fbpx
Wikipedia

An auto rickshaw is a motorized version of the pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw. Most have three wheels and do not tilt. They are known by many terms in various countries including auto, auto rickshaw, baby taxi, mototaxi, pigeon, jonnybee, bajaj, chand gari, lapa, tuk-tuk, tum-tum, Keke-napep, Maruwa, 3wheel, pragya, bao-bao, easy bike, and tukxi.

An auto rickshaw in Sri Lanka

The auto rickshaw is a common form of urban transport, both as a vehicle for hire and for private use, in many countries around the world. They are especially common in countries with tropical or subtropical climates, since they usually are not fully enclosed, and in many developing countries because they are relatively inexpensive to own and operate. As of 2019, Bajaj Auto of Pune, India, is the world's largest auto rickshaw manufacturer, selling 780,000 during the fiscal year.

There are many different auto rickshaw designs. The most common type is characterized by a sheet-metal body or open frame resting on three wheels; a canvas roof with drop-down side curtains; a small cabin at the front for the driver operating handlebar controls; and a cargo, passenger, or dual purpose space at the rear. Another common type is a motorcycle that has an expanded sidecar or, less often, is pushing or pulling a passenger compartment.

Contents

Daihatsu Midget Model DKA

In the 1930s Japan, which was the most industrialized country in east Asia at the time, encouraged the development of motorized vehicles including less expensive three-wheeled vehicles based on motorcycles. The Mazda-Go, a 3-wheel open "truck" released in 1931, is often considered the first of what became auto rickshaws. Later that decade the Japanese Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Japan distributed about 20,000 used three-wheelers to Southeast Asia as part of efforts to expand its influence in the region. They became popular in some areas, especially Thailand, which developed local manufacturing and design after the Japanese government abolished the three-wheeler license in Japan in 1965 .

Production in Southeast Asia started from the knockdown production of the Daihatsu Midget, which was introduced in 1959. An exception is the indigenously-modified Philippine tricycle, which originates from the Rikuo Type 97 motorcycle with a sidecar, introduced to the islands in 1941 by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.

In Europe, Corradino D'Ascanio, aircraft designer at Piaggio and inventor of the Vespa, came up with the idea of building a light three-wheeled commercial vehicle to power Italy's post-war economic reconstruction. The Piaggio Ape followed suit in 1947.

Africa and the Middle East

Egypt

Locally named the "tuktuk," the rickshaw is used for transportation in most parts of Egypt. It is generally rare to find in suburban areas and newer parts of cities such as New Cairo and on highways due to police control.

Gaza

Together with the recent boom of recreational facilities in Gaza for the local residents, donkey carts have all but been displaced by tuk-tuks in 2010. Due to the ban by Egypt and Israel on the import of most motorised vehicles, the tuk-tuks have had to be smuggled in parts through the tunnel network connecting Gaza with Egypt.

Madagascar

In Madagascar, man-powered rickshaws are a common form of transportation in a number of cities, especially Antsirabe. They are known as "posy" from pousse-pousse, meaning push-push. Cycle rickshaws took off since 2006 in a number of flat cities like Toamasina and replaced the major part of the posy, and are now threatened by the auto rickshaws, introduced in 2009. Provincial capitals like Toamasina, Mahajanga, Toliara, and Antsiranana are taking to them rapidly.[citation needed] They are known as "bajaji" in the north and "tuk-tuk" or "tik-tik" in the east, and are now licensed to operate as taxis.[citation needed] They are not yet allowed an operating licence in the congested, and more polluted national capital, Antananarivo.[citation needed]

Nigeria

Aerial view of autorickshaw congestion from a pedestrian bridge in Uyo, Southeast Nigeria

The auto rickshaw is used to provide transportation in cities all over Nigeria. Popularity and use varies across the country however. In Lagos, for example, the "keke" (Yoruba for bicycle) is regulated and transportation around the state's highways is prohibited.

South Africa

Tuk-Tuk in Hermanus, South Africa (2014)

Tuk-tuks, introduced in Durban in the late 1980s enjoyed growing popularity in recent years, particularly in Gauteng. In Cape Town they are used to deliver groceries and, more recently, transport tourists.

Rickshaw in Omdurman (Sudan)

Sudan

Rickshaws, known as "Raksha" in Sudan, is the most common mean of transportation followed by the bus in the capital Khartoum.

Tanzania

Rickshaws are locally known as "bajaji" and are a common mode of transportation in Dar es Salaam.

Uganda

A local delivery company called as Sokowatch in 2020 began a pilot project using electric tuk-tuks, to cut pollution.

Zimbabwe

Hende Moto electric 3 Wheeler Zimbabwe

Hende Moto EV & Taxi company was founded in 2019 by Devine Mafa, an American-Zimbabwean businessman. Hende Moto taxi's were first introduced in Zimbabwe as the first car, manufactured by a Zimbabwean three wheeler manufacturing company Hende Moto Pvt Ltd. Hende Moto Engine in a Safari fiberglass body. The first Hende Moto Taxi was introduced in Kwekwe August 2019, Zimbabwe and thereafter, Victoria Falls City came second and lastly Harare 2019. Hende Moto is also the manufacturer of the first Zimbabwean made electric passenger three wheeled vehicle. It operates on a lithium ion battery that has a range of 70 miles on a 6-hour charge.

