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For other uses, see Troy (disambiguation).

Troy (Greek: Τροία) or Ilion (Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek myth of the Trojan War.

Troy
Top: Walls of Late Bronze Age Troy
Bottom: Sanctuary from Greek/Roman Troy
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Troy (Turkey)
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LocationHisarlik, Çanakkale Province, Turkey
RegionTroad
Coordinates39°57′27″N26°14′20″E /39.95750°N 26.23889°E /39.95750; 26.23889Coordinates: 39°57′27″N26°14′20″E /39.95750°N 26.23889°E /39.95750; 26.23889
TypeAncient city
Part ofHistorical National Park of Troia

In Ancient Greek literature, Troy is portrayed as a powerful kingdom of the Heroic Age, a mythic era when monsters roamed the earth and gods interacted directly with humans. The city was said to have ruled the Troad until the Trojan War led to its complete destruction at the hands of the Greeks. The story of its destruction was one of the cornerstones of Greek mythology and literature, featuring prominently in the Iliad and the Odyssey, as well as numerous other poems and plays. Its legacy played a large role in Greek society, with many prominent families claiming descent from those who had fought there. In the Archaic era, a new city was built at the site where legendary Troy was believed to have stood. In the Classical era, this city became a tourist destination, where visitors would leave offerings to the legendary heroes.

Until the late 19th century, scholars regarded the Trojan War as entirely legendary. However, starting in 1871, Heinrich Schliemann and Frank Calvert excavated the site of the classical era city, under whose ruins they found the remains of numerous earlier settlements. Several of these layers resemble literary depictions of Troy, leading some scholars to conclude that there is a kernel of truth to the legends. Subsequent excavations by others have added to the modern understanding of the site, though the exact relationship between myth and reality remains unclear.

The archaeological site of Troy consists of nine major layers, the earliest dating from the Early Bronze Age, the latest from the Byzantine era. The mythic city is typically identified with one of the Late Bronze Age layers, such as Troy VI, Troy VIIa, or Troy VIIb. The archaeological site is open to the public as a tourist destination, and was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998.

Contents

In Classical Greek, the city was referred to as both Troia (Τροία) and Ilion (Ἴλιον) or Ilios (Ἴλιος). Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the latter was originally pronounced Wilios. These names may date back to the Bronze Age, as suggested by Hittite records which reference a city in northwest Anatolia called𒌷𒃾𒇻𒊭Wilusa or𒋫𒊒𒄿𒊭Truwisa; in Greek myth, these names were held to originate from the names of the kingdom's founders, Tros and his son Ilus.

In Latin, the city was referred to asTroia orIlium.

An 18th-century depiction of the legendary sack of Troy.

The main literary work set at Troy is the Iliad, an Archaic-era epic poem which tells the story of the final year of the Trojan War. The Iliad portrays Troy as the capital of a rich and powerful kingdom. In the poem, the city appears to be a major regional power capable of summoning numerous allies to defend it.

The city itself is built on a steep hill, protected by enormous sloping stone walls, rectangular towers, and massive gates whose wooden doors can be bolted shut. The city's streets are broad and well-planned. At the top of the hill is the Temple of Athena as well as King Priam's palace, an enormous structure with numerous rooms around an inner courtyard.

In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the Scamander river, where they beached their ships. The city itself stood on a hill across the plain of Scamander, where much of the fighting takes place.

Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature (such as Aeschylus's Oresteia). The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid. The fall of Troy with the story of the Trojan Horse and the sacrifice of Polyxena, Priam's youngest daughter, is the subject of a later Greek epic by Quintus Smyrnaeus ("Quintus of Smyrna").

The Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with a site in Anatolia on a peninsula called the Troad (Biga Peninsula). Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus.

Schematic of the site. 1: Gate 2: City Wall 3: Megarons 4: FN Gate 5: FO Gate 6: FM Gate and Ramp 7: FJ Gate 8: City Wall 9: Megarons 10: City Wall 11: VI. S Gate 12: VI. H Tower 13: VI. R Gate 14: VI. G Tower 15: Well-Cistern 16: VI. T Dardanos Gate 17: VI. I Tower 18: VI. U Gate 19: VI. A House 20: VI. M Palace-Storage House 21: Pillar House 22: VI. F House with columns 23: VI. C House 24: VI. E House 25: VII. Storage 26: Temple of Athena 27: Propylaeum 28: Outer Court Wall 29: Inner Court Wall 30: Holy Place 31: Water Work 32: Bouleuterion 33: Odeon 34: Bath

The archaeological site of Troy consists of the hill of Hisarlik and the fields below it to the south. The hill is a tell, composed of strata containing the remains left behind by more than three millennia of human occupation. The primary divisions among layers are designated with Roman numerals, Troy I representing the oldest layer and Troy IX representing the most recent. Sublayers are distinguished with lowercase letters (e.g. VIIa and VIIb) and further subdivisions with numbers (e.g. VIIb1 and VIIb2). An additional major layer known as Troy 0 predates those which were initially given Roman numeral designations.

The layers have been given relative dates by comparing artifacts found in them to those found at other sites. However, precise absolute dates are not always possible due to limitations in the accuracy of C14 dating.

Layer Start End Period
Troy 0 c. 3600-3500 BC 3000 BC Western Anatolian LSA and EB 1 early
Troy I 3000 BC 2550 BC Western Anatolian EB 1 late
Troy II 2500 BC 2300 BC Western Anatolian EB 2
Troy III 2300 BC 2200 BC Western Anatolian EB 3 early
Troy IV 2200 BC 2000 BC Western Anatolian EB 3 middle
Troy V 2000 BC 1750 BC Western Anatolian EB 3 late
Troy VI 1750 BC 1300 BC West. Anat. MBA (Troy VI early)
West. Anat. LBA (Troy VI middle and late)
Troy VIIa 1300 BC 1180 BC Western Anatolian LBA
Troy VIIb 1180 BC 950 BC Western Anatolian LBA - Dark Age
Troy VIII 950 BC 85 BC Classical and Hellenistic Troy
Troy IX 85 BC 500 AD Roman Troy

Troy 0

Troy 0 is a layer discovered later than others, predating what had previously been the earliest at the site. Remains of the layer, first identified in 2019, are not very substantial and its exact dating remains unclear, although Troy 0 was likely no older than c. 3600-3500 BC. Traces of burns, pottery and wooden beams were found in a layer below the Troy 1 layer, confirming the existence of the Troy 0 layer.

Troy I

Troy I wall

Troy I was a small village founded around 3000 BC. In this era, the site was adjacent to a shallow bay which gradually silted up over the subsequent millennia. The village consisted of stone and mudbrick houses which were attached to one another and surrounded by stone walls. Finds from this layer include dark colored handmade pottery and artifacts made of copper. It had cultural similarities to Aegean sites such as Poliochni and Thermi, as well as to Anatolian sites such as Bademağacı.

Troy II

Troy II was built around 2550 BC. It was twice the size of the preceding city, featuring both a citadel and a lower town. The citadel contained large megaron-style buildings around a courtyard which was likely used for public events such as audiences or religious ceremonies. It was protected by massive stone walls which were topped with mudbrick superstructures. Houses in the lower town were protected by a wooden palisade. Finds from this layer include wheel-made pottery, and numerous items made from precious metals which attest to economic and cultural connections with regions as far as the Balkans and Afghanistan. Troy II was destroyed twice. After the first destruction, the citadel was rebuilt with a dense cluster of small houses. The second destruction took place around 2300 BC, as part of a crisis that affected other sites in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East.

Troy II is notable for having been misidentified as Homeric Troy during initial excavations because of its massive architecture, treasure hoards, and catastrophic destruction. In particular Schliemann saw Homer's description of Troy's Scaean Gate reflected in Troy II's imposing western gate. However, later excavations demonstrated that the site was a thousand years too old to have coexisted with Mycenaean Greeks.

Troy II
  • Southwest gate of Troy II.

  • Side view of ramp.

  • Troy II walls

  • Troy II

Troy III-V

Schliemann's trench. Layers are marked with Roman numerals.

Troy continued to be occupied between 2300 BC and 1750 BC. However, little is known about these several layers due to Schliemann's reckless excavation practices. In order to fully excavate the citadel of Troy II, he destroyed most remains from this period without first documenting them. These settlements appear to have been smaller and poorer than previous ones, though this interpretation could be merely the result of gaps in the surviving evidence. The settlements included a dense residential neighborhood in the citadel. Walls from Troy II may have been reused as part of Troy III. By the period of Troy V, the city had once again expanded outside the citadel to the west. Troy IV sees the introduction of domed ovens. In Troy V, artifacts include Anatolian-style "red-cross bowls" as well as imported Minoan objects.

Troy VI-VII

Troy VI-VII was a major Late Bronze Age city consisting of a steep fortified citadel and a sprawling lower town below it. It was a thriving coastal city with a considerable population, equal in size to second-tier Hittite settlements. It had a distinct Northwest Anatolian culture and extensive foreign contacts, including with Mycenaean Greece, and its position at the mouth of the Dardanelles has been argued to have given it the function of regional capital, its status protected by treaties.

Aspects of its architecture are consistent with the Iliad's description of mythic Troy, and several of its sublayers (VIh and VIIa) show potential signs of violent destruction. Thus, these sublayers are among the candidates for a potential historical setting of those myths.

Troy VI and VII were given separate labels by early excavators, but current research has shown that the first several sublayers of Troy VII were in fact continuations of the earlier city. Although some scholars have proposed revising the nomenclature to reflect this consensus, the original terms are typically used to avoid confusion.

Troy VI

Troy VI existed from around 1750 BC to 1300 BC. Its citadel was divided into a series of rising terraces, of which only the outermost is reasonably well-preserved. On this terrace, archaeologists have found the remains of freestanding multistory houses where Trojan elites would have lived. These houses lacked ground-floor windows, and their stone exterior walls mirrored the architecture of the citadel fortifications. However, they otherwise display an eclectic mix of architectural styles, some following the classic megaron design, others even having irregular floorplans. Some of these houses show potential Aegean influence, one in particular resembling the megaron at Midea in the Argolid. Archaeologists believe there may have been a royal palace on the highest terrace, but most Bronze Age remains from the top of the hill were cleared away by classical era building projects.

