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This article is about the genre of drama based on human suffering. For the loss of life, see Tragedy (event). For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation).
"Tragedian" redirects here. For other uses, see Tragedian (disambiguation).

Tragedy (from the Greek:τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a genre of drama based on human suffering and, mainly, the terrible or sorrowful events that befall a main character. Traditionally, the intention of tragedy is to invoke an accompanying catharsis, or a "pain [that] awakens pleasure", for the audience. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of Western civilization. That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form; Hellenes and Christians, in a common activity," as Raymond Williams puts it.

From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides, as well as many fragments from other poets, and the later Roman tragedies of Seneca; through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare, Lope de Vega, Jean Racine, and Friedrich Schiller to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg; Samuel Beckett's modernist meditations on death, loss and suffering; Heiner Müller postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon, tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation, negotiation, struggle, and change. A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Aristotle, Saint Augustine, Voltaire, Hume, Diderot, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Freud, Benjamin, Camus, Lacan, and Deleuze—have analysed, speculated upon, and criticised the genre.

In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics (335 BCE), tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general (where the tragic divides against epic and lyric) or at the scale of the drama (where tragedy is opposed to comedy). In the modern era, tragedy has also been defined against drama, melodrama, the tragicomic, and epic theatre. Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects (non-Aristotelian drama and Theatre of the Oppressed, respectively) against models of tragedy. Taxidou, however, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation.

Contents

Aristotle's Tragic Plot Structure

The word "tragedy" appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greekτραγῳδία, contracted from trag(o)-aoidiā = "goat song", which comes from tragos = "he-goat" and aeidein = "to sing" (cf. "ode"). Scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was what a chorus danced around prior to the animal's ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis (2nd–3rd century CE) says that the original form of the word was trygodia from trygos (grape harvest) and ode (song), because those events were first introduced during grape harvest.

Writing in 335 BCE (long after the Golden Age of 5th-century Athenian tragedy), Aristotle provides the earliest-surviving explanation for the origin of the dramatic art form in his Poetics, in which he argues that tragedy developed from the improvisations of the leader of choral dithyrambs (hymns sung and danced in praise of Dionysos, the god of wine and fertility):

Anyway, arising from an improvisatory beginning (both tragedy and comedy—tragedy from the leaders of the dithyramb, and comedy from the leaders of the phallic processions which even now continue as a custom in many of our cities), [tragedy] grew little by little, as [the poets] developed whatever [new part] of it had appeared; and, passing through many changes, tragedy came to a halt, since it had attained its own nature.

Poetics IV, 1449a 10–15

In the same work, Aristotle attempts to provide a scholastic definition of what tragedy is:

Tragedy is, then, an enactment of a deed that is important and complete, and of [a certain] magnitude, by means of language enriched [with ornaments], each used separately in the different parts [of the play]: it is enacted, not [merely] recited, and through pity and fear it effects relief (catharsis) to such [and similar] emotions.

Poetics, VI 1449b 2–3

There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy, mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested. Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy (1872). Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed.

Scott Scullion writes:

There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as "song for the prize goat". The best-known evidence is Horace, Ars poetica 220-24 ("he who with a tragic song competed for a mere goat"); the earliest is the Parian Marble, a chronicle inscribed about 264/63 BCE, which records, under a date between 538 and 528 BCE: "Thespis is the poet ... first produced ... and as prize was established the billy goat" (FrGHist 239A, epoch 43); the clearest is Eustathius 1769.45: "They called those competing tragedians, clearly because of the song over the billy goat"...

Mask of Dionysus. Greek, Myrina, 2nd century BCE.
Main article: Greek tragedy

Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE (from the end of which it began to spread throughout the Greek world), and continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.

Athenian tragedies were performed in late March/early April at an annual state religious festival in honor of Dionysus. The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days. Each playwright offered a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a concluding comic piece called a satyr play. The four plays sometimes featured linked stories. Only one complete trilogy of tragedies has survived, the Oresteia of Aeschylus. The Greek theatre was in the open air, on the side of a hill, and performances of a trilogy and satyr play probably lasted most of the day. Performances were apparently open to all citizens, including women, but evidence is scant.[citation needed] The theatre of Dionysus at Athens probably held around 12,000 people.

All of the choral parts were sung (to the accompaniment of an aulos) and some of the actors' answers to the chorus were sung as well. The play as a whole was composed in various verse metres. All actors were male and wore masks. A Greek chorus danced as well as sang, though no one knows exactly what sorts of steps the chorus performed as it sang. Choral songs in tragedy are often divided into three sections: strophe ("turning, circling"), antistrophe ("counter-turning, counter-circling") and epode ("after-song").

Many ancient Greek tragedians employed the ekkyklêma as a theatrical device, which was a platform hidden behind the scene that could be rolled out to display the aftermath of some event which had happened out of sight of the audience. This event was frequently a brutal murder of some sort, an act of violence which could not be effectively portrayed visually, but an action of which the other characters must see the effects for it to have meaning and emotional resonance. A prime example of the use of the ekkyklêma is after the murder of Agamemnon in the first play of Aeschylus' Oresteia, when the king's butchered body is wheeled out in a grand display for all to see. Variations on the ekkyklêma are used in tragedies and other forms to this day, as writers still find it a useful and often powerful device for showing the consequences of extreme human actions. Another such device was a crane, the mechane, which served to hoist a god or goddess on stage when they were supposed to arrive flying. This device gave origin to the phrase "deus ex machina" ("god out of a machine"), that is, the surprise intervention of an unforeseen external factor that changes the outcome of an event.

Scene from the tragedy Iphigenia in Tauris by Euripides. Roman fresco in Pompeii.
See also: Senecan tragedy

Following the expansion of the Roman Republic (509–27 BCE) into several Greek territories between 270 and 240 BCE, Rome encountered Greek tragedy. From the later years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire (27 BCE-476 CE), theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and even reached Britain. While Greek tragedy continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BCE marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. Livius Andronicus began to write Roman tragedies, thus creating some of the first important works of Roman literature. Five years later, Gnaeus Naevius also began to write tragedies (though he was more appreciated for his comedies). No complete early Roman tragedy survives, though it was highly regarded in its day; historians know of three other early tragic playwrights—Quintus Ennius, Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius.

From the time of the empire, the tragedies of two playwrights survive—one is an unknown author, while the other is the Stoic philosopher Seneca. Nine of Seneca's tragedies survive, all of which are fabula crepidata (tragedies adapted from Greek originals); his Phaedra, for example, was based on Euripides' Hippolytus. Historians do not know who wrote the only extant example of the fabula praetexta (tragedies based on Roman subjects), Octavia, but in former times it was mistakenly attributed to Seneca due to his appearance as a character in the tragedy.

Seneca's tragedies rework those of all three of the Athenian tragic playwrights whose work has survived. Probably meant to be recited at elite gatherings, they differ from the Greek versions in their long declamatory, narrative accounts of action, their obtrusive moralising, and their bombastic rhetoric. They dwell on detailed accounts of horrible deeds and contain long reflective soliloquies. Though the gods rarely appear in these plays, ghosts and witches abound. Senecan tragedies explore ideas of revenge, the occult, the supernatural, suicide, blood and gore. The Renaissance scholar Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484–1558), who knew both Latin and Greek, preferred Seneca to Euripides.

Influence of Greek and Roman

Classical Greek drama was largely forgotten in Western Europe from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 16th century. Medieval theatre was dominated by mystery plays, morality plays, farces and miracle plays. In Italy, the models for tragedy in the later Middle Ages were Roman, particularly the works of Seneca, interest in which was reawakened by the Paduan Lovato de' Lovati (1241–1309). His pupil Albertino Mussato (1261–1329), also of Padua, in 1315 wrote the Latin verse tragedy Eccerinis, which uses the story of the tyrant Ezzelino III da Romano to highlight the danger to Padua posed by Cangrande della Scala of Verona. It was the first secular tragedy written since Roman times, and may be considered the first Italian tragedy identifiable as a Renaissance work. The earliest tragedies to employ purely classical themes are the Achilles written before 1390 by Antonio Loschi of Vicenza (c.1365–1441) and the Progne of the Venetian Gregorio Correr (1409–1464) which dates from 1428 to 1429.

In 1515 Gian Giorgio Trissino (1478–1550) of Vicenza wrote his tragedy Sophonisba in the vernacular that would later be called Italian. Drawn from Livy's account of Sophonisba, the Carthaginian princess who drank poison to avoid being taken by the Romans, it adheres closely to classical rules. It was soon followed by the Oreste and Rosmunda of Trissino's friend, the Florentine Giovanni di Bernardo Rucellai (1475–1525). Both were completed by early 1516 and are based on classical Greek models, Rosmunda on the Hecuba of Euripides, and Oreste on the Iphigenia in Tauris of the same author; like Sophonisba, they are in Italian and in blank (unrhymed) hendecasyllables. Another of the first of all modern tragedies is A Castro, by Portuguese poet and playwright António Ferreira, written around 1550 (but only published in 1587) in polymetric verse (most of it being blank hendecasyllables), dealing with the murder of Inês de Castro, one of the most dramatic episodes in Portuguese history. Although these three Italian plays are often cited, separately or together, as being the first regular tragedies in modern times, as well as the earliest substantial works to be written in blank hendecasyllables, they were apparently preceded by two other works in the vernacular: Pamfila or Filostrato e Panfila written in 1498 or 1508 by Antonio Cammelli (Antonio da Pistoia); and a Sophonisba by Galeotto del Carretto of 1502.