South Asia

Afghanistan

A tuk-tuk in Herat

Auto rickshaws are very common in the eastern Afghan city of Jalalabad, where they are popularly decorated in art and colors. They are also popular in the northern city of Kunduz.

Bangladesh

"CNGs" in Dhaka

Auto rickshaws (locally called "baby taxis" and more recently "CNGs" due to their fuel source, compressed natural gas) are one of the more popular modes of transport in Bangladesh mainly due to their size and speed. They are best suited to narrow, crowded streets, and are thus the principal means of covering longer distances within urban areas.

Two-stroke engines had been identified as one of the leading sources of air pollution in Dhaka. Thus, since January 2003, traditional auto rickshaws were banned from the capital; only the new natural gas-powered models (CNG) were permitted to operate within the city limits. All CNGs are painted green to signify that the vehicles are eco-friendly and that each one has a meter built-in.

India

Most cities offer auto rickshaw service, although cycle rickshaws are also common and even hand-pulled rickshaws exist in certain areas such as Kolkata.: 15, 57, 156 Many state governments have launched an initiative of women friendly rickshaw service called the Pink Rickshaws driven by woman. The drivers are known as the Autokaarar, auto-wallah or tuktuk-wallah.

Auto rickshaws are used in cities and towns for short distances; they are less suited to long distances because they are slow and the carriages are open to air pollution.: 57, 58, 110 Auto rickshaws (often called "autos") provide cheap and efficient transportation. Modern auto rickshaws run on electicity as government pushes for e mobility through its FAME-II scheme, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) due to government regulations and are environmentally friendly compared to full-sized cars.[citation needed]

To augment speedy movement of traffic, auto rickshaws are not allowed in the southern part of Mumbai.

India is the location of the annual Rickshaw Run.

There are two types of auto rickshaws in India. In older versions the engines were below the driver's seat, while in newer versions engines are in the rear. They normally run on petrol, CNG, or diesel. The seating capacity of a normal rickshaw is four, including the driver's seat. Six-seater rickshaws exist in different parts of the country, but the model was officially banned in the city of Pune on 10 January 2003 by the Regional Transport Authority (RTA).

Apart from this, modern electric auto rickshaws which runs on electric motor have high torque and loading capacity with better speed is also gaining popularity in India. Many auto drivers moved to electric three wheeler as the prices of CNG or Diesel is very high and that type of auto rickshaws are much costlier compared to the electric auto rickshaw. Government is also taking actions to convert current CNG and Diesel rickshaws to Electric Rickshaws.

CNG autos in many cities (e.g. Delhi, Agra) are distinguishable from the earlier petrol-powered autos by a green and yellow livery, as opposed to the earlier black and yellow appearance. In other cities (such as Mumbai) the only distinguishing feature is the 'CNG' print found on the back or side of the auto. Some local governments are considering four-stroke engines instead of two-stroke versions.[citation needed]

Auto rickshaw manufacturers in India include Bajaj Auto, Atul Auto Limited, Oculus Auto, Kerala Automobiles Limited, Force Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Piaggio Ape, TVS Motors and Fleek Motors.

In Delhi there also used to be a variant powered by a Harley-Davidson engine called the phat-phati, because of the sound it made. The story goes that shortly after Independence a stock of Harley-Davidson motorbikes were found that had been used by British troops during World War II and left behind in a military storage house in Delhi. Some enterprising drivers purchased these bikes, added on a gear box (probably from a Willys jeep), welded on a passenger compartment that was good for four to six passengers, and put the unconventional vehicles onto the roads. A 1998 ruling of the Supreme Court against the use of polluting vehicles finally signed the death warrant of Delhi's phat-phatis.

As of 2018[update] India has about 1.5 million battery-powered, three-wheeled rickshaws on its roads. Some 11,000 new ones hit the streets each month, creating a US$1.5 billion market. Manufacturers include Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. and Kinetic Engineering. A hindrance to adoption to electric vehicles is the paucity of charging stations; India had only 425 at year-end 2017. By 2022 the number is projected to rise to 2,800.

  • Oculus Auto's electric auto rickshaw in Gujarat

  • CNG green auto rickshaw in Delhi

  • A bajaj auto rickshaw at Hyderabad.

  • A Piaggio Ape auto rickshaw at Madurai.

  • A bajaj auto rickshaw at Mumbai.

  • A bajaj auto rickshaw at Bengaluru.

Legislation

Generally rickshaw fares are controlled by the government, however auto (and taxi) driver unions frequently go on strike demanding fare hikes. They have also gone on strike multiple times in Delhi to protest against the government and High Court's 2012 order to install GPS systems, and even though GPS installation in public transport was made mandatory in 2015, as of 2017 compliance remains very low.

