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The South Caucasus, also known as Transcaucasia or the Transcaucasus, is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains. The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States. The total area of these countries measures about 186,100 square kilometres (71,850 square miles). The South Caucasus and the North Caucasus together comprise the larger Caucasus geographical region that divides Eurasia.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department

Contents

Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan

The South Caucasus spans the southern portion of the Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands, straddling the border between the continents of Europe and Asia, and extending southwards from the southern part of the Main Caucasian Range of southwestern Russia to the Turkish and Armenian borders, and from the Black Sea in the west to the Caspian Sea coast of Iran in the east. The area includes the southern part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range, the entire Lesser Caucasus mountain range, the Colchis Lowlands, the Kura-Aras Lowlands, Qaradagh, the Talysh Mountains, the Lankaran Lowland, Javakheti and the eastern portion of the Armenian Highland.

All of present-day Armenia is in the South Caucasus; the majority of present-day Georgia and Azerbaijan, including the exclave of Nakhchivan, also fall within the region.[citation needed] Parts of Iran and Turkey are also included within the region of the South Caucasus. Goods produced in the region include oil, manganese ore, tea, citrus fruits, and wine. It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post-Soviet area, and contains three heavily disputed areas: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia. Between 1878 and 1917, the Russian-controlled province of Kars Oblast was also incorporated into the South Caucasus.

Nowadays, the region is referred to as the South Caucasus or Southern Caucasia (Armenian:Անդրկովկաս, romanized: Andrkovkas, Azerbaijani: Cənubi Qafqaz, Ҹәнуби Гафгаз; Georgian:სამხრეთ კავკასია,romanized:samkhret k'avk'asia; Russian:Южный Кавказ, romanized: Yuzhnyy Kavkaz). The former name of the region, Transcaucasia, is a Latin rendering of the Russian-language word Zakavkazye (Закавказье), meaning "[the area] beyond the Caucasus". This implies a Russian vantage point, and is analogous to similar terms such as Transnistria and Transleithania. Other, rarer forms of this word include Trans-Caucasus and Transcaucasus (Russian:Транскавказ, romanized: Transkavkaz).

Prehistory

Herodotus, a Greek historian who is known as 'the Father of History' and Strabo, a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian, spoke about autochthonous peoples of the Caucasus in their books. In the Middle Ages, various people, including Scythians, Alani, Armenians, Huns, Khazars, Arabs, Seljuq Turks, and Mongols settled in Caucasia. These invasions influenced on the culture of the peoples of the South Caucasus. In parallel Middle Eastern influence disseminated the Iranian languages and Islamic religion in Caucasus.

Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

Located on the peripheries of Iran, Russia and Turkey, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries. Throughout its history, the region has come under control of various empires, including the Achaemenid, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Parthian, Roman, Sassanian, Byzantine, Mongol, Ottoman, successive Iranian (Safavid, Afsharid, Qajar), and Russian Empires, all of which introduced their faiths and cultures. Throughout history, most of the South Caucasus was usually under the direct rule of the various in-Iran based empires and part of the Iranian world. In the course of the 19th century, Qajar Iran had to irrevocably cede the region (alongside its territories in Dagestan, North Caucasus) as a result of the two Russo-Persian Wars of that century to Imperial Russia.

Ancient kingdoms of the region included Colchis, Urartu, Iberia, Armenia and Albania, among others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including the Achaemenid Empire, the Parthian Empire, and the Sassanid Empire, during which Zoroastrianism became the dominant religion in the region. However, after the rise of Christianity and conversion of Caucasian kingdoms to the new religion, Zoroastrianism lost its prevalence and only survived because of Persian power and influence still lingering in the region. Thus, the South Caucasus became the area of not only military, but also religious convergence, which often led to bitter conflicts with successive Persian empires (and later Muslim-ruled empires) on the one side and the Roman Empire (and later the Byzantine Empire) on the other side.

The Iranian Parthians established and installed several eponymous branches in the South Caucasus, namely the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, and the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania.