From about 1500 printed copies, in the original languages, of the works of Sophocles, Seneca, and Euripides, as well as comedic writers such as Aristophanes, Terence and Plautus, were available in Europe and the next forty years saw humanists and poets translating and adapting their tragedies. In the 1540s, the European university setting (and especially, from 1553 on, the Jesuit colleges) became host to a Neo-Latin theatre (in Latin) written by scholars. The influence of Seneca was particularly strong in its humanist tragedy. His plays, with their ghosts, lyrical passages and rhetorical oratory, brought a concentration on rhetoric and language over dramatic action to many humanist tragedies.

The most important sources for French tragic theatre in the Renaissance were the example of Seneca and the precepts of Horace and Aristotle (and contemporary commentaries by Julius Caesar Scaliger and Lodovico Castelvetro), although plots were taken from classical authors such as Plutarch, Suetonius, etc., from the Bible, from contemporary events and from short story collections (Italian, French and Spanish). The Greek tragic authors (Sophocles and Euripides) would become increasingly important as models by the middle of the 17th century. Important models were also supplied by the Spanish Golden Age playwrights Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Tirso de Molina and Lope de Vega, many of whose works were translated and adapted for the French stage.

Britain

Edwin Austin Abbey (1852–1911) King Lear, Cordelia's Farewell

The common forms are the:

  • Tragedy of circumstance: people are born into their situations, and do not choose them; such tragedies explore the consequences of birthrights, particularly for monarchs
  • Tragedy of miscalculation: the protagonist's error of judgement has tragic consequences
  • Revenge play

In English, the most famous and most successful tragedies are those of William Shakespeare and his Elizabethan contemporaries. Shakespeare's tragedies include:

A contemporary of Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, also wrote examples of tragedy in English, notably:

John Webster (1580?–1635?), also wrote famous plays of the genre:

Domestic tragedy

Main article: Domestic tragedy

Domestic tragedies are tragedies in which the tragic protagonists are ordinary middle-class or working-class individuals. This subgenre contrasts with classical and Neoclassical tragedy, in which the protagonists are of kingly or aristocratic rank and their downfall is an affair of state as well as a personal matter.

The Ancient Greek theorist Aristotle had argued that tragedy should concern only great individuals with great minds and souls, because their catastrophic downfall would be more emotionally powerful to the audience; only comedy should depict middle-class people. Domestic tragedy breaks with Aristotle's precepts, taking as its subjects merchants or citizens whose lives have less consequence in the wider world.

The advent of the domestic tragedy ushered in the first phase shift of the genre focusing less on the Aristotelian definition of the genre and more on the definition of tragedy on the scale of the drama, where tragedy is opposed to comedy i.e. melancholic stories. Although the utilization of key elements such as suffering, hamartia, morality, and spectacle ultimately ties this variety of tragedy to all the rest. This variant of tragedy has led to the evolution and development of tragedies of the modern era especially those past the mid-1800s such as the works of Arthur Miller, Eugene O'Neill and Henrik Ibsen. Newly dealt with themes that sprang forth from the Domestic tragedy movement include: wrongful convictions and executions, poverty, starvation, addiction, alcoholism, debt, structural abuse, child abuse, crime, domestic violence, social shunning, depression, and loneliness.

Classical Domestic tragedies include:

Opera

Contemporary with Shakespeare, an entirely different approach to facilitating the rebirth of tragedy was taken in Italy. Jacopo Peri, in the preface to his Euridice refers to "the ancient Greeks and Romans (who in the opinion of many sang their staged tragedies throughout in representing them on stage)." The attempts of Peri and his contemporaries to recreate ancient tragedy gave rise to the new Italian musical genre of opera. In France, tragic operatic works from the time of Lully to about that of Gluck were not called opera, but tragédie en musique ("tragedy in music") or some similar name; the tragédie en musique is regarded as a distinct musical genre. Some later operatic composers have also shared Peri's aims: Richard Wagner's concept of Gesamtkunstwerk ("integrated work of art"), for example, was intended as a return to the ideal of Greek tragedy in which all the arts were blended in service of the drama. Nietzsche, in his The Birth of Tragedy (1872) was to support Wagner in his claims to be a successor of the ancient dramatists.

French actor Talma as Nero in Racine's Britannicus.

For much of the 17th century, Pierre Corneille, who made his mark on the world of tragedy with plays like Medée (1635) and Le Cid (1636), was the most successful writer of French tragedies. Corneille's tragedies were strangely un-tragic (his first version of Le Cid was even listed as a tragicomedy), for they had happy endings. In his theoretical works on theatre, Corneille redefined both comedy and tragedy around the following suppositions:

  • The stage—in both comedy and tragedy—should feature noble characters (this would eliminate many low-characters, typical of the farce, from Corneille's comedies). Noble characters should not be depicted as vile (reprehensible actions are generally due to non-noble characters in Corneille's plays).
  • Tragedy deals with affairs of the state (wars, dynastic marriages); comedy deals with love. For a work to be tragic, it need not have a tragic ending.
  • Although Aristotle says that catharsis (purgation of emotion) should be the goal of tragedy, this is only an ideal. In conformity with the moral codes of the period, plays should not show evil being rewarded or nobility being degraded.

Corneille continued to write plays through 1674 (mainly tragedies, but also something he called "heroic comedies") and many continued to be successes, although the "irregularities" of his theatrical methods were increasingly criticised (notably by François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac) and the success of Jean Racine from the late 1660s signalled the end of his preeminence.

Jean Racine's tragedies—inspired by Greek myths, Euripides, Sophocles and Seneca—condensed their plot into a tight set of passionate and duty-bound conflicts between a small group of noble characters, and concentrated on these characters' double-binds and the geometry of their unfulfilled desires and hatreds. Racine's poetic skill was in the representation of pathos and amorous passion (like Phèdre's love for her stepson) and his impact was such that emotional crisis would be the dominant mode of tragedy to the end of the century. Racine's two late plays ("Esther" and "Athalie") opened new doors to biblical subject matter and to the use of theatre in the education of young women. Racine also faced criticism for his irregularities: when his play, Bérénice, was criticised for not containing any deaths, Racine disputed the conventional view of tragedy.

For more on French tragedy of the 16th and 17th centuries, see French Renaissance literature and French literature of the 17th century.

Later development

Towards the close of the eighteenth century, having studied her predecessors, Joanna Baillie wanted to revolutionise theatre, believing that it could be used more effectively to affect people's lives. To this end she gave a new direction to tragedy, which she defines as ‘the unveiling of the human mind under the dominion of those strong and fixed passions, which seemingly unprovoked by outward circumstances, will from small beginnings brood within the breast, till all the better dispositions, all the fair gifts of nature are borne down before them'. This theory, she put into practice in her 'Series of Plays on the Passions' in three volumes (commencing in 1798) and in other dramatic works. Her method was to create a series of scenes and incidents intended to capture the audience's inquisitiveness and 'trace the progress of the passion, pointing out those stages in the approach of the enemy, when he might have been combated most successfully; and where the suffering him to pass may be considered as occasioning all the misery that ensues.'

Further information: Bourgeois tragedy and Augustan drama

Bourgeois tragedy (German: Bürgerliches Trauerspiel) is a form that developed in 18th-century Europe. It was a fruit of the Enlightenment and the emergence of the bourgeois class and its ideals. It is characterised by the fact that its protagonists are ordinary citizens. The first true bourgeois tragedy was an English play, George Lillo's The London Merchant; or, the History of George Barnwell, which was first performed in 1731. Usually, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's play Miss Sara Sampson, which was first produced in 1755, is said to be the earliest Bürgerliches Trauerspiel in Germany.

In modernist literature, the definition of tragedy has become less precise. The most fundamental change has been the rejection of Aristotle's dictum that true tragedy can only depict those with power and high status. Arthur Miller's essay "Tragedy and the Common Man" (1949) argues that tragedy may also depict ordinary people in domestic surroundings thus defining Domestic tragedies. British playwright Howard Barker has argued strenuously for the rebirth of tragedy in the contemporary theatre, most notably in his volume Arguments for a Theatre. "You emerge from tragedy equipped against lies. After the musical, you're anybody's fool," he insists.

