of the original lanterns was hollowed out and converted into a police observation room, opening on 19 March 1928. All the stonework was of Aberdeen granite.

In 1841 it was decided that two fountains should be included in the layout. The estimated budget, excluding paving and sculptures, was £11,000. The earth removed was used to level Green Park. The square was originally surfaced with tarmacadam, which was replaced with stone in the 1920s.

Trafalgar Square was opened to the public on 1 May 1844.

Nelson's Column

The lions at Nelson's Column were not finished until nearly 30 years after the square opened.

Nelson's Column was planned independently of Barry's work. In 1838 a Nelson Memorial Committee had approached the government proposing that a monument to the victory of Trafalgar, funded by public subscription, should be erected in the square. A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton, who proposed a 218-foot-3-inch (66.52 m) Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions. The design was approved, but received widespread objections from the public. Construction went ahead beginning in 1840 but with the height reduced to 145 feet 3 inches (44.27 m). The column was completed and the statue raised in November 1843.

The last of the bronze reliefs on the column's pedestals was not completed until May 1854, and the four lions, although part of the original design, were only added in 1867. Each lion weighs seven tons. A hoarding remained around the base of Nelson's Column for some years and some of its upper scaffolding remained in place. Landseer, the sculptor, had asked for a lion that had died at the London Zoo to be brought to his studio. He took so long to complete sketches that its corpse began to decompose and some parts had to be improvised. The statues have paws that resemble cats more than lions.

Barry was unhappy about Nelson's Column being placed in the square. In July 1840, when its foundations had been laid, he told a parliamentary select committee that "it would in my opinion be desirable that the area should be wholly free from all insulated objects of art".

In 1940 the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin after an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972).

The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996.

Terrorist bombings

The square was the target of two suffragette bombings in 1913 and 1914. This was as part of the suffragette bombing and arson campaign of 1912–1914, in which suffragettes carried out a series of politically-motivated bombing and arson attacks nationwide as part of their campaign for women's suffrage.

The first attack occurred on 15 May 1913. A bomb was planted in the public area outside the National Gallery, but failed to explode. A second attack occurred at St Martin-in-the-Fields church at the north-east corner of the square one 4 April 1914. A bomb exploded inside the church, blowing out the windows and showering passers-by with broken glass. The bomb then started a fire. In the aftermath, a mass of people rushed to the scene, many of whom aggressively expressed their anger towards the suffragettes. Churches were a particular target during the campaign, as it was believed that the Church of England was complicit in reinforcing opposition to women's suffrage. Between 1913 and 1914, 32 churches were attacked nationwide. In the weeks after the bombing, there were also attacks on Westminster Abbey and St Paul's Cathedral.

Redevelopment

A major 18-month redevelopment of the square led by W.S. Atkins with Foster and Partners as sub-consultants was completed in 2003. The work involved closing the eastbound road along the north side and diverting traffic around the other three sides of the square, demolishing the central section of the northern retaining wall and inserting a wide set of steps to the pedestrianised terrace in front of the National Gallery. The construction includes two lifts for disabled access, public toilets and a café. Access between the square and the gallery had been by two crossings at the northeast and northwest corners.

Plinths

Barry's scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square. A bronze equestrian statue of George IV was designed by Sir Francis Chantrey and Thomas Earle. It was originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch, but instead was installed on the eastern plinth in 1843, while the other plinths remained empty until late in the 20th century. There are two other statues on plinths, both installed during the 19th century: General Sir Charles James Napier by George Cannon Adams in the south-west corner in 1855, and Major-General Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes in the south-east in 1861. In 2000, the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, suggested replacing the statues with figures more familiar to the general public.

Fourth plinth

In the 21st century, the empty plinth in the north-west corner of the square, the "Fourth Plinth", has been used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks. The scheme was initiated by the Royal Society of Arts and continued by the Fourth Plinth Commission, appointed by the Mayor of London.

Other sculptures

There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square. Those of Lord Jellicoe (by Sir Charles Wheeler) and Lord Beatty (by William MacMillan) were installed in 1948 in conjunction with the square's fountains, which also commemorate them. The third, of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham (by Franta Belsky) was unveiled alongside them on2 April 1967.

On the south side of Trafalgar Square, on the site of the original Charing Cross, is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. It was cast in 1633, and placed in its present position in 1678.

The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery are the statue of James II (designed by Peter van Dievoet and Laurens van der Meulen for the studio of Grinling Gibbons) to the west of the portico, and of George Washington, a replica of a work by Jean-Antoine Houdon, to the east. The latter was a gift from the Commonwealth of Virginia, installed in 1921.

Two statues erected in the 19th century have since been removed. One of Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, was set up in the south-west corner of the square in 1858, next to that of Napier. Sculpted by William Calder Marshall, it showed Jenner sitting in a chair in a relaxed pose, and was inaugurated at a ceremony presided over by Prince Albert. It was moved to Kensington Gardens in 1862. The other, of General Charles George Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft, was erected on an 18-foot high pedestal between the fountains in 1888. It was removed in 1943 and re-sited on the Victoria Embankment ten years later.

Fountain at Trafalgar Square, 2014

In 1841, following suggestions from the local paving board, Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface. The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly. The fountains were fed from two wells, one in front of the National Gallery and one behind it connected by a tunnel. Water was pumped to the fountains by a steam engine housed in a building behind the gallery.

In the late-1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains. The new centrepieces, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, were memorials to Lord Jellicoe and Lord Beatty, although busts of the admirals, initially intended to be placed in the fountain surrounds were placed against the northern retaining wall when the project was completed after the Second World War. The fountains cost almost £50,000. The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa's Confederation Park and Regina's Wascana Centre.

A programme of restoration was completed byMay 2009. The pump system was replaced with one capable of sending an 80-foot (24 m) jet of water into the air. A LED lighting system that can project different combinations of colours on to the fountains was installed to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance and to coincide with the 2012 Summer Olympics.

