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In the field of Egyptology, transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Demotic counterparts. This process facilitates the publication of texts where the inclusion of photographs or drawings of an actual Egyptian document is impractical.

Transliteration is not the same as transcription. Transliteration aims to represent written symbols in a consistent way in a different writing system, while transcription seeks to accurately record the pronunciation of a text. In the case of Ancient Egyptian, precise details of the phonology are not completely known. Transcription systems for Ancient Egyptian do exist, but they rely on linguistic reconstruction (depending on evidence from Coptic and other details) and are thus theoretical in nature. Egyptologists rely on transliteration in scientific publications.

Contents

This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see . For the distinction between[ ],/ / and ⟨⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

Important as transliteration is to the field of Egyptology, there is no one standard scheme in use for hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. Some might even argue that there are as many systems of transliteration as there are Egyptologists. However, there are a few closely related systems that can be regarded as conventional. Many non-German-speaking Egyptologists use the system described in Gardiner 1954, whereas many German-speaking scholars tend to opt for that used in the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache (Erman and Grapow 1926–1953), the standard dictionary of the ancient Egyptian language. However, there is a growing trend, even among English-speaking scholars, to adopt a modified version of the method used in the Wörterbuch (e.g., Allen 2000).

Although these conventional approaches to transliteration have been followed since most of the second half of the nineteenth century to the present day, there have been some attempts to adopt a modified system that seeks to utilise the International Phonetic Alphabet to a certain degree. The most successful of these is that developed by Wolfgang Schenkel (1990), and it is being used fairly widely in Germany and other German-speaking countries. More recent is a proposal by Thomas Schneider (2003) that is even closer to the IPA, but its usage is not presently common. The major criticism leveled against both of these systems is that they give an impression of being much more scientifically accurate with regard to the pronunciation of Egyptian. Unfortunately this perceived accuracy is debatable. Moreover, the systems reflect only the theoretical pronunciation of Middle Egyptian and not the older and later phases of the language, which are themselves to be transliterated with the same system.

Table of transliteration schemes

This article contains . Without proper , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

There are 24 consonantal phonemes distinguished in Egyptian writing, following Edel (1955) transliterated and ordered alphabetically in the sequence:

ꜣ j ꜥ w b p f m n r h ḥ ḫ ẖ z s š q k g t ṯ d ḏ

A number of variant conventions are used interchangeably depending on the author.

Conventional Transliteration Schemes
Glyph Brugsch Erman Budge Erman &
Grapow
Gardiner Edel Manuel de
Codage
Hodge Schenkel Hannig;
Allen
Hoch Schneider Conventional
Egyptological
pronunciation
1889 1894 1910 1926–1953 1957 1955 1988 1990 1991 1995;
2000
1997 2003
𓄿 a A ɹ /ɑ, ɑː/
𓇋 ʾ ı͗ ȧ ı͗, j ı͗ j i ʔ ı͗ j ı͗ ı͗ /i, iː, j/
𓏭 ï i j y j y y ı͗ j y ı͗ /iː/
𓇌 ʾʾ y i j y jj, j y y y y y y /iː/
𓂝 ā a ɗ /ɑː/
𓅱 w w u w w w w w w w w w /w, uː/
𓃀 b b b b b b b b b b b b /b/
𓊪 p p p p p p p p p p p p /p/
𓆑 f f f f f f f f f f f f /f/
𓅓 m m m m m m m m m m m m /m/
𓈖 n n n n n n n n n n n n /n/
𓂋 r, l r r, l r r r r r r r r l /ɾ/
𓉔 h h h h h h h h h h h h /h/
𓎛 H /ħ, h/
𓐍 χ, kh x x /x/
𓄡 χ, kh X /ç/
𓊃 s s s s s z s, z z s z s s /z, s/
𓋴 s s s ś s s s s ś s s ś /s/
𓈙 š š ś, sh š š š S š š š š š /ʃ/
𓈎 q q q q q q /k, q/
𓎡 k k k k k k k k k k k k /k/
𓎼 g g g g g g g g g g g /ɡ/
𓏏 t t t t t t t t t t t t /t/
𓍿 θ, th T č č c /tʃ/
𓂧 d d d d d d d d d /d/
𓆓 t’, tch D ǧ č̣ /dʒ/

The vowel/ɛ/ is conventionally inserted between consonants to make Egyptian words pronounceable in English.

Examples

The following text is transliterated below in some of the more common schemes.









Unicode: 𓇓𓏏𓐰𓊵𓏙𓊩𓐰𓁹𓏃𓋀𓅂𓊹𓉻𓐰𓎟𓍋𓈋𓃀𓊖𓐰𓏤𓄋𓐰𓈐𓏦𓎟𓐰𓇾𓐰𓈅𓐱𓏤𓂦𓐰𓈉

(This text is conventionally translated into English as "an offering that the king gives; and Osiris, Foremost of Westerners [i.e., the Dead], the Great God, Lord of Abydos; and Wepwawet, Lord of the Sacred Land [i.e., the Necropolis]." It can also be translated "a royal offering of Osiris, Foremost of the Westerners, the Great God, Lord of Abydos; and of Wepwawet, Lord of the Sacred Land" [Allen 2000:§24.10].)