Middle ages and Russian rule

In the middle of the 8th century, with the capture of Derbend by the Umayyad armies during the Arab–Khazar wars, most of the South Caucasus became part of the Caliphate and Islam spread throughout[dubiousdiscuss] the region. Later, the Orthodox Christian Kingdom of Georgia dominated most of the South Caucasus. The region was then conquered by the Seljuk, Mongol, Turkic, Safavid, Ottoman, Afsharid and Qajar dynasties.

After two wars in the first half of the 19th century, namely the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828), the Russian Empire conquered most of the South Caucasus (and Dagestan in the North Caucasus) from the Iranian Qajar dynasty, severing historic regional ties with Iran. By the Treaty of Gulistan that followed after the 1804-1813 war, Iran was forced to cede modern-day Dagestan, Eastern Georgia, and most of the Azerbaijan Republic to Russia. By the Treaty of Turkmenchay that followed after the 1826-1828 war, Iran lost all of what is modern-day Armenia and the remainder of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that remained in Iranian hands. After the 1828-1829 war, the Ottomans ceded Western Georgia (except Adjaria, which was known as Sanjak of Batum), to the Russians.

In 1844, what comprises present-day Georgia, Armenia and the Azerbaijan Republic were combined into a single czarist government-general, which was termed a vice-royalty in 1844-1881 and 1905–1917. Following the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War, Russia annexed Kars, Ardahan, Agri and Batumi from the Ottomans, joined to this unit, and established the province of Kars Oblast as its most southwesterly territory in the South Caucasus.

Modern era

After the fall of the Russian Empire in 1918, the South Caucasus region was unified into a single political entity twice, as Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918, and as Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936, each time to be dissolved into three Soviet Socialist Republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. All three regained independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved.

The Russo-Georgian War took place in 2008 across the South Caucasus, contributing to further instability in the region, which is as intricate as the Middle East, due to the complex mix of religions (mainly Muslim and Orthodox Christian) and ethno-linguistic groups.

Since their independence, the three countries have had varying degrees of success in their relations with Russia and other countries. In Georgia, after the Rose Revolution in 2004, the country, like the Baltic states, began integrating into Western Europe by opening up relations with NATO and the European Union. Armenia continues to foster relations with Russia while Azerbaijan relies less on Russia, strategically partnering with Turkey and other NATO states.

Historical population of the South Caucasus
Year Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia TOTAL
1897 798,853 1,806,700 1,919,400 4,524,953
1908 877,322 2,014,300
1914 1,014,255 2,278,245 2,697,500 5,990,000
1916–17 993,782 2,353,700 2,357,800 5,705,282
First World War and Russian Revolution
1920–22 780,000 1,863,000 2,677,000 5,321,000
1926 880,464 2,314,571 2,666,494 5,861,529
1929 6,273,000
1931 1,050,633 6,775,000
1932 6,976,000
1933 7,110,000
1939 1,282,338 3,205,150 3,540,023 8,027,511
1956 9,000,000
1959 1,763,048 3,697,717 4,044,045 9,504,810
1970 2,491,873 5,117,081 4,686,358 12,295,312
1979 3,037,259 6,026,515 4,993,182 14,056,956
1989 3,304,776 7,037,867 5,400,841 15,743,484
1999–2002 3,213,011 7,953,400 3,991,300 15,157,711
2009–14 3,018,854 8,922,000 3,713,804 15,654,658

The South Caucasus, in particular where modern-day Turkey, Georgia, Armenia and Iran are located, is one of the native areas of the wine-producing vine Vitis vinifera. Some experts speculate that the South Caucasus may be the birthplace of wine production. Archaeological excavations and carbon dating of grape seeds from the area have dated back to 8000–5000 BC. Wine found in Iran has been dated toc. 7400 BC andc. 5000 BC, while wine found in Georgia has been dated toc. 5,980 BC. The earliest winery, dated toc. 4000 BC, was found in Armenia.