People sitting on lions and feeding pigeons in the square, c.1993

The square was once famous for feral pigeons and feeding them was a popular activity. Pigeons began flocking to the square before construction was completed and feed sellers became well known in the Victorian era. The desirability of the birds' presence was contentious: their droppings disfigured the stonework and the flock, estimated at its peak to be 35,000, was considered a health hazard. A stall seller, Bernie Rayner, infamously sold bird seed to tourists at inflated prices.

In February 2001, the sale of bird seed in the square was stopped and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons including the use of birds of prey. Supporters continued to feed the birds but in 2003 the mayor, Ken Livingstone, enacted bylaws to ban feeding them in the square. In September 2007 Westminster City Council passed further bylaws banning feeding birds on the pedestrianised North Terrace and other pavements in the area. Nelson's column was repaired from years of damage from pigeon droppings at a cost of £140,000.

New Year

For many years, revellers celebrating the New Year have gathered in the square despite a lack of celebrations being arranged. The lack of official events was partly because the authorities were concerned that encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding. Since 2003, a firework display centred on the London Eye and South Bank of the Thames has been provided as an alternative. Since 2014, New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority in conjunction with the charity Unicef, who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers. The fireworks display has been cancelled during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an event due to take place in the Square to see in 2022. However the event was cancelled during the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 Omicron variant.

Christmas

The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree in 2008

A Christmas ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947. A Norway spruce (or sometimes a fir) is presented by Norway's capital city, Oslo as London's Christmas tree, a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. (Besides war-time support, Norway's Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London throughout the war.)

The Christmas tree is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony. It is usually held twelve days before Christmas Day. The festivity is open to the public and attracts a large number of people. The switch-on is usually followed by several nights of Christmas carol singing and other performances and events. On the twelfth night of Christmas, the tree is taken down for recycling. Westminster City Council threatened to abandon the event to save £5,000 in 1980 but the decision was reversed.

The tree is selected by the Head Forester from Oslo's municipal forest and shipped, across the North Sea to the Port of Felixstowe, then by road to Trafalgar Square. The first tree was 48 feet (15 m) tall, but more recently has been around 75 feet (23 m). In 1987, protesters chained themselves to the tree. In 1990, a man sawed into the tree with a chainsaw a few hours before a New Year's Eve party was scheduled to take place. He was arrested and the tree was repaired by tree surgeons who removed gouged sections from the trunk while the tree was suspended from a crane.

Political demonstrations

Eva Gore-Booth addressing a rally in Trafalgar Square, part of the Mud March, 9 February 1907

The square has become a social and political focus for visitors and Londoners, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country's foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Since its construction, it has been a venue for political demonstrations. The great Chartist rally in 1848, a campaign for social reform by the working class began in the square. A ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests. On8 February 1886 (also known as "Black Monday"), protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot ("Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on13 November 1887.

The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's first Aldermaston March, protesting against the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), began in the square in 1958. One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons. In March 1968, a crowd of 10,000 demonstrated against US involvement in the Vietnam War before marching to the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square.

Protesting against harassment of photographers under anti-terrorism law, 23 January 2010

Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. In 1990, the Poll Tax Riots began by a demonstration attended by 200,000 people and ultimately caused rioting in the surrounding area. More recently, there have been anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. A large vigil was held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday,7 July 2005.

In December 2009, participants from the Camp for Climate Action occupied the square for the two weeks during which the UN Conference on Climate Change took place in Copenhagen. It was billed as a UK base for direct action on climate change and saw various actions and protests stem from the occupation.

In March 2011, the square was occupied by a crowd protesting against the UK Budget and proposed budget cuts. During the night the situation turned violent as the escalation by riot police and protesters damaged portions of the square. In November 2015 a vigil against the terrorist attacks in Paris was held. Crowds sang the French national anthem, La Marseillaise, and held banners in support of the city and country.

Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar. The Royal British Legion holds a Silence in the Square event on Armistice Day, 11 November, in remembrance of those who died in war. The event includes music and poetry readings, culminating in a bugler playing the Last Post and a two-minute silence at 11 am.

In February 2019, hundreds of students participated in a protest against climate change as a part of the School strike for Climate campaign. The protest started in the nearby Parliament Square, and as the day went on, the demonstrators moved towards Trafalgar Square.

In July 2020, two members of the protest group Animal Rebellion were arrested on suspicion for criminal damage after releasing red dye into the fountains.

In September 2020 anti-lockdown protests opposed to the imposition of regulations relating to the coronavirus outbreak took place in the square.

A police observation box has been in the Square since 1919, originally a wooden freestanding unit, it was replaced by hollowing out a lampstand at the southeastern corner of the Square into a permanent structure in 1928, but decommissioned in the 1970s.

Sport

In the 21st century, Trafalgar Square has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades. In June 2002, 12,000 people gathered to watch England's FIFA World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion. The square was used by England on9 December 2003 to celebrate their victory in the Rugby World Cup, and on13 September 2005 for England's victory in the Ashes series.

On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square hosted the official watch party for London's bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, hosted by Katy Hill and Margherita Taylor. A countdown clock was erected in March 2011, although engineering and weather-related faults caused it to stop a day later. In 2007, it hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France and was part of the course for subsequent races.

Other uses

Trafalgar Square temporarily grassed over in May 2007

The Sea Cadets hold a yearly Battle of Trafalgar victory parade running the north of Whitehall, from Horse Guard's Parade to Nelson's Column.

As an archetypal London location, Trafalgar Square featured in film and television productions during the Swinging London era of the late 1960s, including The Avengers, Casino Royale, Doctor Who, and The Ipcress File. It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus. In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days in a campaign by London authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city.

In July 2011, due to building works in Leicester Square, the world premiere of the final film in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, was held in Trafalgar Square, with a 0.75-mile (1.21 km) red carpet linking the squares. Fans camped in Trafalgar Square for up to three days before the premiere, despite torrential rain. It was the first film premiere ever to be held there.