Erman and Grapow 1926–1953

  • ḥtp-dỉ-nśwt wśỉr ḫntj ỉmntjw nṯr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp-wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏśr

Gardiner 1953

  • ḥtp-dỉ-nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntỉw nṯr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp-wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏsr

Buurman, Grimal, et al. 1988

  • Htp-di-nswt wsir xnty imntiw nTr aA nb AbDw wp-wAwt nb tA Dsr
A fully encoded, machine-readable version of the same text is:
  • M23-X1:R4-X8-Q2:D4-W17-R14-G4-R8-O29:V30-U23-N26-D58-O49:Z1-F13:N31-Z2-V30:N16:N21*Z1-D45:N25

Schenkel 1991

  • ḥtp-dỉ-nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntjw nčr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbč̣w wp-wꜣwt nb tꜣ č̣sr

Allen 2000

  • ḥtp-dj-nswt wsjr ḫntj jmntjw nṯr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp-wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏsr

Schneider 2003

  • ḥtp-ḍỉ-nśwt wśỉr ḫnty ỉmntjw ncr ɗɹ nb ɹbc̣w wp-wɹwt nb tɹ c̣śr

Demotic

Further information: Demotic (Egyptian)

As the latest stage of pre-Coptic Egyptian, Demotic texts have long been transliterated using the same system(s) used for hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. However, in 1980, Demotists adopted a single, uniform, international standard based on the traditional system used for hieroglyphic, but with the addition of some extra symbols for vowels and other letters that were written in the Demotic script. The Demotic Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (or CDD) utilises this method. As this system is likely only of interest to specialists, for details see the references below.

In 1984 a standard, ASCII-based transliteration system was proposed by an international group of Egyptologists at the first Table ronde informatique et égyptologie and published in 1988 (see Buurman, Grimal, et al., 1988). This has come to be known as the Manuel de Codage (or MdC) system, based on the title of the publication, Inventaire des signes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie informatique: Manuel de codage des textes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie sur ordinateur. It is widely used in e-mail discussion lists and internet forums catering to professional Egyptologists and the interested public.

Although the Manuel de codage system allows for simple "alphabetic" transliterations, it also specifies a complex method for electronically encoding complete ancient Egyptian texts, indicating features such as the placement, orientation, and even size of individual hieroglyphs. This system is used (though frequently with modifications) by various software packages developed for typesetting hieroglyphic texts (such as SignWriter, WinGlyph, MacScribe, InScribe, Glyphotext, WikiHiero, and others).

Unicode

With the introduction of the Latin Extended Additional block to Unicode version 1.1 (1992), the addition of Egyptological alef and ayin to Unicode version 5.1 (2008) and the addition of Glottal I alias Egyptological yod to Unicode version 12.0 (2019), it is now possible to fully transliterate Egyptian texts using a Unicode typeface. The following table only lists the special characters used in various transliteration schemes (see above).

Transcription characters in Unicode
Minuscule () ʾ () () ï ()
Unicode U+A723 U+02BE U+A7BD U+0069
U+032F
U+00EF U+A725 U+0075
U+032F
U+1E25 U+1E2B U+1E96 U+0068
U+032D
Majuscule ()
Unicode U+A722 U+A7BC U+A724 U+1E24 U+1E2A U+0048
U+0331
U+0048
U+032D
Minuscule ś š č č̣
Unicode U+015B U+0161 U+1E33 U+010D U+1E6F U+1E6D U+1E71 U+010D
U+0323
U+1E0F
Majuscule Ś Š Č Č̣
Unicode U+015A U+0160 U+1E32 U+010C U+1E6E U+1E6C U+1E70 U+010C
U+0323
U+1E0E
Brackets/
interpunction
Unicode U+2E17 U+27E8 U+27E9 U+2E22 U+2E23

Egyptological alef, ayin, and yod

Three characters that are specific to the discipline are required for transliterating Egyptian:

  • Alef (, two Semitistic alephs, one set over the other (Lepsius); approximated by the digit ⟨3⟩ in ASCII);
  • Ayin (, a Semitistic ayin);
  • Yod (, i with a Semitistic aleph instead of the dot, both yod and alef being considered possible sound values in the 19th century).