Critics such as George Steiner have even been prepared to argue that tragedy may no longer exist in comparison with its former manifestations in classical antiquity. In The Death of Tragedy (1961) George Steiner outlined the characteristics of Greek tragedy and the traditions that developed from that period. In the Foreword (1980) to a new edition of his book Steiner concluded that ‘the dramas of Shakespeare are not a renascence of or a humanistic variant of the absolute tragic model. They are, rather, a rejection of this model in the light of tragi-comic and "realistic" criteria.’ In part, this feature of Shakespeare's mind is explained by his bent of mind or imagination which was ‘so encompassing, so receptive to the plurality of diverse orders of experience.’ When compared to the drama of Greek antiquity and French classicism Shakespeare's forms are ‘richer but hybrid'.

Numerous books and plays continue to be written in the tradition of tragedy to this day examples include Froth on the Daydream, The Road, The Fault in Our Stars, Fat City, Rabbit Hole, Requiem for a Dream, The Handmaid's Tale.

Defining tragedy is no simple matter, and there are many definitions, some of which are incompatible with each other. Oscar Mandel, in A Definition of Tragedy (1961), contrasted two essentially different means of arriving at a definition. First is what he calls the derivative way, in which the tragedy is thought to be an expression of an ordering of the world; "instead of asking what tragedy expresses, the derivative definition tends to ask what expresses itself through tragedy". The second is the substantive way of defining tragedy, which starts with the work of art which is assumed to contain the ordering of the world. Substantive critics "are interested in the constituent elements of art, rather than its ontological sources". He recognizes four subclasses: a. "definition by formal elements" (for instance the supposed "three unities"); b. "definition by situation" (where one defines tragedy for instance as "exhibiting the fall of a good man"); c. "definition by ethical direction" (where the critic is concerned with the meaning, with the "intellectual and moral effect); and d. "definition by emotional effect" (and he cites Aristotle's "requirement of pity and fear").

Aristotle

Further information: Poetics (Aristotle)

Aristotle wrote in his work Poetics that tragedy is characterised by seriousness and involves a great person who experiences a reversal of fortune (Peripeteia). Aristotle's definition can include a change of fortune from bad to good as in the Eumenides, but he says that the change from good to bad as in Oedipus Rex is preferable because this induces pity and fear within the spectators. Tragedy results in a catharsis (emotional cleansing) or healing for the audience through their experience of these emotions in response to the suffering of the characters in the drama.

According to Aristotle, "the structure of the best tragedy should not be simple but complex and one that represents incidents arousing fear and pity—for that is peculiar to this form of art." This reversal of fortune must be caused by the tragic hero's hamartia, which is often translated as either a character flaw, or as a mistake (since the original Greek etymology traces back to hamartanein, a sporting term that refers to an archer or spear-thrower missing his target). According to Aristotle, "The misfortune is brought about not by [general] vice or depravity, but by some [particular] error or frailty." The reversal is the inevitable but unforeseen result of some action taken by the hero. It is also a misconception that this reversal can be brought about by a higher power (e.g. the law, the gods, fate, or society), but if a character's downfall is brought about by an external cause, Aristotle describes this as a misadventure and not a tragedy.

In addition, the tragic hero may achieve some revelation or recognition (anagnorisis--"knowing again" or "knowing back" or "knowing throughout") about human fate, destiny, and the will of the gods. Aristotle terms this sort of recognition "a change from ignorance to awareness of a bond of love or hate."

In Poetics, Aristotle gave the following definition in ancient Greek of the word "tragedy" (τραγῳδία):

Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is admirable, complete (composed of an introduction, a middle part and an ending), and possesses magnitude; in language made pleasurable, each of its species separated in different parts; performed by actors, not through narration; effecting through pity and fear the purification of such emotions.

Common usage of tragedy refers to any story with a sad ending, whereas to be an Aristotelian tragedy the story must fit the set of requirements as laid out by Poetics. By this definition social drama cannot be tragic because the hero in it is a victim of circumstance and incidents that depend upon the society in which he lives and not upon the inner compulsions—psychological or religious—which determine his progress towards self-knowledge and death. Exactly what constitutes a "tragedy", however, is a frequently debated matter.

According to Aristotle, there are four species of tragedy:

1. Complex, which involves Peripety and Discovery

2. Suffering, tragedies of such nature can be seen in the Greek mythological stories of Ajaxes and Ixions

3. Character, a tragedy of moral or ethical character. Tragedies of this nature can be found in Phthiotides and Peleus

4. Spectacle, that of a horror-like theme. Examples of this nature are Phorcides and Prometheus

Hegel

G.W.F. Hegel, the German philosopher most famous for his dialectical approach to epistemology and history, also applied such a methodology to his theory of tragedy. In his essay "Hegel's Theory of Tragedy," A.C. Bradley first introduced the English-speaking world to Hegel's theory, which Bradley called the "tragic collision", and contrasted against the Aristotelian notions of the "tragic hero" and his or her "hamartia" in subsequent analyses of the Aeschylus' Oresteia trilogy and of Sophocles' Antigone. Hegel himself, however, in his seminal "The Phenomenology of Spirit" argues for a more complicated theory of tragedy, with two complementary branches which, though driven by a single dialectical principle, differentiate Greek tragedy from that which follows Shakespeare. His later lectures formulate such a theory of tragedy as a conflict of ethical forces, represented by characters, in ancient Greek tragedy, but in Shakespearean tragedy the conflict is rendered as one of subject and object, of individual personality which must manifest self-destructive passions because only such passions are strong enough to defend the individual from a hostile and capricious external world:

The heroes of ancient classical tragedy encounter situations in which, if they firmly decide in favor of the one ethical pathos that alone suits their finished character, they must necessarily come into conflict with the equally [gleichberechtigt] justified ethical power that confronts them. Modern characters, on the other hand, stand in a wealth of more accidental circumstances, within which one could act this way or that, so that the conflict is, though occasioned by external preconditions, still essentially grounded in the character. The new individuals, in their passions, obey their own nature... simply because they are what they are. Greek heroes also act in accordance with individuality, but in ancient tragedy such individuality is necessarily... a self-contained ethical pathos... In modern tragedy, however, the character in its peculiarity decides in accordance with subjective desires... such that congruity of character with outward ethical aim no longer constitutes an essential basis of tragic beauty...

Hegel's comments on a particular play may better elucidate his theory: "Viewed externally, Hamlet's death may be seen to have been brought about accidentally... but in Hamlet's soul, we understand that death has lurked from the beginning: the sandbank of finitude cannot suffice his sorrow and tenderness, such grief and nausea at all conditions of life... we feel he is a man whom inner disgust has almost consumed well before death comes upon him from outside."

Ancient Indian drama

The writer Bharata Muni, in his work on dramatic theory A Treatise on Theatre (Sanskrit: Nātyaśāstra, नाट्य शास्त्र, c. 200 BCE – 200 CE), identified several rasas (such as pity, anger, disgust and terror) in the emotional responses of audiences for the Sanskrit drama of ancient India. The text also suggests the notion of musical modes or jatis which are the origin of the notion of the modern melodic structures known as ragas. Their role in invoking emotions are emphasised; thus compositions emphasising the notes gandhara or rishabha are said to provoke "sadness" or "pathos" (karuna rasa) whereas rishabha evokes heroism (vira rasa). Jatis are elaborated in greater detail in the text Dattilam, composed around the same time as the Treatise.

The celebrated ancient Indian epic, Mahabharata, can also be related to tragedy in some ways. According to Hermann Oldenberg, the original epic once carried an immense "tragic force". It was common in Sanskrit drama to adapt episodes from the Mahabharata into dramatic form.