A Lego architecture set based on Trafalgar Square was released in 2019. It contains models of the National Gallery and Nelson's Column alongside miniature lions, fountains and double-decker buses.

Trafalgar Square is one of the squares on the standard British Monopoly Board. It is in the red set alongside the Strand and Fleet Street.

Several scenes in the dystopian future of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four take place in Trafalgar Square, which was renamed "Victory Square" by the story's totalitarian regime and dominated by the giant statue of Big Brother which replaced Nelson.

The square has seen controversy over busking and street theatre, which have attracted complaints over noise and public safety. In 2012, the Greater London Authority created a bylaw for regulating busking and associated tourism. In 2016, the National Gallery proposed to introduce licensing for such performances.

Trafalgar Square in Sunderland: a group of merchant seamen's almshouses dating from 1840.

A Trafalgar Square in Stepney is recorded in Lockie's Topography of London, published in 1810. Trafalgar Square in Scarborough, North Yorkshire gives its name to the Trafalgar Square End at the town's North Marine Road cricket ground.

The square known as Chelsea Square, London SW3 was at one time known as Trafalgar Square and predated the one in Westminster.

National Heroes Square in Bridgetown, Barbados, was named Trafalgar Square in 1813, before its better-known British namesake. It was renamed in 1999 to commemorate national heroes of Barbados. There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town, Lahore, Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents.

Notes

  1. "Queen in Right of the Crown" is legal fiction denoting the land is privately owned by the Queen and it is legally possible, though unlikely, to be sold to another individual. The Crown Jewels are under similar ownership.
  2. Hitler had specifically requested that all of Rembrandt's paintings in the National Gallery be seized as part of the move, as he particularly admired the artist's work.