Although three Egyptological and Ugariticist letters were proposed in August 2000, it was not until 2008 (Unicode 5.1) two of the three letters were encoded: aleph and ayin (minor and capital). Another two proposals were made regarding the Egyptological yod, the eventual result of which was to accept the use of the Cyrillic psili pneumata (U+0486◌҆) as one of several possible diacritics for this purpose. The other options use the superscript comma (U+0313) and the right half ring above (U+0357). A new attempt for a sign called LETTER I WITH SPIRITUS LENIS was made in 2017. Within the Egyptological community objection were raised concerning this name. The proposed name was changed to EGYPTOLOGICAL YOD before finally becoming GLOTTAL I. The sign was added in March 2019 with the release of Unicode 12.0. One of the first fonts that implemented the full set of signs is New Athena Unicode.

Designation Lowercase Capital
Egyptological alef
U+A723

U+A722
Egyptological ayin
U+A725

U+A724
Egyptological yod
U+A7BD

U+A7BC

Before the usage of the above-mentioned Unicode signs, various workarounds were in practice, e.g.

Egyptological workarounds
Designation Lowercase Capital
Middle English yogh ȝ
U+021D
Reverse sicilicus ʿ
U+02BF
Right half ring above
U+0069 U+0357

U+0049 U+0357
ı͗
U+0131 U+0357
I with hook above
U+1EC9

U+1EC8
Cyrillic psili pneumata
U+0069 U+0486

U+0049 U+0486
Superscript comma
U+0069 U+0313

U+0049 U+0313

Middle Egyptian is reconstructed as having had 24 consonantal phonemes. There is at least one hieroglyph with a phonetic value corresponding to each of these phonemes.

The table below gives a list of such "uniliteral signs" along with their conventional transcription and their conventional "Egyptological pronunciation" and probable phonetic value.

Many hieroglyphs are coloured, though the paint has worn off most stone inscriptions. Colors vary, but many glyphs are predominantly one colour or another, or a particular combination (such as red on the top and blue on the bottom). In some cases, two graphically similar glyphs may be distinguished solely by colour, though in other cases it's not known if the choice of colour had any meaning.

Uniliteral signs
Sign Egyptological transliteration and pronunciation Phonetic values (IPA)
Hieroglyph Sign Colour Depiction Transliteration Say (modern) Notes Old Egyptian Middle Egyptian
𓄿 Polychrome Egyptian vulture ah Called alef or hamza,
a glottal stop
some form of liquid;
proposed values include
/ʀ/,/r/,/l/,/ɫ/
variously/ʀ/,/ʔ/, and/j/
𓇋 Green Flowering reed or j ee Called iod /j/ or/ʔ/ (?)
𓇌 Green Pair of reeds y or j y or ee Called yod or y not used /j/
𓏭 Blue Pair of strokes y or j or ï not used /j/ or/i/ (?)
𓂝 Red Forearm ah Called aayin /ʕ/, or debatably/d/ /ʕ/;
/d/ perhaps retained in
some words and dialects
𓅱 𓏲 Yellow Quail chick or its
hieratic abbreviation
w w or oo Called wau
/w/
𓃀 Red Lower leg b b /b/
𓊪 Green Reed mat or stool p p /p/
𓆑 Yellow Horned viper f f /f/
𓅓 Yellow Owl m m /m/
𓈖 Black Ripple of water n n /n/
𓂋 Red Human mouth r r /ɾ/, sometimes/l/
(dialectally always/l/)
variously/ɾ/,/l/,/j/, ∅
(dialectally/l/,/j/, ∅)
𓉔 Blue Reed shelter h h /h/
𓎛 Green Twisted wick h An emphatic h,
a voiceless pharyngeal fricative
/ħ/
𓐍 Green Sieve or placenta kh Voiceless velar fricative /χ/ ~/x/, or speculatively/​ɣ/(?)
𓄡 Attested in multiple colors Animal belly and tail kh; hy as in human A softer sound,
a voiceless palatal fricative
/ç/, or speculatively/x/(?)
𓊃 Red Door bolt z or s z/s very unclear;
proposed values include
/z/,/t͡s/,/sʼ/,/θ/
/s/
𓋴 Red Folded cloth s or ś s /s/
𓈙 𓈚 𓈛 𓈜 Blue Garden pool š sh /ʃ/
𓈎 Blue Hill slope or q q An emphatic k,
a voiceless uvular plosive
/kʼ/ or/qʼ/(?)
(exact phonetic distinction from ⟨g⟩ unclear)
𓎡 𓎢 Green Basket with handle k k /k/
𓎽 𓎼 Red Jar stand g g /kʼ/ or/g/(?)
(exact phonetic distinction from ⟨q⟩ unclear)
𓏏 Blue Bread loaf t t /t/ /t/ ~ ∅
𓍿 Green Tethering rope or hobble or č ch As in English church /c/ /c/ ~/t/ ~ ∅
𓂧 Red Hand d or d /tʼ/
𓆓 Yellow Cobra or č̣ j /cʼ/ /cʼ/ ~/tʼ/