Artist's representation of House VI M, part of the palatial complex

The citadel was enclosed by massive walls. Present-day visitors can see the limestone base of these walls, which are five metres (16 ft) thick and eight metres (26 ft) tall. However, during the Bronze Age they would have been overlaid with wood and mudbrick superstructures, reaching a height over nine metres (30 ft). The walls were built in a "sawtooth" style commonly found at Mycenaean citadels, divided into seven metres (23 ft)-ten metres (33 ft) segments which joined with one another at an angle. The walls also have a notable slope, similar to those at other sites including Hattusa. These walls were watched over by several rectangular watchtowers, which would also have provided a clear view of Trojan plain and the sea beyond it. The citadel was accessed by five gates, which led into paved and drained cobblestone streets. Some of these gates featured enormous pillars which serve no structural purpose and have been interpreted as religious symbols.

The lower town was built to the south of the citadel, covering an area of roughly 30 hectares. Remains of a dense neighborhood have been found just outside the citadel walls, and traces of other buildings and Late Bronze Age pottery have been found further away. Little of it has been excavated, and few remains are likely to exist; buildings in the lower city are likely to have been made of wood and other perishable materials, and much of the area was built over in the classical and Roman era. The extent of the lower town is evidenced by a defensive ditch cut down to the bedrock and postholes which attest to wooden ramparts or walls which would have once been the outer defense of the city.

The lower city was only discovered in the late 1980s, earlier excavators having assumed that Troy VI occupied only the hill of Hisarlik. Its discovery led to a dramatic reassessment of Troy VI, showing that it was over 16 times larger than had been assumed and thus a major city with a large population rather than a mere aristocratic residence.

The material culture of Troy VI appears to belong to a distinct Northwest Anatolian cultural group, with influences from the Anatolia, the Aegean, and the Balkans. The primary local pottery styles were wheel-made West Anatolian Gray Ware and Tan ware, local offshoots of an earlier Middle Helladic tradition. Foreign pottery found at the site includes Minoan, Mycenaean, Cypriot, and Levantine items. Local potters also made their own imitations of foreign styles, including Gray Ware and Tan Ware pots made in Mycenaean-style shapes. Although the city appears to have been within the Hittite sphere of influence, no Hittite artifacts have been found in Troy VI. Also notably absent are sculptures and wall paintings, otherwise common features of Bronze Age cities. Troy VI is also notable for its architectural innovations as well as its cultural developments, which included the first evidence of horses at the site. The language spoken in Troy VI is unknown. The main candidate is Luwian, an Anatolian language which was spoken in many nearby states and which appears in the only piece of writing found at Troy. However, available evidence is not sufficient to establish that Luwian was the primary language of the city's population, and a number of alternatives have been proposed.

Troy VI was destroyed around 1250 BC, corresponding with the sublayer known as Troy VIh. Evidence of Troy VIh's destruction includes collapsed masonry, and subsidence in the southeast of the citadel, which led its initial excavators to conclude that it was destroyed by an earthquake. However, alternative hypotheses include an internal uprising as well as a foreign attack.

Troy VI/VII Citadel Walls
  • Troy VI East Gate

  • Tower at the East Gate Complex

  • East Gate cul de sac (Troy IX walls on the right)

  • Wall segment near the East Gate

  • Side view of wall

  • South Gate

  • Nonstructural pillar at the South Gate

Troy VIIa

Troy VIIa was the final layer of the Late Bronze Age city. It was built soon after the destruction of Troy VI, seemingly by its previous inhabitants. The builders reused many of the earlier city's surviving structures, notably its citadel wall, which they renovated with additional stone towers and mudbrick breastworks. Numerous small houses were added inside the citadel, filling in formerly open areas. New houses were also built in the lower city, whose area appears to have been greater in Troy VIIa than in Troy VI. In many of these houses, archaeologists found enormous storage jars called pithoi buried in the ground. Troy VIIa seems to have been built by survivors of Troy VI's destruction, as evidenced by continuity in material culture. However, the character of the city appears to have changed, the citadel growing crowded and foreign imports declining.

The city was destroyed around 1180 BC, roughly contemporary with the Late Bronze Age collapse but subsequent to the destructions of the Mycenaean palaces. The destruction layer shows evidence of enemy attack, including scorch marks.

Troy VIIb

Anatolian Grey Ware

After the destruction of Troy VIIa around 1180 BC, the city was rebuilt as Troy VIIb. Older structures were again reused, including Troy VI's citadel walls. Its first phase, Troy VIIb1, is largely a continuation of Troy VIIa. Residents continued using wheel-made Grey Ware pottery alongside a new handmade style sometimes known as "barbarian ware". Imported Mycenaean-style pottery attests to some continuing foreign trade.

One of the most striking finds from Troy VIIb1 is a hieroglyphic Luwian seal giving the names of a woman and a man who worked as a scribe. The seal is important since it is the only example of preclassical writing found at the site, and provides potential evidence that Troy VIIb1 had a Luwian-speaking population. However, the find is puzzling since palace bureaucracies had largely disappeared by this era. Proposed explanations include the possibility that it belonged to an itinerant freelance scribe and alternatively that it dates from an earlier era than its find context would suggest.

Troy VIIb2 is marked by cultural changes including walls made of upright stones and a handmade knobbed pottery style known as Buckelkeramik. These practices, which existed alongside older local traditions, have been argued to reflect immigrant populations arriving from southwest Europe. Pottery finds from this layer also include imported Protogeometric pottery, showing that Troy was occupied continuously well into the Iron Age, contra later myths.

Troy VIIb was destroyed by fire around 950 BC. However, some houses in the citadel were left intact and the site continued to be occupied, if only sparsely.

Troy VIII-IX

Troy VIII was founded during the Greek Dark Ages and lasted until the Roman era. Though the site had never been entirely abandoned, its redevelopment as a major city was spurred by Greek immigrants who began building around 700 BC. During the Archaic period, the city's defenses once again included the reused citadel wall of Troy VI. Later on, the walls became tourist attraction and sites of worship. Other remains of the Bronze Age city were destroyed by the Greeks' building projects, notably the peak of the citadel where the Troy VI palace is likely to have stood. By the classical era, the city had numerous temples, a theater, among other public buildings, and was once again expanding to the south of the citadel. Troy VIII was destroyed in 85 BC, and subsequently rebuilt as Troy IX. A series of earthquakes devastated the city around 500 AD, though finds from the Late Byzantine era attest to continued habitation at a small scale.

Troy VIII/IX
  • Troy VIII Temple of Athena, built over the ruins of the Bronze Age palatial complex

  • Troy IX Odeon

  • Troy IX Roman bath

The search for Troy

Alexandria Troas

With the rise of critical history, Troy and the Trojan War were largely consigned to legend. Those who departed from this general view became the first archaeologists at Troy.

Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle, had identified Troy with Alexandria Troas, a ruined Hellenistic town approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Hisarlik. In the late 18th century, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine, a mound approximately 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) south of the currently accepted location. Published in his Voyage de la Troade, it was the most commonly proposed location for almost a century.

In 1822, the Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren was the first to identify with confidence the position of the city as it is now known. In the second half of the 19th century archaeological excavation of the site believed to have been Homeric Troy began.

Frank Calvert

The first excavations at Hisarlik were conducted by Frank Calvert, a Turkish Levantine man of English descent who owned a farm nearby. Calvert made extensive surveys of the site, identifying it with classical-era Troy. This identification helped him convince Heinrich Schliemann that Troy was there, and to partner with him in its further excavation.

Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann

In 1868, German businessman Heinrich Schliemann visited Calvert, and secured permission to excavate Hisarlik. Schliemann believed that the literary events of the works of Homer could be verified archaeologically, and he decided to use his wealth to locate it.

Together with Calvert and others, Schliemann began by excavating a trench across the mound of Hisarlik to the depth of the settlements, today called "Schliemann's Trench." In 1871–73 and 1878–79, he discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period. He proposed that the second layer, Troy II, corresponded to the city of legend, though later research has shown that it predated the Mycenaean era by several hundred years. Some of the most notable artifacts found by Schliemann are known as Priam's Treasure, after the legendary Trojan king. Schliemann's legacy remains controversial because of his excavation methods, which included removing features he considered insignificant without first studying and documenting them.

Artifacts which Schliemann dubbed Priam's Treasure.
Hisarlik, pictured in 1880. The notch at the top is "Schliemann's Trench".

Modern excavations

Wilhelm Dörpfeld

Wilhelm Dörpfeld(1893–94) began excavating the site alongside Schliemann and later inherited management of the site and published his own independent work. His chief contributions were to the study of Troy VI and VII, which Schliemann had overlooked due to his fixation on Troy II. Dörpfeld's interest in these layers was triggered by the need to close a hole in the initial excavators' chronology known as "Calvert's Thousand Year Gap". During his excavation, Dörpfeld came across a section of the Troy VI wall which was weaker than the rest. Since the mythic city had likewise had a weak section of its walls, Dörpfeld became convinced that this layer corresponded to Homeric Troy. Schliemann himself privately agreed that Troy VI was more likely to be the Homeric city, but he never published anything stating so.

University of Cincinnati

Carl Blegen

Carl Blegen, professor at the University of Cincinnati, managed the site 1932–38. These archaeologists, though following Schliemann's lead, added a professional approach not available to Schliemann. He showed that there were at least nine cities. In his research, Blegen came to a conclusion that Troy's nine levels could be further divided into forty-six sublevels, which he published in his main report.

Korfmann

In 1988, excavations were resumed by a team from the University of Tübingen and the University of Cincinnati under the direction of Professor Manfred Korfmann, with Professor Brian Rose overseeing Post-Bronze Age (Greek, Roman, Byzantine) excavation along the coast of the Aegean Sea at the Bay of Troy. Possible evidence of a battle was found in the form of bronze arrowheads and fire-damaged human remains buried in layers dated to the early 12th century BC. The question of Troy's status in the Bronze-Age world has been the subject of a sometimes acerbic debate between Korfmann and the Tübingen historian Frank Kolb in 2001–2002.

Korfmann proposed that the location of the city indicated a commercially oriented economy that would have been at the center of a vibrant trade between the Black Sea, Aegean, Anatolian and Eastern Mediterranean regions. Kolb disputed this thesis, calling it "unfounded" in a 2004 paper. He argued that archaeological evidence shows that economic trade during the Late Bronze Age was quite limited in the Aegean region compared with later periods in antiquity. On the other hand, the Eastern Mediterranean economy was more active during this time, allowing for commercial cities to develop only in the Levant. Kolb also noted the lack of evidence for trade with the Hittite Empire.

One of the major discoveries of these excavations was the Troy VI/VII lower city. This discovery led to a major reinterpretation of the site, which had previously been regarded as a small aristocratic residence rather than a major settlement.