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Trafalgar Square Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Trafalgar Square disambiguation Trafalgar Square t r e ˈ f ae l ɡ er tre FAL ger is a public square in the City of Westminster Central London established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross At its centre a high column bearing a statue of Admiral Nelson commemorates his victory at Battle of Trafalgar the British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar Trafalgar SquareView of the square in 2009Location within Central LondonFormer name s Charing CrossNamesakeBattle of TrafalgarMaintained byGreater London AuthorityLocationCity of Westminster London EnglandPostal codeWC2Coordinates51 30 29 N 00 07 41 W 51 50806 N 0 12806 W 51 50806 0 12806 Coordinates 51 30 29 N 00 07 41 W 51 50806 N 0 12806 W 51 50806 0 12806NorthCharing Cross RoadEastThe StrandSouthNorthumberland Avenue WhitehallWestThe MallConstructionCompletionc 1840OtherDesignerSir Charles BarryWebsitewww wbr london wbr gov wbr uk wbr trafalgarsquare The site around Trafalgar Square had been a significant landmark since the 1200s For centuries distances measured from Charing Cross have served as location markers 1 The site of the present square formerly contained the elaborately designed enclosed courtyard King s Mews After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace the area was redeveloped by John Nash but progress was slow after his death and the square did not open until 1844 The 169 foot 52 m Nelson s Column at its centre is guarded by four lion statues A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square but the Fourth Plinth left empty since 1840 has been host to contemporary art since 1999 Prominent buildings facing the square include the National Gallery St Martin in the Fields Canada House and South Africa House The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations including Bloody Sunday in 1887 the culmination of the first Aldermaston March anti war protests and campaigns against climate change A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas Day The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year s Eve It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removal in the early 21st century Contents 1 Name 2 Geography 3 History 3 1 Clearance and development 3 2 Nelson s Column 3 3 Terrorist bombings 3 4 Redevelopment 4 Statues and monuments 4 1 Plinths 4 1 1 Fourth plinth 4 2 Other sculptures 5 Fountains 6 Pigeons 7 Events 7 1 New Year 7 2 Christmas 7 3 Political demonstrations 7 4 Sport 7 5 Other uses 8 Cultural references 9 Other Trafalgar Squares 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksName EditThe square is named after the Battle of Trafalgar a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars with France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar southwest Spain although it was not named as such until 1835 2 The name Trafalgar is a Spanish word of Arabic origin derived from either Taraf al Ghar طرف الغار cape of the cave laurel 3 4 5 or Taraf al Gharb طرف الغرب extremity of the west 6 5 Geography EditTrafalgar Square is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown a and managed by the Greater London Authority while Westminster City Council owns the roads around the square including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace 8 The square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north in front of the National Gallery The roads around the square form part of the A4 a major road running west of the City of London 9 Originally having roadways on all four sides traffic travelled in both directions around the square until a one way clockwise gyratory system was introduced on 26 April 1926 10 Works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic 11 Nelson s Column is in the centre of the square flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939 12 replacements for two of Peterhead granite now in Canada and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer 13 At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar Surrounding the square are the National Gallery on the north side and St Martin in the Fields Church to the east 13 Also on the east is South Africa House and facing it across the square is Canada House To the south west is The Mall which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery and the church 9 London Underground s Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square The lines had separate stations of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line 14 which was rerouted to Westminster in 1999 15 Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District Circle Northern and Bakerloo lines and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines 16 London bus routes 3 6 9 11 12 13 15 23 24 29 53 87 88 91 139 159 176 453 are only some among the bus routes that pass through Trafalgar Square 17 A point in Trafalgar Square is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and when measuring distances from the capital 18 Trafalgar Square 1908 A 360 degree view of Trafalgar Square in 2009History Edit A painting by James Pollard showing the square before the erection of Nelson s Column Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial period Among the findings were the remains of cave lions rhinoceroses straight tusked elephants and hippopotami 19 20 21 The site has been significant since the 13th century During Edward I s reign it hosted the King s Mews running north from the T junction in the south Charing Cross where the Strand from the City meets Whitehall coming north from Westminster 2 From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII the mews was at the western end of the Strand The name Royal Mews comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting mew is an old word for this After a fire in 1534 the mews were rebuilt as stables and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace 22 Clearance and development Edit After 1732 the King s Mews were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables a large block built to the designs of William Kent Its site is occupied by the National Gallery 23 In 1826 the Commissioners of H M Woods Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent s stable block and as far east as St Martin s Lane His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square except for a block in the centre which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy 24 The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin s Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road now called Duncannon Street across the churchyard of St Martin in the Fields 25 The Charing Cross Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after 24 Nash died soon after construction started impeding its progress The square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830 26 Around 1835 it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor commemorating Nelson s victory over the French and Spanish in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars 2 27 Ten frames of Trafalgar Square shot by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1890 After the clearance development progressed slowly The National Gallery was built on the north side between 1832 and 1838 to a design by William Wilkins 24 and in 1837 the Treasury approved Wilkins plan for the laying out of the square but it was not put into effect 28 In April 1840 following Wilkins death new plans by Charles Barry were accepted and construction started within weeks 24 29 For Barry as for Wilkins a major consideration was increasing the visual impact of the National Gallery which had been widely criticised for its lack of grandeur He dealt with the complex sloping site by excavating the main area to the level of the footway between Cockspur Street and the Strand 30 and constructing a 15 foot 4 6 m high balustraded terrace with a roadway on the north side and steps at each end leading to the main level 29 Wilkins had proposed a similar solution with a central flight of steps 28 Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting One of the original lanterns was hollowed out and converted into a police observation room opening on 19 March 1928 31 