Nepal

Auto rickshaws were a popular mode of transport in Nepal during the 1980s and 1990s, until the government banned the movement of 600 such vehicles in the early 2000s. The earliest auto rickshaws running in Kathmandu were manufactured by Bajaj Auto.[citation needed]

Nepal has been a popular destination for the Rickshaw Run. The 2009 Fall Run took place in Goa, India and ended in Pokhara, Nepal.

Pakistan

Auto rickshaws are a popular mode of transport in Pakistani towns and are mainly used for travelling short distances within cities. One of the major manufacturers of auto rickshaws is Piaggio. The government is taking measures to convert all gasoline powered auto rickshaws to cleaner CNG rickshaws by 2015 in all the major cities of Pakistan by issuing easy loans through commercial banks. Environment Canada is implementing pilot projects in Lahore, Karachi, and Quetta with engine technology developed in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada that uses CNG instead of gasoline in the two-stroke engines, in an effort to combat environmental pollution and noise levels.[citation needed]

In many cities in Pakistan, there are also motorcycle rickshaws, usually called "chand gari" (moon car) or "chingchi", after the Chinese company Jinan Qingqi Motorcycle Co. Ltd who first introduced these to the market.[citation needed]

There are many rickshaw manufacturers in Pakistan. Lahore is the hub of CNG auto rickshaw manufacturing. Manufacturers include: New Asia automobile Pvt, Ltd; AECO Export Company; STAHLCO Motors; Global Sources; Parhiyar Automobiles; Global Ledsys Technologies; Siwa Industries; Prime Punjab Automobiles; Murshid Farm Industries; Sazgar Automobiles; NTN Enterprises; and Imperial Engineering Company.

Sri Lanka

Trishaw in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka

Auto rickshaws, commonly known as Three-wheelers, tuk-tuks (Sinhala:ටුක් ටුක්, pronounced ) or trishaws can be found on all roads in Sri Lanka from the curvy roads in the hill country to the congested roads of Colombo transporting locals, foreigners, or freight about. Sri Lankan three-wheelers are of the style of the light Phnom Penh-type. Most of the three-wheelers in Sri Lanka are a slightly modified Indian Bajaj model, imported from India though there are few manufactured locally and increasingly imports from other countries in the region and other brands of three-wheelers such as Piaggio Ape. As of mid-2018,[update] a new gasoline powered tuk-tuk typically costs aroundUS$4,300, while a newly introduced Chinese electric model cost aroundUS$5,900. Since 2008, the Sri Lankan government has banned the import of all 2-stroke gasoline engines, due to environmental concerns. Ones imported to the island now are four-stroke engines. Most three-wheelers are available as hired vehicles, with few being used to haul goods or as private company or advertising vehicles. Bajaj enjoys a virtual monopoly in the island, with its agent being David Pieries Motor Co, Ltd. A few three-wheelers in Sri Lanka have distance meters. In the capital city it is becoming more and more common. The vast majority of fares are negotiated between the passenger and driver. There are 1.2 million trishaw's in Sri Lanka and most are on financial loans.

In Sri Lanka, tourists are able to drive a tuktuk. Through the Automobile Association of Ceylon, tourists are able to get a temporary Recognition Permit which allows them to drive a three-wheeler legally.[self-published source?]

Southeast Asia

  • Tuktuks and palmyra palms on the Mekong bank in Thakhek, Laos

  • Tuk-tuk taxi sidecar in Laos

  • Tuk-tuk, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Cambodia

In Cambodia, a passenger-carrying three-wheeled vehicle is known as "lemorque" from the French "remorque." It is a widely used form of transportation in the capital of Phnom Penh and for visitors touring the Angkor temples in Siem Reap. Some have four wheels and is composed of a motorcycle (which leans) and trailer (which does not). Cambodian cities have a much lower volume of automobile traffic than Thai cities, and tuk-tuks are still the most common form of urban transport. There are more than 6,000 tuk-tuks in Phnom Penh, according to the Independent Democracy of Informal Economy Association (IDEA), a union that represents tuk-tuk drivers among other members.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, auto rickshaws are popular in Jakarta as Bajay, Java, Medan and Gorontalo as Bentor, and some parts of Sulawesi and other places in the country. In Jakarta, the auto rickshaws are called Bajay or Bajaj and they are the same to as the ones in India but are colored blue (for the ones which use Compressed natural gas) and orange (for the ones which use normal gasoline fuel). The blue ones are imported from India with the brand of Bajaj and TVS and the orange ones are the old design from 1990 and are not powered by gas like the blue ones, yet the government is increasing units of the blue Bajays and is step by step decreasing the orange bajays. The Bajaj is one of the most popular modes of transportation in the city. Outside of Jakarta, the bentor-style auto rickshaw is ubiquitous, with the passenger cabin mounted as a sidecar (like in Medan) or in-front (like the ones in some parts of Sulawesi) to a motorcycle.

  • Bentor in North Sumatra

  • Bentor in Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi

  • Gasoline fuelled Bajaj in Jakarta

  • CNG fuelled Bajaj in Jakarta.

