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For other uses, see Tripura (disambiguation).

Tripura () is a state in northeastern India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491.69 km2 (4,050.86 sq mi) and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north, south, and west, and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population.

Tripura
(clockwise from top) Tripura Sundari Temple; Rock-cut sculptures at Unakoti; Ujjayanta Palace; Neermahal palace; Tripuri dance
Coordinates (Agartala):23°50′N91°17′E /23.84°N 91.28°E /23.84; 91.28Coordinates: 23°50′N91°17′E /23.84°N 91.28°E /23.84; 91.28
Subdivision23 subdivisions
Union territory1 November 1956
Upgraded as state21 January 1972
Named forTripura Sundari Temple
CapitalAgartala
Most populous cityAgartala
Districts8
Government
• BodyGovernment of Tripura
GovernorSatyadev Narayan Arya
Chief MinisterManik Saha (BJP)
Deputy Chief MinisterJishnu Dev Varma (BJP)
LegislatureUnicameral (60 seats)
Area
• Total10,491.69 km2 (4,050.86 sq mi)
• Rank27th (2011)
Population
(2011)
• Total3,671,032
• Rank22nd (2014)
Languages
GDP(2019–20)
Nominal0.461 lakh crore (US$6.0 billion)
Nominal per capita112,849 (US$1,500)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-TR
Vehicle registrationTR-
HDI 0.663 (medium)
HDI rank25th
Literacy87.75 % (2011)
Official languages
Websitetripura.gov.in
Symbols of Tripura
MottoSatyameva Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)
It was elevated from the status of Union territory by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act 1971

The area of modern Tripura — ruled for several centuries by the Manikya Dynasty — was part of an independent princely state under the protectorate of the British Empire. The independent Tripuri Kingdom (also known as Hill Tippera) joined the newly independent India in 1949.

Tripura lies in a geographically isolated location in India, as only one major highway, National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country. Five mountain ranges — Boromura, Atharamura, Longtharai, Shakhan and Jampui Hills — run north to south, with intervening valleys; Agartala, the capital, is located on a plain to the west. The state has a tropical savanna climate, and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which bamboo and cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura, which has a limited infrastructure. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product.

According to the 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India, with a literacy rate of 87.75%. Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions, weddings and festivities; the use of locally crafted musical instruments and clothes; and the worship of regional deities. The sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti, Pilak and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and indigenous religions.

Contents

The Sanskrit name of the state is linked to the Hindu goddess of beauty; Tripura Sundari, the presiding deity of the Tripura Sundari Temple at Udaipur, one of the 51 Shakti Peethas (pilgrimage centres of Shaktism), and to the legendary tyrant king Tripur, who reigned in the region. Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhyu, who belonged to the lineage of Yayati, a king of the Lunar Dynasty.

There are alternative theories regarding the origin of the name Tripura, such as a possible Sanskritic folk etymology of a Tibeto-Burman (Kokborok) name. Variants of the name include Tipra, Tuipura and Tippera. A Kokborok etymology from tüi (water) and pra (near) has been suggested; the boundaries of Tripura extended to the Bay of Bengal when the kings of the Tipra Kingdom held sway from the Garo Hills of Meghalaya to Arakan, the present Rakhine State of Burma; so the name may reflect vicinity to the sea.

Main article: History of Tripura
Rock-cut sculpture of Shiva at Unakoti

Although there is no evidence of lower or middle Paleolithic settlements in Tripura, Upper Paleolithic tools made of fossil wood have been found in the Haora and Khowai valleys. The Indian epic, the Mahabharata; ancient religious texts, the Puranas; and the Edicts of Ashoka – stone pillar inscriptions of the emperor Ashoka dating from the third century BCE – all mention Tripura. An ancient name of Tripura (as mentioned in the Mahabharata) is Kirat Desh (English: "The land of Kirat"), probably referring to the Kirata Kingdoms or the more generic term Kirata.: 155 However, it is unclear whether the extent of modern Tripura is coterminous with Kirat Desh. The region was under the rule of the Twipra Kingdom for centuries, although when this dates from is not documented. The Rajmala, a chronicle of Tripuri kings which was first written in the 15th century, provides a list of 179 kings, from antiquity up to Krishna Kishore Manikya (1830–1850),: 3 but the reliability of the Rajmala has been doubted.

The boundaries of the kingdom changed over the centuries. At various times, the borders reached south to the jungles of the Sundarbans on the Bay of Bengal; east to Burma; and north to the boundary of the Kamarupa kingdom in Assam. There were several Muslim invasions of the region from the 13th century onward, which culminated in Mughal dominance of the plains of the kingdom in 1733, although their rule never extended to the hill regions. The Mughals had influence over the appointment of the Tripuri kings.

Queen Kanchan Prabha Devi who signed the instrument of accession to India as president of the Council of Regency.

Tripura became a princely state during British rule in India. The kings had an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad (now the Comilla district of Bangladesh), in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state. Udaipur, in the south of Tripura, was the capital of the kingdom, until the king Krishna Manikya moved the capital to Old Agartala in the 18th century. It was moved to the new city of Agartala in the 19th century. Bir Chandra Manikya (1862–1896) modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation.

Post-independence (1947-present)

Following the independence of India in 1947, Tippera district – the estate in the plains of British India – Comilla became a part of East Pakistan, and Hill Tippera remained under a regency council until 1949. The Maharani Regent of Tripura signed the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9 September 1949, as a result of which Tripura became a Part C state of India.: 3 It became a Union Territory, without a legislature, in November 1956 and an elected ministry was installed in July 1963.: 3 It was conferred full statehood in 1971 by the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. The geographic partition that coincided with the independence of India resulted in major economic and infrastructural setbacks for the state, as road transport between the state and the major cities of India had to follow a more circuitous route. The road distance between Kolkata and Agartala before the partition was less than 350 km (220 mi), and increased to 1,700 km (1,100 mi), as the route now avoided East Pakistan (although from June 2015 a bus service started from Agartala to Kolkata via Dhaka; this has been named the "Bangla Corridor"). The geopolitical isolation was aggravated by an absence of rail transport.: 93

Since the partition of India, many Bengali Hindus have migrated to Tripura as refugees fleeing religious persecution in Muslim-majority East Pakistan, especially after 1949.: 3–4 Settlement by Hindu Bengalis increased during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. Parts of the state were shelled by the Pakistan Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Following the war, the Indian government reorganised the North East region to ensure effective control of the international borders – three new states came into existence on 21 January 1972: Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura. Before independence, most of the population was indigenous.: 9 Ethnic strife between the Tripuri tribe and the predominantly immigrant Bengali community led to scattered violence, and an insurgency spanning decades, including occasional massacres such as the 1980 Mandai massacre. This gradually abated following the establishment of a tribal autonomous district council and the use of strategic counter-insurgency operations. Tripura remains peaceful, as of 2016. In retaliation of the communal violence against the Hindu minority in neighboring Bangladesh, mosques in several areas in Tripura were attacked from 19 to 26 October 2021.

Rice is grown on Tripura's alluvial plains, which include lungas, the narrow valleys that are found mainly in the west of the state.

Tripura is a landlocked state in North East India, where the seven contiguous states – Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura – are collectively known as the Seven Sister States. Spread over 10,491.69 km2 (4,050.86 sq mi), Tripura is the third-smallest among the 28 states in the country, behind Goa and Sikkim. It extends from 22°56'N to 24°32'N, and 91°09'E to 92°20'E.: 3 Its maximum extent measures about 178 km (111 mi) from north to south, and 131 km (81 mi) east to west. Tripura is bordered by the country of Bangladesh to the west, north and south; and the Indian states of Assam to the north east; and Mizoram to the east.: 3 It is accessible by national highways passing through the Karimganj district of Assam and Mamit district of Mizoram.

Topography

The physiography is characterised by hill ranges, valleys and plains. The state has five anticlinal ranges of hills running north to south, from Boromura in the west, through Atharamura, Longtharai and Shakhan, to the Jampui Hills in the east.: 4 The intervening synclines are the Agartala–Udaipur, Khowai–Teliamura, Kamalpur–Ambasa, Kailasahar–Manu and Dharmanagar–Kanchanpur valleys.: 4 At an altitude of 939 m (3,081 ft), Betling Shib in the Jampui range is the state's highest point.: 4 The small isolated hillocks interspersed throughout the state are known as tillas, and the narrow fertile alluvial valleys, mostly present in the west, are called Doóng/lungas.: 4 A number of rivers originate in the hills of Tripura and flow into Bangladesh.: 4 The Khowai, Dhalai, Manu, Juri and Longai flow towards the north; the Gumti to the west; and the Muhuri and Feni to the south west.: 73

The lithostratigraphy data published by the Geological Survey of India dates the rocks, on the geologic time scale, between the Oligocene epoch, approximately 34 to 23 million years ago, and the Holocene epoch, which started 12,000 years ago.: 73–4 The hills have red laterite soil that is porous. The flood plains and narrow valleys are overlain by alluvial soil, and those in the west and south constitute most of the agricultural land.: 4 According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging fromI to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the state lies in seismic zone V.

Climate

The state has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification. The undulating topography leads to local variations, particularly in the hill ranges. The four main seasons are winter, from December to February; pre-monsoon or summer, from March to April; monsoon, from May to September; and post-monsoon, from October to November. During the monsoon season, the south west monsoon brings heavy rains, which cause frequent floods.: 4: 73 The average annual rainfall between 1995 and 2006 ranged from 1,979.6 to 2,745.9 mm (77.94 to 108.11 in). During winter, temperatures range from 13 to 27 °C (55 to 81 °F), while in the summer they fall between 24 and 36 °C (75 and 97 °F). According to a United Nations Development Programme report, the state lies in "very high damage risk" zone from wind and cyclones.

Climate data for Agartala, the capital of Tripura
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.6
(78.1)
28.3
(82.9)
32.5
(90.5)
33.7
(92.7)
32.8
(91.0)
31.8
(89.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.1
(88.0)
29.2
(84.6)
26.4
(79.5)
30.5
(86.9)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
13.2
(55.8)
18.7
(65.7)
22.2
(72.0)
23.5
(74.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.8
(76.6)
24.7
(76.5)
24.3
(75.7)
22
(72)
16.6
(61.9)
11.3
(52.3)
19.7
(67.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 27.5
(1.08)
21.5
(0.85)
60.7
(2.39)
199.7
(7.86)
329.9
(12.99)
393.4
(15.49)
363.1
(14.30)
298.7
(11.76)
232.4
(9.15)
162.5
(6.40)
46
(1.8)
10.6
(0.42)
2,146
(84.49)
Source:
State symbols of Tripura
State animal Phayre's leaf monkey
State bird Green imperial pigeon
State tree Agarwood
State flower Mesua ferrea
State fruit Queen pineapple

Like most of the Indian subcontinent, Tripura lies within the Indomalayan realm. According to the Biogeographic classification of India, the state is in the "North-East" biogeographic zone. In 2011 forests covered 57.73% of the state. Tripura hosts three different types of ecosystems: mountain, forest and freshwater. The evergreen forests on the hill slopes and the sandy river banks are dominated by species such as Dipterocarpus, Artocarpus, Amoora, Elaeocarpus, Syzygium and Eugenia. Two types of moist deciduous forests comprise the majority of the vegetation: moist deciduous mixed forest and Sal (Shorea robusta)-predominant forest. The interspersion of bamboo and cane forests with deciduous and evergreen flora is a peculiarity of Tripura's vegetation. Grasslands and swamps are also present, particularly in the plains. Herbaceous plants, shrubs, and trees such as Albizia, Barringtonia, Lagerstroemia and Macaranga flourish in the swamps of Tripura. Shrubs and grasses include Schumannianthus dichotoma (shitalpati), Phragmites and Saccharum (sugarcane).