All the stonework was of Aberdeen granite 29 In 1841 it was decided that two fountains should be included in the layout 32 The estimated budget excluding paving and sculptures was 11 000 29 The earth removed was used to level Green Park 30 The square was originally surfaced with tarmacadam which was replaced with stone in the 1920s 33 Trafalgar Square was opened to the public on 1 May 1844 34 Nelson s Column Edit Nelson s Column The lions at Nelson s Column were not finished until nearly 30 years after the square opened Nelson s Column was planned independently of Barry s work In 1838 a Nelson Memorial Committee had approached the government proposing that a monument to the victory of Trafalgar funded by public subscription should be erected in the square A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton who proposed a 218 foot 3 inch 66 52 m Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions The design was approved but received widespread objections from the public Construction went ahead beginning in 1840 but with the height reduced to 145 feet 3 inches 44 27 m 35 The column was completed and the statue raised in November 1843 36 The last of the bronze reliefs on the column s pedestals was not completed until May 1854 and the four lions although part of the original design were only added in 1867 37 Each lion weighs seven tons 38 A hoarding remained around the base of Nelson s Column for some years and some of its upper scaffolding remained in place 39 Landseer the sculptor had asked for a lion that had died at the London Zoo to be brought to his studio He took so long to complete sketches that its corpse began to decompose and some parts had to be improvised The statues have paws that resemble cats more than lions 40 Barry was unhappy about Nelson s Column being placed in the square In July 1840 when its foundations had been laid he told a parliamentary select committee that it would in my opinion be desirable that the area should be wholly free from all insulated objects of art 29 In 1940 the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson s Column to Berlin b after an expected German invasion as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen 1972 41 The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996 42 Terrorist bombings Edit See also Suffragette bombing and arson campaign The square was the target of two suffragette bombings in 1913 and 1914 This was as part of the suffragette bombing and arson campaign of 1912 1914 in which suffragettes carried out a series of politically motivated bombing and arson attacks nationwide as part of their campaign for women s suffrage 43 The first attack occurred on 15 May 1913 A bomb was planted in the public area outside the National Gallery but failed to explode 44 A second attack occurred at St Martin in the Fields church at the north east corner of the square one 4 April 1914 A bomb exploded inside the church blowing out the windows and showering passers by with broken glass The bomb then started a fire 45 46 In the aftermath a mass of people rushed to the scene many of whom aggressively expressed their anger towards the suffragettes 45 Churches were a particular target during the campaign as it was believed that the Church of England was complicit in reinforcing opposition to women s suffrage 47 Between 1913 and 1914 32 churches were attacked nationwide 48 In the weeks after the bombing there were also attacks on Westminster Abbey and St Paul s Cathedral 43 Redevelopment Edit A major 18 month redevelopment of the square led by W S Atkins with Foster and Partners as sub consultants was completed in 2003 The work involved closing the eastbound road along the north side and diverting traffic around the other three sides of the square demolishing the central section of the northern retaining wall and inserting a wide set of steps to the pedestrianised terrace in front of the National Gallery The construction includes two lifts for disabled access public toilets and a cafe Access between the square and the gallery had been by two crossings at the northeast and northwest corners 49 50 Statues and monuments EditMain article List of public art in Trafalgar Square and the vicinity Plinths Edit The statue of Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes Barry s scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square 51 A bronze equestrian statue of George IV was designed by Sir Francis Chantrey and Thomas Earle It was originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch but instead was installed on the eastern plinth in 1843 while the other plinths remained empty until late in the 20th century 52 24 53 There are two other statues on plinths both installed during the 19th century General Sir Charles James Napier by George Cannon Adams in the south west corner in 1855 and Major General Sir Henry Havelock by William Behnes in the south east in 1861 24 In 2000 the Mayor of London Ken Livingstone suggested replacing the statues with figures more familiar to the general public 54 Fourth plinth Edit Main article Fourth plinth Trafalgar Square In the 21st century the empty plinth in the north west corner of the square the Fourth Plinth has been used to show specially commissioned temporary artworks The scheme was initiated by the Royal Society of Arts and continued by the Fourth Plinth Commission appointed by the Mayor of London 55 Other sculptures Edit There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square Those of Lord Jellicoe by Sir Charles Wheeler and Lord Beatty by William MacMillan were installed in 1948 in conjunction with the square s fountains which also commemorate them 56 57 The third of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham by Franta Belsky was unveiled alongside them on 2 April 1967 58 On the south side of Trafalgar Square on the site of the original Charing Cross is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur It was cast in 1633 and placed in its present position in 1678 59 The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery are the statue of James II designed by Peter van Dievoet 60 and Laurens van der Meulen for the studio of Grinling Gibbons 61 to the west of the portico and of George Washington a replica of a work by Jean Antoine Houdon to the east 50 The latter was a gift from the Commonwealth of Virginia installed in 1921 62 Two statues erected in the 19th century have since been removed One of Edward Jenner pioneer of the smallpox vaccine was set up in the south west corner of the square in 1858 next to that of Napier Sculpted by William Calder Marshall it showed Jenner sitting in a chair in a relaxed pose and was inaugurated at a ceremony presided over by Prince Albert It was moved to Kensington Gardens in 1862 63 64 The other of General Charles George Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft was erected on an 18 foot high pedestal between the fountains in 1888 It was removed in 1943 and re sited on the Victoria Embankment ten years later 65 Fountains Edit Fountain at Trafalgar Square 2014 In 1841 following suggestions from the local paving board Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly 66 The fountains were fed from two wells one in front of the National Gallery and one behind it connected by a tunnel Water was pumped to the fountains by a steam engine housed in a building behind the gallery 24 In the late 1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains The new centrepieces designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens were memorials to Lord Jellicoe and Lord Beatty although busts of the admirals initially intended to be placed in the fountain surrounds were placed against the northern retaining wall when the project was completed after the Second World War 67 The fountains cost almost 50 000 The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa s Confederation Park and Regina s Wascana Centre 68 69 A programme of restoration was completed by May 2009 The pump system was replaced with one capable of sending an 80 foot 24 m jet of water into the air 70 A LED lighting system that can project different combinations of colours on to the fountains was installed to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance and to coincide with the 2012 Summer Olympics 