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Tube-dwelling anemones or ceriantharians look very similar to sea anemones but belong to an entirely different subclass of anthozoans. They are solitary, living buried in soft sediments. Tube anemones live inside and can withdraw into tubes, which are composed of a fibrous material made from secreted mucus and threads of nematocyst-like organelles known as ptychocysts. Within the tubes of these ceriantharians, more than one polyp is present, which is an exceptional trait because species that create tube systems usually contain only one polyp per tube. Ceriantharians were formerly classified in the taxon Ceriantipatharia along with the black corals but have since been moved to their own subclass, Ceriantharia.

Tube-dwelling anemones
Cerianthus sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Subphylum: Anthozoa
Subclass: Ceriantharia
Subgroups

See text.

Ceriantharians have a crown of tentacles that are composed of two whorls of distinctly different sized tentacles. The outer whorl consists of large tentacles that extend outwards. These tentacles taper to points and are mostly used in food capture and defence. The smaller inner tentacles are held more erect than the larger lateral tentacles and are used for food manipulation and ingestion.

A few species such as Anactinia pelagica are pelagic and are not attached to the bottom; instead, they have a gas chamber within the pedal disc, allowing them to float upside down near the surface of the water.

Order Spirularia
Order Penicillaria

A 2020 integrative study incorporating molecular phylogenetic reconstructions and morphological assessment across the three families recovered Arachnactidae as a well-supoorted clade, but did not recover Cerianthidae and Botrucnidiferidae as monophyletic, drawing into question the validity of the Spirularia suborder

  1. Ceriello, Hellen; Costa, Gabriel G.; Bakken, Torkild; Stampar, Sérgio N. (October 2020). "Corals as substrate for tube-dwelling anemones". Marine Biodiversity. 50 (5): 89. doi:10.1007/s12526-020-01116-1. ISSN 1867-1616. S2CID 221885210.
  2. Appeltans, Ward (2010). "Ceriantipatharia". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved2017-12-21.
  3. Brusca, R.C. & Brusca, G.J. 2002. Invertebrates Second Edition Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-097-3
  4. Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 150–157. ISBN 0-03-056747-5.
  5. Annandale, N. (1909). "A pelagic sea-anemone without tentacles". Records of the Indian Museum. 3 (10): 157–162.
  6. Molodtsova, T. (2015). Botrucnidiferidae Carlgren, 1912. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2016-02-10.
  7. Molodtsova, T. (2015). Cerianthidae. In: Fautin, Daphne G. (2011) Hexacorallians of the World. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species on 2016-02-10
  8. Tina Molodtsova (2011). "Penicilaria". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. RetrievedJanuary 20, 2012.
  9. Forero Mejia, Anny C.; Molodtsova, Tina; Östman, Carina; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Rouse, Greg W. (2020). "Molecular phylogeny of Ceriantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) reveals non-monophyly of traditionally accepted families". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 190 (2): 397–416. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz158.

Hickman; et al. (2008), Integrated Principles of Zoology (14th ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-297004-3

Wikimedia Commons has media related toCeriantharia.