According to a survey in 1989–90, Tripura hosts 90 land mammal species from 65 genera and 10 orders, including such species as elephant (Elephas maximus), bear (Melursus ursinus), binturong (Arctictis binturong), wild dog (Cuon alpinus), porcupine (Artherurus assamensis), barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak), sambar (Cervus unicolor), wild boar (Sus scrofa), gaur (Bos gaurus), leopard (Panthera pardus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), and many species of small cats and primates. Out of 15 free ranging primates of India, seven are found in Tripura; this is the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. The wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee) is extinct now. There are nearly 300 species of birds in the state.

Wildlife sanctuaries of the state are Sipahijola, Gumti, Rowa and Trishna wildlife sanctuaries. National parks of the state are Clouded Leopard National Park and Rajbari National Park. These protected areas cover a total of 566.93 km2 (218.89 sq mi). Gumti is also an Important Bird Area. In winter, thousands of migratory waterfowl throng Gumti and Rudrasagar lakes.

Tripura Assembly
Tripura district map

In January 2012, major changes were implemented in the administrative divisions of Tripura. There had previously been four districts – Dhalai (headquarters Ambassa), North Tripura (headquarters Kailashahar), South Tripura (headquarters Udaipur, Tripura), and West Tripura (headquarters Agartala). Four new districts were carved out of the existing four in January 2012 – Khowai, Unakoti, Sipahijala and Gomati. Six new subdivisions and five new blocks were also added. Each is governed by a district collector or a district magistrate, usually appointed by the Indian Administrative Service. The subdivisions of each district are governed by a sub-divisional magistrate and each subdivision is further divided into blocks. The blocks consist of Panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities. As of 2012, the state had eight districts, 23 subdivisions and 58 development blocks. National census and state statistical reports are not available for all the new administrative divisions, as of March 2013. Agartala, the capital of Tripura, is the most populous city. Other major towns with a population of 10,000 or more (as per 2015 census) are Sabroom, Dharmanagar, Jogendranagar, Kailashahar, Pratapgarh, Udaipur, Amarpur, Belonia, Gandhigram, Kumarghat, Khowai, Ranirbazar, Sonamura, Bishalgarh, Teliamura, Mohanpur, Melaghar, Ambassa, Kamalpur, Bishramganj, Kathaliya, Santirbazar and Baxanagar.

Ujjayanta Palace, built in the 19th century as a replacement for a former royal palace destroyed in an earthquake, was used until 2011 as the meeting place of Tripura's State Legislative Assembly.

Tripura is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature it shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. The Tripura government has three branches: executive, legislature and judiciary. The Tripura Legislative Assembly consists of elected members and special office bearers that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in case of Speaker's absence. The Assembly is unicameral with 60 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). The members are elected for a term of five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The judiciary is composed of the Tripura High Court and a system of lower courts. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister. The Governor, the titular head of state, is appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or a coalition of parties with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor. The Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.

Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council, pictured, encompasses much of the state

Tripura sends two representatives to the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the parliament of India) and one representative to the Rajya Sabha (parliament's upper house). In the 2014 Indian general election, both parliament lower house seats were won by the Communist Party of India (Marxist). Panchayats (local self-governments) elected by local body elections are present in many villages for self-governance. Tripura also has a unique tribal self-governance body, the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council. This council is responsible for some aspects of local governance in 527 villages with high density of the scheduled tribes.

The main political parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Left Front, the All India Trinamool Congress and Indian National Congress along with regional parties like the IPFT and INPT. Until 1977, the state was governed by the Indian National Congress.: 255–66 The Left Front was in power from 1978 to 1988, and then again from 1993 to 2018. In 1988–93, the Congress and Tripura Upajati Juba Samiti were in a ruling coalition. In the 2013 Tripura Legislative Assembly election, the Left Front won 50 out of 60 seats in the Assembly. The 2018 assembly election resulted in loss for the Left Front; the Bharatiya Janata Party won an overall majority in the state, resulting in the end of the Communist Party's uninterrupted twenty-five year rule. The BJP won 44 out of 60 seats in the Assembly by coalition with the IPFT. The CPI (M) only got 16 seats and Indian National Congress lost by huge margins in all constituencies.

Communism in the state had its beginnings in the pre-independence era, inspired by freedom struggle activities in Bengal, and culminating in regional parties with communist leanings.: 362 It capitalised on the tribal dissatisfaction with the mainstream rulers,: 362 and has been noted for connection with the "sub-national or ethnic searches for identity".

Since the 1990s, there has been an ongoing irredentist Tripura rebellion, involving militant outfits such as the National Liberation Front of Tripura and the All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTF); terrorist incidents involving the ATTF claimed a recorded number of 389 victims in the seven-year period from 1993 to 2000. The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) was first enforced in Tripura on 16 February 1997 when terrorism was at its peak in the state. Ever since then, the Act, as per its provisions, was reviewed and extended every six months. However, in view of the improvement in the situation and fewer terrorist activities being reported, the Tripura government in June 2013 reduced operational areas of the AFSPA to 30 police station areas. The last six-month extension to AFSPA was given in November 2014, and after about 18 years of operation, it was repealed on 29 May 2015.

GSDP at Constant Prices (2004–05 base)

figures in crores Indian rupee

Year GSDP
2004–05 8,904
2005–06 9,482
2006–07 10,202
2007–08 10,988
2008–09 11,596
2009–10 12,248
2010–11 12,947

Tripura's gross state domestic product for 2010–11 was129.47 billion (US$1.7 billion) at constant price (2004–05), recording 5.71% growth over the previous year. In the same period, the GDP of India was48,778.42 billion (US$640 billion), with a growth rate of 8.55%. Annual per capita income at current price of the state was38,493 (US$510), compared to the national per capita income44,345 (US$580). In 2009, the tertiary sector of the economy (service industries) was the largest contributor to the gross domestic product of the state, contributing 53.98 percent of the state's economy compared to 23.07 percent from the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining) and 22.95 percent from the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing). According to the Economic Census of 2005, after agriculture, the maximum number of workers were engaged in retail trade (28.21% of total non-agricultural workforce), followed by manufacturing (18.60%), public administration (14.54%), and education (14.40%).

Tripura is an agrarian state with more than half of the population dependent on agriculture and allied activities. However, due to hilly terrain and forest cover, only 27% of the land is available for cultivation. Rice, the major crop of the state, is cultivated in 91% of the cropped area. According to the Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of Tripura, in 2009–10, potato, sugarcane, mesta, pulses and jute were the other major crops cultivated in the state. Jackfruit and pineapple top the list of horticultural products. Traditionally, most of the indigenous population practised jhum method (a type of slash-and-burn) of cultivation. The number of people dependent on jhum has declined over the years.: 37–9

Rice is the major crop in Tripura and accounts for 91 percent of the land under cultivation.

Pisciculture has made significant advances in the state. At the end of 2009–10, the state produced a surplus of 104.3 million fish seeds, primarily carp. Rubber and tea are the important cash crops of the state. Tripura ranks second to Kerala in the production of natural rubber in the country. The state is known for its handicraft, particularly hand-woven cotton fabric, wood carvings, and bamboo products. High quality timber including sal, garjan, teak and gamar are found abundantly in the forests of Tripura. Tata Trusts signed a pact with Government of Tripura in July 2015 to improve fisheries and dairy in the state.

Per Capita Income with 2004–05 Base
Year Tripura
2004–05 24,394
2005–06 26,668
2006–07 29,081
2007–08 31,111
2008–09 33,350
2010–11 33,493
2011-12 47,079
2012-13 52,434
2013-14 61,570
2014-15 69,474
2015-16 83,680
2016-17 90,827
2017-18 1,00,477
2018-19 1,13,102
2019-20 1,39,512
2020-21 1,47,501

The industrial sector of the state continues to be highly underdeveloped – brickfields and tea industry are the only two organised sectors. Tripura has considerable reservoirs of natural gas.: 78–81 According to estimates by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), the state has 400 billion metres3 reserves of natural gas, with 16 billion metres3 is recoverable. ONGC produced 480 million metres3 natural gas in the state, in 2006–07. In 2011 and 2013, new large discoveries of natural gas were announced by ONGC. Tourism industry in the state is growing – the revenue earned in tourism sector crossed10 million (US$130,000) for the first time in 2009–10, and surpassed15 million (US$200,000) in 2010–11. Although Bangladesh is in a trade deficit with India, its export to Tripura is significantly more than import from the state; a report in the newspaper The Hindu estimated Bangladesh exported commodities valued at about3.5 billion (US$46 million) to the state in 2012, as opposed to "very small quantity" of import. Alongside legal international trade, unofficial and informal cross-border trade is rampant. In a research paper published by the Institute of Developing Economies in 2004, the dependence of Tripura's economy on that of Bangladesh was emphasised.: 313

The economy of Tripura can be characterised by the high rate of poverty, low capital formation, inadequate infrastructure facilities, geographical isolation and communication bottlenecks, inadequate exploration and use of forest and mineral resources, slow industrialisation and high unemployment. More than 50% of the population depends on agriculture for sustaining their livelihood. However agriculture and allied activities contribution to Gross State Domestic Production (GSDP) is only 23%, this is primarily because of low capital base in the sector. Despite the inherent limitation and constraints coupled with severe resource shortages for investing in basic infrastructure, this has brought consistency progress in the quality of life and income of people cutting across all sections of society. The state government through its Tripura Industrial Policy and Tripura Industrial Incentives Scheme, 2012, has offered heavy subsidies in capital investment and transport, preferences in government procurement, waivers in tender processes and fees, yet the impact has not been much significant beyond a few industries being set up in the Bodhjungnagar Industrial Growth Center.

The Planning Commission estimates the poverty rate of all North East Indian states by using headcount ratio of Assam (the second largest state in North East India after Arunachal Pradesh). According to 2001 Planning Commission assessment, 22 percent of Tripura's rural residents were below the poverty line. However, Tripura government's independent assessment, based on consumption distribution data, reported that, in 2001, 55 percent of the rural population was below the poverty line. Geographic isolation and communication bottlenecks coupled with insufficient infrastructure have restricted economic growth of the state. High rate of poverty and unemployment continues to be prevalent.

Air

Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport, located 12 km northwest of Agartala at Singerbhil, is the second busiest airport in northeast India after Guwahati. There are direct flights to Kolkata, Imphal, Delhi, Shillong, Guwahati, Bangalore, Dibrugarh, Aizawl, Ahmedabad and Mumbai. The major airlines are flybig, Air India and IndiGo. Passenger helicopter services are available between the capital and major towns (Kailashahar, Dharmanagar) as well as to more remote areas such as Kanchanpur, Belonia and Gandacherra.

Railway

Agartala, came on India's railway map with the advent of the railways in the subcontinent in 1853 but the link was broken when India was partitioned in 1947. Railway service was established in Tripura in 1964 by constructing1,000 mm (3 ft3+38 in)metre gauge track from Lumding in Assam to Dharmanagar and Kailasahar in Tripura but the track did not connect the state capital Agartala. Rail transport was absent in the state until 2008–09 when the railway track was extended to the capital Agartala. The metre gauge rail track was connected to 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge at Lumding. The major railway stations in this line are in Agartala, Dharmanagar, and Kumarghat. This metre gauge track was converted to1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge in 2016 and now trains run from Agartala to Kolkata and Delhi. The total length of this railway track in Tripura state is 153 km. It is a single line without electrification. The Agartala sabroom line was compled and fully operational since 2019.

A new railway line is being laid westwards from Agartala to Akhaura in Bangladesh. This will reduce the distance between Agartala and Kolkata by over 1000 km and provide rail access to Chittagong port.