Philippines

In the Philippines, a similar mode of public transport is the "tricycle" (Filipino: traysikel; Cebuano: traysikol). Unlike auto rickshaws, however, it has a motorcycle with a sidecar configuration and a different origin. The exact date of its appearance in the Philippines is unknown, but it started appearing after World War 2, roughly at the same time as the appearance of the jeepney. It is most likely derived from the Rikuo Type 97 military motorcycle used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines starting at 1941. The motorcycle was essentially a licensed copy of a Harley-Davidson with a sidecar. However, there is also another hypothesis which places the origin of the tricycle to the similarly built "trisikad", a human-powered cycle rickshaw built in the same configuration as the tricycle. However, the provenance of the trisikad is also unknown. Prior to the tricycles and trisikad, the most common means of mass public transport in the Philippines is a carriage pulled by horses or carabaos known as the kalesa (calesa or carromata in Philippine Spanish). The pulled rickshaw never gained acceptance in the Philippines. Americans tried to introduce it in the early 20th century, but it was strongly opposed by local Filipinos who viewed it as an undignified mode of transport that turned humans into "beasts".

The design and configuration of tricycles vary widely from place to place, but tends towards rough standardization within each municipality. The usual design is a passenger or cargo sidecar fitted to a motorbike, usually on the right of the motorbike. It is rare to find one with a left sidecar. A larger variant of the tricycle with the motorcycle in the center enclosed by a passenger cab with two side benches is known as a "motorela." It is found in the islands of Mindanao, Camiguin, and Bohol. Another notable variant are the tricycles of the Batanes Islands which have cabs made from wood and roofed with thatched cogon grass. In Pagadian City, tricycles are also uniquely built with the passenger cab slanting upwards, due to the city's streets that run along steep hills.

Tricycles can carry three passengers or more in the sidecar, one or two pillion passengers behind the driver, and even a few on the roof of the sidecar. Tricycles are one of the main contributors to air pollution in the Philippines, which account for 45% of all volatile organic compound emissions since majority of them employ two-stroke engines. However, some local governments are working towards phasing out two-stroke tricycles for ones with cleaner four-stroke engines.

Tuk-Tuks have now been accepted as Three-Wheeled Vehicles by the Land Transportation Office (Philippines) as distinct from tricycles and are now seen in Philippine streets. Electric versions are now seen especially in the city of Manila where they are called e-trikes. Combustion engine tuktuks are locally distributed by TVS Motors and Bajaj Auto through dealerships

  • Motorized tricycle, Dumaguete City

  • 7-passenger tricycle with large sidecar, Province of Aklan

  • Tricycle stand, Banaue Municipal Town

Thailand

The auto rickshaw, called tuk-tuk (Thai:ตุ๊ก ๆ, pronounced ) in Thailand, is a widely used form of urban transport in Bangkok and other Thai cities. The name is onomatopoeic, mimicking the sound of a small (often two-cycle) engine. It is particularly popular where traffic congestion is a major problem, such as in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima. In Bangkok in the 1960s, these were called samlaws.

Bangkok and other cities in Thailand have many tuk-tuks which are a more open variation on the Indian auto rickshaw. About 20,000 tuk-tuks were registered as taxis in Thailand in 2017. Bangkok alone is reported to have 9,000 tuk-tuks.

Tuk-tuk hua kob (ตุ๊ก ๆ หัวกบ; literally: frog-headed tuk tuk) is a unique tuk tuk with a cab looking like a frog's head. Only Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya and Trang have vehicles like this.

in 2018, MuvMi, an electric tuk-tuk ride hailing service launched in Bangkok.

East Asia

China

Auto rickshaw Haikou

Various types of auto rickshaw are used around China, where they are called sān lún chē (三轮车) and sometimes sān bèng zǐ (三蹦子), meaning three wheeler or tricycle. They may be used to transport cargo or passengers in the more rural areas. However, in many urban areas the auto rickshaws for passengers are often operated illegally as they are considered unsafe and an eyesore. They are permitted in some towns and cities, however. The Southeast Asian word tuk tuk is transliterated as dū dū chē (嘟嘟车, or beep beep car) in Chinese.

Europe

France

A number of tuk-tuks (250 in 2013 according to the Paris Prefecture) are used as an alternative tourist transport system in Paris, some of them being pedal-operated with electric motor assist. They are not yet fully licensed to operate and await customers on the streets. Vélotaxis were common during the Occupation years in Paris due to fuel restrictions.

Italy

An Ape C (1956–1967)

Auto rickshaws have been commonly used in Italy since the late 1940s, providing a low-cost means of transportation in the post–World War II years when the country was short of economic resources. The Piaggio Ape (Tukxi), designed by Vespa creator Corradino D'Ascanio and first manufactured in 1948 by the Italian company Piaggio, though primarily designed for carrying freight has also been widely used as an auto rickshaw. It is still extremely popular throughout the country, being particularly useful in the narrow streets found in the center of many little towns in central and southern Italy. Though it no longer has a key role in transportation, Piaggio Ape is still used as a minitaxi in some areas such as the islands of Ischia and Stromboli (on Stromboli no cars are allowed). It has recently been re-launched as a trendy-ecological means of transportation, or, relying on the role the Ape played in the history of Italian design, as a promotional tool.