Recent developments

In summer 2006, the excavations continued under the direction of Korfmann's colleague Ernst Pernicka, with a new digging permit.

In 2013, an international team made up of cross-disciplinary experts led by William Aylward, an archaeologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was to carry out new excavations. This activity was to be conducted under the auspices of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University and was to use the new technique of "molecular archaeology". A few days before the Wisconsin team was to leave, Turkey cancelled about 100 excavation permits, including Wisconsin's.

In March 2014, it was announced that a new excavation would take place to be sponsored by a private company and carried out by Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. This will be the first Turkish team to excavate and is planned as a 12-month excavation led by associate professor Rüstem Aslan. The University's rector stated that "Pieces unearthed in Troy will contribute to Çanakkale's culture and tourism. Maybe it will become one of Turkey's most important frequented historical places."

Troy I-V predate writing and thus study of them falls into the category of prehistoric archaeology. However, Troy emerges into protohistory in the Late Bronze Age, as records mentioning the city begin to appear at other sites. Troy VIII and Troy IX are dated to the historical period and thus are part of history proper.

Troy VI/VII in Hittite records

Further information: Wilusa and Ahhiyawa

Troy VI/VII is thought to correspond to the placenames Wilusa and Taruisa known from Hittite records. These correspondences were first proposed in 1924 by Emil Forrer, who also suggested that the name Ahhiyawa corresponds to the Homeric term for the Greeks, Achaeans. These proposals were primarily motivated by linguistic similarities, since "Taruisa" is a plausible match for the Greek name "Troia" and "Wilusa" likewise for the Greek "Wilios" (later "Ilios"). Subsequent research on Hittite geography has made these identifications more secure, though not all scholars regard them as firmly established.

Wilusa first appears in Hittite records around 1400 BC, when it was one of the twenty-two states of the Assuwa Confederation which unsuccessfully attempted to oppose the Hittite Empire. Circumstantial evidence raises the possibility that the rebellion was supported by the Ahhiyawa. By the late 1300s BC, Wilusa had become politically aligned with the Hittites. Texts from this period mention two kings named Kukkunni and Alaksandu who maintained peaceful relations with the Hittites even as other states in the area did not. Wilusan soldiers may have served in the Hittite army during the Battle of Kadesh. A bit later, Wilusa seems to have experienced the political turmoil suffered by many of its neighbors. References in the Manapa-Tarhunta letter and Tawagalawa letter suggest that a Wilusan king either rebelled or was deposed. This turmoil may have been related to the exploits of Piyamaradu, a Western Anatolian warlord who toppled other pro-Hittite rulers while acting on behalf the Ahhiyawa. However, Piyamaradu is never explicitly identified as the culprit and certain features of the text suggest that he was not. The final reference to Wilusa in the historical record appears in the Milawata letter, in which the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV expresses his intention to reinstall a deposed Wilusan king named Walmu.

In popular writing, these anecdotes have been interpreted as evidence for a historical kernel in myths of the Trojan War. However, scholars have not found historical evidence for any particular event from the legends, and the Hittite documents do not suggest that Wilusa-Troy was ever attacked by Greeks-Ahhiyawa themselves. Noted Hittiteologist Trevor Bryce cautions that our current understanding of Wilusa's history does not provide evidence for there having been an actual Trojan War since "the less material one has, the more easily it can be manipulated to fit whatever conclusion one wishes to come up with".

Classical and Hellenistic Troy (Troy VIII)

In 480 BC, the Persian king Xerxes sacrificed 1,000 cattle at the sanctuary of Athena Ilias while marching through the Hellespontine region towards Greece. Following the Persian defeat in 480–479, Ilion and its territory became part of the continental possessions of Mytilene and remained under Mytilenaean control until the unsuccessful Mytilenean revolt in 428–427. Athens liberated the so-called Actaean cities including Ilion and enrolled these communities in the Delian League. Athenian influence in the Hellespont waned following the oligarchic coup of 411, and in that year the Spartan general Mindaros emulated Xerxes by likewise sacrificing to Athena Ilias. From c. 410–399, Ilion was within the sphere of influence of the local dynasts at Lampsacus (Zenis, his wife Mania, and the usurper Meidias) who administered the region on behalf of the Persian satrap Pharnabazus.

In 399, the Spartan general Dercylidas expelled the Greek garrison at Ilion who were controlling the city on behalf of the Lampsacene dynasts during a campaign which rolled back Persian influence throughout the Troad. Ilion remained outside the control of the Persian satrapal administration at Dascylium until the Peace of Antalcidas in 387–386. In this period of renewed Persian control c. 387–367, a statue of Ariobarzanes, the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, was erected in front of the temple of Athena Ilias. In 360–359 the city was briefly controlled by Charidemus of Oreus, a Euboean mercenary leader who occasionally worked for the Athenians. In 359, he was expelled by the Athenian Menelaos son of Arrabaios, whom the Ilians honoured with a grant of proxeny—this is recorded in the earliest civic decree to survive from Ilion. In May 334 Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont and came to the city, where he visited the temple of Athena Ilias, made sacrifices at the tombs of the Homeric heroes, and made the city free and exempt from taxes. According to the so-called 'Last Plans' of Alexander which became known after his death in June 323, he had planned to rebuild the temple of Athena Ilias on a scale that would have surpassed every other temple in the known world.

Antigonus Monophthalmus took control of the Troad in 311 and created the new city of Antigoneia Troas which was a synoikism of the cities of Skepsis, Kebren, Neandreia, Hamaxitos, Larisa, and Kolonai. In c. 311–306 the koinon of Athena Ilias was founded from the remaining cities in the Troad and along the Asian coast of the Dardanelles and soon after succeeded in securing a guarantee from Antigonus that he would respect their autonomy and freedom (he had not respected the autonomy of the cities which were synoikized to create Antigoneia). The koinon continued to function until at least the 1st century AD and primarily consisted of cities from the Troad, although for a time in the second half of the 3rd century it also included Myrlea and Chalcedon from the eastern Propontis. The governing body of the koinon was the synedrion on which each city was represented by two delegates. The day-to-day running of the synedrion, especially in relation to its finances, was left to a college of five agonothetai, on which no city ever had more than one representative. This system of equal (rather than proportional) representation ensured that no one city could politically dominate the koinon. The primary purpose of the koinon was to organize the annual Panathenaia festival which was held at the sanctuary of Athena Ilias. The festival brought huge numbers of pilgrims to Ilion for the duration of the festival as well as creating an enormous market (the panegyris) which attracted traders from across the region. In addition, the koinon financed new building projects at Ilion, for example a new theatre c. 306 and the expansion of the sanctuary and temple of Athena Ilias in the 3rd century, in order to make the city a suitable venue for such a large festival.

In the period 302–281, Ilion and the Troad were part of the kingdom of Lysimachus, who during this time helped Ilion synoikize several nearby communities, thus expanding the city's population and territory. Lysimachus was defeated at the Battle of Corupedium in February 281 by Seleucus I Nikator, thus handing the Seleucid kingdom control of Asia Minor, and in August or September 281 when Seleucus passed through the Troad on his way to Lysimachia in the nearby Thracian Chersonese Ilion passed a decree in honour of him, indicating the city's new loyalties. In September Seleucus was assassinated at Lysimachia by Ptolemy Keraunos, making his successor, Antiochus I Soter, the new king. In 280 or soon after Ilion passed a long decree lavishly honouring Antiochus in order to cement their relationship with him. During this period Ilion still lacked proper city walls except for the crumbling Troy VI fortifications around the citadel, and in 278 during the Gallic invasion the city was easily sacked. Ilion enjoyed a close relationship with Antiochus for the rest of his reign: for example, in 274 Antiochus granted land to his friend Aristodikides of Assos which for tax purposes was to be attached to the territory of Ilion, and c. 275–269 Ilion passed a decree in honour of Metrodoros of Amphipolis who had successfully treated the king for a wound he received in battle.

Roman Troy (Troy IX)

A new city called Ilium (from Greek Ilion) was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, which became a bishopric in the Roman province Hellespontus (civil Diocese of Asia), but declined gradually in the Byzantine era.

The city was destroyed by Sulla's rival, the Roman general Fimbria, in 85 BC following an eleven-day siege. Later that year when Sulla had defeated Fimbria, he bestowed benefactions on Ilion for its loyalty which helped rebuilding the city. Ilion reciprocated this act of generosity by instituting a new civic calendar which took 85 BC as its first year. However, the city remained in financial distress for several decades despite its favoured status with Rome. In the 80s BC, Roman publicani illegally levied taxes on the sacred estates of Athena Ilias, and the city was required to call on L. Julius Caesar for restitution; while in 80 BC, the city suffered an attack by pirates. In 77 BC the costs of running the annual festival of the koinon of Athena Ilias became too pressing for both Ilion and the other members of the koinon and L. Julius Caesar was once again required to arbitrate, this time reforming the festival so that it would be less of a financial burden. In 74 BC the Ilians once again demonstrated their loyalty to Rome by siding with the Roman general Lucullus against Mithridates VI. Following the final defeat of Mithridates in 63–62, Pompey rewarded the city's loyalty by becoming the benefactor of Ilion and patron of Athena Ilias. In 48 BC, Julius Caesar likewise bestowed benefactions on the city, recalling the city's loyalty during the Mithridatic Wars, the city's connection with his cousin L. Julius Caesar, and the family's claim that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan prince Aeneas and therefore shared kinship with the Ilians.

In 20 BC, the emperor Augustus visited Ilion and stayed in the house of a leading citizen, Melanippides son of Euthydikos. As a result of his visit, he also financed the restoration and rebuilding of the sanctuary of Athena Ilias, the bouleuterion (council house) and the theatre. Soon after work on the theatre was completed in 12–11 BC, Melanippides dedicated a statue Augustus in the theatre to record this benefaction.

Late Ilium in Church Records

From the 4th century AD until the Byzantine era, Ilium was a suffragan of the provincial capital's Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cyzicus. Several bishops of Troy are historically documented, including one named Orion who participated in the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. Another named Leucadius was among the heretical bishops who embraced Arianism.[citation needed]

In modern times, Michel d'Herbigny was appointed titular bishop of Ilium. Several others subsequently held the office, though it has been vacant since 1968.[citation needed]

Troy Historical National Park

The west side of Troy Ridge. The road from Tevfikiye enters from the right.

