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This article refers to traits in biology. For other uses of the term, see trait (disambiguation)
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A phenotypic trait, simply trait, or character state is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a character of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. The term trait is generally used in genetics, often to describe phenotypic expression of different combinations of alleles in different individual organisms within a single population, such as the famous purple vs. white flower coloration in Gregor Mendel's pea plants. By contrast, in systematics, the term is character state is employed to describe features that represent fixed diagnostic differences among taxa, such as the absence of tails in great apes, relative to other Primate groups.

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A phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is a specific hair color or eye colour. Underlying genes, which make up the genotype, determine the hair color, but the hair color observed is the phenotype. The phenotype is dependent on the genetic make-up of the organism, and also influenced by the environmental conditions to which the organism is subjected across its ontogenetic development, including various epigenetic processes. Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment, the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism, including traits at multiple levels of biological organization, ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits (e.g., litter size), through morphology (e.g., body height and composition), physiology (e.g., blood pressure), cellular characteristics (e.g., membrane lipid composition, mitochondrial densities), components of biochemical pathways, and even messenger RNA.

Different phenotypic traits are caused by different forms of genes, or alleles, which arise by mutation in a single individual and are passed on to successive generations.

The biochemistry of the intermediate proteins determines how they interact in the cell. Therefore, biochemistry predicts how different combinations of alleles will produce varying traits.

Extended expression patterns seen in diploid organisms include facets of incomplete dominance, codominance, and multiple alleles. Incomplete dominance is the condition in which neither allele dominates the other in one heterozygote. Instead the phenotype is intermediate in heterozygotes. Thus you can tell that each allele is present in the heterozygote. Codominance refers to the allelic relationship that occurs when two alleles are both expressed in the heterozygote, and both phenotypes are seen simultaneously. Multiple alleles refers to the situation when there are more than 2 common alleles of a particular gene. Blood groups in humans is a classic example. The ABO blood group proteins are important in determining blood type in humans, and this is determined by different alleles of the one locus.

Schizotypy is an example of a psychological phenotypic trait found in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Studies have shown that gender and age influences the expression of schizotypal traits. For instance, certain schizotypal traits may develop further during adolescence, whereas others stay the same during this period.

  1. Williams, David; Schmitt, Michael; Wheeler, Quentin (2016-07-21). The Future of Phylogenetic Systematics: The Legacy of Willi Hennig. ISBN 9781107117648.
  2. Yeates, David K.; Wiegmann, Brian M. (2005). The Evolutionary Biology of Flies. ISBN 9780231127004.
  3. "Reconstructing trees: A step by step method - Understanding Evolution". 29 May 2021.
  4. Wright, April M; Lloyd, Graeme T; Hillis, David M (2016). "Modeling Character Change Heterogeneity in Phylogenetic Analyses of Morphology through the Use of Priors". Systematic Biology. 65 (4): 602–611. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syv122. PMID 26715586.
  5. Lawrence, Eleanor (2005) Henderson's Dictionary of Biology. Pearson, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-127384-1
  6. Brower, Andrew V. Z.; Schuh, Randall T. (2021). Biological Systematics: Principles and Applications. ISBN 9781501752773.
  7. *Campbell, Neil; Reece, Jane, Biology, Benjamin Cummings
  8. Gerstein, Mark B.; Bruce, Can; Rozowsky, Joel S.; Zheng, Deyou; Du, Jiang; Korbel, Jan O.; Emanuelsson, Olof; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael (June 2007). "What is a gene, post-ENCODE? History and updated definition". Genome Research. 17 (6): 669–681. doi:10.1101/gr.6339607. ISSN 1088-9051.
  9. Bailey, Regina. "What is incomplete dominance". About.com.
  10. McClean, Philip. "Variations to Mendel's First Law of Genetics".
  11. Unknown. "Multiple Alleles".
  12. Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Paino, Mercedes; Sierra-Baigrie, Susana; Muñiz, José (2012-08-01). "Phenotypic Expression of Schizotypal Traits in an Adolescent Population". Journal of Personality Disorders. 26 (4): 539–550. doi:10.1521/pedi.2012.26.4.539. ISSN 0885-579X. PMID 22867505.
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  • Campbell, Neil; Reece, Jane (March 2011) [2002], "14", Biology (Sixth ed.), Benjamin Cummings