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  2. Mulvey, Stephen (16 June 2000). "The Caucasus: Troubled borderland". News. BBC. Retrieved1 July 2009. "The Caucasus Mountains form the boundary between West and East, between Europe and Asia..."
  3. Solomon Ilich Bruk. "Transcaucasia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved3 December 2014.
  4. Wright, John; Schofield, Richard; Goldenberg, Suzanne (16 December 2003). Transcaucasian Boundaries. Routledge. p. 72. ISBN 9781135368500.
  5. Albert Kirk Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions: Volume I. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. p. 108. §716.
  6. German, Tracey (2012). Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus: Good Neighbours Or Distant Relatives?. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 44. ISBN 978-1409407218.
  7. "Caucasus and Iran" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Multiple Authors
  8. Dowling, T.C. (2014). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 728–730. ISBN 978-1-59884-948-6.
  9. King, Charles (2008).The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0199884322.
  10. Allen F. Chew. An Atlas of Russian History: Eleven Centuries of Changing Borders. Yale University Press, 1967. pp 74
  11. Korkotyan, Zaven (1932). Խորհրդային Հայաստանի բնակչությունը վերջին հարյուրամյակում (1831-1931) [The population of Soviet Armenia in the last century (1831-1931)] (in Armenian). Melkonyan Foundation. p. 167.
  12. "Azərbaycanda dеmоqrаfik vəziyyət" (in Azerbaijani). State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan. 18 February 2019.
  13. ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 92
  14. ჯაოშვილი, ვახტანგ. საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII–XX საუკუნეებში./Jaoshvili, Vakhtang. Population of Georgia in the XVIII–XX centuries. Metsniereba, Tbilisi, 1984, pp. 95
  15. Pipes, Richard (1959). "Demographic and Ethnographic Changes in Transcaucasia, 1897-1956". Middle East Journal. Middle East Institute. 13 (1): 48. JSTOR 4323084 – via JSTOR.
  16. "Приложение. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1926 г. СССР, республики и их основные регионы". Демоскоп Weekly. Retrieved9 April 2022.
  17. "Приложение. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года". Демоскоп Weekly. Retrieved9 April 2022.
  18. "Приложение. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 г." Демоскоп Weekly. Retrieved9 April 2022.
  19. "Приложение. Численность наличного населения городов, поселков городского типа, районов и районных центров СССР по данным переписи на 15 января 1970 года по республикам, краям и областям (кроме РСФСР)". Демоскоп Weekly. Retrieved9 April 2022.
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  21. "Приложение. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г." Демоскоп Weekly. Retrieved9 April 2022.
  22. Information from the 2001 Armenian National Census
  23. "Population Dynamics in Georgia – An Overview Based on the 2014 General Population Census Data"(PDF). UNFPA, National Statistics Office of Georgia (Geostat). 29 November 2017. Retrieved2 February 2022.
  24. "THE RESULTS OF 2011 POPULATION CENSUS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA (FIGURES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA), trilingual / Armenian Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia". armstat.am. Retrieved10 January 2018.
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  26. But was it plonk?, Boston Globe
  27. Hugh Johnson Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 15 Simon & Schuster 1989
  28. Johnson pg 17
  29. Ellsworth, Amy (18 July 2012). "7,000 Year-old Wine Jar". Penn Museum.
  30. "'World's oldest wine' found in 8,000-year-old jars in Georgia". BBC. 13 November 2011. Retrieved26 April 2020.
  31. Berkowitz, Mark (1996). "World's Earliest Wine". Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 49 (5). Retrieved25 June 2008.
  32. Spilling, Michael; Wong, Winnie (2008). Cultures of The World: Georgia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7614-3033-9.