The Turkish government created the Historical National Park at Troy on September 30, 1996. It contains 136 square kilometres (53 sq mi) to include Troy and its vicinity, centered on Troy. The purpose of the park is to protect the historical sites and monuments within it, as well as the environment of the region. In 1998 the park was accepted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In 2015 a Term Development Revision Plan was applied to the park. Its intent was to develop the park into a major tourist site. Plans included marketing research to determine the features most of interest to the public, the training of park personnel in tourism management, and the construction of campsites and facilities for those making day trips. These latter were concentrated in the village of Tevfikiye, which shares Troy Ridge with Troy.

Wooden Trojan Horse monument in the plaza before the modern gate to the ancient city

Public access to the ancient site is along the road from the vicinity of the museum in Tevfikiye to the east side of Hisarlik. Some parking is available. Typically visitors come by bus, which disembarks its passengers into a large plaza ornamented with flowers and trees and some objects from the excavation. In its square is a large wooden horse monument, with a ladder and internal chambers for use of the public. Bordering the square is the gate to the site. The public passes through turnstiles. Admission is usually not free. Within the site, the visitors tour the features on dirt roads or for access to more precipitous features on railed boardwalks. There are many overlooks with multilingual boards explaining the feature. Most are outdoors, but a permanent canopy covers the site of an early megaron and wall.

UNESCO World Heritage Site

The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998 in recognition of its historical, cultural, and scientific significance.

Troy Museum

Main article: Troy Museum
Troy Museum subterranean interior.
Troy Museum aboveground. Most of the entire field in which it sits roofs the underground galleries, work, and storage spaces. These are accessed via ramps not shown. There are also outdoor display spaces.

In 2018 the Troy Museum (Turkish Troya Müzesi) was opened at Tevfikiye village 800 metres (870 yd) east of the excavation. A design contest for the architecture had been won by Yalin Mimarlik in 2011. The cube-shaped building with extensive underground galleries holds more than 40,000 portable artifacts, 2000 of which are on display. Artifacts were moved here from a few other former museums in the region. The range is the entire prehistoric Troad. Displays are multi-lingual. In many cases the original contexts are reproduced.

  1. George Grote in particular affirmed that it was "... in the eyes of modern inquiry essentially a legend and nothing more.... If we are asked whether it be not a legend embodying portions of historical matter ... our answer must be, that as the possibility of it cannot be denied, so neither can the reality of it be affirmed." Grote, George (1869). A History of Greece from the Earliest Period to the Close of the Generation Contemporary with Alexander the Great. Vol. 1. London: J. Murray. p. 312.
  2. Strabo 13.1.26: [Λυσίμαχος] συνῴκισέ τε εἰς αὐτὴν τὰς κύκλῳ πόλεις ἀρχαίας ἤδη κεκακωμένας. These probably included Birytis, Gentinos, and Sigeion: J. M. Cook, The Troad (Oxford 1973) 364. Birytis and Gentinos are not securely located, but recent excavations at Sigeion appear to independently confirm Strabo's account by indicating an abandonment date soon after c. 300: Th. Schäfer, Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı 32.2 (2009) 410–412, 33.2 (2012) 248–249. This may have been punishment for Sigeion resisting Lysimachus in 302: Diodorus 20.107.4.
  3. Inschriften von Ilion 32. A minority of scholars instead attempt to date this inscription to the reign of Antiochus III (222–187 BC).
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  6. Virgil, Aeneid 6.637-678
  7. Iliad (Pope translation) Book II, Line 160: "And Troy prevails by armies not her own". Lines 974–976: "Assemble all the united bands of Troy;/ In just array let every leader call/The foreign troops: this day demands them all."
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  34. Schliemann 1881, p. 184.
  35. Schliemann 1881, pp. 184–191.
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  61. Herodotus 7.43.
  62. Diodorus 17.17.6.
  63. Demosthenes 23.154–157; Aeneas Tacticus 24.3–14.
  64. Inschriften von Ilion 23.
  65. Arrian, Anabasis 1.11–12, Diodorus Siculus 17.17–18, Plutarch, Life of Alexander 15, Justin 9.5.12, Strabo 13.1.26, 32.
  66. Diodorus 18.4.5.
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  73. Strabo 13.1.27.
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  77. Inchriften von Ilion 71 (publicani), 73 (pirates).
  78. Inschriften von Ilion 10.
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  80. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 46.1565.
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General

Archaeological

Geographical

Concerning ecclesiastical history

  • Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 445
  • Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol. I, coll. 775–778

Concerning legend

  • Shepard, Alan; Powell, Stephen D., eds. (2004). Fantasies of Troy: Classical Tales and the Social Imaginary in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies.
Troyat Wikipedia's sister projects
  • "Uncovering Troy". Archaeological Institute of America. Retrieved24 January 2020.
  • Miszczak, Izabela (23 March 2016). "Troy". Turkish Archaeological News.
  • Miszczak, Izabela (13 December 2019). "Troy Museum". Turkish Archaeological News.