Citations

  1. E. Edel, Altägyptische Grammatik, Analecta Orientalia 34, 39, Rome (1955, 1964).
  2. Carsten Peust, Egyptian Phonology: Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language (Göttingen, 1999), 127.
  3. Peust, Egyptian Phonology, p. 50, 99ff.
  4. Everson, Michael. Proposal to add 6 Egyptological characters to the UCS, 2000-08-27
  5. Everson, Michael and Bob Richmond, EGYPTOLOGICAL YOD and Cyrillic breathing, 2008-04-08
  6. Everson, Michael, Proposal to encode Egyptological Yod and similar characters in the UCS, 2008-08-04
  7. Michel Suignard, Proposal to encode Egyptological Yod and similar characters in the UCS, 2017-05-09 (cf. the later 2008 proposal).
  8. List Egyptian - Egyptian Hieroglyphs in the UCS http://evertype.com/pipermail/egyptian_evertype.com/2017-June/thread.html.
  9. Moore, Lisa (2018-02-02). "L2/17-362: UTC #153 Minutes".
  10. Moore, Lisa (2018-11-20). "L2/18-183: UTC #156 Minutes".
  11. New Athena Unicode, v5.007, 8. Dec. 2019, https://apagreekkeys.org/NAUdownload.html
  12. See IFAO - Polices de caractères http://www.ifao.egnet.net/publications/publier/outils-ed/polices/.
  13. Supported by the fonts Junicode and New Athena Unicode http://ucbclassics.dreamhosters.com/djm/greekkeys/NAUdownload.html
  14. Glossing Ancient Languages contributors, “Unicode,” in Glossing Ancient Languages, ed. Daniel A. Werning (Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 6 July 2018, 07:57 UTC), https://wikis.hu-berlin.de/interlinear_glossing/index.php?title=Unicode&oldid=1097 (accessed July 6, 2018).
  15. Loprieno, Antonio (2001) “From Ancient Egyptian to Coptic” in Haspelmath, Martin et al. (eds.), Language Typology and Language Universals
  16. Peust, Carsten (1999) Egyptian Phonology: An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language, Göttingen: Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR
  17. Allen, James P. (2013) The Ancient Egyptian Language: An Historical Study, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  18. Cf. Kammerzell, Frank. 2005. Old Egyptian and Pre-Old Egyptian: Tracing linguistic diversity in Archaic Egypt and the creation of the Egyptian language. In: Texte und Denkmäler des ägyptischen Alten Reiches, ed. by Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer, Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae 3, Berlin: Achet, 165-247, https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:kobv:b4-opus-24600, here: p. 230.
  19. Allen, James Paul. 2000. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, chapter 2.6.
  20. Gensler, Orin D. (2014) “A typological look at Egyptian *d > ʕ” in Grossman, Eitan; Haspelmath, Martin; and Richter, Tonio Sebastian (eds.), Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective