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South Caucasus Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Transcaucasia For the 1918 republic see Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic For the Soviet republic see Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources South Caucasus news newspapers books scholar JSTOR April 2022 Learn how and when to remove this template message The South Caucasus also known as Transcaucasia or the Transcaucasus is a geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains 1 2 The South Caucasus roughly corresponds to modern Armenia Georgia and Azerbaijan which are sometimes collectively known as the Caucasian States The total area of these countries measures about 186 100 square kilometres 71 850 square miles 3 The South Caucasus and the North Caucasus together comprise the larger Caucasus geographical region that divides Eurasia 1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U S State Department Contents 1 Geography 2 Etymology 3 History 3 1 Prehistory 3 2 Middle ages and Russian rule 3 3 Modern era 4 Demographics 5 Wine 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksGeography Edit Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia Armenia and Azerbaijan The South Caucasus spans the southern portion of the Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands straddling the border between the continents of Europe and Asia and extending southwards from the southern part of the Main Caucasian Range of southwestern Russia to the Turkish and Armenian borders and from the Black Sea in the west to the Caspian Sea coast of Iran in the east The area includes the southern part of the Greater Caucasus mountain range the entire Lesser Caucasus mountain range the Colchis Lowlands the Kura Aras Lowlands Qaradagh the Talysh Mountains the Lankaran Lowland Javakheti and the eastern portion of the Armenian Highland All of present day Armenia is in the South Caucasus the majority of present day Georgia and Azerbaijan including the exclave of Nakhchivan also fall within the region citation needed Parts of Iran and Turkey are also included within the region of the South Caucasus 4 Goods produced in the region include oil manganese ore tea citrus fruits and wine It remains one of the most politically tense regions in the post Soviet area and contains three heavily disputed areas Abkhazia Artsakh and South Ossetia Between 1878 and 1917 the Russian controlled province of Kars Oblast was also incorporated into the South Caucasus Etymology EditNowadays the region is referred to as the South Caucasus or Southern Caucasia Armenian Անդրկովկաս romanized Andrkovkas Azerbaijani Cenubi Qafqaz Ҹәnubi Gafgaz Georgian სამხრეთ კავკასია romanized samkhret k avk asia Russian Yuzhnyj Kavkaz romanized Yuzhnyy Kavkaz The former name of the region Transcaucasia is a Latin rendering of the Russian language word Zakavkazye Zakavkaze meaning the area beyond the Caucasus 3 This implies a Russian vantage point and is analogous to similar terms such as Transnistria and Transleithania Other rarer forms of this word include Trans Caucasus and Transcaucasus Russian Transkavkaz romanized Transkavkaz History EditPrehistory Edit Herodotus a Greek historian who is known as the Father of History and Strabo a Greek geographer philosopher and historian spoke about autochthonous peoples of the Caucasus in their books In the Middle Ages various people including Scythians Alani Armenians Huns Khazars Arabs Seljuq Turks and Mongols settled in Caucasia These invasions influenced on the culture of the peoples of the South Caucasus In parallel Middle Eastern influence disseminated the Iranian languages and Islamic religion in Caucasus 3 Contemporary political map of the Caucasus including unrecognized states Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR 1957 1991 Located on the peripheries of Iran Russia and Turkey the region has been an arena for political military religious and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries Throughout its history the region has come under control of various empires including the Achaemenid Neo Assyrian Empire 5 Parthian Roman Sassanian Byzantine Mongol Ottoman successive Iranian Safavid Afsharid Qajar and Russian Empires all of which introduced their faiths and cultures 6 Throughout history most of the South Caucasus was usually under the direct rule of the various in Iran based empires and part of the Iranian world 7 In the course of the 19th century Qajar Iran had to irrevocably cede the region alongside its territories in Dagestan North Caucasus as a result of the two Russo Persian Wars of that century to Imperial Russia 8 Ancient kingdoms of the region included Colchis Urartu Iberia Armenia and Albania among others These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires including the Achaemenid Empire the Parthian Empire and the Sassanid Empire during which Zoroastrianism became the dominant religion in the region However after the rise of Christianity and conversion of Caucasian kingdoms to the new religion Zoroastrianism lost its prevalence and only survived because of Persian power and influence still lingering in the region Thus the South Caucasus became the area of not only military but also religious convergence which often led to bitter conflicts with successive Persian empires and later Muslim ruled empires on the one side and the Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire on the