Some major Express trains operated from Agartala are -

Agartala - Anand Vihar Terminal Rajdhani Express

Road

The border post between Bangladesh and India in Akhaura

Only one major road, the National Highway 8 (NH-8), connects Tripura to the rest of India. Starting at Sabroom in southern Tripura, it heads north to the capital Agartala, turns east and then north-east to enter the state of Assam. Locally known as "Assam Road", the NH-8 is often called the lifeline of Tripura. However, the highway is single lane and of poor quality; often landslides, rains or other disruptions on the highway cut the state off from its neighbours.: 73: 8 Another National Highway, NH 108, connects the town Panisagar in North Tripura District with Aizawl, Mizoram. The Tripura Road Transport Corporation is the government agency overlooking public transport on road. A hilly and land-locked state, Tripura is dependent mostly on roads for transport. The total length of roads in the state is 16,931 km (10,520 mi) of which national highways constitute 88 km (55 mi) and state highways 689 km (428 mi), as of 2009–10. Residents in rural areas frequently use waterways as a mode of transport.: 140

Tripura has an 856 km (532 mi) long international border with Bangladesh, of which 777.4 km (483.1 mi) is fenced, as of 2012. Several locations along the border serve as bilateral trading points between India and Bangladesh, such as Akhaura near Agartala, Raghna, Srimantpur, Belonia, Khowai and Kailasahar. A bus service exists between Agartala and Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. In 2013, the two countries signed an agreement to establish a 15 km (9.3 mi) railway link between Agartala and the Akhaura junction of Bangladesh. Citizens of both countries need visa to legally enter the other country; however, illegal movement and smuggling across the border are widespread.: 314

Doordarshan (DD) has a television station in Agartala. Other full-time based channels are Headlines Tripura, News Vanguard, PB 24, Prime Television Network, Chini Khorang, News channel

As of 2014, 56 daily and weekly newspapers are published in Tripura. Most of the newspapers are published in Bengali, except for one Kokborok daily (Hachukni Kok), one Manipuri weekly (Marup), two English dailies and three bilingual weeklies. Notable dailies include Ajkal Tripura, Daily Desher Katha, Dainik Sambad and Syandan Patrika. In a study by Indian Institute of Mass Communication in 2009, 93% of the sampled in Tripura rated television as very effective for information and mass education. In the study, 67% of the sampled listened to radio and 80–90% read newspaper. Most of the major Indian telecommunication companies are present in the state, such as Airtel, Vi, Jio and BSNL. Mobile connections outnumber landline connections by a wide margin. As of 2011, the state-controlled BSNL has 57,897 landline subscribers and 325,279 GSM mobile service connections. There are 84 telephone exchanges (for landlines) and 716 post offices in the state, as of 2011.

Electricity

Till 2014, Tripura was a power deficit state. In late 2014, Tripura reached surplus electricity production capacity by using its recently discovered natural gas resources, and installing high efficiency gas turbine power plants. The state has many power-generating stations. These are owned by Tripura State Electricity Corporation (TSECL), natural gas-powered thermal power stations at Rokhia and Baramura, and the ONGC Tripura Power Company in Palatana. The ONGC plant has a capacity of 726.6 MW, with the second plant's commissioning in November 2014. It is the largest individual power plant in the northeast region.

The state also has a hydro power station on the Gumti River. The combined power generation from these three stations is 100–105 MW. The North Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO) operates the 84 MW Agartala Gas Turbine Power Plant near Agartala. As of November 2014, another thermal power plant is being built at Monarchak.

With the newly added power generation capacity, Tripura has with enough capacity to supply all seven sister states of northeast India, as well export power to neighbouring countries such as Bangladesh. With recent discoveries, the state has abundant natural gas reserves to support many more power generation plants, but lacks pipeline and transport infrastructure to deliver the fuel or electricity to India's national grid.

Irrigation and fertilizers

As of 2011, 255,241 hectares (985 sq mi) of land in Tripura cultivable, of which 108,646 hectares (419 sq mi) has the potential to be covered by irrigation projects. However, only 74,796 hectares (289 sq mi) is irrigated. The state lacks major irrigation projects; it depends on medium-sized projects sourced from Gumti, Khowai (at Chakmaghat) and Manu rivers, and minor projects administered by village-level governing bodies that utilise tube wells, water pumps, tanks and lift irrigation.

ONGC and Chambal Fertilizers & Chemicals are jointly building a fertiliser plant to leverage ONGC's natural gas discoveries in Tripura. Expected to be in operation by 2017, the 1.3 million tonnes per year plant will supply the northeastern states.

Drinking water

Drinking Water and Sanitation (DWS) wing] of Public Works Department manages the drinking water supply in the state. Schools and Anganwadi Centers have been specifically targeted to improve drinking water supply as well as attendance to these institutions. Many areas of Tripura have the problem of excessive iron content in groundwater requiring the installation of Iron Removal Plants (IRP). Tripura State has received the best State Award for Water & Sanitation under the category of Small States in the IBN7 Diamond State Award function for doing commendable work to provide drinking water supply to the people with the sparsely distributed tribal population in hamlets of hilly regions of the State. However, a study by the DWS Department found a depleting water table and excessive contamination. Still, packaged drinking water under brands "Tribeni", "Eco Freshh", "Blue Fina", "Life Drop" and "Aqua Zoom" among others is manufactured and sold in the state. Filters of many types and brands, in addition to locally manufactured ceramic type filters, are sold in the state although their acceptance in rural areas is less.

Main article: Education in Tripura
Classrooms built of bamboo in a school. In 2010–11, Tripura had 4,455 schools run by the state government or private organisations. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali.

As per 2011 census, the literacy rate of Tripura was 87.75 percent, the fourth-highest in India (which had a national literacy rate of 74.04 percent). A state government survey in 2013 announced that Tripura has the highest literacy rate in India at 94.65 percent. Schools in Tripura are run by the state government, TTAADC or private organisations, which include religious institutions. Instruction in schools is mainly in Bengali or English, though Kokborok and other regional languages are also used. Some of the special schools include Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya, residential schools run by Tripura Tribal Welfare Residential Educational Institutions Society (TTWREIS), missionary organisations like St. Paul's, St. Arnold's, Holy Cross, Don Bosco, and St. John's. The schools are affiliated to the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or the Tripura Board of Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for two years in a junior college or in a higher secondary school affiliated either to the Tripura Board of Secondary Education or to other central boards. Students choose from one of the three streams—liberal arts, commerce or science. As in the rest of India, after passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general degree programs such as bachelor's degree in arts, commerce or science, or professional degree programs such as engineering, law or medicine.

According to the Economic Review of Tripura 2010–11, Tripura has a total of 4,455 schools, of which 2,298 are primary schools. The total enrolment in all schools of the state is 767,672. Tripura has one Central University (Tripura University), one State University (M. B. B. University) and one private university (a branch of the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India). There are 15 general colleges, three engineering colleges (Tripura Institute of Technology, National Institute of Technology, Agartala and NIEILT, Agartala), two medical colleges (Agartala Government Medical College and Tripura Medical College), three nursing or paramedical colleges, three polytechnic colleges, one law college, one Government Music College, one College of Fisheries, Institute of Advance Studies in Education, one Regional College of Physical Education at Panisagar and one art college.

Main article: Healthcare in Tripura
Health indices as of 2010
Indicator Tripura India
Birth rate 14.9 22.1
Death rate 5.0 7.2
Infant mortality rate 27 47
Total fertility rate 2.2 2.7
Natural growth rate 9.9 14.9

Healthcare in Tripura features a universal health care system run by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the Government of Tripura. The health care infrastructure is divided into three tiers – the primary health care network, a secondary care system comprising district and sub-divisional hospitals and tertiary hospitals providing speciality and super speciality care. As of 2010–11, there are 17 hospitals, 11 rural hospitals and community health centres, 79 primary health centres, 635 sub-centres/dispensaries, 7 blood banks and 7 blood storage centres in the state. Homeopathic and Ayurvedic styles of medicine are also popular in the state. The National Family Health Survey – 3 conducted in 2005–06 revealed that 20% of the residents of Tripura do not generally use government health facilities, and prefers the private medical sector. This is overwhelmingly less than the national level, where 65.6% do not rely on government facilities. As in the rest of India, Tripura residents also cite poor quality of care as the most frequent reason for non-reliance over the public health sector. Other reasons include distance of the public sector facilities, long waiting time, and inconvenient hours of operation. As of 2010, the state's performance in major public health care indices, such as birth rate, infant mortality rate and total fertility rate is better than the national average. The state is vulnerable to epidemics of malaria, diarrhea, Japanese encephalitis and meningitis. In summer 2014 the state witnessed a major malaria outbreak.

Population

Population growth
Census Population
1871 65,334
1881 95,637 46.4%
1891 137,442 43%
1901 173,325 26%
1911 229,613 32.48%
1921 304,437 32.59%
1931 382,450 25.63%
1941 513,010 34.14%
1951 639,000 24.56%
1961 1,142,000 78.7%
1971 1,556,000 36.3%
1981 2,053,000 31.9%
1991 2,757,000 34.3%
2001 3,199,203 16%
2011 3,671,032 14.7%

Tripura ranks second to Assam as the most populous state in North East India. According to the provisional results of 2011 census of India, Tripura has a population of 3,671,032 with 1,871,867 males and 1,799,165 females. It constitutes 0.3% of India's population. The sex ratio of the state is 961 females per thousand males, higher than the national ratio 940. The density of population is 350 persons per square kilometre. The literacy rate of Tripura in 2011 was 87.75%, higher than the national average 74.04%, and third best among all the states.

Tripura ranked sixth in Human Development Index (HDI) among 35 states and union territories of India, according to 2006 estimate by India's Ministry of Women and Child Development; the HDI of Tripura was 0.663, better than the all-India HDI 0.605.

In 2011, the police in Tripura recorded 5,803 cognisable offences under the Indian Penal Code, a number second only to Assam (66,714) in North East India. The crime rate in the state was 158.1 per 100,000 people, less than the all-India average of 192.2. However, 2010 reports showed that the state topped all the states for crime against women, with a rate of 46.5 per 100,000 people, significantly more than the national rate of 18.

Ethnic groups

Tripuri children preparing for a dance performance.

According to the 2001 census of India, Bengalis represented almost 70 per cent of Tripura's population while the Tripuri population amounted to 30 per cent. The state's "scheduled tribes", recognised by the country's constitution, consist of 19 ethnic groups and many sub-groups, with diverse languages and cultures. In 2001, the largest such group was the Kokborok-speaking Tripuris, which had a population of 543,848, representing 17.0 per cent of the state's population and 54.7 per cent of the "scheduled tribe" population. The other major groups, in descending order of population, were the Reang (16.6 per cent of the indigenous population), Jamatia (7.5 per cent), Chakma (6.5 per cent), Halam (4.8 per cent), Mog (3.1 per cent), Munda (1.2 per cent), Kuki (1.2 per cent) and Garo (1.1 per cent).

Languages

Main article: Languages of Tripura

Languages of Tripura (2011)

Bengali (63.48%)
Tripuri (25.90%)
Chakma (2.30%)
Hindi (1.54%)
Others (6.78%)

The official languages of the state are Bengali, English and Kokborok (Tripuri). Bengali is the most widely spoken language, while Kokborok is the most prominent language among the Tripuri people. Other minority languages such as Mog, Odia, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Manipuri, Halam, Garo and Chakma belonging to Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan families are spoken in the state. Thadou, a nearly extinct language, is spoken by only four people in one village, as of 2012.

Religion

Religion in Tripura (2011 census)

Hinduism (83.4%)
Islam (8.6%)
Christianity (4.35%)
Buddhism (3.41%)
Sikhism (.02%)
Jainism (.02%)
Other or no religion (.2%)

According to 2011 census, Hinduism is the majority religion in the state, followed by 83.40% of the population. Muslims make up 8.60% of the population, Christians 4.35%, and Buddhists 3.41%.