  1. Middle English tragedie < Middle French tragedie < Latin tragoedia < Ancient Greek:τραγῳδία, tragōidia
  2. We have seven by Aeschylus, seven by Sophocles, and eighteen by Euripides. In addition, we also have the Cyclops, a satyr play by Euripides. Some critics since the 17th century have argued that one of the tragedies that the classical tradition gives as Euripides'—Rhesus—is a 4th-century play by an unknown author; modern scholarship agrees with the classical authorities and ascribes the play to Euripides. This uncertainty accounts for Brockett and Hildy's figure of 31 tragedies.
  3. The theory that Prometheus Bound was not written by Aeschylus adds a fourth, anonymous playwright to those whose work survives.
  4. For more information on the ancient Roman dramatists, see the articles categorised under "Ancient Roman dramatists and playwrights" in Wikipedia.
  1. Klein, E (1967), "Tragedy", A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, vol. II L–Z, Elsevier, p. 1637
  2. Conversi, Leonard W. (2019). "Tragedy". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. Banham 1998, p. 1118.
  4. Nietzsche 1999, p. 21, §2: ‘two-fold mood[…] the strange mixture and duality in the effects of the Dionysiac enthusiasts, that phenomenon whereby pain awakens pleasure while rejoicing wrings cries of agony from the breast. From highest joy there comes a cry of horror or a yearning lament at some irredeemable loss. In those Greek festivals there erupts what one might call a sentimental tendency in nature, as if it had cause to sigh over its dismemberment into individuals’.
  5. Williams 1966, pp. 14–16.
  6. Williams 1966, p. 16.
  7. Williams 1966, pp. 13–84.
  8. Taxidou 2004, pp. 193–209.
  9. Benjamin 1998.
  10. Deleuze & Guattari 1972. sfn error: no target: CITEREFDeleuzeGuattari1972 (help)
  11. Felski 2008, p. 1.
  12. Dukore 1974: primary material.
  13. Carlson 1993: analysis.
  14. Pfister 1977. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPfister1977 (help)
  15. Elam, Keir (1980). The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. Methuen. ISBN 9780416720501.
  16. See Horace, Epistulae, II, 3, 220: "Carmino qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum".
  17. Brockett & Hildy 2003, p. 13.
  18. of Naucratis, Athenaeus, The deipnosophists, Wisc
  19. Janko 1987, p. 6. sfn error: no target: CITEREFJanko1987 (help)
  20. Aristotle, Poetics, section 1449b, Tufts
  21. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844–1900 (1999). The birth of tragedy and other writings. Geuss, Raymond.,, Speirs, Ronald. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63016-9. OCLC 39533077.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. Scott Scullion: "Tragedy and Religion: The Problem of Origins", in Gregory (ed.), A Companion to Greek Tragedy, 2008, p. 29
  23. Brown, Andrew (1998). "Greece, Ancient". In Banham, Martin (ed.). The Cambridge Guide to Theatre (Revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 441. ISBN 0-521-43437-8.
  24. Cartledge, Paul (1997). "'Deep Plays': Theatre as Process in Greek Civic Life". In Easterling, P. E. (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy. Cambridge Companions to Literature series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–5. ISBN 0-521-42351-1.
  25. Goldhill 1997, p. 54. sfn error: no target: CITEREFGoldhill1997 (help)
  26. Ley 2007, p. 206.
  27. Styan 2000, p. 140. sfn error: no target: CITEREFStyan2000 (help)
  28. Taxidou 2004, p. 104: "most scholars now call 'Greek' tragedy 'Athenian' tragedy, which is historically correct".
  29. Brockett & Hildy 2003, pp. 32–3.
  30. Brown 1998, p. 444.
  31. Cartledge 1997, pp. 3–5, 33: [although Athenians of the 4th century judged Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides "as the nonpareils of the genre, and regularly honored their plays with revivals, tragedy itself was not merely a 5th-century phenomenon, the product of a short-lived golden age. If not attaining the quality and stature of the fifth-century 'classics', original tragedies nonetheless continued to be written and produced and competed with in large numbers throughout the remaining life of the democracy—and beyond it".
  32. Brockett & Hildy 2003, p. 15.
  33. Kovacs 2005, p. 379. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKovacs2005 (help)
  34. Euripides (1997). "Introduction". Plays VI. Methuen Classical Greek Dramatists. J. Michael Walton, introduction. London: Methuen. pp. viii, xix. ISBN 0-413-71650-3.
  35. Lucas 1954, p. 7.
  36. Ley 2007, p. 33–34.
  37. Chondros, Thomas G.; Milidonis, Kypros; Vitzilaios, George; Vaitsis, John (1 September 2013). ""Deus-Ex-Machina" reconstruction in the Athens theater of Dionysus". Mechanism and Machine Theory. 67: 172–191. doi:10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2013.04.010. ISSN 0094-114X.
  38. Brockett & Hildy 2003, p. 43.
  39. Brockett & Hildy 2003, pp. 36, 47.
  40. Brockett & Hildy 2003, p. 47.
  41. Brockett & Hildy 2003, p. 49.
  42. Brockett & Hildy 2003, pp. 50.
  43. Brockett & Hildy 2003, pp. 49–50.
  44. "Lovati, Lovato de'", Treccani: Enciclopedie on line (in Italian). Accessed March 2013.
  45. "Mussato, Albertino", Treccani: Enciclopedie on line (in Italian). Accessed March 2013.
  46. "Drama", Encyclopædia Britannica, eleventh edition, Vol. VIII, p. 503
  47. Henry Hallam (1837) Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Paris: Baudry's European Library, p. 212.
  48. "Del Carretto, Galeotto, dei marchesi di Savona", Treccani: Enciclopedie on line (in Italian). Accessed March 2013.
  49. Headington, Westbrook & Barfoot 1991, p. 22.
  50. Graham Sadler, "Tragédie en musique", Grove Music Online (subscription required). Accessed March 2013
  51. Headington, Westbrook & Barfoot 1991, p. 178.
  52. Colon 2007, p. xi. sfn error: no target: CITEREFColon2007 (help)
  53. Baillie 1798, p. 38.
  54. Baillie 1798, p. 41.
  55. Miller 1949, p. 894.
  56. Barker 1989, p. 13. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBarker1989 (help)
  57. George Steiner, The Death of Tragedy [1961] (Oxford University Press, 1980; Yale University Press, 1996), p. xiii.
  58. George Steiner, ‘ "Tragedy." Reconsidered.’ New Literary History 35:1 (Winter 2004), pp. 1–15
  59. Sallis, James (4 May 2008). "'The Dead All Have the Same Skin' by Boris Vian". www.latimes.com. Retrieved26 January 2019. His great novel, "L'Écume des jours" ("Foam of the Daze"), is a tragedy of young love in which a woman dies of the lily growing in her lung.
  60. Chapple, Tobias. "Books in Review: Froth on the Daydream by Boris Vian". www.litro.co.uk. Retrieved26 January 2019. The characters aren’t meant to be real. But it’s also devastating when the novel central tragedy strikes – that all too real feeling of an unjust world that takes away as easily as it gives, and of people trying as hard as they can to be happy despite it.
  61. Bernier, Kathy (3 December 2016). "REVIEW: 'The Road' Is A Gripping Prepper Novel Full Of Tragedy, Struggle And Hope". www.offthegridnews.com. Retrieved26 January 2019.
  62. Meehan, Ryan. "The Frontiers of American Tragedy". www.thecrimson.com. Retrieved26 January 2019.
  63. "Young boy's death drives tragedy of 'Rabbit Hole'". www.ocregister.com. 18 November 2009. Retrieved26 January 2019.
  64. Bustin, Jeremy. "BWW Review: Cadence Theatre's RABBIT HOLE Examines Life After Tragedy". www.broadwayworld.com. Retrieved26 January 2019.
  65. Brown, Sarah (15 April 2008). Tragedy in Transition. p. 45. ISBN 9780470691304.
  66. Taylor, Kevin (21 September 2018). Christ the Tragedy of God: A Theological Exploration of Tragedy. ISBN 9781351607834.
  67. Kendrick, Tom (2003). Margaret Atwood's Textual Assassinations: Recent Poetry and Fiction. p. 148. ISBN 9780814209295.
  68. Stray, Christopher (16 October 2013). Remaking the Classics: Literature, Genre and Media in Britain 1800–2000. p. 78. ISBN 9781472538604.
  69. Mandel, Oscar (1961).A Definition of Tragedy. New York: New York University Press. pp. 10–11.
  70. Aristotle. Poetics, Trans. W.H. Fyfe. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1932. Section 1452b
  71. Rorty, Amelie Oksenberg. Essays on Aristotle's Poetics. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1992. Page 178
  72. Poetics, Aristotle
  73. Aristotle, Poetics. Section 1135b
  74. Aristotle, Poetics, 1449b
  75. Chiari, J. Landmarks of Contemporary Drama. London: Jenkins, 1965. Page 41.
  76. Bradley 2007, pp. 114–56.
  77. Hegel 1927, pp. 567–8.
  78. Hegel 1927, p. 572.
  79. Banham 1998, p. 517.
  80. Oldenberg, Hermann (1922), Das Mahabharata, Göttingen
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Tragedy Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the genre of drama based on human suffering For the loss of life see Tragedy event For other uses see Tragedy disambiguation Tragedian redirects here For other uses see Tragedian disambiguation Tragedy from the Greek tragῳdia tragōidia a is a genre of drama based on human suffering and mainly the terrible or sorrowful events that befall a main character 2 Traditionally the intention of tragedy is to invoke an accompanying catharsis or a pain that awakens pleasure for the audience 3 4 While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response the term tragedy often refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self definition of Western civilization 3 5 That tradition has been multiple and discontinuous yet the term has often been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity the Greeks and the Elizabethans in one cultural form Hellenes and Christians in a common activity as Raymond Williams puts it 6 From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides as well as many fragments from other poets and the later Roman tragedies of Seneca through its singular articulations in the works of Shakespeare Lope de Vega Jean Racine and Friedrich Schiller to the more recent naturalistic tragedy of Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg Samuel Beckett s modernist meditations on death loss and suffering Heiner Muller postmodernist reworkings of the tragic canon tragedy has remained an important site of cultural experimentation negotiation struggle and change 7 8 A long line of philosophers which includes Plato Aristotle Saint Augustine Voltaire Hume Diderot Hegel Schopenhauer Kierkegaard Nietzsche Freud Benjamin 9 Camus Lacan and Deleuze 10 have analysed speculated upon and criticised