other side The Iranian Parthians established and installed several eponymous branches in the South Caucasus namely the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia and the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania Middle ages and Russian rule Edit In the middle of the 8th century with the capture of Derbend by the Umayyad armies during the Arab Khazar wars most of the South Caucasus became part of the Caliphate and Islam spread throughout dubious discuss the region 9 Later the Orthodox Christian Kingdom of Georgia dominated most of the South Caucasus The region was then conquered by the Seljuk Mongol Turkic Safavid Ottoman Afsharid and Qajar dynasties After two wars in the first half of the 19th century namely the Russo Persian War 1804 1813 and the Russo Persian War 1826 1828 the Russian Empire conquered most of the South Caucasus and Dagestan in the North Caucasus from the Iranian Qajar dynasty severing historic regional ties with Iran 7 10 By the Treaty of Gulistan that followed after the 1804 1813 war Iran was forced to cede modern day Dagestan Eastern Georgia and most of the Azerbaijan Republic to Russia By the Treaty of Turkmenchay that followed after the 1826 1828 war Iran lost all of what is modern day Armenia and the remainder of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that remained in Iranian hands After the 1828 1829 war the Ottomans ceded Western Georgia except Adjaria which was known as Sanjak of Batum to the Russians In 1844 what comprises present day Georgia Armenia and the Azerbaijan Republic were combined into a single czarist government general which was termed a vice royalty in 1844 1881 and 1905 1917 Following the 1877 78 Russo Turkish War Russia annexed Kars Ardahan Agri and Batumi from the Ottomans joined to this unit and established the province of Kars Oblast as its most southwesterly territory in the South Caucasus Modern era Edit After the fall of the Russian Empire in 1918 the South Caucasus region was unified into a single political entity twice as Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918 and as Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936 each time to be dissolved into three Soviet Socialist Republics of Armenia Azerbaijan and Georgia All three regained independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved The Russo Georgian War took place in 2008 across the South Caucasus contributing to further instability in the region which is as intricate as the Middle East due to the complex mix of religions mainly Muslim and Orthodox Christian and ethno linguistic groups Since their independence the three countries have had varying degrees of success in their relations with Russia and other countries In Georgia after the Rose Revolution in 2004 the country like the Baltic states began integrating into Western Europe by opening up relations with NATO and the European Union Armenia continues to foster relations with Russia while Azerbaijan relies less on Russia strategically partnering with Turkey and other NATO states Demographics EditHistorical population of the South Caucasus Year Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia TOTAL1897 798 853 11 1 806 700 12 1 919 400 13 4 524 9531908 877 322 11 2 014 300 12 1914 1 014 255 11 2 278 245 2 697 500 14 5 990 000 15 1916 17 993 782 11 2 353 700 12 2 357 800 14 5 705 282First World War and Russian Revolution1920 22 780 000 1 863 000 2 677 000 5 321 000 15 1926 880 464 2 314 571 2 666 494 5 861 529 16 1929 6 273 000 15 1931 1 050 633 11 6 775 000 15 1932 6 976 000 15 1933 7 110 000 15 1939 1 282 338 3 205 150 3 540 023 8 027 511 17 1956 9 000 000 15 1959 1 763 048 3 697 717 4 044 045 9 504 810 18 1970 2 491 873 5 117 081 4 686 358 12 295 312 19 1979 3 037 259 6 026 515 4 993 182 14 056 956 20 1989 3 304 776 7 037 867 5 400 841 15 743 484 21 1999 2002 3 213 011 22 7 953 400 12 3 991 300 23 15 157 7112009 14 3 018 854 24 8 922 000 12 3 713 804 25 15 654 658Wine EditThe South Caucasus in particular where modern day Turkey Georgia Armenia and Iran are located is one of the native areas of the wine producing vine Vitis vinifera 26 Some experts speculate that the South Caucasus may be the birthplace of wine production 27 Archaeological excavations and carbon dating of grape seeds from the area have dated back to 8000 5000 BC 28 Wine found in Iran has been dated to c 7400 BC 26 and c 5000 BC 29 while wine found in Georgia has been dated to c 5 980 BC 30 31 32 The earliest winery dated to c 4000 BC was found in Armenia 26 See also EditCaucasus Caucasus Greeks Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations Eastern Europe Eastern European Group Eastern Partnership Eurasian Economic Union Eurovoc Ibero Caucasian languages North Caucasus Ciscaucasia Peoples of the Caucasus Post