Tripura religious diversity as per 2011 census
Religion Population
Hindus () 3,063,903
Muslims () 316,042
Christians () 159,882
Buddhists () 125,385
Others 8,705
Total 3,673,917

Christianity is chiefly followed by members of the Lushai, Kuki, Garo, Halam tribes and as per 2017 census has 159,882 adherents.: 135–6

Demography of indigenous population

A Tripuri girl in her traditional attire

Percentage of Tripuris by decade

Year Percent Increase
1871 90.04% -
1881 87.06% -2.98%
1891 75.75% -11.31%
1901 74.68% -1.07%
1911 64.34% -10.34%
1921 68.34% +4%
1931 70.09% +1.75%
1941 62.06%

–8.03%

1951 48.65% -13.41%
1961 31.55% -17.1%
1971 28.95% -2.6%
1981 28.44% -0.51%
1991 30.95% +2.51%
2001 31.05% +0.1%
2011 31.78% +0.73%

Once Tripura was a overwhelming Tripuri majority state. In 1941, the native Tripuris made up 62.06% of the population in present- day Tripura while the non-Tripuri people, mainly Bengalis and non-Bengalis occupies rest of the percentage. The percentage of Tripuris decreased from 62.06% in 1941 (before partition) to 48.65% (after partition) in 1951 due to East Bengali refugees who were coming from East Pakistan present-day-Bangladesh. After 1971, the indigenous Tripuri population of Tripura has increased from 28.44% in 1981 to 31.05% in 2001. The 2011 census stated that indigenous Tripuri constitute 31.78% of the state population which is up from the previous census record of 31.05% in 2001.

Arrival of Bengali refugees

East Pakistan refugees (since Bangladesh was not formed yet) coming to Tripura during Bangladesh liberation war.

During the Partition of Bengal in 1947, hundreds of thousands of Bengali refugees fled from East Pakistan into India's Tripura following the Partition of India. Estimation shows that between the period of 1947-51, around 610,000 Bengalis — a figure almost equal to the state's total population poured into the state leading to a profound demographic change during this first phase. Again during the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971, in the second phase of migration, around 1.038 million Bengalis (most being Hindus) moved into various parts of Tripura as refugees with most of them settling down permanently afterwards.

Annual Arrival of Bengali refugees in Tripura
Year Numbers
1946 (riot year) 3,327
1947 (year of Partition) 8,124
1948 9,554
1949 (communal disturbance) 11,575
1950 (serious communal riots) 67,151
1951 184,000
1952 (serious riots) 233,000
1953 80,000
1954 4,700
1955 17,500
1956 50,700
1957 57,700
1958 3,600
1964-65 (serious riots) 100,340
1965-66 13,073
1966-67 1,654
1967-68 12,229
1968-69 3,120
1969-70 4,334
1970-71 (to 24 March) 5,774
From (1946-71) Total - (871,455)
Durga Puja is the major festival of Tripura
A couple in traditional Tripuri costume.
Tripuri girls in traditional attire
Tripura girls in their traditional attire

The diverse ethno-linguistic groups of Tripura have given rise to a composite culture. The major Tripuri clans are: Tripura, Debbarma, Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, and Murasing. And there are tribal groups such as Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Mizo, Uchoi, Dhamai, Roaza, Mogh Munda, Oraon and Santhal who migrated in Tripura as tea labourers. Bengali people represent the largest ethno-linguist community of the state. Bengali culture, as a result, is the main non-indigenous culture. The Tripuri Maharajas were great patrons of Bengali culture, especially literature; Bengali language replaced Kokborok as the language of the court. Elements of Bengali culture, such as Bengali literature, Bengali music, and Bengali cuisine are widespread, particularly in the urban areas of the state.: 110

Tripura is noted for bamboo and cane handicrafts. Bamboo, wood and cane are used to create an array of furniture, utensils, hand-held fans, replicas, mats, baskets, idols and interior decoration materials.: 39–41 Music and dance are integral to the culture of the state. Some local musical instruments are the sarinda, chongpreng (both string instruments), and sumui (a type of flute).: 344–5 Each indigenous community has its own repertoire of songs and dances performed during weddings, religious occasions, and other festivities. The Tripuri and Jamatia people perform goria dance during the Goria puja. Jhum dance (also called tangbiti dance), lebang dance, mamita dance, and mosak sulmani dance are other Tripuri dance forms. Reang community, the second largest scheduled tribe of the state, is noted for its hojagiri dance that is performed by young girls balanced on earthen pitchers. Bizhu dance is performed by the Chakmas during the Bizhu festival (the last day of the month of Chaitra in Hindu calendar). Other dance forms include wangala dance of the Garo people, hai-hak dance of the Halam branch of Kuki people, and sangrai dance and owa dance of the Mog. Alongside such traditional music, mainstream Indian musical elements such as Indian classical music and dance, Rabindra Sangeet are also practised. Sachin Dev Burman, a member of the royal family, was a maestro in the filmi genre of Indian music.

Hindus believe that Tripura Sundari is the patron goddess of Tripura and an aspect of Shakti.: 30 Durga Puja, Kali Puja, Dolyatra, Ashokastami and the worship of the Chaturdasha deities are important festivals in the state. Some festivals represent confluence of different regional traditions, such as Ganga puja, Garia puja, Kharchi puja and Ker puja. Unakoti, Pilak and Devtamura are historic sites where large collections of stone carvings and rock sculptures are noted. Like Neermahal is a cultural Water Palace of this state. Sculptures are evidence of the presence of Buddhist and Brahmanical orders for centuries, and represent a rare artistic fusion of traditional organised religions and tribal influence.

Performing arts

Tripuri dance

Tripura had a wide collection of notable art and cultural displays.

  • Mamita dance : A Tripuri dance form performed during Mamita occasion, which is after the harvesting of year's first crops and to worship Ama Mailuma.
  • Goria dance : Tripuri dance performed during Goria puja.
  • Hojagiri dance : A divine Tripuri dance form. The dance is performed on the occasion of Hojagiri festivals or Laxmi Puja, held in the following full moon night of Durga Puja. generally after 3rd day of Dashera. The Goddess Mailuma (Tipra Indigenous Goddess) is worshipped on this day.
  • Lebang dance : A Tripuri dance form.
  • Mosak Sulmani dance : A Tripuri dance form.
  • Jadu Kolija : A Tripuri folk-classical song.
  • Dangsa Mwsamung: A type of Tripuri play performed on stage.

Other dance forms of minority groups include Sangrai dance and Owa dance of Mog, Hai-hak dance of Halam, Wangla dance of Garo, Bizhu dance of Chakma. Alongside such traditional music, mainstream Indian musical elements such as Indian classical music and dance are also practised. Sachin Dev Burman, a member of the Tripuri royal family, was a maestro in the filmi genre of Indian music.

Local musical instruments are:

  • sarinda : A Tripuri string instrument.
  • chongpreng : Tripuri string instrument.
  • sumui : Tripuri flute.: 344–5

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in the state. The state capital Agartala has its own club football championships every year in which many local clubs compete in a league and knockout format. The Tripura cricket team participates in the Ranji Trophy, the Indian domestic cricket competition. The state is a regular participant of the Indian National Games and the North Eastern Games.

Tennis player Somdev Devvarman, who won the gold medal in the Men's Singles event at the 2010 Asian Games, has family roots in Tripura. He was the first Indian to win a gold medal in the men's singles tennis event of the Asian Games.

In 2016, Dipa Karmakar from Agartala became the first ever female gymnast from India to qualify for the Olympics when she qualified for the women's artistic gymnastics event of 2016 Summer Olympics. Other notable gymnasts from Tripura include Mantu Debnath, Kalpana Debnath, and Bishweshwar Nandi.