Bibliography

  • Allen, James Paul. 2000. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Buurman, Jan, Nicolas-Christophe Grimal, Michael Hainsworth, Jochen Hallof, and Dirk van der Plas. 1988. Inventaire des signes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie informatique: Manuel de codage des textes hiéroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie sur ordinateur. 3rd ed. Informatique et Égyptologie 2. Mémoires de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belle-Lettres (Nouvelle Série) 8. Paris: Institut de France.
  • Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow, eds. 1926–1953. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. 6 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'schen Buchhandlungen. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH, 1971).
  • Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar; Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd ed. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
  • Hannig, Rainer. 1995. Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch–Deutsch: die Sprache der Pharaonen (2800–950 v. Chr.). Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt 64 (Hannig-Lexica 1). Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern.
  • Kammerzell, Frank. 2005. Old Egyptian and Pre-Old Egyptian: Tracing linguistic diversity in Archaic Egypt and the creation of the Egyptian language. In: Texte und Denkmäler des ägyptischen Alten Reiches, ed. by Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer. Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae 3. Berlin: Achet, 165–247. Online: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:kobv:b4-opus-24600.
  • Schenkel, Wolfgang. 1990. Einführung in die altägyptische Sprachwissenschaft. Orientalistische Einführungen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
  • Schneider, Thomas. 2003. "Etymologische Methode, die Historizität der Phoneme und das ägyptologische Transkriptionsalphabet." Lingua aegyptia: Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 11:187–199.
Look up Appendix:Egyptian transliteration schemes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Transliteration of ancient Egyptian In the field of Egyptology transliteration of Ancient Egyptian is the process of converting or mapping texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and Demotic counterparts This process facilitates the publication of texts where the inclusion of photographs or drawings of an actual Egyptian document is impractical Transliteration is not the same as transcription Transliteration aims to represent written symbols in a consistent way in a different writing system while transcription seeks to accurately record the pronunciation of a text In the case of Ancient Egyptian precise details of the phonology are not completely known Transcription systems for Ancient Egyptian do exist but they rely on linguistic reconstruction depending on evidence from Coptic and other details and are thus theoretical in nature Egyptologists rely on transliteration in scientific publications Contents 1 Standards 1 1 Table of transliteration schemes 1 2 Examples 1 3 Demotic 2 Encoding 2 1 Unicode 2 1 1 Egyptological alef ayin and yod 3 Uniliteral signs 4 See also 5 References 5 1 Citations 5 2 Bibliography 6 External linksStandards EditThis article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA For the distinction between and see IPA Brackets and transcription delimiters Important as transliteration is to the field of Egyptology there is no one standard scheme in use for hieroglyphic and hieratic texts Some might even argue that there are as many systems of transliteration as there are Egyptologists However there are a few closely related systems that can be regarded as conventional Many non German speaking Egyptologists use the system described in Gardiner 1954 whereas many German speaking scholars tend to opt for that used in the Worterbuch der agyptischen Sprache Erman and Grapow 1926 1953 the standard dictionary of the ancient Egyptian language However there is a growing trend even among English speaking scholars to adopt a modified version of the method used in the Worterbuch e g Allen 2000 Although these conventional approaches to transliteration have been followed since most of the second half of the nineteenth century to the present day there have been some attempts to adopt a modified system that seeks to utilise the International Phonetic Alphabet to a certain degree The most successful of these is that developed by Wolfgang Schenkel 1990 and it is being used fairly widely in Germany and other German speaking countries More recent is a proposal by Thomas Schneider 2003 that is even closer to the IPA but its usage is not presently common The major criticism leveled against both of these systems is that they give an impression of being much more scientifically accurate with regard to the pronunciation of Egyptian Unfortunately this perceived accuracy is debatable Moreover the systems reflect only the theoretical pronunciation of Middle Egyptian and not the older and later phases of the language which are themselves to be transliterated