Soviet states Regions of Europe South Kipchakya Portals Azerbaijan Georgia country Asia EuropeReferences Edit Caucasus The World Factbook Library of Congress May 2006 Retrieved 7 July 2009 Mulvey Stephen 16 June 2000 The Caucasus Troubled borderland News BBC Retrieved 1 July 2009 The Caucasus Mountains form the boundary between West and East between Europe and Asia a b c Solomon Ilich Bruk Transcaucasia Encyclopaedia Britannica Retrieved 3 December 2014 Wright John Schofield Richard Goldenberg Suzanne 16 December 2003 Transcaucasian Boundaries Routledge p 72 ISBN 9781135368500 Albert Kirk Grayson 1972 Assyrian Royal Inscriptions Volume I Wiesbaden Otto Harrassowitz p 108 716 German Tracey 2012 Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus Good Neighbours Or Distant Relatives Ashgate Publishing Ltd p 44 ISBN 978 1409407218 a b Caucasus and Iran in Encyclopaedia Iranica Multiple Authors Dowling T C 2014 Russia at War From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan Chechnya and Beyond 2 volumes ABC CLIO pp 728 730 ISBN 978 1 59884 948 6 King Charles 2008 The Ghost of Freedom A History of the Caucasus Oxford University Press p 65 ISBN 978 0199884322 Allen F Chew An Atlas of Russian History Eleven Centuries of Changing Borders Yale University Press 1967 pp 74 a b c d e Korkotyan Zaven 1932 Խորհրդային Հայաստանի բնակչությունը վերջին հարյուրամյակում 1831 1931 The population of Soviet Armenia in the last century 1831 1931 in Armenian Melkonyan Foundation p 167 a b c d e Azerbaycanda demoqrafik veziyyet in Azerbaijani State Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan 18 February 2019 ჯაოშვილი ვახტანგ საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII XX საუკუნეებში Jaoshvili Vakhtang Population of Georgia in the XVIII XX centuries Metsniereba Tbilisi 1984 pp 92 a b ჯაოშვილი ვახტანგ საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII XX საუკუნეებში Jaoshvili Vakhtang Population of Georgia in the XVIII XX centuries Metsniereba Tbilisi 1984 pp 95 a b c d e f g Pipes Richard 1959 Demographic and Ethnographic Changes in Transcaucasia 1897 1956 Middle East Journal Middle East Institute 13 1 48 JSTOR 4323084 via JSTOR Prilozhenie Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1926 g SSSR respubliki i ih osnovnye regiony Demoskop Weekly Retrieved 9 April 2022 Prilozhenie Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1939 goda Demoskop Weekly Retrieved 9 April 2022 Prilozhenie Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1959 g Demoskop Weekly Retrieved 9 April 2022 Prilozhenie Chislennost nalichnogo naseleniya gorodov poselkov gorodskogo tipa rajonov i rajonnyh centrov SSSR po dannym perepisi na 15 yanvarya 1970 goda po respublikam krayam i oblastyam krome RSFSR Demoskop Weekly Retrieved 9 April 2022 Prilozhenie Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1979 g Demoskop Weekly Prilozhenie Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1989 g Demoskop Weekly Retrieved 9 April 2022 Information from the 2001 Armenian National Census Population Dynamics in Georgia An Overview Based on the 2014 General Population Census Data PDF UNFPA National Statistics Office of Georgia Geostat 29 November 2017 Retrieved 2 February 2022 THE RESULTS OF 2011 POPULATION CENSUS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA FIGURES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA trilingual Armenian Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia armstat am Retrieved 10 January 2018 ჯაოშვილი ვახტანგ საქართველოს მოსახლეობა XVIII XX საუკუნეებში Jaoshvili Vakhtang Population of Georgia in the XVIII XX centuries Metsniereba Tbilisi 1984 a b c But was it plonk Boston Globe Hugh Johnson Vintage The Story of Wine pg 15 Simon amp Schuster 1989 Johnson pg 17 Ellsworth Amy 18 July 2012 7 000 Year old Wine Jar Penn Museum World s oldest wine found in 8 000 year old jars in Georgia BBC 13 November 2011 Retrieved 26 April 2020 Berkowitz Mark 1996 World s Earliest Wine Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America 49 5 Retrieved 25 June 2008 Spilling Michael Wong Winnie 2008 Cultures of The World Georgia p 128 ISBN 978 0 7614 3033 9 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to South Caucasus Caucasian Journal a multilingual online journal on the South Caucasus Caucasian Review of International Affairs an academic journal on the South Caucasus Caucasus Analytical Digest Journal on the South Caucasus Transcaucasia The Columbia Encyclopedia article Kropotkin Peter Alexeivitch 1888 Transcaucasia Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 23 9th ed pp 513 515 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title South Caucasus amp oldid 1092718847, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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