68 Pigeons EditSee also Save the Trafalgar Square Pigeons People sitting on lions and feeding pigeons in the square c 1993 The square was once famous for feral pigeons and feeding them was a popular activity Pigeons began flocking to the square before construction was completed and feed sellers became well known in the Victorian era 71 The desirability of the birds presence was contentious their droppings disfigured the stonework and the flock estimated at its peak to be 35 000 was considered a health hazard 72 73 A stall seller Bernie Rayner infamously sold bird seed to tourists at inflated prices 74 In February 2001 the sale of bird seed in the square was stopped 72 and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons including the use of birds of prey 75 Supporters continued to feed the birds but in 2003 the mayor Ken Livingstone enacted bylaws to ban feeding them in the square 76 In September 2007 Westminster City Council passed further bylaws banning feeding birds on the pedestrianised North Terrace and other pavements in the area 77 Nelson s column was repaired from years of damage from pigeon droppings at a cost of 140 000 74 Events EditNew Year Edit For many years revellers celebrating the New Year have gathered in the square despite a lack of celebrations being arranged The lack of official events was partly because the authorities were concerned that encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding Since 2003 a firework display centred on the London Eye and South Bank of the Thames has been provided as an alternative Since 2014 New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority in conjunction with the charity Unicef who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers 78 The fireworks display has been cancelled during the COVID 19 pandemic with an event due to take place in the Square to see in 2022 79 However the event was cancelled during the spread of the SARS Cov 2 Omicron variant 80 Christmas Edit See also Trafalgar Square Christmas tree The Trafalgar Square Christmas tree in 2008 A Christmas ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947 81 A Norway spruce or sometimes a fir is presented by Norway s capital city Oslo as London s Christmas tree a token of gratitude for Britain s support during World War II 81 Besides war time support Norway s Prince Olav and the country s government lived in exile in London throughout the war 81 The Christmas tree is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony 82 It is usually held twelve days before Christmas Day The festivity is open to the public and attracts a large number of people 83 The switch on is usually followed by several nights of Christmas carol singing and other performances and events 84 On the twelfth night of Christmas the tree is taken down for recycling Westminster City Council threatened to abandon the event to save 5 000 in 1980 but the decision was reversed 81 The tree is selected by the Head Forester from Oslo s municipal forest and shipped across the North Sea to the Port of Felixstowe then by road to Trafalgar Square The first tree was 48 feet 15 m tall but more recently has been around 75 feet 23 m In 1987 protesters chained themselves to the tree 81 In 1990 a man sawed into the tree with a chainsaw a few hours before a New Year s Eve party was scheduled to take place He was arrested and the tree was repaired by tree surgeons who removed gouged sections from the trunk while the tree was suspended from a crane 85 Political demonstrations Edit Eva Gore Booth addressing a rally in Trafalgar Square part of the Mud March 9 February 1907 The square has become a social and political focus for visitors and Londoners developing over its history from an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes into the country s foremost place politique as historian Rodney Mace has written Since its construction it has been a venue for political demonstrations 50 The great Chartist rally in 1848 a campaign for social reform by the working class began in the square 50 A ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s when the emerging Labour movement particularly the Social Democratic Federation began holding protests On 8 February 1886 also known as Black Monday protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall A larger riot Bloody Sunday occurred in the square on 13 November 1887 86 The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament s first Aldermaston March protesting against the Atomic Weapons Establishment AWE began in the square in 1958 50 One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100 which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons In March 1968 a crowd of 10 000 demonstrated against US involvement in the Vietnam War before marching to the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square 87 Protesting against harassment of photographers under anti terrorism law 23 January 2010 Throughout the 1980s a continuous anti apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House In 1990 the Poll Tax Riots began by a demonstration attended by 200 000 people and ultimately caused rioting in the surrounding area 50 More recently there have been anti war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War 88 A large vigil was held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday 7 July 2005 89 In December 2009 participants from the Camp for Climate Action occupied the square for the two weeks during which the UN Conference on Climate Change took place in Copenhagen 90 It was billed as a UK base for direct action on climate change and saw various actions and protests stem from the occupation 91 92 93 In March 2011 the square was occupied by a crowd protesting against the UK Budget and proposed budget cuts During the night the situation turned violent as the escalation by riot police and protesters damaged portions of the square 94 In November 2015 a vigil against the terrorist attacks in Paris was held Crowds sang the French national anthem La Marseillaise and held banners in support of the city and country 95 Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar 21 October the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar 96 The Royal British Legion holds a Silence in the Square event on Armistice Day 11 November in remembrance of those who died in war The event includes music and poetry readings culminating in a bugler playing the Last Post and a two minute silence at 11 am 97 In February 2019 hundreds of students participated in a protest against climate change as a part of the School strike for Climate campaign The protest started in the nearby Parliament Square and as the day went on the demonstrators moved towards Trafalgar Square 98 In July 2020 two members of the protest group Animal Rebellion were arrested on suspicion for criminal damage after releasing red dye into the fountains 99 100 In September 2020 anti lockdown protests opposed to the imposition of regulations relating to the coronavirus outbreak took place in the square 101 A police observation box has been in the Square since 1919 originally a wooden freestanding unit it was replaced by hollowing out a lampstand at the southeastern corner of the Square into a permanent structure in 1928 but decommissioned in the 1970s 102 Sport Edit In the 21st century Trafalgar Square has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades In June 2002 12 000 people gathered to watch England s FIFA World Cup quarter final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion 103 The square was used by England on 9 December 2003 to celebrate their victory in the Rugby World Cup 104 and on 13 September 2005 for England s victory in the Ashes series 105 On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square hosted the official watch party for London s bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics at the 117th IOC Session in Singapore hosted by Katy Hill and Margherita Taylor 106 A countdown clock was erected in March 2011 although engineering and weather related faults caused it to stop a day later 107 In 2007 it hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France 108 and was part of the course for subsequent races 109 Other uses Edit Trafalgar Square temporarily grassed over in May 2007 