Portugal

Tuk Tuk Taxi in Albufeira Portugal

Tuk Tuks are used in the resort city of Albufeira in the Algarve as a novel form of transport for visitors during the tourist season.

United Kingdom

Tuk Tuks & Auto Rickshaws were introduced into the UK by Tukshop in 2004. Founded by mrsteve the first shipments of Bajaj vehicles arrived in Southampton where they were assembled and modified for UK road use.

Tuctucs booking auto rickshaw at Brighton Marina

In 2006 a British travel writer – Antonia Bolingbroke-Kent – and her friend Jo Huxster travelled 12,561 miles (20,215 km) with an auto rickshaw from Bangkok to Brighton. With this 98 days' trip they set a Guinness World Record for the longest journey ever with an auto rickshaw.[citation needed]

Montenegro

Tuk Tuk Montenegro has implemented tours with electric Tuk Tuks in Kotor, Montenegro in 2018.

The Americas

Bajaj mototaxis in El Salvador

El Salvador

The mototaxi or moto is the El Salvadoran version of the auto rickshaw. These are most commonly made from the front end and engine of a motorcycle attached to a two-wheeled passenger area in back. Commercially produced models, such as the Indian Bajaj brand, are also employed.[citation needed]

Guatemala

In Guatemala tuk-tuks operate, both as taxis and private vehicles, in Guatemala City, around the island town of Flores, Peten, in the mountain city of Antigua Guatemala, and in many small towns in the mountains. In 2005 the tuk-tuks were prevalent in the Lago de Atitlán towns of Panajachel and Santiago Atitlán.

United States

In the 1950s and 1960s, the United States Post Office (replaced in 1971 by the United States Postal Service) used the WestCoaster Mailster, a close relative of the tuk-tuk. Similar vehicles remain in limited use for parking enforcement, mall security, and other niche applications.

Westcoaster Mailster

Cuba

In Cuba, the autorickshaws are small and look like a coconut, hence the name Cocotaxi.

Cocotaxis in Havana, Cuba

Peru

In Peru, a version of this vehicle is called a motocar or mototaxi.

In July 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered the Government of Delhi to implement CNG or LPG (Autogas) fuel for all autos and for the entire bus fleet in and around the city. Delhi's air quality has improved with the switch to CNG. Initially, auto rickshaw drivers in Delhi had to wait in long queues for CNG refueling, but the situation improved following an increase in the number of CNG stations. Gradually, many state governments passed similar laws, thus shifting to CNG or LPG vehicles in most large cities to improve air quality and reduce pollution. Certain local governments are pushing for four-stroke engines instead of two-stroke ones. Typical mileage for an Indian-made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometres per litre (99 mpg‑imp; 82 mpg‑US) of petrol. Pakistan has passed a similar law prohibiting auto rickshaws in certain areas. CNG auto rickshaws have started to appear in huge numbers in many Pakistani cities.[citation needed]

In January 2007 the Sri Lankan government also banned two-stroke trishaws to reduce air pollution. In the Philippines there are projects to convert carburated two-stroke engines to direct-injected via Envirofit technology. Research has shown LPG or CNG gas direct-injection can be retrofitted to existing engines, in similar fashion to the Envirofit system. In Vigan City majority of tricycles-for-hire as of 2008 are powered by motorcycles with four-stroke engines, as tricycles with two-stroke motorcycles are prevented from receiving operating permits. Direct injection is standard equipment on new machines in India.

In March 2009 an international consortium coordinated by the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies initiated a two-year public-private partnership of local and international stakeholders aiming at operating a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fueled three-wheeled vehicles in New Delhi's Pragati Maidan complex. As of January 2011, the project was nearing completion.[citation needed]

Hydrogen internal combustion (HICV) use in three-wheelers has only recently being started to be looked into, mainly by developing countries, to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. At some point, Bajaj Auto made a HICV auto rickshaw together with the company "Energy Conversion Devices". They made a report on it called "Clean Hydrogen Technology for 3-Wheel Transportation in India" and it stated that the performance was comparable with CNG autos. In 2012, Mahindra & Mahindra showcased their first HICV auto rickshaw, called the Mahindra HyAlfa. The development of the hydrogen-powered rickshaw happened with support from the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies.