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Tripura Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Tripura disambiguation Tripura ˈ t r ɪ p ʊr e er e 7 is a state in northeastern India The third smallest state in the country it covers 10 491 69 km2 4 050 86 sq mi and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north 8 south and west and the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east In 2011 the state had 3 671 032 residents constituting 0 3 of the country s population 9 Tripura TwipraState clockwise from top Tripura Sundari Temple Rock cut sculptures at Unakoti Ujjayanta Palace Neermahal palace Tripuri danceSealCoordinates Agartala 23 50 N 91 17 E 23 84 N 91 28 E 23 84 91 28 Coordinates 23 50 N 91 17 E 23 84 N 91 28 E 23 84 91 28Subdivision23 subdivisionsUnion territory1 November 1956Upgraded as state21 January 1972 Named forTripura Sundari TempleCapitalAgartalaMost populous cityAgartalaDistricts8Government BodyGovernment of Tripura GovernorSatyadev Narayan Arya 1 Chief MinisterManik Saha BJP 2 Deputy Chief MinisterJishnu Dev Varma BJP 3 LegislatureUnicameral 60 seats Area 4 Total10 491 69 km2 4 050 86 sq mi Rank27th 2011 Population 2011 Total3 671 032 Rank22nd 2014 LanguagesGDP 2019 20 Nominal 0 461 lakh crore US 6 0 billion Nominal per capita 112 849 US 1 500 Time zoneUTC 05 30 IST ISO 3166 codeIN TRVehicle registrationTR HDI0 663 medium HDI rank25thLiteracy87 75 2011 5 Official languages 6 BengaliEnglishKokborokWebsitetripura wbr gov wbr inSymbols of TripuraMottoSatyameva Jayate Truth alone triumphs It was elevated from the status of Union territory by the North Eastern Areas Reorganisation Act 1971 The area of modern Tripura ruled for several centuries by the Manikya Dynasty was part of an independent princely state under the protectorate of the British Empire The independent Tripuri Kingdom also known as Hill Tippera joined the newly independent India in 1949 Tripura lies in a geographically isolated location in India as only one major highway National Highway 8 connects it with the rest of the country Five mountain ranges Boromura Atharamura Longtharai Shakhan and Jampui Hills run north to south with intervening valleys Agartala the capital is located on a plain to the west The state has a tropical savanna climate and receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon Forests cover more than half of the area in which bamboo and cane tracts are common Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state Due to its geographical isolation economic progress in the state is hindered Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura which has a limited infrastructure Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state s gross domestic product According to the 2011 census Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87 75 Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions weddings and festivities the use of locally crafted musical instruments and clothes and the worship of regional deities The sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti Pilak and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and indigenous religions Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 Post independence 1947 present 3 Geography 3 1 Topography 3 2 Climate 4 Flora and fauna 5 Administrative divisions 6 Government and politics 7 Economy 8 Transport 9 Media and communication 9 1 Electricity 9 2 Irrigation and fertilizers 9 3 Drinking water 10 Education 11 Healthcare 12 Demographics 12 1 Population 12 2 Ethnic groups 12 3 Languages 12 4 Religion 12 5 Demography of indigenous population 12 6 Arrival of Bengali refugees 13 Culture 13 1 Performing arts 14 Sports 15 See also 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External linksEtymology Edit Tripura Sundari Temple in Udaipur The Sanskrit name of the state is linked to the Hindu goddess of beauty Tripura Sundari the presiding deity of the Tripura Sundari Temple at Udaipur one of the 51 Shakti Peethas pilgrimage centres of Shaktism 10 11 and to the legendary tyrant king Tripur who reigned in the region Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhyu who belonged to the lineage of Yayati a king of the Lunar Dynasty 12 There are alternative theories regarding the origin of the name Tripura such as a possible Sanskritic folk etymology of a Tibeto Burman Kokborok name Variants of the name include Tipra Tuipura and Tippera A Kokborok etymology from tui water and pra near has been suggested the boundaries of Tripura extended to the Bay of Bengal when the kings of the Tipra Kingdom held sway from the Garo Hills of Meghalaya to Arakan the present Rakhine State of Burma so the name may reflect vicinity to the sea 10 11 13 History EditMain article History of Tripura See also Twipra Kingdom Tripura princely state Kings of Tripura and Insurgency in Tripura Rock cut sculpture of Shiva at Unakoti Although there is no evidence of lower or middle Paleolithic settlements in Tripura Upper Paleolithic tools made of fossil wood have been found in the Haora and Khowai valleys 14 The Indian epic the Mahabharata ancient religious texts the Puranas and the Edicts of Ashoka stone pillar inscriptions of the emperor Ashoka dating from the third century BCE all mention Tripura 12 An ancient name of Tripura as mentioned in the Mahabharata is Kirat Desh English The land of Kirat probably referring to the Kirata Kingdoms or the more generic term Kirata 15 155 However it is unclear whether the extent of modern Tripura is coterminous with Kirat Desh 16 The region was under the rule of the Twipra Kingdom for centuries although when this dates from is not documented The Rajmala a chronicle of Tripuri kings which was first written in the 15th century 17 provides a list of 179 kings from antiquity up to Krishna Kishore Manikya 1830 1850 18 3 19 20 but the reliability of the Rajmala has been doubted 21 Neermahal Palace is the royal palace built by Bir Bikram Kishore Debbarman of the Kingdom of Tripura The boundaries of the kingdom changed over the centuries At various times the borders reached south to the jungles of the Sundarbans on the Bay of Bengal east to Burma and north to the boundary of the Kamarupa kingdom in Assam 17 There were several Muslim invasions of the region from the 13th century onward 17 which culminated in Mughal dominance of the plains of the kingdom in 1733 17 although their rule never extended to the hill regions 17 The Mughals had influence over the appointment of the Tripuri kings 17 Queen Kanchan Prabha Devi who signed the instrument of accession to India as president of the Council of Regency Tripura became a princely state during British rule in India The kings had an estate in British India known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad now the Comilla district of Bangladesh 22 in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera the present day state 17 Udaipur in the south of Tripura was the capital of the kingdom until the king Krishna Manikya moved the capital to Old Agartala in the 18th century It was moved to the new city of Agartala in the 19th century Bir Chandra Manikya 1862 1896 modelled his administration on the pattern of British India and enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation 23 Post independence 1947 present Edit Following the independence of India in 1947 Tippera district the estate in the plains of British India Comilla became a part of East Pakistan and Hill Tippera remained under a regency council until 1949 The Maharani Regent of Tripura signed the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9 September 1949 as a result of which Tripura became a Part C state of India 24 3 It became a Union Territory without a legislature in November 1956 and an elected ministry was installed in July 1963 24 3 It was conferred full statehood in 1971 by the North Eastern Areas Reorganisation Act 1971 The geographic partition that coincided with the independence of India resulted in major economic and infrastructural setbacks for the state as road transport between the state and the major cities of India had to follow a more circuitous route The road distance between Kolkata and Agartala before the partition was less than 350 km 220 mi and increased to 1 700 km 1 100 mi as the route now avoided East Pakistan although from June 2015 a bus service started from Agartala to Kolkata via Dhaka this has been named the Bangla Corridor 25 The geopolitical isolation was aggravated by an absence of rail transport 26 27 93 Since the partition of India many Bengali Hindus have migrated to Tripura as refugees fleeing religious persecution in Muslim majority East Pakistan especially after 1949 24 3 4 Settlement by Hindu Bengalis increased during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 Parts of the state were shelled by the Pakistan Army during the Indo Pakistani War of 1971 Following the war the Indian government reorganised the North East region to ensure effective control of the international borders three new states came into existence on 21 January 1972 28 Meghalaya Manipur and Tripura 28 Before independence most of the population was indigenous 24 9 Ethnic strife between the Tripuri tribe and the predominantly immigrant Bengali community led to scattered violence 29 and an insurgency spanning decades including occasional massacres such as the 1980 Mandai massacre 30 This gradually abated following the establishment of a tribal autonomous district council and the use of strategic counter insurgency operations 31 Tripura remains peaceful as of 2016 32 In retaliation of the communal violence against the Hindu minority in neighboring Bangladesh mosques in several areas in Tripura were attacked from 19 to 26 October 2021 33 Geography Edit Rice is grown on Tripura s alluvial plains which include lungas the narrow valleys that are found mainly in the west of the state Tripura is a landlocked state in North East India where the seven contiguous states Arunachal Pradesh Assam Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland and Tripura are collectively known as the Seven Sister States Spread over 10 491 69 km2 4 050 86 sq mi Tripura is the third smallest among the 28 states in the country behind Goa and Sikkim It extends from 22 56 N to 24 32 N and 91 09 E to 92 20 E 24 3 Its maximum extent measures about 178 km 111 mi from north to south and 131 km 81 mi east to west Tripura is bordered by the country of Bangladesh to the west north and south and the Indian states of Assam to the north east and Mizoram to the east 24 3 It is accessible by national highways passing through the Karimganj district of Assam and Mamit district of Mizoram 34 Topography Edit The physiography is characterised by hill ranges valleys and plains The state has five anticlinal ranges of hills running north to south from Boromura in the west through Atharamura Longtharai and Shakhan to the Jampui Hills in the east 35 4 The intervening synclines are the Agartala Udaipur Khowai Teliamura Kamalpur Ambasa Kailasahar Manu and Dharmanagar Kanchanpur valleys 35 4 At an altitude of 939 m 3 081 ft Betling Shib in the Jampui range is the state s highest point 24 4 The small isolated hillocks interspersed throughout the state are known as tillas and the narrow fertile alluvial valleys mostly present in the west are called Doong lungas 24 4 A number of rivers originate in the hills of Tripura and flow into Bangladesh 24 4 The Khowai Dhalai Manu Juri and Longai flow towards the north the Gumti to the west and the Muhuri and Feni to the south west 35 73 The lithostratigraphy data published by the Geological Survey of India dates the rocks on the geologic time scale between the Oligocene epoch approximately 34 to 23 million years ago and the Holocene epoch which started 12 000 years ago 35 73 4 The hills have red laterite soil that is porous The flood plains and narrow valleys are overlain by alluvial soil and those in the west and south constitute most of the agricultural land 24 4 According to the Bureau of Indian Standards on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes the state lies in seismic zone V 36 Climate Edit The state has a tropical savanna climate designated Aw under the Koppen climate classification The undulating topography leads to local variations particularly in the hill ranges 37 The four main seasons are winter from December to February pre monsoon or summer from March to April monsoon from May to September and post monsoon from October to November 38 During the monsoon season the south west monsoon brings heavy rains which cause frequent floods 24 4 35 73 The average annual rainfall between 1995 and 2006 ranged from 1 979 6 to 2 745 9 mm 77 94 to 108 11 in 39 During winter temperatures range from 13 to 27 C 55 to 81 F while in the summer they fall between 24 and 36 C 75 and 97 F 38 According to a United Nations Development Programme report the state lies in very high damage risk zone from wind and cyclones 40 Climate data for Agartala the capital of Tripura Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage high C F 25 6 78 1 28 3 82 9 32 5 90 5 33 7 92 7 32 8 91 0 31 8 89 2 31 4 88 5 31 7 89 1 31 7 89 1 31 1 88 0 29 2 84 6 26 4 79 5 30 5 86 9 Average low C F 10 50 13 2 55 8 18 7 65 7 22 2 72 0 23 5 74 3 24 6 76 3 24 8 76 6 24 7 76 5 24 3 75 7 22 72 16 6 61 9 11 3 52 3 19 7 67 4 Average precipitation mm inches 27 5 1 08 21 5 0 85 60 7 2 39 199 7 7 86 329 9 12 99 393 4 15 49 363 1 14 30 298 7 11 76 232 4 9 15 162 5 6 40 46 1 8 10 6 0 42 2 146 84 49 Source 41 Flora and fauna EditSee also Tourism in North East India State symbols of Tripura 42 State animal Phayre s leaf monkeyState bird Green imperial pigeonState tree AgarwoodState flower Mesua ferreaState fruit Queen pineapple Like most of the Indian subcontinent Tripura lies within the Indomalayan realm According to the Biogeographic classification of India the state is in the North East biogeographic zone 43 In 2011 forests covered 57 73 of the state 44 Tripura hosts three different types of ecosystems mountain forest and freshwater 45 The evergreen forests on the hill slopes and the sandy river banks are dominated by species such as Dipterocarpus Artocarpus Amoora Elaeocarpus Syzygium and Eugenia 46 Two types of moist deciduous forests comprise the majority of the vegetation moist deciduous mixed forest and Sal Shorea robusta predominant forest 46 The interspersion of bamboo and cane forests with deciduous and evergreen flora is a peculiarity of Tripura s vegetation 46 Grasslands and swamps are also present particularly in the plains Herbaceous plants shrubs and trees such as Albizia Barringtonia Lagerstroemia and Macaranga flourish in the swamps of Tripura Shrubs and grasses include Schumannianthus dichotoma