the genre 11 12 13 In the wake of Aristotle s Poetics 335 BCE tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions whether at the scale of poetry in general where the tragic divides against epic and lyric or at the scale of the drama where tragedy is opposed to comedy In the modern era tragedy has also been defined against drama melodrama the tragicomic and epic theatre 13 14 15 Drama in the narrow sense cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti or a generic deterritorialisation from the mid 19th century onwards Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects non Aristotelian drama and Theatre of the Oppressed respectively against models of tragedy Taxidou however reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation 8 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Greek 3 Roman 4 Renaissance 4 1 Influence of Greek and Roman 4 2 Britain 4 3 Domestic tragedy 4 4 Opera 5 Neo classical 5 1 Later development 6 Bourgeois 7 Modern development 8 Theories 8 1 Aristotle 8 2 Hegel 9 Similar dramatic forms in world theatre 9 1 Ancient Indian drama 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Sources 14 External linksEtymology Edit Aristotle s Tragic Plot Structure The word tragedy appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times It derives from Classical Greek tragῳdia contracted from trag o aoidia goat song which comes from tragos he goat and aeidein to sing cf ode Scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize 16 in a competition of choral dancing or was what a chorus danced around prior to the animal s ritual sacrifice 17 In another view on the etymology Athenaeus of Naucratis 2nd 3rd century CE says that the original form of the word was trygodia from trygos grape harvest and ode song because those events were first introduced during grape harvest 18 Writing in 335 BCE long after the Golden Age of 5th century Athenian tragedy Aristotle provides the earliest surviving explanation for the origin of the dramatic art form in his Poetics in which he argues that tragedy developed from the improvisations of the leader of choral dithyrambs hymns sung and danced in praise of Dionysos the god of wine and fertility 17 Anyway arising from an improvisatory beginning both tragedy and comedy tragedy from the leaders of the dithyramb and comedy from the leaders of the phallic processions which even now continue as a custom in many of our cities tragedy grew little by little as the poets developed whatever new part of it had appeared and passing through many changes tragedy came to a halt since it had attained its own nature Poetics IV 1449a 10 15 19 In the same work Aristotle attempts to provide a scholastic definition of what tragedy is Tragedy is then an enactment of a deed that is important and complete and of a certain magnitude by means of language enriched with ornaments each used separately in the different parts of the play it is enacted not merely recited and through pity and fear it effects relief catharsis to such and similar emotions Poetics VI 1449b 2 3 20 There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy mostly based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing 21 A common descent from pre Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested 21 Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy 1872 Here he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed Scott Scullion writes There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as song for the prize goat The best known evidence is Horace Ars poetica 220 24 he who with a tragic song competed for a mere goat the earliest is the Parian Marble a chronicle inscribed about 264 63 BCE which records under a date between 538 and 528 BCE Thespis is the poet first produced and as prize was established the billy goat FrGHist 239A epoch 43 the clearest is Eustathius 1769 45 They called those competing tragedians clearly because of the song over the billy goat 22 Greek Edit Mask of Dionysus Greek Myrina 2nd century BCE Main article Greek tragedy Athenian tragedy the oldest surviving form of tragedy is a type of dance drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city state 23 24 25 26 27 28 Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE it flowered during the 5th century BCE from the end of which it began to spread throughout the Greek world and continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period 29 30 31 No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived 32 33 b We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides 32 c Athenian tragedies were performed in late March early April at an annual state religious festival in honor of Dionysus The presentations took the form of a contest between three playwrights who presented their works on three successive days Each playwright offered a tetralogy consisting of three tragedies and a concluding comic piece called a satyr play 35 The four plays sometimes featured linked stories Only one complete trilogy of tragedies has survived the Oresteia of Aeschylus The Greek theatre was in the open air on the side of a hill and performances of a trilogy and satyr play probably lasted most of the day Performances were apparently open to all citizens including women but evidence is scant citation needed The theatre of Dionysus at Athens probably held around 12 000 people 36 All of the choral parts were sung to the accompaniment of an aulos and some of the actors answers to the chorus were sung as well The play as a whole was composed in various verse metres All actors were male and wore masks A Greek chorus danced as well as sang though no one knows exactly what sorts of steps the chorus performed as it sang Choral songs in tragedy are often divided into three sections strophe turning circling antistrophe counter turning counter circling and epode after song Many ancient Greek tragedians employed the ekkyklema as a theatrical device which was a platform hidden behind the scene that could be rolled out to display the aftermath of some event which had happened out of sight of the audience This event was frequently a brutal murder of some sort an act of violence which could not be effectively portrayed visually but an action of which the other characters must see the effects for it to have meaning and emotional resonance A prime example of the use of the ekkyklema is after the murder of Agamemnon in the first play of Aeschylus Oresteia when the king s butchered body is wheeled out in a grand display for all to see Variations on the ekkyklema are used in tragedies and other forms to this day as writers still find it a useful and often powerful device for showing the consequences of extreme human actions Another such device was a crane the mechane which served to hoist a god or goddess on stage when they were supposed to arrive flying This device gave origin to the phrase deus ex machina god out of a machine that is the surprise intervention of an unforeseen external factor that changes the outcome of an event 37 Roman Edit Scene from the tragedy Iphigenia in Tauris by Euripides Roman fresco in Pompeii See also Senecan tragedy Following the expansion of the Roman Republic 509 27 BCE into several Greek territories between 270 and 240 BCE Rome encountered Greek tragedy 38 From the later years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire 27 BCE 476 CE theatre spread west across Europe around the Mediterranean and even reached Britain 39 While Greek tragedy continued to be performed throughout the Roman period the year 240 BCE marks the beginning of regular Roman drama 38 d Livius Andronicus began to write Roman tragedies thus creating some of the first important works of Roman literature 40 Five years later Gnaeus Naevius also began to write tragedies though he was more appreciated for his comedies 40 No complete early Roman tragedy survives though it was highly regarded in its day historians know of three other early tragic playwrights Quintus Ennius Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius 41 From the time of the empire the tragedies of two playwrights survive one is an unknown author while the other is the Stoic philosopher Seneca 42 Nine of Seneca s tragedies survive all of which are fabula crepidata tragedies adapted from Greek originals his Phaedra for example was based on Euripides Hippolytus 43 Historians do not know who wrote the only extant example of the fabula praetexta tragedies based on Roman subjects Octavia but in former times it was mistakenly attributed to Seneca due to his appearance as a character in the tragedy 42 Seneca s tragedies rework those of all three of the Athenian tragic playwrights whose work has survived Probably meant to be recited at elite gatherings they differ from the Greek versions in their long declamatory narrative accounts of action their obtrusive moralising and their bombastic rhetoric They dwell on detailed accounts of horrible deeds and contain long reflective soliloquies Though the gods rarely appear in these plays ghosts and witches abound Senecan tragedies explore ideas of revenge the occult the supernatural suicide blood and gore The Renaissance scholar Julius Caesar Scaliger 1484 1558 who knew both Latin and Greek preferred Seneca to Euripides Renaissance EditInfluence of Greek and Roman Edit Classical Greek drama was largely forgotten in Western Europe from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 16th century Medieval theatre was dominated by mystery plays morality plays farces and miracle plays In Italy the models for tragedy in the later Middle Ages were Roman particularly the works of Seneca interest in which was reawakened by the Paduan Lovato de Lovati 1241 1309 44 His pupil Albertino Mussato 1261 1329 also of Padua in 1315 wrote the Latin verse tragedy Eccerinis which uses the story of the tyrant Ezzelino III da Romano to highlight the danger to Padua posed by Cangrande della Scala of Verona 45 It was the first secular tragedy written since Roman times and may be considered the first Italian tragedy identifiable as a Renaissance work The earliest tragedies to employ purely classical themes are the Achilles written before 1390 by Antonio Loschi of Vicenza c 1365 1441 and the Progne of the Venetian Gregorio Correr 1409 1464 which dates from 1428 to 1429 46 In 1515 Gian Giorgio Trissino 1478 1550 of Vicenza wrote his tragedy Sophonisba in the vernacular that would later be called Italian Drawn from Livy s account of Sophonisba