  1. Typical fuel economy for an Indian-made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometres per litre (99 mpg‑imp; 82 mpg‑US) of petrol.[citation needed]
  1. "Bajaj Auto in top gear". Fortune India.
  2. "Great Cars of Mazda: Mazda-Go 3-wheeled Trucks(1931~)". Mazda Motor Corporation. Archived from the original on 2019-02-09.
  3. ミゼット物語 木村信之 著 高原書店(Nobuyuki Kimura "Story of Midget", Published on 10 November 1998)
  4. Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. public relations section
  5. NPOみらいネットワーク寄附講座、ホテル観光学科の学生に日タイ関係をピーアール 日本での就職機会に関心. Bangkok Shuho (in Japanese). 2007-11-19. Archived from the original on 2009-04-30.
  6. /index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=321:2009-11-30-05-34-59&catid=54:2009-09-09-07-52-31&Itemid=232 Royal Thai Embassy Tokyo, Japan 日本生まれのタイのトゥクトゥク (Tuk-Tuk of Thailand was born in Japan.)
  7. "Tuk-Tuk, Thailand's most notorious mode of transport - deSIAM". www.desiam.com.
  8. "【ダイハツ ミゼット DKA / DSA型】 幌付3輪スクーター型トラック 旧式商用車図鑑". route0030.blog.fc2.com.
  9. "The History of the Philippines Tricycle". Tuk Tuk 3 Wheelers. 22 November 2018. Retrieved25 March 2020.
  10. "Tuk Tuks replace mules on Gaza streets". Maan News Agency. 12 September 2010. Retrieved2011-03-22.
  11. Jay Heale; Zawiah Abdul Latif (2008). Madagascar, Volume 15 of Cultures of the World Cultures of the World – Group 15 (2 ed.). Marshall Cavendish. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0761430360.
  12. Madagascar Travel Guide (7 ed.). Lonely Planet. 2012. ISBN 978-1743213018. Retrieved2013-04-13.
  13. "'Bajaj' à Mahajanga : Entre 70 et 100 clients par jour". Midi Madagasikara (in French). 2014-05-30.
  14. Odunsi, Wale (16 November 2017). "Lagos bans okada, keke from 520 roads, areas [Full list]". Daily Post.
  15. "Durban offers beaches and culteral diversity". Zululand Tourism. Retrieved22 September 2015. Tuk Tuks: Mororised, covered tricycles which carry up to six passengers. Ideal for short 'hops' between the beachfront and city centre.
  16. Steyn, Lisa (18 January 2013). "Cheap-cheap tuk-tuk taxis take over Jozi". Retrieved22 September 2015. Tuk-tuks, also known as auto rickshaws, are becoming an increasingly common sight on South Africa's roads because people are trying to travel short distances at lower costs than driving and at less risk than walking.
  17. Ryan, Tamlyn (September 2016). "Tuk-tuks are coming to Cape Town". Inside Guide.
  18. Govender, Suthentira (2017-01-25). "Buddibox grocery delivery programme set to create 10,000 young entrepreneurs in Gauteng". TimesLIVE.
  19. Kalagho, Kenan (13 February 2012). "Tanzania: Bajaji, Dar es Salaam's Indispensable Taxi". AllAfrica. Retrieved22 September 2015. Until the year 2010 Dar es Salaam had no room for the Indian Bajaji and or a tricycle to be used as a means of transporting passengers. Today it is a common feature around Dar es Salaam.
  20. Clean Technica: "Eat Africa's first commercial electric tuk-tuks 4 December 2020
  21. McHugh, John D. "In Taliban country: inside the city of Jalalabad". The Irish Times.
  22. "Auto-rickshaws clogging Kunduz arteries". www.pajhwok.com. 23 May 2012.
  23. Lane, Jo. "Asia's love affair with the rickshaw". asiancorrespondent.com. asiancorrespondent.com. Retrieved2015-07-30.
  24. "Police purge for Dhaka rickshaws". BBC News. 20 December 2002. Retrieved2011-03-22.
  25. Pippa de Bruyn; Keith Bain; David Allardice; Shonar Joshi (2010). Frommer's India (Fourth ed.). John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0470645802.
  26. "PINK AUTO RICKSHAW PROJECT"(PDF). July 17, 2019.
  27. Pippa de Bruyn; Keith Bain; David Allardice; Shonar Joshi (2010).Frommer's India (Fourth ed.). John Wiley and Sons. p. 110. ISBN 978-0470645802.
  28. "Six seater rickshaws banned in city". Times of India. 25 September 2003. Retrieved2014-01-11.
  29. "Patna: Transport department to ban all diesel-run buses, auto-rickshaws from April 1". India Today. March 29, 2022. Retrieved2022-03-29.
  30. "OCULUS AUTO launches its new Electric Auto-Rickshaw MI7 packed with Best in class features".
  31. "About Oculus".
  32. "Remembering Delhi's phat-phatis | India News". The Times of India.
  33. "Domain parked by OnlyDomains". olddelhiheritage.in.
  34. "The Phatphatis of Delhi". 23 September 2011.
  35. "Phat Phatis of Delhi – Toothless Blog – MouthShut.com". www.mouthshut.com.
  36. Ward, Jill; Upadhyay, Anindya (26 October 2018). "India's Rickshaw Revolution Leaves China in the Dustina in dust". Bloomberg. Retrieved28 October 2018.
  37. "Maharashtra Govt refuses to increase autorickshaw, taxi fares". newKerala.com. UNI. Archived from the original on 2013-05-18.
  38. "Autos, taxis in Delhi to go on strike today demanding fare hike". India Today. 15 October 2012. Retrieved2017-02-19.
  39. "Delhi High Court Directs City Auto-Rickshaws To Install GPS". Medianama. 28 September 2012. Retrieved2017-02-19.