shitalpati Phragmites and Saccharum sugarcane 46 According to a survey in 1989 90 Tripura hosts 90 land mammal species from 65 genera and 10 orders 47 including such species as elephant Elephas maximus bear Melursus ursinus binturong Arctictis binturong wild dog Cuon alpinus porcupine Artherurus assamensis barking deer Muntiacus muntjak sambar Cervus unicolor wild boar Sus scrofa gaur Bos gaurus leopard Panthera pardus clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa and many species of small cats and primates 47 Out of 15 free ranging primates of India seven are found in Tripura this is the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state 47 The wild buffalo Bubalus arnee is extinct now 48 There are nearly 300 species of birds in the state 49 Wildlife sanctuaries of the state are Sipahijola Gumti Rowa and Trishna wildlife sanctuaries 50 National parks of the state are Clouded Leopard National Park and Rajbari National Park 50 These protected areas cover a total of 566 93 km2 218 89 sq mi 50 Gumti is also an Important Bird Area 51 In winter thousands of migratory waterfowl throng Gumti and Rudrasagar lakes 52 Administrative divisions Edit Tripura Assembly Tripura district map See also List of districts of Tripura In January 2012 major changes were implemented in the administrative divisions of Tripura There had previously been four districts Dhalai headquarters Ambassa North Tripura headquarters Kailashahar South Tripura headquarters Udaipur Tripura and West Tripura headquarters Agartala Four new districts were carved out of the existing four in January 2012 Khowai Unakoti Sipahijala and Gomati 53 Six new subdivisions and five new blocks were also added 54 Each is governed by a district collector or a district magistrate usually appointed by the Indian Administrative Service The subdivisions of each district are governed by a sub divisional magistrate and each subdivision is further divided into blocks The blocks consist of Panchayats village councils and town municipalities As of 2012 the state had eight districts 23 subdivisions and 58 development blocks 55 National census and state statistical reports are not available for all the new administrative divisions as of March 2013 Agartala the capital of Tripura is the most populous city Other major towns with a population of 10 000 or more as per 2015 census are Sabroom Dharmanagar Jogendranagar Kailashahar Pratapgarh Udaipur Amarpur Belonia Gandhigram Kumarghat Khowai Ranirbazar Sonamura Bishalgarh Teliamura Mohanpur Melaghar Ambassa Kamalpur Bishramganj Kathaliya Santirbazar and Baxanagar Government and politics EditMain articles Government of Tripura and Tripura Legislative Assembly See also Political parties in Tripura Ujjayanta Palace built in the 19th century as a replacement for a former royal palace destroyed in an earthquake was used until 2011 as the meeting place of Tripura s State Legislative Assembly Tripura is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy a feature it shares with other Indian states Universal suffrage is granted to residents The Tripura government has three branches executive legislature and judiciary The Tripura Legislative Assembly consists of elected members and special office bearers that are elected by the members Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in case of Speaker s absence The Assembly is unicameral with 60 Members of the Legislative Assembly MLA 56 The members are elected for a term of five years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term The judiciary is composed of the Tripura High Court and a system of lower courts 57 58 Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister The Governor the titular head of state is appointed by the President of India The leader of the party or a coalition of parties with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the chief minister by the governor The Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the chief minister The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council pictured encompasses much of the state Tripura sends two representatives to the Lok Sabha the lower house of the parliament of India and one representative to the Rajya Sabha parliament s upper house In the 2014 Indian general election both parliament lower house seats were won by the Communist Party of India Marxist 59 Panchayats local self governments elected by local body elections are present in many villages for self governance Tripura also has a unique tribal self governance body the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council 60 This council is responsible for some aspects of local governance in 527 villages with high density of the scheduled tribes 60 61 The main political parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party BJP the Left Front the All India Trinamool Congress and Indian National Congress along with regional parties like the IPFT and INPT Until 1977 the state was governed by the Indian National Congress 62 255 66 The Left Front was in power from 1978 to 1988 and then again from 1993 to 2018 63 In 1988 93 the Congress and Tripura Upajati Juba Samiti were in a ruling coalition 64 In the 2013 Tripura Legislative Assembly election the Left Front won 50 out of 60 seats in the Assembly 65 The 2018 assembly election resulted in loss for the Left Front the Bharatiya Janata Party won an overall majority in the state resulting in the end of the Communist Party s uninterrupted twenty five year rule 66 The BJP won 44 out of 60 seats in the Assembly by coalition with the IPFT The CPI M only got 16 seats and Indian National Congress lost by huge margins in all constituencies Communism in the state had its beginnings in the pre independence era inspired by freedom struggle activities in Bengal and culminating in regional parties with communist leanings 67 362 It capitalised on the tribal dissatisfaction with the mainstream rulers 67 362 and has been noted for connection with the sub national or ethnic searches for identity 68 Since the 1990s there has been an ongoing irredentist Tripura rebellion involving militant outfits such as the National Liberation Front of Tripura and the All Tripura Tiger Force ATTF terrorist incidents involving the ATTF claimed a recorded number of 389 victims in the seven year period from 1993 to 2000 69 The Armed Forces Special Powers Act 1958 AFSPA was first enforced in Tripura on 16 February 1997 when terrorism was at its peak in the state Ever since then the Act as per its provisions was reviewed and extended every six months However in view of the improvement in the situation and fewer terrorist activities being reported the Tripura government in June 2013 reduced operational areas of the AFSPA to 30 police station areas The last six month extension to AFSPA was given in November 2014 and after about 18 years of operation it was repealed on 29 May 2015 66 70 Economy EditGSDP at Constant Prices 2004 05 base 71 figures in crores Indian rupeeYear GSDP2004 05 8 9042005 06 9 4822006 07 10 2022007 08 10 9882008 09 11 5962009 10 12 2482010 11 12 947 Tripura s gross state domestic product for 2010 11 was 129 47 billion US 1 7 billion at constant price 2004 05 71 recording 5 71 growth over the previous year In the same period the GDP of India was 48 778 42 billion US 640 billion with a growth rate of 8 55 71 Annual per capita income at current price of the state was 38 493 US 510 compared to the national per capita income 44 345 US 580 72 In 2009 the tertiary sector of the economy service industries was the largest contributor to the gross domestic product of the state contributing 53 98 percent of the state s economy compared to 23 07 percent from the primary sector agriculture forestry mining and 22 95 percent from the secondary sector industrial and manufacturing 72 According to the Economic Census of 2005 after agriculture the maximum number of workers were engaged in retail trade 28 21 of total non agricultural workforce followed by manufacturing 18 60 public administration 14 54 and education 14 40 73 Tripura is an agrarian state with more than half of the population dependent on agriculture and allied activities 74 However due to hilly terrain and forest cover only 27 of the land is available for cultivation 74 Rice the major crop of the state is cultivated in 91 of the cropped area 74 According to the Directorate of Economics amp Statistics Government of Tripura in 2009 10 potato sugarcane mesta pulses and jute were the other major crops cultivated in the state 75 Jackfruit and pineapple top the list of horticultural products 75 Traditionally most of the indigenous population practised jhum method a type of slash and burn of cultivation The number of people dependent on jhum has declined over the years 76 37 9 Rice is the major crop in Tripura and accounts for 91 percent of the land under cultivation Pisciculture has made significant advances in the state At the end of 2009 10 the state produced a surplus of 104 3 million fish seeds primarily carp 77 Rubber and tea are the important cash crops of the state Tripura ranks second to Kerala in the production of natural rubber in the country 78 The state is known for its handicraft particularly hand woven cotton fabric wood carvings and bamboo products High quality timber including sal garjan teak and gamar are found abundantly in the forests of Tripura Tata Trusts signed a pact with Government of Tripura in July 2015 to improve fisheries and dairy in the state 79 Per Capita Income with 2004 05 BaseYear Tripura2004 05 24 3942005 06 26 6682006 07 29 0812007 08 31 1112008 09 33 3502010 11 33 4932011 12 47 0792012 13 52 4342013 14 61 5702014 15 69 4742015 16 83 6802016 17 90 8272017 18 1 00 4772018 19 1 13 1022019 20 1 39 5122020 21 1 47 501 The industrial sector of the state continues to be highly underdeveloped brickfields and tea industry are the only two organised sectors 73 Tripura has considerable reservoirs of natural gas 35 78 81 According to estimates by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation ONGC the state has 400 billion metres3 reserves of natural gas with 16 billion metres3 is recoverable 78 ONGC produced 480 million metres3 natural gas in the state in 2006 07 78 In 2011 and 2013 new large discoveries of natural gas were announced by ONGC 80 Tourism industry in the state is growing the revenue earned in tourism sector crossed 10 million US 130 000 for the first time in 2009 10 and surpassed 15 million US 200 000 in 2010 11 81 Although Bangladesh is in a trade deficit with India its export to Tripura is significantly more than import from the state a report in the newspaper The Hindu estimated Bangladesh exported commodities valued at about 3 5 billion US 46 million to the state in 2012 as opposed to very small quantity of import 82 Alongside legal international trade unofficial and informal cross border trade is rampant 83 In a research paper published by the Institute of Developing Economies in 2004 the dependence of Tripura s economy on that of Bangladesh was emphasised 84 313 The economy of Tripura can be characterised by the high rate of poverty low capital formation inadequate infrastructure facilities geographical isolation and communication bottlenecks inadequate exploration and use of forest and mineral resources slow industrialisation and high unemployment More than 50 of the population depends on agriculture for sustaining their livelihood 85 However agriculture and allied activities contribution to Gross State Domestic Production GSDP is only 23 this is primarily because of low capital base in the sector Despite the inherent limitation and constraints coupled with severe resource shortages for investing in basic infrastructure this has brought consistency progress in the quality of life and income of people cutting across all sections of society The state government through its Tripura Industrial Policy and Tripura Industrial Incentives Scheme 2012 has offered heavy subsidies in capital investment and transport preferences in government procurement waivers in tender processes and fees yet the impact has not been much significant beyond a few industries being set up in the Bodhjungnagar Industrial Growth Center 86 The Planning Commission estimates the poverty rate of all North East Indian states by using headcount ratio of Assam the second largest state in North East India after Arunachal Pradesh According to 2001 Planning Commission assessment 22 percent of Tripura s rural residents were below the poverty line However Tripura government s independent assessment based on consumption distribution data reported that in 2001 55 percent of the rural population was below the poverty line 73 Geographic isolation and communication bottlenecks coupled with insufficient infrastructure have restricted economic growth of the state 74 High rate of poverty and unemployment continues to be prevalent 74 Transport EditAir Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport located 12 km northwest of Agartala at Singerbhil is the second busiest airport in northeast India after Guwahati There are direct flights to Kolkata Imphal Delhi Shillong Guwahati Bangalore Dibrugarh Aizawl Ahmedabad and Mumbai The major airlines are flybig Air India and IndiGo 87 Passenger helicopter services are available between the capital and major towns Kailashahar Dharmanagar as well as to more remote areas such as Kanchanpur Belonia and Gandacherra 88 Railway Agartala Railway Station Agartala came on India s railway map with the advent of the railways in the subcontinent in 1853 but the link was broken when India was partitioned in 1947 Railway service was established in Tripura in 1964 by constructing 1 000 mm 3 ft 3 3 8 in metre gauge track from Lumding in Assam to Dharmanagar and Kailasahar in Tripura but the track did not connect the state capital Agartala Rail transport was absent in the state until 2008 09 when the railway track was extended to the capital Agartala 88 The metre gauge rail track was connected to 5 ft 6 in 1 676 mm broad gauge at Lumding The major railway stations in this line are in Agartala Dharmanagar and Kumarghat This metre gauge track was converted to 1 676 mm 5 ft 6 in broad gauge in 2016 and now trains run from Agartala to Kolkata and Delhi The total length of this railway track in Tripura state is 153 km It is a single line without electrification The Agartala sabroom line was compled and fully operational since 2019 A new railway line is being laid westwards from Agartala to Akhaura in Bangladesh This will reduce the distance between Agartala and Kolkata by over 1000 km and provide rail access to Chittagong port Some major Express trains operated from Agartala are Agartala Anand Vihar Terminal Rajdhani Express Agartala