the Carthaginian princess who drank poison to avoid being taken by the Romans it adheres closely to classical rules It was soon followed by the Oreste and Rosmunda of Trissino s friend the Florentine Giovanni di Bernardo Rucellai 1475 1525 Both were completed by early 1516 and are based on classical Greek models Rosmunda on the Hecuba of Euripides and Oreste on the Iphigenia in Tauris of the same author like Sophonisba they are in Italian and in blank unrhymed hendecasyllables Another of the first of all modern tragedies is A Castro by Portuguese poet and playwright Antonio Ferreira written around 1550 but only published in 1587 in polymetric verse most of it being blank hendecasyllables dealing with the murder of Ines de Castro one of the most dramatic episodes in Portuguese history Although these three Italian plays are often cited separately or together as being the first regular tragedies in modern times as well as the earliest substantial works to be written in blank hendecasyllables they were apparently preceded by two other works in the vernacular Pamfila or Filostrato e Panfila written in 1498 or 1508 by Antonio Cammelli Antonio da Pistoia and a Sophonisba by Galeotto del Carretto of 1502 47 48 From about 1500 printed copies in the original languages of the works of Sophocles Seneca and Euripides as well as comedic writers such as Aristophanes Terence and Plautus were available in Europe and the next forty years saw humanists and poets translating and adapting their tragedies In the 1540s the European university setting and especially from 1553 on the Jesuit colleges became host to a Neo Latin theatre in Latin written by scholars The influence of Seneca was particularly strong in its humanist tragedy His plays with their ghosts lyrical passages and rhetorical oratory brought a concentration on rhetoric and language over dramatic action to many humanist tragedies The most important sources for French tragic theatre in the Renaissance were the example of Seneca and the precepts of Horace and Aristotle and contemporary commentaries by Julius Caesar Scaliger and Lodovico Castelvetro although plots were taken from classical authors such as Plutarch Suetonius etc from the Bible from contemporary events and from short story collections Italian French and Spanish The Greek tragic authors Sophocles and Euripides would become increasingly important as models by the middle of the 17th century Important models were also supplied by the Spanish Golden Age playwrights Pedro Calderon de la Barca Tirso de Molina and Lope de Vega many of whose works were translated and adapted for the French stage Britain Edit Edwin Austin Abbey 1852 1911 King Lear Cordelia s Farewell See also English Renaissance theatre Heroic drama Shakespearean tragedy and Revenge play The common forms are the Tragedy of circumstance people are born into their situations and do not choose them such tragedies explore the consequences of birthrights particularly for monarchs Tragedy of miscalculation the protagonist s error of judgement has tragic consequences Revenge play In English the most famous and most successful tragedies are those of William Shakespeare and his Elizabethan contemporaries Shakespeare s tragedies include Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida A contemporary of Shakespeare Christopher Marlowe also wrote examples of tragedy in English notably The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus Tamburlaine the Great John Webster 1580 1635 also wrote famous plays of the genre The Duchess of Malfi The White DevilDomestic tragedy Edit Main article Domestic tragedy Domestic tragedies are tragedies in which the tragic protagonists are ordinary middle class or working class individuals This subgenre contrasts with classical and Neoclassical tragedy in which the protagonists are of kingly or aristocratic rank and their downfall is an affair of state as well as a personal matter The Ancient Greek theorist Aristotle had argued that tragedy should concern only great individuals with great minds and souls because their catastrophic downfall would be more emotionally powerful to the audience only comedy should depict middle class people Domestic tragedy breaks with Aristotle s precepts taking as its subjects merchants or citizens whose lives have less consequence in the wider world The advent of the domestic tragedy ushered in the first phase shift of the genre focusing less on the Aristotelian definition of the genre and more on the definition of tragedy on the scale of the drama where tragedy is opposed to comedy i e melancholic stories Although the utilization of key elements such as suffering hamartia morality and spectacle ultimately ties this variety of tragedy to all the rest This variant of tragedy has led to the evolution and development of tragedies of the modern era especially those past the mid 1800s such as the works of Arthur Miller Eugene O Neill and Henrik Ibsen Newly dealt with themes that sprang forth from the Domestic tragedy movement include wrongful convictions and executions poverty starvation addiction alcoholism debt structural abuse child abuse crime domestic violence social shunning depression and loneliness Classical Domestic tragedies include Arden of Faversham 1592 A Woman Killed with Kindness 1607 A Yorkshire Tragedy 1608 The Witch of Edmonton 1621 Opera Edit Contemporary with Shakespeare an entirely different approach to facilitating the rebirth of tragedy was taken in Italy Jacopo Peri in the preface to his Euridice refers to the ancient Greeks and Romans who in the opinion of many sang their staged tragedies throughout in representing them on stage 49 The attempts of Peri and his contemporaries to recreate ancient tragedy gave rise to the new Italian musical genre of opera In France tragic operatic works from the time of Lully to about that of Gluck were not called opera but tragedie en musique tragedy in music or some similar name the tragedie en musique is regarded as a distinct musical genre 50 Some later operatic composers have also shared Peri s aims Richard Wagner s concept of Gesamtkunstwerk integrated work of art for example was intended as a return to the ideal of Greek tragedy in which all the arts were blended in service of the drama 51 Nietzsche in his The Birth of Tragedy 1872 was to support Wagner in his claims to be a successor of the ancient dramatists Neo classical Edit French actor Talma as Nero in Racine s Britannicus For much of the 17th century Pierre Corneille who made his mark on the world of tragedy with plays like Medee 1635 and Le Cid 1636 was the most successful writer of French tragedies Corneille s tragedies were strangely un tragic his first version of Le Cid was even listed as a tragicomedy for they had happy endings In his theoretical works on theatre Corneille redefined both comedy and tragedy around the following suppositions The stage in both comedy and tragedy should feature noble characters this would eliminate many low characters typical of the farce from Corneille s comedies Noble characters should not be depicted as vile reprehensible actions are generally due to non noble characters in Corneille s plays Tragedy deals with affairs of the state wars dynastic marriages comedy deals with love For a work to be tragic it need not have a tragic ending Although Aristotle says that catharsis purgation of emotion should be the goal of tragedy this is only an ideal In conformity with the moral codes of the period plays should not show evil being rewarded or nobility being degraded Corneille continued to write plays through 1674 mainly tragedies but also something he called heroic comedies and many continued to be successes although the irregularities of his theatrical methods were increasingly criticised notably by Francois Hedelin abbe d Aubignac and the success of Jean Racine from the late 1660s signalled the end of his preeminence Jean Racine s tragedies inspired by Greek myths Euripides Sophocles and Seneca condensed their plot into a tight set of passionate and duty bound conflicts between a small group of noble characters and concentrated on these characters double binds and the geometry of their unfulfilled desires and hatreds Racine s poetic skill was in the representation of pathos and amorous passion like Phedre s love for her stepson and his impact was such that emotional crisis would be the dominant mode of tragedy to the end of the century Racine s two late plays Esther and Athalie opened new doors to biblical subject matter and to the use of theatre in the education of young women Racine also faced criticism for his irregularities when his play Berenice was criticised for not containing any deaths Racine disputed the conventional view of tragedy For more on French tragedy of the 16th and 17th centuries see French Renaissance literature and French literature of the 17th century Later development Edit Towards the close of the eighteenth century having studied her predecessors Joanna Baillie wanted to revolutionise theatre believing that it could be used more effectively to affect people s lives 52 To this end she gave a new direction to tragedy which she defines as the unveiling of the human mind under the dominion of those strong and fixed passions which seemingly unprovoked by outward circumstances will from small beginnings brood within the breast till all the better dispositions all the fair gifts of nature are borne down before them 53 This theory she put into practice in her Series of Plays on the Passions in three volumes commencing in 1798 and in other dramatic works Her method was to create a series of scenes and incidents intended to capture the audience s inquisitiveness and trace the progress of the passion pointing out those stages in the approach of the enemy when he might have been combated most successfully and where the suffering him to pass may be considered as occasioning all the misery that ensues 54 Bourgeois EditFurther information Bourgeois tragedy and Augustan drama Bourgeois tragedy German Burgerliches Trauerspiel is a form that developed in 18th century Europe It was a fruit of the Enlightenment and the emergence of the bourgeois class and its ideals It is characterised by the fact that its protagonists are ordinary citizens The first true bourgeois tragedy was an English play George Lillo s The London Merchant or the History of George Barnwell which was first performed in 1731 Usually Gotthold Ephraim Lessing s play Miss Sara Sampson which was