Troy Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Troy disambiguation Troy Greek Troia or Ilion Greek Ilion was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present day Turkey 30 kilometres 19 mi south west of Canakkale It is known as the setting for the Greek myth of the Trojan War TroyTop Walls of Late Bronze Age TroyBottom Sanctuary from Greek Roman TroyShown within MarmaraShow map of MarmaraTroy Turkey Show map of TurkeyTroy Europe Show map of EuropeLocationHisarlik Canakkale Province TurkeyRegionTroadCoordinates39 57 27 N 26 14 20 E 39 95750 N 26 23889 E 39 95750 26 23889 Coordinates 39 57 27 N 26 14 20 E 39 95750 N 26 23889 E 39 95750 26 23889TypeAncient cityPart ofHistorical National Park of TroiaUNESCO World Heritage Site In Ancient Greek literature Troy is portrayed as a powerful kingdom of the Heroic Age a mythic era when monsters roamed the earth and gods interacted directly with humans The city was said to have ruled the Troad until the Trojan War led to its complete destruction at the hands of the Greeks The story of its destruction was one of the cornerstones of Greek mythology and literature featuring prominently in the Iliad and the Odyssey as well as numerous other poems and plays Its legacy played a large role in Greek society with many prominent families claiming descent from those who had fought there In the Archaic era a new city was built at the site where legendary Troy was believed to have stood In the Classical era this city became a tourist destination where visitors would leave offerings to the legendary heroes Until the late 19th century scholars regarded the Trojan War as entirely legendary However starting in 1871 Heinrich Schliemann and Frank Calvert excavated the site of the classical era city under whose ruins they found the remains of numerous earlier settlements Several of these layers resemble literary depictions of Troy leading some scholars to conclude that there is a kernel of truth to the legends Subsequent excavations by others have added to the modern understanding of the site though the exact relationship between myth and reality remains unclear The archaeological site of Troy consists of nine major layers the earliest dating from the Early Bronze Age the latest from the Byzantine era The mythic city is typically identified with one of the Late Bronze Age layers such as Troy VI Troy VIIa or Troy VIIb The archaeological site is open to the public as a tourist destination and was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998 Contents 1 Name 2 Legendary Troy 3 Archaeological layers 3 1 Troy 0 3 2 Troy I 3 3 Troy II 3 4 Troy III V 3 5 Troy VI VII 3 5 1 Troy VI 3 5 2 Troy VIIa 3 5 3 Troy VIIb 3 6 Troy VIII IX 4 Excavation history 4 1 The search for Troy 4 1 1 Frank Calvert 4 1 2 Heinrich Schliemann 4 2 Modern excavations 4 2 1 Wilhelm Dorpfeld 4 2 2 University of Cincinnati 4 2 2 1 Carl Blegen 4 2 3 Korfmann 4 2 4 Recent developments 5 Historical Troy 5 1 Troy VI VII in Hittite records 5 2 Classical and Hellenistic Troy Troy VIII 5 3 Roman Troy Troy IX 5 4 Late Ilium in Church Records 6 Site conservation 6 1 Troy Historical National Park 6 2 UNESCO World Heritage Site 6 3 Troy Museum 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 Additional sources 11 1 General 11 2 Archaeological 11 3 Geographical 11 4 Concerning ecclesiastical history 11 5 Concerning legend 12 External linksName EditIn Classical Greek the city was referred to as both Troia Troia and Ilion Ἴlion or Ilios Ἴlios Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the latter was originally pronounced Wilios These names may date back to the Bronze Age as suggested by Hittite records which reference a city in northwest Anatolia called 𒌷𒃾𒇻𒊭 Wilusa or 𒋫𒊒𒄿𒊭 Truwisa 1 2 3 4 in Greek myth these names were held to originate from the names of the kingdom s founders Tros and his son Ilus 5 6 In Latin the city was referred to as Troia or Ilium Legendary Troy EditFurther information Homeric Question and Historicity of the Iliad An 18th century depiction of the legendary sack of Troy The main literary work set at Troy is the Iliad an Archaic era epic poem which tells the story of the final year of the Trojan War The Iliad portrays Troy as the capital of a rich and powerful kingdom In the poem the city appears to be a major regional power capable of summoning numerous allies to defend it 7 The city itself is built on a steep hill protected by enormous sloping stone walls rectangular towers and massive gates whose wooden doors can be bolted shut The city s streets are broad and well planned At the top of the hill is the Temple of Athena as well as King Priam s palace an enormous structure with numerous rooms around an inner courtyard 8 9 In the Iliad the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the Scamander river 10 where they beached their ships The city itself stood on a hill across the plain of Scamander where much of the fighting takes place Besides the Iliad there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer the Odyssey as well as in other ancient Greek literature such as Aeschylus s Oresteia The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid The fall of Troy with the story of the Trojan Horse and the sacrifice of Polyxena Priam s youngest daughter is the subject of a later Greek epic by Quintus Smyrnaeus Quintus of Smyrna The Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with a site in Anatolia on a peninsula called the Troad Biga Peninsula Alexander the Great for example visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus Archaeological layers Edit Schematic of the site 11 1 Gate 2 City Wall 3 Megarons 4 FN Gate 5 FO Gate 6 FM Gate and Ramp 7 FJ Gate 8 City Wall 9 Megarons 10 City Wall 11 VI S Gate 12 VI H Tower 13 VI R Gate 14 VI G Tower 15 Well Cistern 16 VI T Dardanos Gate 17 VI I Tower 18 VI U Gate 19 VI A House 20 VI M Palace Storage House 21 Pillar House 22 VI F House with columns 23 VI C House 24 VI E House 25 VII Storage 26 Temple of Athena 27 Propylaeum 28 Outer Court Wall 29 Inner Court Wall 30 Holy Place 31 Water Work 32 Bouleuterion 33 Odeon 34 Bath The archaeological site of Troy consists of the hill of Hisarlik and the fields below it to the south The hill is a tell composed of strata containing the remains left behind by more than three millennia of human occupation The primary divisions among layers are designated with Roman numerals Troy I representing the oldest layer and Troy IX representing the most recent Sublayers are distinguished with lowercase letters e g VIIa and VIIb and further subdivisions with numbers e g VIIb1 and VIIb2 An additional major layer known as Troy 0 predates those which were initially given Roman numeral designations The layers have been given relative dates by comparing artifacts found in them to those found at other sites However precise absolute dates are not always possible due to limitations in the accuracy of C14 dating 12 Layer Start End PeriodTroy 0 c 3600 3500 BC 3000 BC Western Anatolian LSA and EB 1 earlyTroy I 3000 BC 2550 BC Western Anatolian EB 1 lateTroy II 2500 BC 2300 BC Western Anatolian EB 2Troy III 2300 BC 2200 BC Western Anatolian EB 3 earlyTroy IV 2200 BC 2000 BC Western Anatolian EB 3 middleTroy V 2000 BC 1750 BC Western Anatolian EB 3 lateTroy VI 1750 BC 1300 BC West Anat MBA Troy VI early West Anat LBA Troy VI middle and late Troy VIIa 1300 BC 1180 BC Western Anatolian LBATroy VIIb 1180 BC 950 BC Western Anatolian LBA Dark AgeTroy VIII 950 BC 85 BC Classical and Hellenistic TroyTroy IX 85 BC 500 AD Roman TroyTroy 0 Edit Troy 0 is a layer discovered later than others predating what had previously been the earliest at the site Remains of the layer first identified in 2019 are not very substantial and its exact dating remains unclear although Troy 0 was likely no older than c 3600 3500 BC 13 Traces of burns pottery and wooden beams were found in a layer below the Troy 1 layer confirming the existence of the Troy 0 layer Troy I Edit Troy I wall Troy I was a small village founded around 3000 BC In this era the site was adjacent to a shallow bay which gradually silted up over the subsequent millennia The village consisted of stone and mudbrick houses which were attached to one another and surrounded by stone walls Finds from this layer include dark colored handmade pottery and artifacts made of copper It had cultural similarities to Aegean sites such as Poliochni and Thermi as well as to Anatolian sites such as Bademagaci 14 Troy II Edit Troy II was built around 2550 BC It was twice the size of the preceding city featuring both a citadel and a lower town The citadel contained large megaron style buildings around a courtyard which was likely used for public events such as audiences or religious ceremonies It was protected by massive stone walls which were topped with mudbrick superstructures Houses in the lower town were protected by a wooden palisade Finds from this layer include wheel made pottery and numerous items made from precious metals which attest to economic and cultural connections with regions as far as the Balkans and Afghanistan Troy II was destroyed twice After the first destruction the citadel was rebuilt with a dense cluster of small houses The second destruction took place around 2300 BC as part of a crisis that affected other sites in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East 14 15 Troy II is notable for having been misidentified as Homeric Troy during initial excavations because of its massive architecture treasure hoards and catastrophic destruction In particular Schliemann saw Homer s description of Troy s Scaean Gate reflected in Troy II s imposing western gate However later excavations demonstrated that the site was a thousand years too old to have coexisted with Mycenaean Greeks 14 15 16 17 Troy II Southwest gate of Troy II Side view of ramp Troy II walls Troy II Troy III V Edit Schliemann s trench Layers are marked with Roman numerals Troy continued to be occupied between 2300 BC and 1750 BC However little is known about these several layers due to Schliemann s reckless excavation practices In order to fully excavate the citadel of Troy II he destroyed most remains from this period without first documenting them These settlements appear to have been smaller and poorer than previous ones though this interpretation could be merely the result of gaps in the surviving evidence The settlements included a dense residential neighborhood in the citadel Walls from Troy II may have been reused as part of Troy III By the period of Troy V the city had once again expanded outside the citadel to the west Troy IV sees the introduction of domed ovens In Troy V artifacts include Anatolian style red cross bowls as well as imported Minoan objects 14 Troy VI VII Edit Troy VI VII was a major Late Bronze Age city consisting of a steep fortified citadel and a sprawling lower town below it It was a thriving coastal city with a considerable population equal in size to second tier Hittite settlements It had a distinct Northwest Anatolian culture and extensive foreign contacts including with Mycenaean Greece and its position at the mouth of the Dardanelles has been argued to have given it the function of regional capital its status protected by treaties 18 Aspects of its architecture are consistent with the Iliad s description of mythic Troy and several of its sublayers VIh and VIIa show potential signs of violent destruction Thus these sublayers are among the candidates for a potential historical setting of those myths 19 Troy VI and VII were given separate labels by early excavators but current research has shown that the first several sublayers of Troy VII were in fact continuations of the earlier city Although some scholars have proposed revising the nomenclature to reflect this consensus the original terms are typically used to avoid confusion 20 21 22 Troy VI Edit Troy VI existed from around 1750 BC to 1300 BC Its citadel was divided into a series of rising terraces of which only the outermost is reasonably well preserved On this terrace archaeologists have found the remains of freestanding multistory houses where Trojan elites would have lived These houses lacked ground floor windows and their stone exterior walls mirrored the architecture of the citadel fortifications However they otherwise display an eclectic mix of architectural styles some following the classic megaron design others even having irregular floorplans Some of these houses show potential Aegean influence one in particular resembling the megaron at Midea in the Argolid Archaeologists believe there may have been a royal palace on the highest terrace but most Bronze Age remains from the top of the hill were cleared away by classical era building projects 23 21 Artist s representation of House VI M part of the palatial complex The citadel was enclosed by massive walls Present day visitors can see the limestone base of these walls which are five metres 16 ft thick and eight metres 26 ft tall However during the Bronze Age they would have been overlaid with wood and mudbrick superstructures reaching a height over nine metres 30 ft The walls were built in a sawtooth style commonly found at Mycenaean citadels divided into seven metres 23 ft ten metres 33 ft segments which joined with one another at an angle The walls also have a notable slope similar to those at other sites including Hattusa These walls were watched over by several rectangular watchtowers which would also have provided a clear view of Trojan plain and the sea beyond it The citadel was accessed by five gates which led into paved and drained cobblestone streets Some of these gates featured enormous pillars which serve no structural