  40. "GPS installation in public transport becomes mandatory". Times of India. 2 June 2015. Retrieved2017-02-19.
  41. "Nepal Government decides to ban 3 wheeler auto rickshaws from Nepal's road". BBC. 28 July 1999. Retrieved2011-12-06.
  42. "Rickshaw Run on 3 Wheelers from Goa, India to Pokhara, Nepal". The National. 29 August 2009. Retrieved2011-12-06.
  43. Sebastian Abbot, Associated Press (8 February 2013). "Eye-Catching Rickshaws Promote Peace in Pakistan". ABC News. Retrieved2013-04-13.
  44. Ranasinghe, A.K. (3 September 2018). "Can He Convince Sri Lankan Tuk-Tuk Owners to Go Green?". OZY. Retrieved3 September 2018. Tuk-tuks play a vital role in urban Sri Lanka's passenger transport system, providing what traffic experts call "last mile" service. Police and government workers rely on them too to navigate congested streets. In rural Sri Lanka, they are everything from taxi to ambulance.
  45. "Bajaj ready with 4-stroke autos for SL". Indiacar.net. Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved2010-04-03.
  46. "Renting & Driving a Tuk Tuk in Sri Lanka {Full 2022 Guide!}".
  47. Wilkins, Emily (19 February 2014). "New Futuristic Tuk-Tuks Arrive on the Streets of Phnom Penh". The Cambodia Daily. Retrieved30 January 2015.
  48. "Bajaj Oranye Menunggu Giliran Dimusnahkan". Republika Online (in Indonesian). 7 January 2016. Retrieved26 May 2018.
  49. "Motorcycles and tricycles". Utrecht Faculty of Education. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved2009-03-14.
  50. "Filipino Icon: Tricycle and Pedicab". FFE Magazine. 29 December 2016. Retrieved25 March 2020.
  51. Pante, Michael D. (14 August 2014). "Rickshaws and Filipinos: Transnational Meanings of Technology and Labor in American-Occupied Manila". International Review of Social History. 59 (S22): 133–159. doi:10.1017/S0020859014000315.
  52. "Tricycle, Motorela & Habal-Habal". Silent Gardens. Retrieved25 March 2020.
  53. Corsino, Nikka (24 October 2013). "A day on Sabtang Island in Batanes". GMA News Online. Retrieved25 March 2020.
  54. "WATCH: What makes Pagadian tricycles unique". Rappler. 23 January 2017. Retrieved25 March 2020.
  55. "Tricycles in the Philippines". cleanairasia.org. Retrieved7 January 2019.
  56. Taruc, Paolo (25 March 2015). "Tricycles: As iconic as jeepneys and just as problematic". CNN Philippines. Retrieved7 January 2019.
  57. Felongco, Gilbert P. (22 November 2015). "Philippines: Tricycles and motorcycles responsible for 45 per cent of harmful emissions". Gulf News. Retrieved7 January 2019.
  58. "Mandaluyong City 2-Stroke Replacement Project". cleanairasia.org. Retrieved7 January 2019.
  59. "E.R.A.P. Manila electric tricycle project – Second batch of beneficiaries ready". www.bemac-philippines.com.
  60. "TVS King Deluxe Three Wheeler Vs Tricycle". Tuk Tuk 3-Wheelers. 20 October 2019.
  61. Wattanasukchai, Sirinya (2 February 2017). "With our tuk tuks, let's copy the Dutch". Bangkok Post. Retrieved2 February 2017.
  62. "Thailand government says Bangkok has too many 'tuk-tuks'". Asian Correspondent. 2016-04-15. Retrieved2016-04-15.
  63. "Frog-headed Tuk Tuk, Symbol of Aytthaya". Go Ayutthaya. Retrieved2019-05-30.
  64. Muangkaew, Methee (2013-02-19). "Tuk-tuk 'endangered species' in Trang". Bangkok Post. Retrieved2019-05-30.
  65. "MuvMi". ThailandMagazine.com. 2022-02-15. Retrieved2022-06-18.
  66. "明珠路上规模浩大的等客车队 危险逆行载客". 珠江晚报. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on 2015-04-04.
  67. "[天津]面对"三蹦子" 请您大声说"不"". auto sohu.
  68. "東南亞的三輪車". Global Voices. 25 March 2012.
  69. "A Paris, les tuk-tuks fleurissent... tout comme les PV". La Dépêche (in French). Toulouse. AFP. 2013-08-20.
  70. "A little bit about us". Tuk Tuk Montenegro. Retrieved2022-01-12.
  71. "National Postal Museum". 25 August 2009. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009.
  72. "Motocar". Perú Motor. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018.
  73. Tony Dunnell (28 July 2017). "A Traveler's Guide to Mototaxis in Peru". tripsavvy. Retrieved27 November 2017.
  74. "Envirofit's Tricycle Retrofit Program Funded". Colorado State University. 19 May 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved2011-03-22.
  75. "Microsoft Word – SETC_LPG2T.doc"(PDF). Retrieved2010-04-03.
  76. "Bajaj rolls out low-emission fuel-efficient autorickshaw". Business Line. The Hindu. 2007-12-09. Retrieved2010-04-03.
  77. "Bajaj Begins Production of 2-Stroke Direct-Injection Auto Rickshaw". Green Car Congress. 2007-05-18. Retrieved2010-04-03.
  78. "A fleet of hydrogen rickshaws to circulate in New Delhi by 2010". International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies. Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved2011-03-22.
  79. "Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines, see page 7".
  80. Clean Hydrogen Technology for 3-Wheel Transportation in India
  81. "India Showcases Hydrogen Fuel Auto-Rickshaws |". February 21, 2012.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toAuto-rickshaws.