first produced in 1755 is said to be the earliest Burgerliches Trauerspiel in Germany Modern development EditIn modernist literature the definition of tragedy has become less precise The most fundamental change has been the rejection of Aristotle s dictum that true tragedy can only depict those with power and high status Arthur Miller s essay Tragedy and the Common Man 1949 argues that tragedy may also depict ordinary people in domestic surroundings thus defining Domestic tragedies 55 British playwright Howard Barker has argued strenuously for the rebirth of tragedy in the contemporary theatre most notably in his volume Arguments for a Theatre You emerge from tragedy equipped against lies After the musical you re anybody s fool he insists 56 Critics such as George Steiner have even been prepared to argue that tragedy may no longer exist in comparison with its former manifestations in classical antiquity In The Death of Tragedy 1961 George Steiner outlined the characteristics of Greek tragedy and the traditions that developed from that period In the Foreword 1980 to a new edition of his book Steiner concluded that the dramas of Shakespeare are not a renascence of or a humanistic variant of the absolute tragic model They are rather a rejection of this model in the light of tragi comic and realistic criteria In part this feature of Shakespeare s mind is explained by his bent of mind or imagination which was so encompassing so receptive to the plurality of diverse orders of experience When compared to the drama of Greek antiquity and French classicism Shakespeare s forms are richer but hybrid 57 58 Numerous books and plays continue to be written in the tradition of tragedy to this day examples include Froth on the Daydream 59 60 The Road 61 The Fault in Our Stars Fat City 62 Rabbit Hole 63 64 Requiem for a Dream The Handmaid s Tale 65 66 67 68 Theories EditDefining tragedy is no simple matter and there are many definitions some of which are incompatible with each other Oscar Mandel in A Definition of Tragedy 1961 contrasted two essentially different means of arriving at a definition First is what he calls the derivative way in which the tragedy is thought to be an expression of an ordering of the world instead of asking what tragedy expresses the derivative definition tends to ask what expresses itself through tragedy The second is the substantive way of defining tragedy which starts with the work of art which is assumed to contain the ordering of the world Substantive critics are interested in the constituent elements of art rather than its ontological sources He recognizes four subclasses a definition by formal elements for instance the supposed three unities b definition by situation where one defines tragedy for instance as exhibiting the fall of a good man c definition by ethical direction where the critic is concerned with the meaning with the intellectual and moral effect and d definition by emotional effect and he cites Aristotle s requirement of pity and fear 69 Aristotle Edit Further information Poetics Aristotle Aristotle wrote in his work Poetics that tragedy is characterised by seriousness and involves a great person who experiences a reversal of fortune Peripeteia Aristotle s definition can include a change of fortune from bad to good as in the Eumenides but he says that the change from good to bad as in Oedipus Rex is preferable because this induces pity and fear within the spectators Tragedy results in a catharsis emotional cleansing or healing for the audience through their experience of these emotions in response to the suffering of the characters in the drama According to Aristotle the structure of the best tragedy should not be simple but complex and one that represents incidents arousing fear and pity for that is peculiar to this form of art 70 This reversal of fortune must be caused by the tragic hero s hamartia which is often translated as either a character flaw or as a mistake since the original Greek etymology traces back to hamartanein a sporting term that refers to an archer or spear thrower missing his target 71 According to Aristotle The misfortune is brought about not by general vice or depravity but by some particular error or frailty 72 The reversal is the inevitable but unforeseen result of some action taken by the hero It is also a misconception that this reversal can be brought about by a higher power e g the law the gods fate or society but if a character s downfall is brought about by an external cause Aristotle describes this as a misadventure and not a tragedy 73 In addition the tragic hero may achieve some revelation or recognition anagnorisis knowing again or knowing back or knowing throughout about human fate destiny and the will of the gods Aristotle terms this sort of recognition a change from ignorance to awareness of a bond of love or hate In Poetics Aristotle gave the following definition in ancient Greek of the word tragedy tragῳdia 74 Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is admirable complete composed of an introduction a middle part and an ending and possesses magnitude in language made pleasurable each of its species separated in different parts performed by actors not through narration effecting through pity and fear the purification of such emotions Common usage of tragedy refers to any story with a sad ending whereas to be an Aristotelian tragedy the story must fit the set of requirements as laid out by Poetics By this definition social drama cannot be tragic because the hero in it is a victim of circumstance and incidents that depend upon the society in which he lives and not upon the inner compulsions psychological or religious which determine his progress towards self knowledge and death 75 Exactly what constitutes a tragedy however is a frequently debated matter According to Aristotle there are four species of tragedy 1 Complex which involves Peripety and Discovery 2 Suffering tragedies of such nature can be seen in the Greek mythological stories of Ajaxes and Ixions 3 Character a tragedy of moral or ethical character Tragedies of this nature can be found in Phthiotides and Peleus 4 Spectacle that of a horror like theme Examples of this nature are Phorcides and Prometheus Hegel Edit G W F Hegel the German philosopher most famous for his dialectical approach to epistemology and history also applied such a methodology to his theory of tragedy In his essay Hegel s Theory of Tragedy A C Bradley first introduced the English speaking world to Hegel s theory which Bradley called the tragic collision and contrasted against the Aristotelian notions of the tragic hero and his or her hamartia in subsequent analyses of the Aeschylus Oresteia trilogy and of Sophocles Antigone 76 Hegel himself however in his seminal The Phenomenology of Spirit argues for a more complicated theory of tragedy with two complementary branches which though driven by a single dialectical principle differentiate Greek tragedy from that which follows Shakespeare His later lectures formulate such a theory of tragedy as a conflict of ethical forces represented by characters in ancient Greek tragedy but in Shakespearean tragedy the conflict is rendered as one of subject and object of individual personality which must manifest self destructive passions because only such passions are strong enough to defend the individual from a hostile and capricious external world The heroes of ancient classical tragedy encounter situations in which if they firmly decide in favor of the one ethical pathos that alone suits their finished character they must necessarily come into conflict with the equally gleichberechtigt justified ethical power that confronts them Modern characters on the other hand stand in a wealth of more accidental circumstances within which one could act this way or that so that the conflict is though occasioned by external preconditions still essentially grounded in the character The new individuals in their passions obey their own nature simply because they are what they are Greek heroes also act in accordance with individuality but in ancient tragedy such individuality is necessarily a self contained ethical pathos In modern tragedy however the character in its peculiarity decides in accordance with subjective desires such that congruity of character with outward ethical aim no longer constitutes an essential basis of tragic beauty 77 Hegel s comments on a particular play may better elucidate his theory Viewed externally Hamlet s death may be seen to have been brought about accidentally but in Hamlet s soul we understand that death has lurked from the beginning the sandbank of finitude cannot suffice his sorrow and tenderness such grief and nausea at all conditions of life we feel he is a man whom inner disgust has almost consumed well before death comes upon him from outside 78 Similar dramatic forms in world theatre EditAncient Indian drama Edit The writer Bharata Muni in his work on dramatic theory A Treatise on Theatre Sanskrit Natyasastra न ट य श स त र c 200 BCE 200 CE 79 identified several rasas such as pity anger disgust and terror in the emotional responses of audiences for the Sanskrit drama of ancient India The text also suggests the notion of musical modes or jatis which are the origin of the notion of the modern melodic structures known as ragas Their role in invoking emotions are emphasised thus compositions emphasising the notes gandhara or rishabha are said to provoke sadness or pathos karuna rasa whereas rishabha evokes heroism vira rasa Jatis are elaborated in greater detail in the text Dattilam composed around the same time as the Treatise The celebrated ancient Indian epic Mahabharata can also be related to tragedy in some ways According to Hermann Oldenberg the original epic once carried an immense tragic force 80 It was common in Sanskrit drama to adapt episodes from the Mahabharata into dramatic form See also Edit Theatre portal Classicism Tragedies en musique She tragedy Revenge tragedyNotes Edit Middle English tragedie lt Middle French tragedie lt Latin tragoedia lt Ancient Greek tragῳdia tragōidia 1 We have seven by Aeschylus seven by Sophocles and eighteen by Euripides In addition we also have the Cyclops a satyr play by Euripides Some critics since the 17th century have argued that one of the tragedies that the classical tradition gives as Euripides Rhesus is a 4th century play by an unknown author modern scholarship agrees with the classical authorities and ascribes