Tube dwelling anemone Article Talk Language Watch Edit Tube dwelling anemones or ceriantharians look very similar to sea anemones but belong to an entirely different subclass of anthozoans They are solitary living buried in soft sediments Tube anemones live inside and can withdraw into tubes which are composed of a fibrous material made from secreted mucus and threads of nematocyst like organelles known as ptychocysts Within the tubes of these ceriantharians more than one polyp is present which is an exceptional trait because species that create tube systems usually contain only one polyp per tube 1 Ceriantharians were formerly classified in the taxon Ceriantipatharia along with the black corals 2 but have since been moved to their own subclass Ceriantharia Tube dwelling anemonesCerianthus sp Scientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaPhylum CnidariaSubphylum AnthozoaSubclass CerianthariaSubgroupsSee text Ceriantharians have a crown of tentacles that are composed of two whorls of distinctly different sized tentacles The outer whorl consists of large tentacles that extend outwards These tentacles taper to points and are mostly used in food capture and defence The smaller inner tentacles are held more erect than the larger lateral tentacles and are used for food manipulation and ingestion 3 A few species such as Anactinia pelagica are pelagic and are not attached to the bottom instead they have a gas chamber within the pedal disc allowing them to float upside down near the surface of the water 4 5 Taxonomy EditOrder SpirulariaFamily Botrucnidiferidae Carlgren 1912 6 Genus Angianthula Leloup 1964 Genus Atractanthula Leloup 1964 Genus Botruanthus McMurrich 1910 Genus Botrucnidiata Leloup 1932 Genus Botrucnidifer Carlgren 1912 Genus Calpanthula van Beneden 1897 Genus Cerianthula Beneden 1898 Genus Gymnanthula Leloup 1964 Genus Hensenanthula van Beneden 1897 Genus Ovanthula van Beneden 1897 Genus Sphaeranthula Leloup 1955 Family Cerianthidae Milne Edwards amp Haime 1852 7 Genus AnthoactisLeloup 1932 Genus Apiactis van Beneden 1897 Genus BursanthusLeloup 1968 Genus CeriantheomorpheCarlgren 1931 Genus CeriantheopsisCarlgren 1912 Genus CerianthusDelle Chiaje 1830 Genus EngodactylactisLeloup 1942 Genus IsodactylactisCarlgren 1924 Genus NautanthusLeloup 1964 Genus PachycerianthusRoule 1904 Genus ParadactylactisCarlgren 1924 Genus ParovactisLeloup 1964 Genus Peponactisvan Beneden 1897 Genus PlesiodactylactisLeloup 1942 Genus SacculactisLeloup 1964 Genus Solasteractisvan Beneden 1897 Genus SynarachnactisCarlgren 1924 Genus SyndactylactisCarlgren 1924 Genus TrichactisLeloup 1964Order Penicillaria 8 Family Arachnactidae McMurrich 1910 Genus Anactinia Annandale 1909 Genus Arachnactis Sars 1846 Genus Arachnanthus Carlgren 1912 Genus Dactylactis van Beneden 1897 Genus Isapiactis Carlgren 1924 Genus Isarachnactis Carlgren 1924 Genus Isarachnanthus Carlgren 1924 Genus Isovactis Genus Ovactis Genus Paranactinia A 2020 integrative study incorporating molecular phylogenetic reconstructions and morphological assessment across the three families recovered Arachnactidae as a well supoorted clade but did not recover Cerianthidae and Botrucnidiferidae as monophyletic drawing into question the validity of the Spirularia suborder 9 References Edit Ceriello Hellen Costa Gabriel G Bakken Torkild Stampar Sergio N October 2020 Corals as substrate for tube dwelling anemones Marine Biodiversity 50 5 89 doi 10 1007 s12526 020 01116 1 ISSN 1867 1616 S2CID 221885210 Appeltans Ward 2010 Ceriantipatharia WoRMS World Register of Marine Species Retrieved 2017 12 21 Brusca R C amp Brusca G J 2002 Invertebrates Second Edition Sinauer Associates ISBN 0 87893 097 3 Barnes Robert D 1982 Invertebrate Zoology Philadelphia PA Holt Saunders International pp 150 157 ISBN 0 03 056747 5 Annandale N 1909 A pelagic sea anemone without tentacles Records of the Indian Museum 3 10 157 162 Molodtsova T 2015 Botrucnidiferidae Carlgren 1912 Accessed through World Register of Marine Species on 2016 02 10 Molodtsova T 2015 Cerianthidae In Fautin Daphne G 2011 Hexacorallians of the World Accessed through World Register of Marine Species on 2016 02 10 Tina Molodtsova 2011 Penicilaria WoRMS World Register of Marine Species Retrieved January 20 2012 Forero Mejia Anny C Molodtsova Tina Ostman Carina Bavestrello Giorgio Rouse Greg W 2020 Molecular phylogeny of Ceriantharia Cnidaria Anthozoa reveals non monophyly of traditionally accepted families Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 190 2 397 416 doi 10 1093 zoolinnean zlz158 Hickman et al 2008 Integrated Principles of Zoology 14th ed New York McGraw Hill ISBN 978 0 07 297004 3External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Ceriantharia Photos of Tube Anemones Tube dwelling anemone toxins have pharmacological potential mapping study shows on Eurekalert 29 October 2020 Source Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo This class Anthozoa related article is a stub You can help Wikipedia by expanding it vte Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tube dwelling anemone amp oldid 1088375553, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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