purpose and have been interpreted as religious symbols 23 21 24 The lower town was built to the south of the citadel covering an area of roughly 30 hectares Remains of a dense neighborhood have been found just outside the citadel walls and traces of other buildings and Late Bronze Age pottery have been found further away Little of it has been excavated and few remains are likely to exist buildings in the lower city are likely to have been made of wood and other perishable materials and much of the area was built over in the classical and Roman era The extent of the lower town is evidenced by a defensive ditch cut down to the bedrock and postholes which attest to wooden ramparts or walls which would have once been the outer defense of the city 21 25 The lower city was only discovered in the late 1980s earlier excavators having assumed that Troy VI occupied only the hill of Hisarlik Its discovery led to a dramatic reassessment of Troy VI showing that it was over 16 times larger than had been assumed and thus a major city with a large population rather than a mere aristocratic residence 21 25 26 The material culture of Troy VI appears to belong to a distinct Northwest Anatolian cultural group with influences from the Anatolia the Aegean and the Balkans The primary local pottery styles were wheel made West Anatolian Gray Ware and Tan ware local offshoots of an earlier Middle Helladic tradition Foreign pottery found at the site includes Minoan Mycenaean Cypriot and Levantine items Local potters also made their own imitations of foreign styles including Gray Ware and Tan Ware pots made in Mycenaean style shapes Although the city appears to have been within the Hittite sphere of influence no Hittite artifacts have been found in Troy VI Also notably absent are sculptures and wall paintings otherwise common features of Bronze Age cities Troy VI is also notable for its architectural innovations as well as its cultural developments which included the first evidence of horses at the site 21 25 The language spoken in Troy VI is unknown The main candidate is Luwian an Anatolian language which was spoken in many nearby states and which appears in the only piece of writing found at Troy However available evidence is not sufficient to establish that Luwian was the primary language of the city s population and a number of alternatives have been proposed 27 28 29 Troy VI was destroyed around 1250 BC corresponding with the sublayer known as Troy VIh Evidence of Troy VIh s destruction includes collapsed masonry and subsidence in the southeast of the citadel which led its initial excavators to conclude that it was destroyed by an earthquake However alternative hypotheses include an internal uprising as well as a foreign attack 21 30 Troy VI VII Citadel Walls Troy VI East Gate Tower at the East Gate Complex East Gate cul de sac Troy IX walls on the right Wall segment near the East Gate Side view of wall South Gate Nonstructural pillar at the South Gate Troy VIIa Edit Troy VIIa was the final layer of the Late Bronze Age city It was built soon after the destruction of Troy VI seemingly by its previous inhabitants The builders reused many of the earlier city s surviving structures notably its citadel wall which they renovated with additional stone towers and mudbrick breastworks Numerous small houses were added inside the citadel filling in formerly open areas New houses were also built in the lower city whose area appears to have been greater in Troy VIIa than in Troy VI In many of these houses archaeologists found enormous storage jars called pithoi buried in the ground Troy VIIa seems to have been built by survivors of Troy VI s destruction as evidenced by continuity in material culture However the character of the city appears to have changed the citadel growing crowded and foreign imports declining 21 30 The city was destroyed around 1180 BC roughly contemporary with the Late Bronze Age collapse but subsequent to the destructions of the Mycenaean palaces The destruction layer shows evidence of enemy attack including scorch marks 21 14 30 Troy VIIb Edit Anatolian Grey Ware After the destruction of Troy VIIa around 1180 BC the city was rebuilt as Troy VIIb Older structures were again reused including Troy VI s citadel walls Its first phase Troy VIIb1 is largely a continuation of Troy VIIa Residents continued using wheel made Grey Ware pottery alongside a new handmade style sometimes known as barbarian ware Imported Mycenaean style pottery attests to some continuing foreign trade 21 14 31 One of the most striking finds from Troy VIIb1 is a hieroglyphic Luwian seal giving the names of a woman and a man who worked as a scribe The seal is important since it is the only example of preclassical writing found at the site and provides potential evidence that Troy VIIb1 had a Luwian speaking population However the find is puzzling since palace bureaucracies had largely disappeared by this era Proposed explanations include the possibility that it belonged to an itinerant freelance scribe and alternatively that it dates from an earlier era than its find context would suggest 21 14 32 Troy VIIb2 is marked by cultural changes including walls made of upright stones and a handmade knobbed pottery style known as Buckelkeramik These practices which existed alongside older local traditions have been argued to reflect immigrant populations arriving from southwest Europe Pottery finds from this layer also include imported Protogeometric pottery showing that Troy was occupied continuously well into the Iron Age contra later myths 21 14 31 Troy VIIb was destroyed by fire around 950 BC However some houses in the citadel were left intact and the site continued to be occupied if only sparsely 21 14 Troy VIII IX Edit Troy VIII was founded during the Greek Dark Ages and lasted until the Roman era Though the site had never been entirely abandoned its redevelopment as a major city was spurred by Greek immigrants who began building around 700 BC During the Archaic period the city s defenses once again included the reused citadel wall of Troy VI Later on the walls became tourist attraction and sites of worship Other remains of the Bronze Age city were destroyed by the Greeks building projects notably the peak of the citadel where the Troy VI palace is likely to have stood By the classical era the city had numerous temples a theater among other public buildings and was once again expanding to the south of the citadel Troy VIII was destroyed in 85 BC and subsequently rebuilt as Troy IX A series of earthquakes devastated the city around 500 AD though finds from the Late Byzantine era attest to continued habitation at a small scale 21 14 Troy VIII IX Troy VIII Temple of Athena built over the ruins of the Bronze Age palatial complex Troy IX Odeon Troy IX Roman bathExcavation history EditThe search for Troy Edit Alexandria Troas With the rise of critical history Troy and the Trojan War were largely consigned to legend note 1 Those who departed from this general view became the first archaeologists at Troy 33 Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle had identified Troy with Alexandria Troas a ruined Hellenistic town approximately 20 kilometres 12 mi south of Hisarlik 34 In the late 18th century Jean Baptiste LeChevalier identified a location near the village of Pinarbasi Ezine a mound approximately 5 kilometres 3 1 mi south of the currently accepted location Published in his Voyage de la Troade it was the most commonly proposed location for almost a century 35 In 1822 the Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren was the first to identify with confidence the position of the city as it is now known 36 37 In the second half of the 19th century archaeological excavation of the site believed to have been Homeric Troy began Frank Calvert Edit The first excavations at Hisarlik were conducted by Frank Calvert a Turkish Levantine man of English descent who owned a farm nearby Calvert made extensive surveys of the site identifying it with classical era Troy 38 This identification helped him convince Heinrich Schliemann that Troy was there and to partner with him in its further excavation 39 40 Heinrich Schliemann Edit Heinrich Schliemann In 1868 German businessman Heinrich Schliemann visited Calvert and secured permission to excavate Hisarlik Schliemann believed that the literary events of the works of Homer could be verified archaeologically and he decided to use his wealth to locate it Together with Calvert and others Schliemann began by excavating a trench across the mound of Hisarlik to the depth of the settlements today called Schliemann s Trench In 1871 73 and 1878 79 he discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age to the Roman period He proposed that the second layer Troy II corresponded to the city of legend though later research has shown that it predated the Mycenaean era by several hundred years Some of the most notable artifacts found by Schliemann are known as Priam s Treasure after the legendary Trojan king Schliemann s legacy remains controversial because of his excavation methods which included removing features he considered insignificant without first studying and documenting them Artifacts which Schliemann dubbed Priam s Treasure Hisarlik pictured in 1880 The notch at the top is Schliemann s Trench Modern excavations Edit Wilhelm Dorpfeld Edit Wilhelm Dorpfeld 1893 94 began excavating the site alongside Schliemann and later inherited management of the site and published his own independent work 41 His chief contributions were to the study of Troy VI and VII which Schliemann had overlooked due to his fixation on Troy II Dorpfeld s interest in these layers was triggered by the need to close a hole in the initial excavators chronology known as Calvert s Thousand Year Gap 42 During his excavation Dorpfeld came across a section of the Troy VI wall which was weaker than the rest Since the mythic city had likewise had a weak section of its walls Dorpfeld became convinced that this layer corresponded to Homeric Troy 43 Schliemann himself privately agreed that Troy VI was more likely to be the Homeric city but he never published anything stating so 44 University of Cincinnati Edit Carl Blegen Edit Carl Blegen professor at the University of Cincinnati managed the site 1932 38 These archaeologists though following Schliemann s lead added a professional approach not available to Schliemann He showed that there were at least nine cities In his research Blegen came to a conclusion that Troy s nine levels could be further divided into forty six sublevels 45 which he published in his main report 46 Korfmann Edit In 1988 excavations were resumed by a team from the University of Tubingen and the University of Cincinnati under the direction of Professor Manfred Korfmann with Professor Brian Rose overseeing Post Bronze Age Greek Roman Byzantine excavation along the coast of the Aegean Sea at the Bay of Troy Possible evidence of a battle was found in the form of bronze arrowheads and fire damaged human remains buried in layers dated to the early 12th century BC The question of Troy s status in the Bronze Age world has been the subject of a sometimes acerbic debate between Korfmann and the Tubingen historian Frank Kolb in 2001 2002 Korfmann proposed that the location of the city indicated a commercially oriented economy that would have been at the center of a vibrant trade between the Black Sea Aegean Anatolian and Eastern Mediterranean regions Kolb disputed this thesis calling it unfounded in a 2004 paper He argued that archaeological evidence shows that economic trade during the Late Bronze Age was quite limited in the Aegean region compared with later periods in antiquity On the other hand the Eastern Mediterranean economy was more active during this time allowing for commercial cities to develop only in the Levant Kolb also noted the lack of evidence for trade with the Hittite Empire 47 One of the major discoveries of these excavations was the Troy VI VII lower city This discovery led to a major reinterpretation of the site which had previously been regarded as a small aristocratic residence rather than a major settlement Recent developments Edit In summer 2006 the excavations continued under the direction of Korfmann s colleague Ernst Pernicka with a new digging permit 48 In 2013 an international team made up of cross disciplinary experts led by William Aylward an archaeologist at the University of Wisconsin Madison was to carry out new excavations This activity was to be conducted under the auspices of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University and was to use the new technique of molecular archaeology 49 A few days before the Wisconsin team was to leave Turkey cancelled about 100 excavation permits including Wisconsin s 50 In March 2014 it was announced that a new excavation would take place to be sponsored by a private company and carried out by Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University This will be the first Turkish team to excavate and is planned as a 12 month excavation led by associate professor Rustem Aslan The University s rector stated that Pieces unearthed in Troy will contribute to Canakkale s culture and tourism Maybe it will become one of Turkey s most important frequented historical places 51 Historical Troy EditTroy I V predate writing and thus study of them falls into the category of prehistoric archaeology However Troy emerges into protohistory in the Late Bronze Age as records mentioning the city begin to appear at other sites Troy VIII and Troy IX are dated to the historical period and thus are part of history proper Troy VI VII in Hittite records Edit Further information