the play to Euripides 34 This uncertainty accounts for Brockett and Hildy s figure of 31 tragedies The theory that Prometheus Bound was not written by Aeschylus adds a fourth anonymous playwright to those whose work survives For more information on the ancient Roman dramatists see the articles categorised under Ancient Roman dramatists and playwrights in Wikipedia References Edit Klein E 1967 Tragedy A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language vol II L Z Elsevier p 1637 Conversi Leonard W 2019 Tragedy Encyclopaedia Britannica a b Banham 1998 p 1118 Nietzsche 1999 p 21 2 two fold mood the strange mixture and duality in the effects of the Dionysiac enthusiasts that phenomenon whereby pain awakens pleasure while rejoicing wrings cries of agony from the breast From highest joy there comes a cry of horror or a yearning lament at some irredeemable loss In those Greek festivals there erupts what one might call a sentimental tendency in nature as if it had cause to sigh over its dismemberment into individuals Williams 1966 pp 14 16 Williams 1966 p 16 Williams 1966 pp 13 84 a b Taxidou 2004 pp 193 209 Benjamin 1998 Deleuze amp Guattari 1972 sfn error no target CITEREFDeleuzeGuattari1972 help Felski 2008 p 1 Dukore 1974 primary material a b Carlson 1993 analysis Pfister 1977 sfn error no target CITEREFPfister1977 help Elam Keir 1980 The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama Methuen ISBN 9780416720501 See Horace Epistulae II 3 220 Carmino qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum a b Brockett amp Hildy 2003 p 13 of Naucratis Athenaeus The deipnosophists Wisc Janko 1987 p 6 sfn error no target CITEREFJanko1987 help Aristotle Poetics section 1449b Tufts a b Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm 1844 1900 1999 The birth of tragedy and other writings Geuss Raymond Speirs Ronald Cambridge U K Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 63016 9 OCLC 39533077 a href wiki Template Cite book title Template Cite book cite book a CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Scott Scullion Tragedy and Religion The Problem of Origins in Gregory ed A Companion to Greek Tragedy 2008 p 29 Brown Andrew 1998 Greece Ancient In Banham Martin ed The Cambridge Guide to Theatre Revised ed Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 441 ISBN 0 521 43437 8 Cartledge Paul 1997 Deep Plays Theatre as Process in Greek Civic Life In Easterling P E ed The Cambridge Companion to Greek Tragedy Cambridge Companions to Literature series Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 3 5 ISBN 0 521 42351 1 Goldhill 1997 p 54 sfn error no target CITEREFGoldhill1997 help Ley 2007 p 206 Styan 2000 p 140 sfn error no target CITEREFStyan2000 help Taxidou 2004 p 104 most scholars now call Greek tragedy Athenian tragedy which is historically correct Brockett amp Hildy 2003 pp 32 3 Brown 1998 p 444 Cartledge 1997 pp 3 5 33 although Athenians of the 4th century judged Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides as the nonpareils of the genre and regularly honored their plays with revivals tragedy itself was not merely a 5th century phenomenon the product of a short lived golden age If not attaining the quality and stature of the fifth century classics original tragedies nonetheless continued to be written and produced and competed with in large numbers throughout the remaining life of the democracy and beyond it a b Brockett amp Hildy 2003 p 15 Kovacs 2005 p 379 sfn error no target CITEREFKovacs2005 help Euripides 1997 Introduction Plays VI Methuen Classical Greek Dramatists J Michael Walton introduction London Methuen pp viii xix ISBN 0 413 71650 3 Lucas 1954 p 7 Ley 2007 p 33 34 Chondros Thomas G Milidonis Kypros Vitzilaios George Vaitsis John 1 September 2013 Deus Ex Machina reconstruction in the Athens theater of Dionysus Mechanism and Machine Theory 67 172 191 doi 10 1016 j mechmachtheory 2013 04 010 ISSN 0094 114X a b Brockett amp Hildy 2003 p 43 Brockett amp Hildy 2003 pp 36 47 a b Brockett amp Hildy 2003 p 47 Brockett amp Hildy 2003 p 49 a b Brockett amp Hildy 2003 pp 50 Brockett amp Hildy 2003 pp 49 50 Lovati Lovato de Treccani Enciclopedie on line in Italian Accessed March 2013 Mussato Albertino Treccani Enciclopedie on line in Italian Accessed March 2013 Drama Encyclopaedia Britannica eleventh edition Vol VIII p 503 Henry Hallam 1837 Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Paris Baudry s European Library p 212 Del Carretto Galeotto dei marchesi di Savona Treccani Enciclopedie on line in Italian Accessed March 2013 Headington Westbrook amp Barfoot 1991 p 22 Graham Sadler Tragedie en musique Grove Music Online subscription required Accessed March 2013 Headington Westbrook amp Barfoot 1991 p 178 Colon 2007 p xi sfn error no target CITEREFColon2007 help Baillie 1798 p 38 Baillie 1798 p 41 Miller 1949 p 894 Barker 1989 p 13 sfn error no target CITEREFBarker1989 help George Steiner The Death of Tragedy 1961 Oxford University Press 1980 Yale University Press 1996 p xiii George Steiner Tragedy Reconsidered New Literary History 35 1 Winter 2004 pp 1 15 Sallis James 4 May 2008 The Dead All Have the Same Skin by Boris Vian www latimes com Retrieved 26 January 2019 His great novel L Ecume des jours Foam of the Daze is a tragedy of young love in which a woman dies of the lily growing in her lung Chapple Tobias Books in Review Froth on the Daydream by Boris Vian www litro co uk Retrieved 26 January 2019 The characters aren t meant to be real But it s also devastating when the novel central tragedy strikes that all too real feeling of an unjust world that takes away as easily as it gives and of people trying as hard as they can to be happy despite it Bernier Kathy 3 December 2016 REVIEW The Road Is A Gripping Prepper Novel Full Of Tragedy Struggle And Hope www offthegridnews com Retrieved 26 January 2019 Meehan Ryan The Frontiers of American Tragedy www thecrimson com Retrieved 26 January 2019 Young boy s death drives tragedy of Rabbit Hole www ocregister com 18 November 2009 Retrieved 26 January 2019 Bustin Jeremy BWW Review Cadence Theatre s RABBIT HOLE Examines Life After Tragedy www broadwayworld com Retrieved 26 January 2019 Brown Sarah 15 April 2008 Tragedy in Transition p 45 ISBN 9780470691304 Taylor Kevin 21 September 2018 Christ the Tragedy of God A Theological Exploration of Tragedy ISBN 9781351607834 Kendrick Tom 2003 Margaret Atwood s Textual Assassinations Recent Poetry and Fiction p 148 ISBN 9780814209295 Stray Christopher 16 October 2013 Remaking the Classics Literature Genre and Media in Britain 1800 2000 p 78 ISBN 9781472538604 Mandel Oscar 1961 A Definition of Tragedy New York New York University Press pp 10 11 Aristotle Poetics Trans W H Fyfe Cambridge Harvard UP 1932 Section 1452b Rorty Amelie Oksenberg Essays on Aristotle s Poetics Princeton Princeton UP 1992 Page 178 Poetics Aristotle Aristotle Poetics Section 1135b Aristotle Poetics 1449b Chiari J Landmarks of Contemporary Drama London Jenkins 1965 Page 41 Bradley 2007 pp 114 56 Hegel 1927 pp 567 8 Hegel 1927 p 572 Banham 1998 p 517 Oldenberg Hermann 1922 Das Mahabharata GottingenSources EditAristotle 1974 Poetics in Dukore ed Dramatic Theory and Criticism Greeks to Grotowski Butcher SH trans pp 31 55 1987 Poetics with Tractatus Coislinianus Reconstruction of Poetics II and the Fragments of the On Poets Janko Richard trans Cambridge Hackett ISBN 0 87220 033 7 Banham Martin ed 1998 The Cambridge Guide to Theatre Cambridge Cambridge UP ISBN 0 521 43437 8 Barker Howard 1989 Arguments for a Theatre 3rd ed London John Calder 1997 ISBN 0 7190 5249 1 Benjamin Walter 1998 1928 The Origin of German Tragic Drama Osborne John trans London and New York Verso ISBN 1 85984 899 0 Bradley AC 2007 1909 Oxford Lectures on Poetry repr ed Atlantic ISBN 978 81 7156 379 1 Brockett Oscar Gross Hildy Franklin Joseph 2003 History of the theatre 9th ill ed Allyn amp Bacon ISBN 978 0 205 35878 6 Carlson Marvin 1993 Theories of the Theatre A Historical and Critical Survey from the Greeks to the Present expanded ed Ithaca and London Cornell UP ISBN 0 8014 8154 6 Deleuze Gilles Guattari Felix 2004 Robert Hurley Mark Seem and Helen R Lane trans Anti Oedipus Continuum New Accents London and New York Methuen 1 ISBN 0 416 72060 9 Dukore ed 1974 Dramatic Theory and Criticism Greeks to Grotowski Felski Rita ed 2008 Rethinking Tragedy Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP ISBN 978 0 8018 8740 6 Headington Christopher Westbrook Roy Barfoot Terry 1991 Opera a History Arrow p 22 Hegel GWF 1927 Vorlesungen uber die Asthetik in Glockner Hermann ed Samlichte Werke vol 14 Stuttgart Fromann Ley Graham 2007 A Short Introduction to the Ancient Greek Theater rev ed University of Chicago Press ISBN 978 0 226 47761 9 Lucas FL 1954 Greek Drama for Everyman London JM Dent amp Sons Miller Arthur 27 February 1949 Tragedy and the Common Man The New York Times Dukore 1974 pp 894 7 Nietzsche Friedrich 1999 1872 Geuss Raymond Speirs Ronald eds The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy Speirs Ronald trans Cambridge Cambridge UP ISBN 0 521 63987 5 Pfister Manfred 1988 1977 The Theory and Analysis of Drama European Studies in English Literature Halliday John trans Cambridge Cambridge UP ISBN 0 521 42383 X Rehm Rush 1992 Greek Tragic Theatre Theatre Production Studies London and New York Routledge ISBN 0 415 11894 8 Schlegel August Wilhelm 1809 Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature Gutenberg Sorkin Nancy 2008 Greek Tragedy Introductions to the Classical World Malden MA Blackwell ISBN 978 1 4051 2161 3 Taxidou Olga 2004 Tragedy Modernity and Mourning Edinburgh Edinburgh UP ISBN 0 7486 1987 9 Williams Raymond 1966 Modern Tragedy London Chatto amp Windus ISBN 0 7011 1260 3 Baillie Joanna 1798 A Series of Plays in which it is attempted to delineate The Stranger Passions of the Mind Volume 1 Introductory Discourse London Baillie Joanna 2007 Colon Christine ed Six Gothic Dramas Chicago Valancourd Books ISBN 978 0 9792332 0 3External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Tragedies Wikiquote has quotations related to Tragedy Look up tragedy in Wiktionary the free dictionary Tragedy on In Our Time at the BBC Taplin Oliver Billings Joshua What is Tragedy podcast UK Oxford University Aristotle Poetics online ed Tufts Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tragedy amp oldid 1089964648, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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