Bengaluru Cantonment Humsafar Express Agartala Firozpur Cantonment Tripura Sundari Express Agartala Sealdah Kanchanjunga Express Agartala Deoghar Weekly Express Agartala Silchar Express Agartala Rani Kamplapati Bhopal Weekly Express Agartala Secunderabad Superfast Special Agartala Jiribam Janshatabdi Express Agartala Bengaluru Cantonment Superfast Special Road The border post between Bangladesh and India in Akhaura Only one major road the National Highway 8 NH 8 connects Tripura to the rest of India 88 Starting at Sabroom in southern Tripura it heads north to the capital Agartala turns east and then north east to enter the state of Assam Locally known as Assam Road the NH 8 is often called the lifeline of Tripura 88 However the highway is single lane and of poor quality often landslides rains or other disruptions on the highway cut the state off from its neighbours 35 73 76 8 Another National Highway NH 108 connects the town Panisagar in North Tripura District with Aizawl Mizoram 34 The Tripura Road Transport Corporation is the government agency overlooking public transport on road A hilly and land locked state Tripura is dependent mostly on roads for transport 88 The total length of roads in the state is 16 931 km 10 520 mi of which national highways constitute 88 km 55 mi and state highways 689 km 428 mi as of 2009 10 88 Residents in rural areas frequently use waterways as a mode of transport 89 140 Tripura has an 856 km 532 mi long international border with Bangladesh of which 777 4 km 483 1 mi is fenced as of 2012 90 Several locations along the border serve as bilateral trading points between India and Bangladesh such as Akhaura near Agartala Raghna Srimantpur Belonia Khowai and Kailasahar 82 A bus service exists between Agartala and Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh 91 92 In 2013 the two countries signed an agreement to establish a 15 km 9 3 mi railway link between Agartala and the Akhaura junction of Bangladesh 93 Citizens of both countries need visa to legally enter the other country however illegal movement and smuggling across the border are widespread 84 314 94 Media and communication EditDoordarshan DD has a television station in Agartala Other full time based channels are Headlines Tripura 95 News Vanguard PB 24 Prime Television Network Chini Khorang News channel As of 2014 56 daily and weekly newspapers are published in Tripura 96 Most of the newspapers are published in Bengali except for one Kokborok daily Hachukni Kok one Manipuri weekly Marup two English dailies and three bilingual weeklies 96 Notable dailies include Ajkal Tripura Daily Desher Katha Dainik Sambad and Syandan Patrika 96 In a study by Indian Institute of Mass Communication in 2009 93 of the sampled in Tripura rated television as very effective for information and mass education 97 In the study 67 of the sampled listened to radio and 80 90 read newspaper 97 Most of the major Indian telecommunication companies are present in the state such as Airtel Vi Jio and BSNL Mobile connections outnumber landline connections by a wide margin As of 2011 the state controlled BSNL has 57 897 landline subscribers and 325 279 GSM mobile service connections 88 There are 84 telephone exchanges for landlines and 716 post offices in the state as of 2011 88 Electricity Edit Till 2014 Tripura was a power deficit state In late 2014 Tripura reached surplus electricity production capacity by using its recently discovered natural gas resources and installing high efficiency gas turbine power plants The state has many power generating stations These are owned by Tripura State Electricity Corporation TSECL natural gas powered thermal power stations at Rokhia and Baramura and the ONGC Tripura Power Company in Palatana 98 The ONGC plant has a capacity of 726 6 MW with the second plant s commissioning in November 2014 99 100 It is the largest individual power plant in the northeast region 101 The state also has a hydro power station on the Gumti River The combined power generation from these three stations is 100 105 MW 102 The North Eastern Electric Power Corporation NEEPCO operates the 84 MW Agartala Gas Turbine Power Plant near Agartala 102 As of November 2014 another thermal power plant is being built at Monarchak 103 With the newly added power generation capacity Tripura has with enough capacity to supply all seven sister states of northeast India as well export power to neighbouring countries such as Bangladesh 104 With recent discoveries the state has abundant natural gas reserves to support many more power generation plants but lacks pipeline and transport infrastructure to deliver the fuel or electricity to India s national grid Irrigation and fertilizers Edit As of 2011 255 241 hectares 985 sq mi of land in Tripura cultivable of which 108 646 hectares 419 sq mi has the potential to be covered by irrigation projects However only 74 796 hectares 289 sq mi is irrigated 105 The state lacks major irrigation projects it depends on medium sized projects sourced from Gumti Khowai at Chakmaghat and Manu rivers and minor projects administered by village level governing bodies that utilise tube wells water pumps tanks and lift irrigation 105 ONGC and Chambal Fertilizers amp Chemicals are jointly building a fertiliser plant to leverage ONGC s natural gas discoveries in Tripura 106 Expected to be in operation by 2017 the 1 3 million tonnes per year plant will supply the northeastern states 107 Drinking water Edit Drinking Water and Sanitation DWS wing of Public Works Department manages the drinking water supply in the state 108 Schools and Anganwadi Centers have been specifically targeted to improve drinking water supply as well as attendance to these institutions Many areas of Tripura have the problem of excessive iron content in groundwater requiring the installation of Iron Removal Plants IRP Tripura State has received the best State Award for Water amp Sanitation under the category of Small States in the IBN7 Diamond State Award function for doing commendable work to provide drinking water supply to the people with the sparsely distributed tribal population in hamlets of hilly regions of the State However a study by the DWS Department found a depleting water table and excessive contamination 109 Still packaged drinking water under brands Tribeni Eco Freshh Blue Fina Life Drop and Aqua Zoom among others is manufactured and sold in the state Filters of many types and brands in addition to locally manufactured ceramic type filters are sold in the state although their acceptance in rural areas is less Education EditMain article Education in Tripura See also List of institutions of higher education in Tripura Classrooms built of bamboo in a school In 2010 11 Tripura had 4 455 schools run by the state government or private organisations 110 Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali As per 2011 census the literacy rate of Tripura was 87 75 percent the fourth highest in India which had a national literacy rate of 74 04 percent 111 A state government survey in 2013 announced that Tripura has the highest literacy rate in India at 94 65 percent 111 Schools in Tripura are run by the state government TTAADC or private organisations which include religious institutions Instruction in schools is mainly in Bengali or English though Kokborok and other regional languages are also used Some of the special schools include Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya residential schools run by Tripura Tribal Welfare Residential Educational Institutions Society TTWREIS 112 missionary organisations like St Paul s St Arnold s Holy Cross Don Bosco and St John s The schools are affiliated to the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations CISCE the Central Board for Secondary Education CBSE the National Institute of Open Schooling NIOS or the Tripura Board of Secondary Education 113 Under the 10 2 3 plan after completing secondary school students typically enroll for two years in a junior college or in a higher secondary school affiliated either to the Tripura Board of Secondary Education or to other central boards Students choose from one of the three streams liberal arts commerce or science 113 As in the rest of India 114 after passing the Higher Secondary Examination the grade 12 examination students may enroll in general degree programs such as bachelor s degree in arts commerce or science or professional degree programs such as engineering law or medicine According to the Economic Review of Tripura 2010 11 Tripura has a total of 4 455 schools of which 2 298 are primary schools 110 The total enrolment in all schools of the state is 767 672 110 Tripura has one Central University Tripura University one State University M B B University and one private university a branch of the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India There are 15 general colleges three engineering colleges Tripura Institute of Technology National Institute of Technology Agartala and NIEILT Agartala two medical colleges Agartala Government Medical College and Tripura Medical College 115 116 three nursing or paramedical colleges three polytechnic colleges one law college one Government Music College one College of Fisheries Institute of Advance Studies in Education one Regional College of Physical Education at Panisagar and one art college 110 117 Healthcare EditMain article Healthcare in Tripura Health indices as of 2010 118 Indicator Tripura IndiaBirth rate 14 9 22 1Death rate 5 0 7 2Infant mortality rate 27 47Total fertility rate 2 2 2 7Natural growth rate 9 9 14 9 Healthcare in Tripura features a universal health care system run by the Ministry of Health amp Family Welfare of the Government of Tripura 119 The health care infrastructure is divided into three tiers the primary health care network a secondary care system comprising district and sub divisional hospitals and tertiary hospitals providing speciality and super speciality care As of 2010 11 there are 17 hospitals 11 rural hospitals and community health centres 79 primary health centres 635 sub centres dispensaries 7 blood banks and 7 blood storage centres in the state 120 Homeopathic and Ayurvedic styles of medicine are also popular in the state 120 The National Family Health Survey 3 conducted in 2005 06 revealed that 20 of the residents of Tripura do not generally use government health facilities and prefers the private medical sector 121 This is overwhelmingly less than the national level where 65 6 do not rely on government facilities 121 As in the rest of India Tripura residents also cite poor quality of care as the most frequent reason for non reliance over the public health sector Other reasons include distance of the public sector facilities long waiting time and inconvenient hours of operation 121 As of 2010 the state s performance in major public health care indices such as birth rate infant mortality rate and total fertility rate is better than the national average 118 The state is vulnerable to epidemics of malaria diarrhea Japanese encephalitis and meningitis In summer 2014 the state witnessed a major malaria outbreak 122 Demographics EditPopulation Edit Population growth 123 124 125 Census Population 1871 65 334 1881 95 637 46 4 1891 137 442 43 1901 173 325 26 1911 229 613 32 48 1921 304 437 32 59 1931 382 450 25 63 1941 513 010 34 14 1951 639 000 24 56 1961 1 142 000 78 7 1971 1 556 000 36 3 1981 2 053 000 31 9 1991 2 757 000 34 3 2001 3 199 203 16 2011 3 671 032 14 7 Tripura ranks second to Assam as the most populous state in North East India According to the provisional results of 2011 census of India Tripura has a population of 3 671 032 with 1 871 867 males and 1 799 165 females 126 It constitutes 0 3 of India s population The sex ratio of the state is 961 females per thousand males 126 higher than the national ratio 940 The density of population is 350 persons per square kilometre 127 The literacy rate of Tripura in 2011 was 87 75 126 higher than the national average 74 04 and third best among all the states Tripura ranked sixth in Human Development Index HDI among 35 states and union territories of India according to 2006 estimate by India s Ministry of Women and Child Development the HDI of Tripura was 0 663 better than the all India HDI 0 605 128 In 2011 the police in Tripura recorded 5 803 cognisable offences under the Indian Penal Code a number second only to Assam 66 714 in North East India 129 The crime rate in the state was 158 1 per 100 000 people less than the all India average of 192 2 130 However 2010 reports showed that the state topped all the states for crime against women with a rate of 46 5 per 100 000 people significantly more than the national rate of 18 131 Ethnic groups Edit Tripuri children preparing for a dance performance 29 132 According to the 2001 census of India Bengalis represented almost 70 per cent of Tripura s population while the Tripuri population amounted to 30 per cent 132 The state s scheduled tribes recognised by the country s constitution consist of 19 ethnic groups and many sub groups 133 with diverse languages and cultures In 2001 the largest such group was the Kokborok speaking Tripuris which had a population of 543 848 representing 17 0 per cent of the state s population and 54 7 per cent of the scheduled tribe population 132 The other major groups in descending order of population were the Reang 16 6 per cent of the indigenous population Jamatia 7 5 per cent Chakma 6 5 per cent Halam 4 8 per cent Mog 3 1 per cent Munda 1 2 per cent Kuki 1 2 per cent and Garo 1 1 per cent 132 Languages Edit Main article Languages of Tripura Languages of Tripura 2011 134 Bengali 63 48 Tripuri 25 90 Chakma 2 30 Hindi 1 54 Others 6 78 The official languages of the state are Bengali English and Kokborok Tripuri 135 136 Bengali is the most widely spoken language 135 137 while Kokborok is the most prominent language among the Tripuri people 135 Other minority languages such as Mog Odia Bishnupriya Manipuri Manipuri Halam Garo and Chakma belonging to Indo European and Sino Tibetan families are spoken in the state 135 Thadou a nearly extinct language is spoken by only four people in one village as of 2012 138 Religion Edit Religion in Tripura 2011 census 139 Hinduism 83 4 Islam 8 6 Christianity 4 35 Buddhism 3 41 Sikhism 02 Jainism 02 Other or no religion 2 According to 2011 census Hinduism is the majority religion in the state followed by 83 40 of the population 140 Muslims make up 8 60 of the population Christians 4 35 and Buddhists 3 41 141 Tripura religious diversity as per 2011 census 142 Religion PopulationHindus 3 063 903Muslims 316 042Christians 159 882Buddhists 125 385Others 8 705Total 3 673 917 Christianity is chiefly followed by members of the Lushai Kuki Garo