with the same system Table of transliteration schemes Edit The template Contains special characters is being considered for merging This article contains special characters Without proper rendering support you may see question marks boxes or other symbols There are 24 consonantal phonemes distinguished in Egyptian writing following Edel 1955 1 transliterated and ordered alphabetically in the sequence ꜣ j ꜥ w b p f m n r h ḥ ḫ ẖ z s s q k g t ṯ d ḏ A number of variant conventions are used interchangeably depending on the author Conventional Transliteration SchemesGlyph Brugsch Erman Budge Erman amp Grapow Gardiner Edel Manuel de Codage Hodge Schenkel Hannig Allen Hoch Schneider Conventional Egyptological pronunciation1889 1894 1910 1926 1953 1957 1955 1 1988 1990 1991 1995 2000 1997 2003𓄿 ꜣ ꜣ a ꜣ ꜣ ꜣ A ꜣ ꜣ ꜣ ꜣ ɹ ɑ ɑː 𓇋 ʾ i ȧ i j i j i ʔ i j i i i iː j 𓏭 i i j y j y y i j y i iː 𓇌 ʾʾ y i j y jj j y y y y y y iː 𓂝 ꜥ ꜥ a ꜥ ꜥ ꜥ a ꜥ ꜥ ꜥ ꜥ ɗ ɑː 𓅱 w w u w w w w w w w w w w uː 𓃀 b b b b b b b b b b b b b 𓊪 p p p p p p p p p p p p p 𓆑 f f f f f f f f f f f f f 𓅓 m m m m m m m m m m m m m 𓈖 n n n n n n n n n n n n n 𓂋 r l r r l r r r r r r r r l ɾ 𓉔 h h h h h h h h h h h h h 𓎛 ḥ ḥ ḥ ḥ ḥ ḥ H ḥ ḥ ḥ ḥ ḥ ħ h 𓐍 ḫ ḫ x kh ḫ ḫ ḫ x x ḫ ḫ ḫ ḫ x 𓄡 ḫ ḫ x kh ẖ ẖ ẖ X x ẖ ẖ ẖ ẖ c 𓊃 s s s s s z s z z s z s s z s 𓋴 s s s s s s s s s s s s s 𓈙 s s s sh s s s S s s s s s ʃ 𓈎 ḳ ḳ q ḳ ḳ q q q ḳ q q ḳ k q 𓎡 k k k k k k k k k k k k k 𓎼 g g ḳ g g g g g g g g g ɡ 𓏏 t t t t t t t t t t t t t 𓍿 ṯ ṯ 8 th ṯ ṯ ṯ T c c ṯ ṯ c tʃ 𓂧 d d ṭ d d d d d ṭ d d ḍ d 𓆓 ḏ ḏ t tch ḏ ḏ ḏ D ǧ c ḏ ḏ c dʒ The vowel ɛ is conventionally inserted between consonants to make Egyptian words pronounceable in English Examples Edit The following text is transliterated below in some of the more common schemes Unicode 𓇓𓏏 𓊵𓏙𓊩 𓁹𓏃𓋀𓅂𓊹𓉻 𓎟𓍋𓈋𓃀𓊖 𓏤𓄋 𓈐𓏦𓎟 𓇾 𓈅 𓏤𓂦 𓈉 This text is conventionally translated into English as an offering that the king gives and Osiris Foremost of Westerners i e the Dead the Great God Lord of Abydos and Wepwawet Lord of the Sacred Land i e the Necropolis It can also be translated a royal offering of Osiris Foremost of the Westerners the Great God Lord of Abydos and of Wepwawet Lord of the Sacred Land Allen 2000 24 10 Erman and Grapow 1926 1953 ḥtp dỉ nswt wsỉr ḫntj ỉmntjw nṯr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏsr Gardiner 1953 ḥtp dỉ nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntỉw nṯr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏsr Buurman Grimal et al 1988 Htp di nswt wsir xnty imntiw nTr aA nb AbDw wp wAwt nb tA DsrA fully encoded machine readable version of the same text is M23 X1 R4 X8 Q2 D4 W17 R14 G4 R8 O29 V30 U23 N26 D58 O49 Z1 F13 N31 Z2 V30 N16 N21 Z1 D45 N25 dd Schenkel 1991 ḥtp dỉ nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntjw ncr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbc w wp wꜣwt nb tꜣ c sr Allen 2000 ḥtp dj nswt wsjr ḫntj jmntjw nṯr ꜥꜣ nb ꜣbḏw wp wꜣwt nb tꜣ ḏsr Schneider 2003 ḥtp ḍỉ nswt wsỉr ḫnty ỉmntjw ncr ɗɹ nb ɹbc w wp wɹwt nb tɹ c srDemotic Edit Further information Demotic Egyptian As the latest stage of pre Coptic Egyptian Demotic texts have long been transliterated using the same system s used for hieroglyphic and hieratic texts However in 1980 Demotists adopted a single uniform international standard based on the traditional system used for hieroglyphic but with the addition of some extra symbols for vowels and other letters that were written in the Demotic script The Demotic Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago or CDD utilises this method As this system is likely only of interest to specialists for details see the references below Cenival Francoise de 1980 Unification des methodes de translitteration Enchoria 10 2 4 Johnson Janet H 1980 CDDP Transliteration System Enchoria 10 5 6 Johnson Janet 2000 Thus wrote Onchsheshonqy an introductory grammar of Demotic Third Edition Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago ISBN 978 0 918986 49 8 Retrieved 28 August 2018 Tait William John 1982 The Transliteration of Demotic Enchoria 11 67 76 Thissen Heinz Josef 1980 Zur Transkription demotischer Texte Enchoria 10 7 9 Encoding EditIn 1984 a standard ASCII based transliteration system was proposed by an international group of Egyptologists at the first Table ronde informatique et egyptologie and published in 1988 see Buurman Grimal et al 1988 This has come to be known as the Manuel de Codage or MdC system based on the title of the publication Inventaire des signes hieroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie informatique Manuel de codage des textes hieroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie sur ordinateur It is widely used in e mail discussion lists and internet forums catering to professional Egyptologists and the interested public Although the Manuel de codage system allows for simple alphabetic transliterations it also specifies a complex method for electronically encoding complete ancient Egyptian texts indicating features such as the placement orientation and even size of individual hieroglyphs This system is used though frequently with modifications by various software packages developed for typesetting hieroglyphic