The Sea Cadets hold a yearly Battle of Trafalgar victory parade running the north of Whitehall from Horse Guard s Parade to Nelson s Column 110 As an archetypal London location Trafalgar Square featured in film and television productions during the Swinging London era of the late 1960s including The Avengers 111 Casino Royale 112 Doctor Who 113 and The Ipcress File 114 It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC comedy series Monty Python s Flying Circus 115 In May 2007 the square was grassed over with 2 000 square metres of turf for two days in a campaign by London authorities to promote green spaces in the city 116 In July 2011 due to building works in Leicester Square the world premiere of the final film in the Harry Potter series Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2 was held in Trafalgar Square with a 0 75 mile 1 21 km red carpet linking the squares Fans camped in Trafalgar Square for up to three days before the premiere despite torrential rain It was the first film premiere ever to be held there 117 Cultural references EditA Lego architecture set based on Trafalgar Square was released in 2019 It contains models of the National Gallery and Nelson s Column alongside miniature lions fountains and double decker buses 118 Trafalgar Square is one of the squares on the standard British Monopoly Board It is in the red set alongside the Strand and Fleet Street 119 Several scenes in the dystopian future of George Orwell s Nineteen Eighty Four take place in Trafalgar Square which was renamed Victory Square by the story s totalitarian regime and dominated by the giant statue of Big Brother which replaced Nelson 120 The square has seen controversy over busking and street theatre which have attracted complaints over noise and public safety 121 In 2012 the Greater London Authority created a bylaw for regulating busking and associated tourism 122 123 In 2016 the National Gallery proposed to introduce licensing for such performances 124 Other Trafalgar Squares Edit Trafalgar Square in Sunderland a group of merchant seamen s almshouses dating from 1840 A Trafalgar Square in Stepney is recorded in Lockie s Topography of London published in 1810 125 Trafalgar Square in Scarborough North Yorkshire gives its name to the Trafalgar Square End at the town s North Marine Road cricket ground 126 The square known as Chelsea Square London SW3 was at one time known as Trafalgar Square and predated the one in Westminster 127 National Heroes Square in Bridgetown Barbados was named Trafalgar Square in 1813 before its better known British namesake It was renamed in 1999 to commemorate national heroes of Barbados 128 There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town Lahore Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents 129 See also EditCanada House Parliament Square South Africa House Bloody Sunday 1887 riots focused on Trafalgar Square List of public art in Trafalgar Square and the vicinityReferences EditNotes Queen in Right of the Crown is legal fiction denoting the land is privately owned by the Queen and it is legally possible though unlikely to be sold to another individual The Crown Jewels are under similar ownership 7 Hitler had specifically requested that all of Rembrandt s paintings in the National Gallery be seized as part of the move as he particularly admired the artist s work 41 Citations BBC Where Is The Centre Of London www bbc co uk Retrieved 9 August 2020 a b c Weinreb et al 2008 p 934 2 15 December 2004 Archived from the original on 15 December 2004 Entry algar in DRAE dictionary a b Richard Burton The Arabian Nights footnote 82 Joseph E Garreau A Cultural Introduction to the Languages of Europe Retrieved 25 March 2019 The convenient fiction of who owns priceless treasure The Guardian 30 May 2002 Archived from 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from the original on 22 December 2015 Retrieved 21 December 2015 Standard tube map PDF Transport for London Archived PDF from the original on 3 January 2016 Retrieved 21 December 2015 Central London Bus Map PDF Transport for London Archived from the original PDF on 13 March 2017 Retrieved 19 December 2015 Where Is The Centre Of London Archived 17 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine BBC Sutcliffe A J 1985 On the track of Ice Age mammals Harvard University Press pp 139 ISBN 978 0674637771 Franks J W 1960 Interglacial deposits at Trafalgar Square London The New Phytologist 59 2 145 150 doi 10 1111 j 1469 8137 1960 tb06212 x JSTOR 2429192 J W Franks 9 September 1959 Interglacial Deposits at Trafalgar Square London New Phytologist 59 2 145 152 doi 10 1111 j 1469 8137 1960 tb06212 x The History of the Royal Mews Royal Collection Trust Archived from the original on 25 November 2015 Retrieved 25 November 2015 Mace 1976 p 29 a b c d e f g G H Gater 1940 F R Hiorns ed Trafalgar Square and the 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1843 Handbook of London Past and Present London John Murray p lxv Archived from the original on 10 March 2016 Retrieved 26 February 2016 Moore 2003 p 177 Mace 1976 p 90 Mace 1976 pp 107 8 Bow Bells A Magazine of General Literature John Dicks 1867 archived from the original on 2 April 2017 retrieved 31 March 2017 Opening of Trafalgar Square The Times 31 July 1839 p 6 The faulty lions of Trafalgar Square The Daily Telegraph Archived from the original on 17 November 2015 Retrieved 16 November 2015 a b Longmate 2012 p 137 Historic England Trafalgar Square 1001362 National Heritage List for England retrieved 11 July 2017 a b Suffragettes violence and militancy British Library Retrieved 2 October 2021 Webb Simon 2014 The Suffragette Bombers Britain s Forgotten Terrorists Pen and Sword p 136 ISBN 978 1 78340 064 5 a b Webb Simon 2014 The Suffragette Bombers Britain s Forgotten Terrorists Pen and Sword p xiii ISBN 978 1 78340 064 5 Bearman C J 2005 An Examination of Suffragette Violence The 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Guardian London Retrieved 25 May 2007 Fourth Plinth Greater London Council Archived from the original on 22 December 2015 Retrieved 21 December 2015 Baker Margatet 2008 Discovering London Statues and Monuments Osprey Publishing p 9 McMillan William 1887 1977 Your Archives The National Archives Retrieved 30 May 2011 Bust of Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope by Franta Belsky Your Archives The National Archives archived from the original on 24 February 2013 retrieved 27 November 2007 John Gorton A Topographical Dictionary of Great Britain and Ireland 1833 p 687 Artistes de pere en fils Site LeVif FR 21 November 2008 Retrieved 9 December 2019 Horace Walpole Anecdotes of painting in England with some account of the principal artists and incidental notes on other arts collected by the late Mr George Vertue and now digested and published from his original MSS by Mr Horace Walpole London 1765 vol III p 91 Gibbons had several disciples and workmen Selden I have mentioned Watson assisted chiefly at Chatsworth where the boys and many of the ornaments in the chapel were executed by him Dievot of Brussels and Laurens of Mechlin were principal journeymen Vertue says they modelled and cast the statue I have mentioned in the privy garden According to David Green in Grinling Gibbons his work as carver and statuary London 1964 one Smooke sayd to Vertue that this statue was modelled and made by Laurence and Devoot sic George Vertue Note Books ed Walpole Society Oxford 1930 47 vol I p 82 Lawrence Dyvoet statuarys and ibidem IV 50 Laurens a statuary of Mechlin Dievot a statuary of Brussels both these artists were in England and assisted Mr Gibbons in statuary works in K Charles 2d and K James 2d time they left England in the troubles of the Revolution and retird to their own country Weinreb et al 2008 p 875 The Jenner Monument Dublin Hospital Gazette 5 176 1858 Edward Walford 1878 Kensington Gardens Old and New London Volume 5 Institute of Historical Research Archived from the original on 25 May 2011 Retrieved 31 October 2011 Mace 1976 pp 125 126 Mace 1976 p 87 Mace 1976 pp 130 1 a b Kennedy Maev 29 May 2009 Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights The Guardian London archived from the original on 15 July 2014 retrieved 25 May 2010 Trafalgar Square fountains 2003 Retrieved 16 July 