Phenotypic trait Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Trait biology This article refers to traits in biology For other uses of the term see trait disambiguation This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Phenotypic trait news newspapers books scholar JSTOR August 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message A phenotypic trait 1 2 simply trait or character state 3 4 is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism it may be either inherited or determined environmentally but typically occurs as a combination of the two 5 For example eye color is a character of an organism while blue brown and hazel are traits The term trait is generally used in genetics often to describe phenotypic expression of different combinations of alleles in different individual organisms within a single population such as the famous purple vs white flower coloration in Gregor Mendel s pea plants By contrast in systematics the term is character state is employed to describe features that represent fixed diagnostic differences among taxa such as the absence of tails in great apes relative to other Primate groups 6 True gray eyes Contents 1 Definition 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms 3 Biochemistry of dominance and extensions to expression of traits 4 Schizotypy 5 See also 6 Citations 7 ReferencesDefinition EditA phenotypic trait is an obvious observable and measurable trait it is the expression of genes in an observable way An example of a phenotypic trait is a specific hair color or eye colour Underlying genes which make up the genotype determine the hair color but the hair color observed is the phenotype The phenotype is dependent on the genetic make up of the organism and also influenced by the environmental conditions to which the organism is subjected across its ontogenetic development 7 including various epigenetic processes Regardless of the degree of influence of genotype versus environment the phenotype encompasses all of the characteristics of an organism including traits at multiple levels of biological organization ranging from behavior and evolutionary history of life traits e g litter size through morphology e g body height and composition physiology e g blood pressure cellular characteristics e g membrane lipid composition mitochondrial densities components of biochemical pathways and even messenger RNA Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms EditDifferent phenotypic traits are caused by different forms of genes or alleles which arise by mutation in a single individual and are passed on to successive generations 8 Biochemistry of dominance and extensions to expression of traits EditThe biochemistry of the intermediate proteins determines how they interact in the cell Therefore biochemistry predicts how different combinations of alleles will produce varying traits Extended expression patterns seen in diploid organisms include facets of incomplete dominance codominance and multiple alleles Incomplete dominance is the condition in which neither allele dominates the other in one heterozygote Instead the phenotype is intermediate in heterozygotes Thus you can tell that each allele is present in the heterozygote 9 Codominance refers to the allelic relationship that occurs when two alleles are both expressed in the heterozygote and both phenotypes are seen simultaneously 10 Multiple alleles refers to the situation when there are more than 2 common alleles of a particular gene Blood groups in humans is a classic example The ABO blood group proteins are important in determining blood type in humans and this is determined by different alleles of the one locus 11 Schizotypy EditSchizotypy is an example of a psychological phenotypic trait found in schizophrenia spectrum disorders Studies have shown that gender and age influences the expression of schizotypal traits 12 For instance certain schizotypal traits may develop further during adolescence whereas others stay the same during this period 12 See also Edit Biology portal Allometric engineering of traits Character displacement Phene Race biology Skill Eye colorCitations Edit Williams David Schmitt Michael Wheeler Quentin 2016 07 21 The Future of Phylogenetic Systematics The Legacy of Willi Hennig ISBN 9781107117648 Yeates David K Wiegmann Brian M 2005 The Evolutionary Biology of Flies ISBN 9780231127004 Reconstructing trees A step by step method Understanding Evolution 29 May 2021 Wright April M Lloyd Graeme T Hillis David M 2016 Modeling Character Change Heterogeneity in Phylogenetic Analyses of Morphology through the Use of Priors Systematic Biology 65 4 602 611 doi 10 1093 sysbio syv122 PMID 26715586 Lawrence Eleanor 2005 Henderson s Dictionary of Biology Pearson Prentice Hall ISBN 0 13 127384 1 Brower Andrew V Z Schuh Randall T 2021 Biological Systematics Principles and Applications ISBN 9781501752773 Campbell Neil Reece Jane Biology Benjamin Cummings Gerstein Mark B Bruce Can Rozowsky Joel S Zheng Deyou Du Jiang Korbel Jan O Emanuelsson Olof Zhang Zhengdong D Weissman Sherman Snyder Michael June 2007 What is a gene post ENCODE History and updated definition Genome Research 17 6 669 681 doi 10 1101 gr 6339607 ISSN 1088 9051 Bailey Regina What is incomplete dominance About com McClean Philip Variations to Mendel s First Law of Genetics Unknown Multiple Alleles a b Fonseca Pedrero Eduardo Lemos Giraldez Serafin Paino Mercedes Sierra Baigrie Susana Muniz Jose 2012 08 01 Phenotypic Expression of Schizotypal Traits in an Adolescent Population Journal of Personality Disorders 26 4 539 550 doi 10 1521 pedi 2012 26 4 539 ISSN 0885 579X PMID 22867505 References EditLawrence Eleanor 2005 Henderson s Dictionary of Biology Pearson Prentice Hall ISBN 0 13 127384 1 Campbell Neil Reece Jane March 2011 2002 14 Biology Sixth ed Benjamin Cummings Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Phenotypic trait amp oldid 1090993966, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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