Wilusa and Ahhiyawa Troy VI VII is thought to correspond to the placenames Wilusa and Taruisa known from Hittite records These correspondences were first proposed in 1924 by Emil Forrer who also suggested that the name Ahhiyawa corresponds to the Homeric term for the Greeks Achaeans These proposals were primarily motivated by linguistic similarities since Taruisa is a plausible match for the Greek name Troia and Wilusa likewise for the Greek Wilios later Ilios Subsequent research on Hittite geography has made these identifications more secure though not all scholars regard them as firmly established 52 53 Wilusa first appears in Hittite records around 1400 BC when it was one of the twenty two states of the Assuwa Confederation which unsuccessfully attempted to oppose the Hittite Empire Circumstantial evidence raises the possibility that the rebellion was supported by the Ahhiyawa 21 19 54 55 By the late 1300s BC Wilusa had become politically aligned with the Hittites Texts from this period mention two kings named Kukkunni and Alaksandu who maintained peaceful relations with the Hittites even as other states in the area did not Wilusan soldiers may have served in the Hittite army during the Battle of Kadesh A bit later Wilusa seems to have experienced the political turmoil suffered by many of its neighbors References in the Manapa Tarhunta letter and Tawagalawa letter suggest that a Wilusan king either rebelled or was deposed This turmoil may have been related to the exploits of Piyamaradu a Western Anatolian warlord who toppled other pro Hittite rulers while acting on behalf the Ahhiyawa However Piyamaradu is never explicitly identified as the culprit and certain features of the text suggest that he was not 56 57 The final reference to Wilusa in the historical record appears in the Milawata letter in which the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV expresses his intention to reinstall a deposed Wilusan king named Walmu 58 59 In popular writing these anecdotes have been interpreted as evidence for a historical kernel in myths of the Trojan War However scholars have not found historical evidence for any particular event from the legends and the Hittite documents do not suggest that Wilusa Troy was ever attacked by Greeks Ahhiyawa themselves Noted Hittiteologist Trevor Bryce cautions that our current understanding of Wilusa s history does not provide evidence for there having been an actual Trojan War since the less material one has the more easily it can be manipulated to fit whatever conclusion one wishes to come up with 60 Classical and Hellenistic Troy Troy VIII Edit In 480 BC the Persian king Xerxes sacrificed 1 000 cattle at the sanctuary of Athena Ilias while marching through the Hellespontine region towards Greece 61 Following the Persian defeat in 480 479 Ilion and its territory became part of the continental possessions of Mytilene and remained under Mytilenaean control until the unsuccessful Mytilenean revolt in 428 427 Athens liberated the so called Actaean cities including Ilion and enrolled these communities in the Delian League Athenian influence in the Hellespont waned following the oligarchic coup of 411 and in that year the Spartan general Mindaros emulated Xerxes by likewise sacrificing to Athena Ilias From c 410 399 Ilion was within the sphere of influence of the local dynasts at Lampsacus Zenis his wife Mania and the usurper Meidias who administered the region on behalf of the Persian satrap Pharnabazus In 399 the Spartan general Dercylidas expelled the Greek garrison at Ilion who were controlling the city on behalf of the Lampsacene dynasts during a campaign which rolled back Persian influence throughout the Troad Ilion remained outside the control of the Persian satrapal administration at Dascylium until the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 386 In this period of renewed Persian control c 387 367 a statue of Ariobarzanes the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia was erected in front of the temple of Athena Ilias 62 In 360 359 the city was briefly controlled by Charidemus of Oreus a Euboean mercenary leader who occasionally worked for the Athenians 63 In 359 he was expelled by the Athenian Menelaos son of Arrabaios whom the Ilians honoured with a grant of proxeny this is recorded in the earliest civic decree to survive from Ilion 64 In May 334 Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont and came to the city where he visited the temple of Athena Ilias made sacrifices at the tombs of the Homeric heroes and made the city free and exempt from taxes 65 According to the so called Last Plans of Alexander which became known after his death in June 323 he had planned to rebuild the temple of Athena Ilias on a scale that would have surpassed every other temple in the known world 66 Antigonus Monophthalmus took control of the Troad in 311 and created the new city of Antigoneia Troas which was a synoikism of the cities of Skepsis Kebren Neandreia Hamaxitos Larisa and Kolonai In c 311 306 the koinonof Athena Ilias was founded from the remaining cities in the Troad and along the Asian coast of the Dardanelles and soon after succeeded in securing a guarantee from Antigonus that he would respect their autonomy and freedom he had not respected the autonomy of the cities which were synoikized to create Antigoneia 67 The koinoncontinued to function until at least the 1st century AD and primarily consisted of cities from the Troad although for a time in the second half of the 3rd century it also included Myrlea and Chalcedon from the eastern Propontis 68 The governing body of the koinonwas the synedrion on which each city was represented by two delegates The day to day running of the synedrion especially in relation to its finances was left to a college of five agonothetai on which no city ever had more than one representative This system of equal rather than proportional representation ensured that no one city could politically dominate the koinon 69 The primary purpose of the koinonwas to organize the annual Panathenaia festival which was held at the sanctuary of Athena Ilias The festival brought huge numbers of pilgrims to Ilion for the duration of the festival as well as creating an enormous market the panegyris which attracted traders from across the region 70 In addition the koinonfinanced new building projects at Ilion for example a new theatre c 306 and the expansion of the sanctuary and temple of Athena Ilias in the 3rd century in order to make the city a suitable venue for such a large festival 71 In the period 302 281 Ilion and the Troad were part of the kingdom of Lysimachus who during this time helped Ilion synoikize several nearby communities thus expanding the city s population and territory note 2 Lysimachus was defeated at the Battle of Corupedium in February 281 by Seleucus I Nikator thus handing the Seleucid kingdom control of Asia Minor and in August or September 281 when Seleucus passed through the Troad on his way to Lysimachia in the nearby Thracian Chersonese Ilion passed a decree in honour of him indicating the city s new loyalties 72 In September Seleucus was assassinated at Lysimachia by Ptolemy Keraunos making his successor Antiochus I Soter the new king In 280 or soon after Ilion passed a long decree lavishly honouring Antiochus in order to cement their relationship with him note 3 During this period Ilion still lacked proper city walls except for the crumbling Troy VI fortifications around the citadel and in 278 during the Gallic invasion the city was easily sacked 73 Ilion enjoyed a close relationship with Antiochus for the rest of his reign for example in 274 Antiochus granted land to his friend Aristodikides of Assos which for tax purposes was to be attached to the territory of Ilion and c 275 269 Ilion passed a decree in honour of Metrodoros of Amphipolis who had successfully treated the king for a wound he received in battle 74 Roman Troy Troy IX Edit A new city called Ilium from Greek Ilion was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople which became a bishopric in the Roman province Hellespontus civil Diocese of Asia but declined gradually in the Byzantine era The city was destroyed by Sulla s rival the Roman general Fimbria in 85 BC following an eleven day siege 75 Later that year when Sulla had defeated Fimbria he bestowed benefactions on Ilion for its loyalty which helped rebuilding the city Ilion reciprocated this act of generosity by instituting a new civic calendar which took 85 BC as its first year 76 However the city remained in financial distress for several decades despite its favoured status with Rome In the 80s BC Roman publicani illegally levied taxes on the sacred estates of Athena Ilias and the city was required to call on L Julius Caesar for restitution while in 80 BC the city suffered an attack by pirates 77 In 77 BC the costs of running the annual festival of the koinon of Athena Ilias became too pressing for both Ilion and the other members of the koinon and L Julius Caesar was once again required to arbitrate this time reforming the festival so that it would be less of a financial burden 78 In 74 BC the Ilians once again demonstrated their loyalty to Rome by siding with the Roman general Lucullus against Mithridates VI 79 Following the final defeat of Mithridates in 63 62 Pompey rewarded the city s loyalty by becoming the benefactor of Ilion and patron of Athena Ilias 80 In 48 BC Julius Caesar likewise bestowed benefactions on the city recalling the city s loyalty during the Mithridatic Wars the city s connection with his cousin L Julius Caesar and the family s claim that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan prince Aeneas and therefore shared kinship with the Ilians 81 In 20 BC the emperor Augustus visited Ilion and stayed in the house of a leading citizen Melanippides son of Euthydikos 82 As a result of his visit he also financed the restoration and rebuilding of the sanctuary of Athena Ilias the bouleuterion council house and the theatre Soon after work on the theatre was completed in 12 11 BC Melanippides dedicated a statue Augustus in the theatre to record this benefaction 83 Late Ilium in Church Records Edit From the 4th century AD until the Byzantine era Ilium was a suffragan of the provincial capital s Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cyzicus Several bishops of Troy are historically documented including one named Orion who participated in the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD Another named Leucadius was among the heretical bishops who embraced Arianism citation needed In modern times Michel d Herbigny was appointed titular bishop of Ilium Several others subsequently held the office though it has been vacant since 1968 citation needed Site conservation EditTroy Historical National Park Edit The west side of Troy Ridge The road from Tevfikiye enters from the right The Turkish government created the Historical National Park at Troy on September 30 1996 It contains 136 square kilometres 53 sq mi to include Troy and its vicinity centered on Troy 84 The purpose of the park is to protect the historical sites and monuments within it as well as the environment of the region In 1998 the park was accepted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site In 2015 a Term Development Revision Plan was applied to the park Its intent was to develop the park into a major tourist site 85 Plans included marketing research to determine the features most of interest to the public the training of park personnel in tourism management and the construction of campsites and facilities for those making day trips These latter were concentrated in the village of Tevfikiye which shares Troy Ridge with Troy Wooden Trojan Horse monument in the plaza before the modern gate to the ancient city Public access to the ancient site is along the road from the vicinity of the museum in Tevfikiye to the east side of Hisarlik Some parking is available Typically visitors come by bus which disembarks its passengers into a large plaza ornamented with flowers and trees and some objects from the excavation In its square is a large wooden horse monument with a ladder and internal chambers for use of the public Bordering the square is the gate to the site The public passes through turnstiles Admission is usually not free Within the site the visitors tour the features on dirt roads or for access to more precipitous features on railed boardwalks There are many overlooks with multilingual boards explaining the feature Most are outdoors but a permanent canopy covers the site of an early megaron and wall UNESCO World Heritage Site Edit The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998 in recognition of its historical cultural and scientific significance 86 Troy Museum Edit Main article Troy Museum Troy Museum subterranean interior Troy Museum aboveground Most of the entire field in which it sits roofs the underground galleries work and storage spaces These are accessed via ramps not shown There are also outdoor display spaces In 2018 the Troy Museum Turkish Troya Muzesi was opened at Tevfikiye village 800 metres 870 yd east of the excavation A design contest for the architecture had been won by Yalin Mimarlik in 2011 The cube shaped building with extensive underground galleries holds more than 40 000 portable artifacts 2000 of which are on display Artifacts were moved here from a few other former museums in the region The range is the entire prehistoric Troad Displays are multi lingual In many cases the original contexts are reproduced See also EditAhhiyawa Alaksandu Ancient settlements in Turkey Cities of the ancient Near East Dardanians