2009 Kennedy Maev 29 May 2009 Trafalgar Square fountain spurts to new heights The Guardian Archived from the original on 22 December 2015 Retrieved 21 December 2015 Moore 2003 p 181 a b Pigeon feed seller takes flight BBC News 7 February 2001 archived from the original on 8 August 2017 retrieved 30 April 2013 Jones Richard 2015 House Guests House Pests A Natural History of Animals in the Home Bloomsbury p 85 ISBN 978 1 4729 0624 3 a b McSmith Andy 23 October 2011 The pigeons have gone but visitors are flocking to Trafalgar Square The Independent Archived from the original on 17 November 2015 Retrieved 14 November 2015 Bird control contractor appointed in 2004 to deter pigeons from Trafalgar Square vvenv co uk 8 October 2004 archived from the original on 25 April 2012 retrieved 19 October 2011 Feeding Trafalgar s pigeons illegal BBC News 17 November 2003 Archived from the original on 15 March 2009 Retrieved 14 November 2015 Pigeon feeding banned in Trafalgar Square 24dash com 10 September 2007 archived from the original on 29 June 2012 retrieved 17 September 2007 London New Year s Eve with Unicef Greater London Authority Archived from the original on 17 November 2015 Retrieved 14 November 2015 London New Year fireworks replaced by Trafalgar Square event BBC News 19 November 2021 Omicron Trafalgar Square New Year s Eve event cancelled BBC News 20 December 2021 a b c d e Shedding light on Christmas BBC News 21 December 1997 Retrieved 21 December 2015 Trafalgar Square tree lighting ceremony Met Office Archived from the original on 31 October 2012 Retrieved 25 February 2013 Trafalgar Square sparkles blue as Christmas tree lights go on London Evening Standard Archived 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Climate protestors scale Canadian Embassy and deface flag Indymedia org uk 15 December 2009 Retrieved 26 September 2011 UK Indymedia Climate Camp Trafalgar Ice Bear action Indymedia org uk 18 December 2009 Archived from the original on 11 October 2011 Retrieved 26 September 2011 UK Indymedia Thur Dec 17 protest outside Danish Embassy London Indymedia org uk 17 December 2009 Archived from the original on 11 October 2011 Retrieved 26 September 2011 Wikinews Battle for Trafalgar Square London as violence breaks out between demonstrators and riot police Paris terror attacks The Independent 14 November 2015 Archived from the original on 22 November 2015 Retrieved 17 December 2015 Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade The Daily Telegraph 21 October 2012 Archived from the original on 22 December 2015 Retrieved 18 December 2015 Armistice Day Nation remembers war dead BBC News 11 November 2015 Archived from the original on 14 November 2015 Retrieved 21 December 2015 School children across UK strike over climate change Sky News Retrieved 4 March 2021 Trafalgar Square fountains Two arrested over red dye protest BBC News 11 July 2020 Retrieved 11 July 2020 Vegan activists turn Trafalgar Square fountains blood red Metro 11 July 2020 Retrieved 11 July 2020 Coronavirus London anti lockdown protests see 16 arrests as police left in hospital after clashes Sky News Trafalgar Square s police station isn t what it s claimed to be ianVisits England fans mourn defeat BBC News 21 June 2002 archived from the original on 8 April 2008 retrieved 24 May 2007 England honours World Cup stars BBC Sport 9 December 2003 Archived from the original on 21 October 2007 Retrieved 16 December 2015 Fans hail England s Ashes heroes BBC News 13 September 2005 Archived from the original on 10 September 2007 Retrieved 16 December 2015 2005 London to host 2012 Olympics BBC News Archived from the original on 9 February 2016 Retrieved 7 December 2015 Magnay Jacquelin 15 March 2011 London 2012 Olympics Trafalgar Square countdown clock stops The Daily Telegraph Archived from the original on 23 December 2015 Retrieved 7 December 2015 Crowds turn out for Tour opening BBC News 6 July 2007 Archived from the original on 15 July 2007 Retrieved 7 December 2015 London gets ready to welcome back the Tour de France on Monday Transport For London 4 July 2014 Archived from the original on 22 December 2015 Retrieved 7 December 2015 Sea Cadets in Battle of Trafalgar parade The Daily Telegraph 21 October 2012 Archived from the original on 22 June 2017 Retrieved 31 March 2017 Chapman James 2002 Saints and Avengers British Adventure Series of the 1960s I B Tauris p 72 ISBN 978 1 86064 753 6 Burlingame Jon 2012 The Music of James Bond Oxford University Press p 68 ISBN 978 0 19 986330 3 Muir John Kenneth 1999 A Critical History of Doctor Who on Television McFarland p 228 ISBN 978 0 7864 3716 0 James Simon 2007 London Film Location Guide Anova Books p 91 ISBN 978 0 7134 9062 6 Larsen 2008 p 203 Trafalgar Square green with turf BBC News 24 May 2007 archived from the original on 27 August 2017 retrieved 18 December 2015 Masters Tim 7 July 2011 Harry Potter premiere Stars and fans bid tearful goodbye BBC Entertainment amp Arts Archived from the original on 21 April 2016 Retrieved 18 December 2015 Lego s Next Architecture Set Will Be London s Trafalgar Square Arch Daily 11 April 2019 Retrieved 10 July 2019 Moore 2003 p 185 Gordon Bowker Gordon Bowker Orwell s London The Orwell Foundation Retrieved 24 February 2020 Buskers in the West End could need licences after outcry at noise London Evening Standard 30 November 2018 Retrieved 24 February 2020 Odih 2019 p 346 Trafalgar Square Byelaws PDF Greater London Council Report 2012 pp 3 4 Retrieved 25 February 2020 National Gallery plans to demand Trafalgar Square buskers leave so it can create one of London s great parks The Independent 16 February 2016 Retrieved 24 February 2020 Lockie John 1810 Lockie s Topography of London and its Environs London Ground Development Scarborough Cricket Club Archived from the original on 18 March 2016 Retrieved 18 December 2015 London s Other Trafalgar Square 30 May 2017 Whiting Keith 2012 Barbados Adventure Guides Series Hunter Publishing p 35 ISBN 978 1 58843 652 8 Safe Behind Their Walls Newsweek Archived from the original on 7 May 2015 Retrieved 31 January 2015 Sources Barker Michael 2005 Sir Edwin Lutyens Osprey Publishing ISBN 978 0 7478 0582 3 Crick Martin 1994 The History of the Social Democratic Federation Edinburgh University Press ISBN 978 1 85331 091 1 Larsen Darl 2008 Monty Python s Flying Circus An Utterly Complete Thoroughly Unillustrated Absolutely Unauthorized Guide to Possibly All the References Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 978 0 8108 6131 2 Longmate Norman 2012 If Britain Had Fallen The Real Nazi Occupation Plans reprinted illustrated ed Frontline Books ISBN 978 1 84832 647 7 Mace Rodney 1976 Trafalgar Square Emblem of Empire London Lawrence and Wishart ISBN 978 0 85315 368 9 Second edition published as Mace Rodney 2005 Trafalgar Square Emblem of Empire 2nd ed London Lawrence and Wishart ISBN 978 1 905007 11 0 Moore Tim 2003 Do Not Pass Go Vintage ISBN 978 0 09 943386 6 Weinreb Ben Hibbert Christopher Keay Julia Keay John 2008 The London Encyclopedia Pan MacMillan ISBN 978 1 4050 4924 5 Odih Pamela 2019 Adsensory Urban Ecology Volume Two Cambridge Scholars Publishing ISBN 978 1 5275 2468 2 Further reading Edit Fourth Plinth blitzandblight com 12 February 2007 Archived from the original on 8 July 2011 Retrieved 14 September 2016 Hackman Gill 2014 Stone to Build London Portland s Legacy Monkton Farleigh Folly Books ISBN 978 0 9564405 9 4 OCLC 910854593 Book includes details of the Portland stone buildings around Trafalgar Square including St Martin in the Fields the National Gallery and Admiralty Arch Hargreaves Roger 2005 Trafalgar Square Through the Camera London National Portrait Gallery Publications ISBN 978 1 85514 345 6 Holt Gavin 1934 Trafalgar Square London Hodder amp Stoughton OCLC 220695363 Hood Jean 2005 Trafalgar Square A Visual History of London s Landmark through Time London Batsford ISBN 978 0 7134 8967 5 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Trafalgar Square category Official website of Trafalgar Square on the Mayor of London s website Trafalgar Square webcam from Wxyz Webcams Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Trafalgar Square amp oldid 1092308495, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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