texts such as SignWriter WinGlyph MacScribe InScribe Glyphotext WikiHiero and others Unicode Edit With the introduction of the Latin Extended Additional block to Unicode version 1 1 1992 the addition of Egyptological alef and ayin to Unicode version 5 1 2008 and the addition of Glottal I alias Egyptological yod to Unicode version 12 0 2019 it is now possible to fully transliterate Egyptian texts using a Unicode typeface The following table only lists the special characters used in various transliteration schemes see above Transcription characters in Unicode Minuscule ꜣ ʾ ꞽ i i ꜥ u ḥ ḫ ẖ h Unicode U A723 U 02BE U A7BD U 0069 U 032F U 00EF U A725 U 0075 U 032F U 1E25 U 1E2B U 1E96 U 0068 U 032DMajuscule Ꜣ Ꞽ Ꜥ Ḥ Ḫ H H Unicode U A722 U A7BC U A724 U 1E24 U 1E2A U 0048 U 0331 U 0048 U 032DMinuscule s s ḳ c ṯ ṭ ṱ c ḏUnicode U 015B U 0161 U 1E33 U 010D U 1E6F U 1E6D U 1E71 U 010D U 0323 U 1E0FMajuscule S S Ḳ C Ṯ Ṭ Ṱ C ḎUnicode U 015A U 0160 U 1E32 U 010C U 1E6E U 1E6C U 1E70 U 010C U 0323 U 1E0EBrackets interpunction Unicode U 2E17 U 27E8 U 27E9 U 2E22 U 2E23Egyptological alef ayin and yod Edit Three characters that are specific to the discipline are required for transliterating Egyptian Alef two Semitistic alephs one set over the other Lepsius approximated by the digit 3 in ASCII 2 Ayin a Semitistic ayin Yod i with a Semitistic aleph instead of the dot both yod and alef being considered possible sound values in the 19th century 3 Although three Egyptological and Ugariticist letters were proposed in August 2000 4 it was not until 2008 Unicode 5 1 two of the three letters were encoded aleph and ayin minor and capital Another two proposals were made regarding the Egyptological yod 5 6 the eventual result of which was to accept the use of the Cyrillic psili pneumata U 0486 as one of several possible diacritics for this purpose The other options use the superscript comma U 0313 and the right half ring above U 0357 A new attempt for a sign called LETTER I WITH SPIRITUS LENIS was made in 2017 7 Within the Egyptological community objection were raised concerning this name 8 The proposed name was changed to EGYPTOLOGICAL YOD 9 before finally becoming GLOTTAL I 10 The sign was added in March 2019 with the release of Unicode 12 0 One of the first fonts that implemented the full set of signs is New Athena Unicode 11 Designation Lowercase CapitalEgyptological alef ꜣ U A723 Ꜣ U A722Egyptological ayin ꜥ U A725 Ꜥ U A724Egyptological yod ꞽ U A7BD Ꞽ U A7BC Before the usage of the above mentioned Unicode signs various workarounds were in practice e g Egyptological workarounds Designation Lowercase CapitalMiddle English yogh 12 ȝ U 021DReverse sicilicus 12 ʿ U 02BFRight half ring above 13 i U 0069 U 0357 I U 0049 U 0357i U 0131 U 0357 14 I with hook above 12 ỉ U 1EC9 Ỉ U 1EC8Cyrillic psili pneumata i U 0069 U 0486 I U 0049 U 0486Superscript comma i U 0069 U 0313 I U 0049 U 0313Uniliteral signs EditMiddle Egyptian is reconstructed as having had 24 consonantal phonemes There is at least one hieroglyph with a phonetic value corresponding to each of these phonemes The table below gives a list of such uniliteral signs along with their conventional transcription and their conventional Egyptological pronunciation and probable phonetic value Many hieroglyphs are coloured though the paint has worn off most stone inscriptions Colors vary but many glyphs are predominantly one colour or another or a particular combination such as red on the top and blue on the bottom In some cases two graphically similar glyphs may be distinguished solely by colour though in other cases it s not known if the choice of colour had any meaning Uniliteral signsSign Egyptological transliteration and pronunciation Phonetic values IPA 15 16 17 18 Hieroglyph Sign Colour Depiction Transliteration Say modern 19 Notes Old Egyptian Middle Egyptian𓄿 Polychrome Egyptian vulture ꜣ ah Called alef or hamza a glottal stop some form of liquid proposed values include ʀ r l ɫ variously ʀ ʔ and j 𓇋 Green Flowering reed ꞽ or j ee Called iod j or ʔ 𓇌 Green Pair of reeds y or j y or ee Called yod or y not used j 𓏭 Blue Pair of strokes y or j or i not used j or i 𓂝 Red Forearm ꜥ ah Called aayin ʕ or debatably d 20 ʕ d perhaps retained in some words and dialects𓅱 𓏲 Yellow Quail chick or its hieratic abbreviation w w or oo Called wau w 𓃀 Red Lower leg b b b 𓊪 Green Reed mat or stool p p p 𓆑 Yellow Horned viper f f f 𓅓 Yellow Owl m m m 𓈖 Black Ripple of water n n n 𓂋 Red Human mouth r r ɾ sometimes l dialectally always l variously ɾ l j dialectally l j 𓉔 Blue Reed shelter h h h 𓎛 Green Twisted wick ḥ h An emphatic h a voiceless pharyngeal fricative ħ 𓐍 Green Sieve or placenta ḫ kh Voiceless velar fricative x x or speculatively ɣ 𓄡 Attested in multiple colors Animal belly and tail ẖ kh hy as in human A softer sound a voiceless palatal fricative c or speculatively x 𓊃 Red Door bolt z or s z s very unclear proposed values include z t s sʼ 8 s 𓋴 Red Folded cloth s or s s s 𓈙 𓈚 𓈛 𓈜 Blue Garden pool s sh ʃ 𓈎 Blue Hill slope ḳ or q q An emphatic k a voiceless uvular plosive kʼ or qʼ exact phonetic distinction from g unclear 𓎡 𓎢 Green Basket with handle k k k 𓎽 𓎼 Red Jar stand g g kʼ or