Halam tribes and as per 2017 census has 159 882 adherents 89 135 6 Demography of indigenous population Edit A Tripuri girl in her traditional attire Percentage of Tripuris by decade 143 144 145 146 147 Year Percent Increase1871 90 04 1881 87 06 2 98 1891 75 75 11 31 1901 74 68 1 07 1911 64 34 10 34 1921 68 34 4 1931 70 09 1 75 1941 62 06 8 03 1951 48 65 13 41 1961 31 55 17 1 1971 28 95 2 6 1981 28 44 0 51 1991 30 95 2 51 2001 31 05 0 1 2011 31 78 0 73 Once Tripura was a overwhelming Tripuri majority state 147 In 1941 the native Tripuris made up 62 06 of the population in present day Tripura while the non Tripuri people mainly Bengalis and non Bengalis occupies rest of the percentage 144 The percentage of Tripuris decreased from 62 06 in 1941 before partition to 48 65 after partition in 1951 due to East Bengali refugees who were coming from East Pakistan present day Bangladesh After 1971 the indigenous Tripuri population of Tripura has increased from 28 44 in 1981 to 31 05 in 2001 148 The 2011 census stated that indigenous Tripuri constitute 31 78 of the state population which is up from the previous census record of 31 05 in 2001 145 Arrival of Bengali refugees Edit East Pakistan refugees since Bangladesh was not formed yet coming to Tripura during Bangladesh liberation war During the Partition of Bengal in 1947 hundreds of thousands of Bengali refugees fled from East Pakistan into India s Tripura following the Partition of India Estimation shows that between the period of 1947 51 around 610 000 Bengalis a figure almost equal to the state s total population poured into the state leading to a profound demographic change during this first phase 149 Again during the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971 in the second phase of migration around 1 038 million Bengalis most being Hindus moved into various parts of Tripura as refugees with most of them settling down permanently afterwards 150 Annual Arrival of Bengali refugees in Tripura 151 152 Year Numbers1946 riot year 3 3271947 year of Partition 8 1241948 9 5541949 communal disturbance 11 5751950 serious communal riots 67 1511951 184 0001952 serious riots 233 0001953 80 0001954 4 7001955 17 5001956 50 7001957 57 7001958 3 6001964 65 serious riots 100 3401965 66 13 0731966 67 1 6541967 68 12 2291968 69 3 1201969 70 4 3341970 71 to 24 March 5 774From 1946 71 Total 871 455 Culture EditSee also Culture of Tripura Tripuri culture and Bengali culture Durga Puja is the major festival of Tripura A couple in traditional Tripuri costume Tripuri girls in traditional attire Tripura girls in their traditional attire The diverse ethno linguistic groups of Tripura have given rise to a composite culture 153 154 The major Tripuri clans are Tripura Debbarma Jamatia Reang Noatia and Murasing And there are tribal groups such as Chakma Halam Garo Kuki Mizo Uchoi Dhamai Roaza Mogh Munda Oraon and Santhal who migrated in Tripura as tea labourers 133 Bengali people represent the largest ethno linguist community of the state Bengali culture as a result is the main non indigenous culture The Tripuri Maharajas were great patrons of Bengali culture especially literature 155 Bengali language replaced Kokborok as the language of the court 156 Elements of Bengali culture such as Bengali literature Bengali music and Bengali cuisine are widespread particularly in the urban areas of the state 157 110 158 Tripura is noted for bamboo and cane handicrafts 154 Bamboo wood and cane are used to create an array of furniture utensils hand held fans replicas mats baskets idols and interior decoration materials 27 39 41 159 Music and dance are integral to the culture of the state Some local musical instruments are the sarinda chongpreng both string instruments and sumui a type of flute 15 344 5 Each indigenous community has its own repertoire of songs and dances performed during weddings religious occasions and other festivities The Tripuri and Jamatia people perform goria dance during the Goria puja Jhum dance also called tangbiti dance lebang dance mamita dance and mosak sulmani dance are other Tripuri dance forms 160 Reang community the second largest scheduled tribe of the state is noted for its hojagiri dance that is performed by young girls balanced on earthen pitchers 160 Bizhu dance is performed by the Chakmas during the Bizhu festival the last day of the month of Chaitra in Hindu calendar Other dance forms include wangala dance of the Garo people hai hak dance of the Halam branch of Kuki people and sangrai dance and owa dance of the Mog 160 Alongside such traditional music mainstream Indian musical elements such as Indian classical music and dance Rabindra Sangeet are also practised 161 Sachin Dev Burman a member of the royal family was a maestro in the filmi genre of Indian music 162 Hindus believe that Tripura Sundari is the patron goddess of Tripura and an aspect of Shakti 18 30 Durga Puja Kali Puja Dolyatra Ashokastami and the worship of the Chaturdasha deities are important festivals in the state Some festivals represent confluence of different regional traditions such as Ganga puja Garia puja Kharchi puja and Ker puja 163 164 Unakoti Pilak and Devtamura are historic sites where large collections of stone carvings and rock sculptures are noted 154 165 Like Neermahal is a cultural Water Palace of this state Sculptures are evidence of the presence of Buddhist and Brahmanical orders for centuries and represent a rare artistic fusion of traditional organised religions and tribal influence 166 167 168 Performing arts Edit Tripuri dance Tripura had a wide collection of notable art and cultural displays 169 170 Mamita dance A Tripuri dance form performed during Mamita occasion which is after the harvesting of year s first crops and to worship Ama Mailuma Goria dance Tripuri dance performed during Goria puja Hojagiri dance A divine Tripuri dance form The dance is performed on the occasion of Hojagiri festivals or Laxmi Puja held in the following full moon night of Durga Puja generally after 3rd day of Dashera The Goddess Mailuma Tipra Indigenous Goddess is worshipped on this day 171 Lebang dance A Tripuri dance form Mosak Sulmani dance A Tripuri dance form Jadu Kolija A Tripuri folk classical song Dangsa Mwsamung A type of Tripuri play performed on stage 160 Other dance forms of minority groups include Sangrai dance and Owa dance of Mog Hai hak dance of Halam Wangla dance of Garo Bizhu dance of Chakma 160 Alongside such traditional music mainstream Indian musical elements such as Indian classical music and dance are also practised 161 Sachin Dev Burman a member of the Tripuri royal family was a maestro in the filmi genre of Indian music 162 Local musical instruments are sarinda A Tripuri string instrument chongpreng Tripuri string instrument sumui Tripuri flute 15 344 5 Sports EditFootball and cricket are the most popular sports in the state The state capital Agartala has its own club football championships every year in which many local clubs compete in a league and knockout format The Tripura cricket team participates in the Ranji Trophy the Indian domestic cricket competition The state is a regular participant of the Indian National Games and the North Eastern Games 172 173 Tennis player Somdev Devvarman who won the gold medal in the Men s Singles event at the 2010 Asian Games has family roots in Tripura 174 He was the first Indian to win a gold medal in the men s singles tennis event of the Asian Games 175 In 2016 Dipa Karmakar from Agartala became the first ever female gymnast from India to qualify for the Olympics when she qualified for the women s artistic gymnastics event of 2016 Summer Olympics 176 Other notable gymnasts from Tripura include Mantu Debnath Kalpana Debnath and Bishweshwar Nandi 177 See also Edit India portal Tipraland Habugra List of cities and towns in Tripura Tripura Industrial Development CorporationReferences Edit Shri Satyadeo Narain Arya Hon ble Governor of Tripura tripura gov in Retrieved 3 March 2022 Who is Manik Saha the new chief minister of Tripura The Times of India 14 May 2022 Retrieved 14 May 2022 BJP picks Biplab Deb as new Tripura CM Jishnu Debbarma to be his deputy Hindustan Times 9 March 2018 Know Tripura Tripura State Portal tripura gov in Retrieved 23 December 2020 State of Literacy PDF censusindia gov in archived PDF from the original on 6 July 2015 retrieved 20 June 2015 Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities 52nd report July 2014 to June 2015 PDF Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities Ministry of Minority Affairs Government of India pp 79 84 Archived from the original PDF on 15 November 2016 Retrieved 16 February 2016 Wells John C 2008 Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed Longman ISBN 9781405881180 Rohingya crisis Security tightened along India Myanmar border Archived from the original on 15 September 2017 Lodrick Deryck Tripura History Map Population amp Facts Britannica Retrieved 22 January 2022 a b Das J K 2001 Chapter 5 old and new political process in realization of the rights of indigenous peoples regarded as Tribals in Tripura Human rights and indigenous peoples APH Publishing pp 208 9 ISBN 978 81 7648 243 1 a b Debbarma Sukhendu 1996 Origin and growth of Christianity in Tripura with special reference to the New Zealand Baptist Missionary Society 1938 1988 Indus Publishing p 20 ISBN 978 81 7387 038 5 Archived from the original on 29 April 2016 a b Acharjya Phanibhushan 1979 Tripura Publications Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India p 1 ASIN B0006E4EQ6 Prakash ed Encyclopaedia of North east India vol 5 2007 p 2272 Archived 24 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Singh Upinder 2008 A history of ancient and early medieval India from the stone age to the 12th century Pearson Education India p 77 ISBN 978 81 317 1677 9 Archived from the original on 23 July 2016 a b c Tripura district gazetteers Educational Publications Department of Education Government of Tripura 1975 Archived from the original on 4 May 2016 Rahman Syed Amanur Verma Balraj 5 August 2006 The beautiful India Tripura Reference Press p 9 ISBN 978 81 8405 026 4 Archived from the original on 17 June 2016 a b c d e f g Hill Tippera history GIF The Imperial Gazetteer of India 13 118 1909 Archived from the original on 7 June 2011 Retrieved 27 October 2011 a b Bera Gautam Kumar 2010 The land of 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from Tripura s ethnic conflict Lancer Publishers p 104 ISBN 978 1 935501 15 2 Archived from the original on 14 May 2013 Boland Crewe Tara Lea David 15 November 2002 The territories and states of India Psychology Press p 238 ISBN 978 1 85743 148 3 Archived from the original on 14 May 2013 Sircar Kaushik 2006 The consumer in the north east new vistas for marketing Pearson Education India ISBN 978 81 317 0023 5 Prakash ed Encyclopaedia of North east India vol 5 2007 p 2268 Archived 2 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine Handicrafts Government of Tripura Archived from the original on 10 April 2012 Retrieved 7 July 2012 a b c d e The folk dance and music of Tripura PDF Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Archived from the original PDF on 2 April 2013 Retrieved 7 July 2012 a b Hazarika Sanjoy 2000 Rites of passage border crossings imagined homelands India s east and Bangladesh Penguin Books India p 169 ISBN 978 0 14 100422 8 a b Ganti Tejaswini 24 August 2004 Bollywood a guidebook to popular Hindi cinema Psychology Press p 109 ISBN 978 0 415 28853 8 Sharma A P 8 May 2010 Tripura festival Famous festivals of India Pinnacle Technology ISBN 978 1 61820 288 8 Archived from the original on 14 May 2013 Fairs and festivals Government of Tripura Archived from the original on 4 February 2012 Retrieved 7 July 2012 Tripura sculptures rock images speak of glorious past Deccan Herald 25 July 2008 Archived from the original on 5 January 2015 Retrieved 7 July 2012 Chauley G C 1 September 2007 Art treasures of Unakoti Tripura Agam Kala Prakashan ISBN 978 81 7320 066 3 Archived from the original on 14 May 2013 North East India History Association Session 2003 Proceedings of North East India History Association The Association p 13 Archived from the original on 14 May 2013 Chaudhuri Saroj Chaudhuri Bikach 1983 Glimpses of Tripura Vol 1 Tripura Darpan Prakashani p 5 ASIN B0000CQFES Archived from the original on 14 May 2013 Enthralling performances mark folk dance show at Tagore Theatre Hindustan Times 2 January 2021 Retrieved 23 November 2021 Cultural heritage of the ethnic people of Tripura INDIAN CULTURE Retrieved 23 November 2021 5 facts you should know about the attractive Hojagiri dance of Tripura thenortheasttoday com 17 November 2018 Retrieved 23 November 2021 34th National Games medal tally Ranchi Express 2011 Archived from the original on 10 January 2013 Retrieved 26 September 2012 Northeastern games Sports Authority of India Archived from the original on 11 June 2012 Retrieved 26 September 2012 Patwardhan Deepti 4 January 2017 Somdev Devvarman An Indian unafraid to play game of attrition Mint Retrieved 9 April 2021 Asian Games Somdev Devvarman wins seventh gold for India Times of India 23 November 2010 Retrieved 9 April 2021 Dipa Karmakar becomes 1st Indian woman gymnast to qualify for Rio Olympics The Economic Times Press Trust of India 19 April 2016 Archived from the original on 21 April 2016 Retrieved 21 April 2016 Leap to gold The Indian Express 19 August 2014 Retrieved 8 August 2020 Further reading EditMandal J D 2003 The Agony of Tripura Gan Chaudhuri Jagadis 1 January 1985 An anthology of Tripura Inter India Publications OCLC 568730389 Roychoudhury Nalini Ranjan 1977 Tripura through the ages a short history of Tripura from the earliest times to 1947 A D Bureau of Research amp Publications on Tripura OCLC 4497205 Bhattacharjee Pravas Ranjan 1993 Economic transition in Tripura Vikas Pub House ISBN 978 0 7069 7171 2 Palit Projit Kumar 1 January 2004 History of religion in Tripura Kaveri Books ISBN 978 81 7479 064 4 DebBarma Chandramani 2006 Glory of Tripura civilisation history of Tripura with Kok Borok names of the kings Parul Prakashani OCLC 68193115 Jain Sandhya 2010 Evangelical intrusions Tripura a case study New Delhi Rupa amp Co External links EditWikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Hill Tippera Wikiquote has quotations related to Tripura GovernmentTripura Government Tripura Tourism Public Service Commission Election Department General information Tripura at Curlie Geographic data related to Tripura at OpenStreetMap Portal IndiaTripura at Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tripura amp oldid 1092881937, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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