Trojan Frank Calvert Historicity of the Iliad Hittite Empire Luwians Mycenaean Greece Stratigraphy The Golden Bough mythology Troy Museum Trojan War in popular culture Trojan language WilusaNotes Edit George Grote in particular affirmed that it was in the eyes of modern inquiry essentially a legend and nothing more If we are asked whether it be not a legend embodying portions of historical matter our answer must be that as the possibility of it cannot be denied so neither can the reality of it be affirmed Grote George 1869 A History of Greece from the Earliest Period to the Close of the Generation Contemporary with Alexander the Great Vol 1 London J Murray p 312 Strabo 13 1 26 Lysimaxos synῴkise te eἰs aὐtὴn tὰs kyklῳ poleis ἀrxaias ἤdh kekakwmenas These probably included Birytis Gentinos and Sigeion J M Cook The Troad Oxford 1973 364 Birytis and Gentinos are not securely located but recent excavations at Sigeion appear to independently confirm Strabo s account by indicating an abandonment date soon after c 300 Th Schafer Kazi Sonuclari Toplantisi 32 2 2009 410 412 33 2 2012 248 249 This may have been punishment for Sigeion resisting Lysimachus in 302 Diodorus 20 107 4 Inschriften von Ilion 32 A minority of scholars instead attempt to date this inscription to the reign of Antiochus III 222 187 BC References Edit Korfmann Manfred O 2007 Winkler Martin M ed Troy From Homer s Iliad to Hollywood Epic Oxford England Blackwell Publishing Limited p 25 ISBN 978 1 4051 3183 4 Troy or Ilios or Wilios is most probably identical with Wilusa or Truwisa mentioned in the Hittite sources Burney Charles 2004 Wilusa Historical dictionary of the Hittites Metuchen N J Scarecrow Press p 311 ISBN 978 0 8108 4936 5 R S P Beekes Etymological Dictionary of Greek Brill 2009 p 588 Said Suzanne Webb Ruth 2011 Homer and the Odyssey Oxford University Press p 77 Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca historica 4 75 3 Virgil Aeneid 6 637 678 Iliad Pope translation Book II Line 160 And Troy prevails by armies not her own Lines 974 976 Assemble all the united bands of Troy In just array let every leader call The foreign troops this day demands them all Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 59 61 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 William Smith ed 2020 1854 Ilium Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Perseus Digital Library Cenker Isil Cerem Thys Senocak Lucienne 2008 Shopes Linda Hamilton Paula eds Oral History and Public Memories Philadelphia PA Temple University Press p 76 ISBN 978 1 59213 141 9 This Archeological plan of the Hisarlik citadel was created by user Bibi Saint Pol and contributed to Commons in 2007 Yakar Jak 1979 Troy and Anatolia Early Bronze Age Chronology Anatolian Studies 29 52 doi 10 2307 3642730 JSTOR 3642730 S2CID 162340023 Ancient city of Troy likely founded 600 years earlier than thought Daily Sabah History Istanbul 9 January 2019 a b c d e f g h i j Jablonka Peter 2012 Troy In Cline Eric ed The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean Oxford University Press doi 10 1093 oxfordhb 9780199873609 013 0063 a b Neer Richard T 2012 Greek Art and Archaeology New York Thames amp Hudson p 21 ISBN 9780500288771 Schliemann 1881 pp 75 277 Schliemann Heinrich 1968 Troy and Its Remains Benjamin Blom Inc Latacz 2004 p 48 a b Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis p 59 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Korfmann 2013 p 60 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jablonka Peter 2011 Troy in regional and international context In Steadman Sharon McMahon Gregory eds The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia Oxford University Press doi 10 1093 oxfordhb 9780195376142 013 0032 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis p 198 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 a b Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 58 59 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Knight W F J 1934 The Pillars at the South Gate of Troy VI The Journal of Hellenic Studies 54 2 210 doi 10 2307 626868 ISSN 0075 4269 JSTOR 626868 a b c Korfmann 2003 pp 29 30 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 61 64 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 117 122 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Watkins Calvert 1986 The language of the Trojans In Mellink Machteld ed Troy and the Trojan War a Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College Bryn Mawr Commentaries Yakubovich Ilya 2008 3 6 PDF Sociolinguistics of the Luvian language PhD Thesis University of Chicago a b c Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 64 66 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 a b Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 66 67 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis p 118 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Allen 1995 p 4 Calvert had introduced Schliemann to the theory that Troy lay at Hisarlik Schliemann 1881 p 184 Schliemann 1881 pp 184 191 Maclaren Charles 1822 A Dissertation On the Topography of the Plain of Troy Including an Examination of the Opinions of Demetrius Chevalier Dr Clarke and Major Rennell Bibliobazaar ISBN 978 1 146 73161 4 Retrieved 28 December 2014 Schliemann 1881 p 189 Wood 1985 pp 42 44 Robinson 1994 p 153 by his generosity and constant assistance to Schliemann enabled him to transform himself with such spectacular success from a businessman into an archaeologist Allen 1995 p 380 Dorpfeld Wilhelm 1902 Troja und Ilion Beck amp Barth Allen 1995 p 142 Wood 1985 p 89 Allen 1995 p 143 Allen 1995 p 259 Blegen Carl W 1950 Troy excavations conducted by the University of Cincinnati 1932 1938 Princeton University Press Kolb F 2004 Forum Article Troy VI A Trading Center and Commercial City American Journal of Archaeology 8 4 577 613 doi 10 3764 aja 108 4 577 JSTOR 40025731 S2CID 163779042 Project Troia University of Tubingen University of Cincinnati Archived from the original on 26 May 2014 Retrieved 6 March 2014 UW Madison archaeologists to mount new expedition to Troy news wisc edu Simmons Dan July 22 2013 UW Madison archaeology trip to Troy postponed until next summer Wisconsin State Journal Retrieved 6 May 2014 Canakkale Dogan News Agency 13 March 2014 New term excavations start at city of Troy with Turkish team hurriyetdailynews com Hurriyet daily News Retrieved 28 December 2014 Beckman Gary Bryce Trevor Cline Eric 2012 The Ahhiyawa Texts Brill pp 1 6 ISBN 978 1589832688 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis p 86 181 182 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Cline Eric 2014 1177 BC The Year Civilization Collapsed Princeton University Press pp 33 35 ISBN 978 0691168388 Beckman Gary Bryce Trevor Cline Eric 2012 Epilogue Mycenaean Hittite Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Revisited The Ahhiyawa Texts Brill ISBN 978 1589832688 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 107 111 182 185 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Beckman Gary Bryce Trevor Cline Eric 2012 The Ahhiyawa Texts Brill pp 133 134 174 177 ISBN 978 1589832688 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 112 183 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Beckman Gary Bryce Trevor Cline Eric 2012 The Ahhiyawa Texts Brill pp 278 279 123 131 133 ISBN 978 1589832688 Bryce Trevor 2005 The Trojans and their Neighbours Taylor amp Francis pp 183 184 186 ISBN 978 0 415 34959 8 Herodotus 7 43 Diodorus 17 17 6 Demosthenes 23 154 157 Aeneas Tacticus 24 3 14 Inschriften von Ilion 23 Arrian Anabasis 1 11 12 Diodorus Siculus 17 17 18 Plutarch Life of Alexander 15 Justin 9 5 12 Strabo 13 1 26 32 Diodorus 18 4 5 Inschriften von Ilion 1 Myrlea and Calchedon Inschriften von Ilion 5 6 D Knoepfler Les agonothetes de la Confederation d Athena Ilias une interpretation nouvelle des donnees epigraphiques et ses consequences pour la chronologie des emissions monetaires du Koinon Studi Ellenistici 24 2010 33 62 Panegyris L Robert Monnaies antiques en Troade Paris 1966 18 46 Theatre Inschriften von Ilion 1 Temple C B Rose The Temple of Athena at Ilion Studia Troica 13 2003 27 88 and contra D Hertel Zum Heiligtum der Athena Ilias von Troia IX und zur fruhhellenistischen Stadtanlage von Ilion ArchAnz 2004 177 205 Inschriften von Ilion 31 Strabo 13 1 27 Inschriften von Ilion 33 Aristodikides 34 Metrodoros Strabo 13 1 27 Livy Periochae 83 Inschriften von Ilion 10 2 3 Inchriften von Ilion 71 publicani 73 pirates Inschriften von Ilion 10 Plutarch Lucullus 10 3 12 2 Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 46 1565 Lucan Pharsalia 9 964 999 Suetonius Divus Julius 79 3 Dio Cassius 54 7 Inschriften von Ilion 83 Inschriften von Ilion 83 The Historical National Park Of Troy Ministry of Culture and Tourism 3 August 2019 Retrieved 1 February 2020 Troy National Park to be renovated Daily Sabah 30 October 2015 Archaeological Site of Troy UNESCO World Heritage Centre Retrieved 2019 12 13 Sources EditAllen Susan Heuck July 1995 Finding the Walls of Troy Frank Calvert Excavator American Journal of Archaeology 99 3 379 407 doi 10 2307 506941 JSTOR 506941 S2CID 191391207 Allen Susan Heuck 1999 Finding the Walls of Troy Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik Berkeley University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 20868 1 Bauer Susan Wise 2007 The Battle for Troy The History of the Ancient World From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome Norton pp 253 58 ISBN 9780393070897 Blegen C W 1995 1963 Troy and the Trojans New York Barnes amp Noble Books Carter Jane Burr Morris Sarah P eds 1995 The Ages of Homer Austin University of Texas Press ISBN 978 0 292 71208 9 Efkleidou Kalliope 2004 Slavery and Dependent Personnel in the Linear B Archives of Mainland Greece MA Cincinnati Ohio University of Cincinnati Kayan Ilhan 2003 Chapter 25 Geoarchaeological lnterpretations of the Troian Bay In Gunther A Wagner Ernst Pernicka Hans Peter Uerpmann eds Troia and the Troad Scientific Approaches Natural Science in Archaeology Berlin Springer ISBN 9783642078323 Korfmann Manfred 2003 Troia in Light of New Research PDF Reden an Der Universitat Trier Dies academicus 2003 English ed Tubingen Institute for Pre and Protohistory and Archaeology of the Middle Ages Tubingen University Korfmann Manfred 2013 Troia Wilusa Guidebook Canakkale Tubingen Troia Vakh Foundation Publication Series 1 Enlarged and revised ed Istanbul Biltur Basim Yayin ve Hizmet A Ș Latacz Joachim 2004 Troy and Homer Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 926308 0 Robinson Marcelle 1994 Pioneer Scholar and Victim An Appreciation of Frank Calvert 1828 1908 Anatolian Studies 44 153 168 doi 10 2307 3642989 JSTOR 3642989 S2CID 162321475 Schliemann Heinrich 1881 Ilios The city and country of the Trojans New York Harper amp Brothers Watkins Calvert 1986 The Language of the Trojans In Mellink Machteld J ed Troy and the Trojan War A Symposium Held at Bryn Mawr College October 1984 Bryn Mawr Pa Bryn Mawr College Wood Michael 1985 In Search of the Trojan War BBC Books First Thus edition ISBN 978 0563201618 ȘAdditional sources EditGeneral Edit Troia Projekt and CERHAS 2013 Welcome to Troy Troy University of Cincinnati Archived from the original on 14 May 2008 Retrieved 8 August 2013 Easton D F Hawkins J D Sherratt A G Sherratt E S 2002 Troy in Recent Perspective Anatolian Studies 52 75 109 doi 10 2307 3643078 JSTOR 3643078 Archaeological Edit Institut fur Ur und Fruhgeschichte und Archaologie des Mittelalters Universitat Tubingen and Department of Classics University of Cincinnati Ohio 2010 Troia and the Troad Archaeology of a Region The new excavations at Troy Project Troia Institut fur Ur u Fruhgeschichte Archived from the original on 19 May 2005 Retrieved 8 August 2013 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Troia Project 2004 Reconstructions Troia VR University of Tubingen Archived from the original on 30 August 2013 Retrieved 8 August 2013 Heath Sebastian Tekkok Billur eds 2007 2009 Greek Roman and Byzantine Pottery at Ilion Troia Classics Department University of Cincinnati Retrieved 10 August 2013 Heath Sebastian Mannsperger Dietrich Rose C Brian Wallrodt John 2013 Coins from Ilion Troia Classics Department University of Cincinnati Retrieved 10 August 2013 Rutter Jeremy B 2013 Welcome Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology Dartmouth College Retrieved 10 August 2013 Lesson 23 Troy VI Lesson 27 Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War Geographical Edit Thomas Neil 2003 Geology corresponds with Homer s description of ancient Troy UDaily Archive University of Delaware Retrieved 10 August 2013 Concerning ecclesiastical history Edit Pius Bonifacius Gams Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae Leipzig 1931 p 445 Michel Lequien Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus Paris 1740 vol I coll 775 778Concerning legend Edit Shepard Alan Powell Stephen D eds 2004 Fantasies of Troy Classical Tales and the Social Imaginary in Medieval and Early Modern Europe Toronto Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies External links EditTroyat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons Texts from Wikisource Travel guides from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata Uncovering Troy Archaeological Institute of America Retrieved 24 January 2020 Miszczak Izabela 23 March 2016 Troy Turkish Archaeological News Miszczak Izabela 13 December 2019 Troy Museum Turkish Archaeological News Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Troy amp oldid 1092716412, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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