g exact phonetic distinction from q unclear 𓏏 Blue Bread loaf t t t t 𓍿 Green Tethering rope or hobble ṯ or c ch As in English church c c t 𓂧 Red Hand d or ṭ d tʼ 𓆓 Yellow Cobra ḏ or c j cʼ cʼ tʼ See also EditList of Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian biliteral signs Egyptian triliteral signsReferences EditCitations Edit a b E Edel Altagyptische Grammatik Analecta Orientalia 34 39 Rome 1955 1964 Carsten Peust Egyptian Phonology Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language Gottingen 1999 127 Peust Egyptian Phonology p 50 99ff Everson Michael Proposal to add 6 Egyptological characters to the UCS 2000 08 27 Everson Michael and Bob Richmond EGYPTOLOGICAL YOD and Cyrillic breathing 2008 04 08 Everson Michael Proposal to encode Egyptological Yod and similar characters in the UCS 2008 08 04 Michel Suignard Proposal to encode Egyptological Yod and similar characters in the UCS 2017 05 09 cf the later 2008 proposal List Egyptian Egyptian Hieroglyphs in the UCS http evertype com pipermail egyptian evertype com 2017 June thread html Moore Lisa 2018 02 02 L2 17 362 UTC 153 Minutes Moore Lisa 2018 11 20 L2 18 183 UTC 156 Minutes New Athena Unicode v5 007 8 Dec 2019 https apagreekkeys org NAUdownload html a b c See IFAO Polices de caracteres http www ifao egnet net publications publier outils ed polices Supported by the fonts Junicode and New Athena Unicode http ucbclassics dreamhosters com djm greekkeys NAUdownload html Glossing Ancient Languages contributors Unicode in Glossing Ancient Languages ed Daniel A Werning Berlin Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin 6 July 2018 07 57 UTC https wikis hu berlin de interlinear glossing index php title Unicode amp oldid 1097 accessed July 6 2018 Loprieno Antonio 2001 From Ancient Egyptian to Coptic in Haspelmath Martin et al eds Language Typology and Language Universals Peust Carsten 1999 Egyptian Phonology An Introduction to the Phonology of a Dead Language Gottingen Peust und Gutschmidt Verlag GbR Allen James P 2013 The Ancient Egyptian Language An Historical Study Cambridge Cambridge University Press Cf Kammerzell Frank 2005 Old Egyptian and Pre Old Egyptian Tracing linguistic diversity in Archaic Egypt and the creation of the Egyptian language In Texte und Denkmaler des agyptischen Alten Reiches ed by Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae 3 Berlin Achet 165 247 https nbn resolving org urn nbn de kobv b4 opus 24600 here p 230 Allen James Paul 2000 Middle Egyptian An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs Cambridge Cambridge University Press chapter 2 6 Gensler Orin D 2014 A typological look at Egyptian d gt ʕ in Grossman Eitan Haspelmath Martin and Richter Tonio Sebastian eds Egyptian Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective Bibliography Edit Allen James Paul 2000 Middle Egyptian An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs Cambridge Cambridge University Press Buurman Jan Nicolas Christophe Grimal Michael Hainsworth Jochen Hallof and Dirk van der Plas 1988 Inventaire des signes hieroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie informatique Manuel de codage des textes hieroglyphiques en vue de leur saisie sur ordinateur 3rd ed Informatique et Egyptologie 2 Memoires de l Academie des Inscriptions et Belle Lettres Nouvelle Serie 8 Paris Institut de France Erman Adolf and Hermann Grapow eds 1926 1953 Worterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien 6 vols Leipzig J C Hinrichs schen Buchhandlungen Reprinted Berlin Akademie Verlag GmbH 1971 Gardiner Alan Henderson 1957 Egyptian Grammar Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs 3rd ed Oxford Griffith Institute Hannig Rainer 1995 Grosses Handworterbuch Agyptisch Deutsch die Sprache der Pharaonen 2800 950 v Chr Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt 64 Hannig Lexica 1 Mainz am Rhein Verlag Philipp von Zabern Kammerzell Frank 2005 Old Egyptian and Pre Old Egyptian Tracing linguistic diversity in Archaic Egypt and the creation of the Egyptian language In Texte und Denkmaler des agyptischen Alten Reiches ed by Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae 3 Berlin Achet 165 247 Online https nbn resolving org urn nbn de kobv b4 opus 24600 Schenkel Wolfgang 1990 Einfuhrung in die altagyptische Sprachwissenschaft Orientalistische Einfuhrungen Darmstadt Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Schneider Thomas 2003 Etymologische Methode die Historizitat der Phoneme und das agyptologische Transkriptionsalphabet Lingua aegyptia Journal of Egyptian Language Studies 11 187 199 External links EditLook up Appendix Egyptian transliteration schemes in Wiktionary the free dictionary Manuel de Codage technical details of electronic transliteration of Egyptian texts Unicode based transliteration system adopted by the Institut Francais d Archeologie Orientale Description and downloadable keyboard layouts Online encoding converter for converting ASCII based transliterations into Unicode Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian amp oldid 1087469070, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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