Auto rickshaw Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Tuk tuk An auto rickshaw is a motorized version of the pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw Most have three wheels and do not tilt They are known by many terms in various countries including auto auto rickshaw baby taxi mototaxi pigeon jonnybee bajaj chand gari lapa tuk tuk tum tum Keke napep Maruwa 3wheel pragya bao bao easy bike and tukxi An auto rickshaw in Sri Lanka The auto rickshaw is a common form of urban transport both as a vehicle for hire and for private use in many countries around the world They are especially common in countries with tropical or subtropical climates since they usually are not fully enclosed and in many developing countries because they are relatively inexpensive to own and operate As of 2019 Bajaj Auto of Pune India is the world s largest auto rickshaw manufacturer selling 780 000 during the fiscal year 1 There are many different auto rickshaw designs The most common type is characterized by a sheet metal body or open frame resting on three wheels a canvas roof with drop down side curtains a small cabin at the front for the driver operating handlebar controls and a cargo passenger or dual purpose space at the rear Another common type is a motorcycle that has an expanded sidecar or less often is pushing or pulling a passenger compartment Contents 1 Origin 2 Regional variations 2 1 Africa and the Middle East 2 1 1 Egypt 2 1 2 Gaza 2 1 3 Madagascar 2 1 4 Nigeria 2 1 5 South Africa 2 1 6 Sudan 2 1 7 Tanzania 2 1 8 Uganda 2 1 9 Zimbabwe 2 2 South Asia 2 2 1 Afghanistan 2 2 2 Bangladesh 2 2 3 India 2 2 3 1 Legislation 2 2 4 Nepal 2 2 5 Pakistan 2 2 6 Sri Lanka 2 3 Southeast Asia 2 3 1 Cambodia 2 3 2 Indonesia 2 3 3 Philippines 2 3 4 Thailand 2 4 East Asia 2 4 1 China 2 5 Europe 2 5 1 France 2 5 2 Italy 2 5 3 Portugal 2 5 4 United Kingdom 2 5 5 Montenegro 2 6 The Americas 2 6 1 El Salvador 2 6 2 Guatemala 2 6 3 United States 2 6 4 Cuba 2 6 5 Peru 3 Fuel efficiency and pollution 4 See also 5 Explanatory notes 6 References 7 External linksOrigin Edit Daihatsu Midget Model DKA In the 1930s Japan which was the most industrialized country in east Asia at the time encouraged the development of motorized vehicles including less expensive three wheeled vehicles based on motorcycles The Mazda Go a 3 wheel open truck released in 1931 2 is often considered the first of what became auto rickshaws Later that decade the Japanese Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Japan distributed about 20 000 used three wheelers to Southeast Asia as part of efforts to expand its influence in the region 3 4 5 6 They became popular in some areas especially Thailand which developed local manufacturing and design after the Japanese government abolished the three wheeler license in Japan in 1965 7 Production in Southeast Asia started from the knockdown production of the Daihatsu Midget which was introduced in 1959 8 An exception is the indigenously modified Philippine tricycle which originates from the Rikuo Type 97 motorcycle with a sidecar introduced to the islands in 1941 by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II 9 In Europe Corradino D Ascanio aircraft designer at Piaggio and inventor of the Vespa came up with the idea of building a light three wheeled commercial vehicle to power Italy s post war economic reconstruction The Piaggio Ape followed suit in 1947 Regional variations EditAfrica and the Middle East Edit Egypt Edit Locally named the tuktuk the rickshaw is used for transportation in most parts of Egypt It is generally rare to find in suburban areas and newer parts of cities such as New Cairo and on highways due to police control Gaza Edit Together with the recent boom of recreational facilities in Gaza for the local residents donkey carts have all but been displaced by tuk tuks in 2010 Due to the ban by Egypt and Israel on the import of most motorised vehicles the tuk tuks have had to be smuggled in parts through the tunnel network connecting Gaza with Egypt 10 Madagascar Edit In Madagascar man powered rickshaws are a common form of transportation in a number of cities especially Antsirabe They are known as posy from pousse pousse meaning push push Cycle rickshaws took off since 2006 in a number of flat cities like Toamasina and replaced the major part of the posy and are now threatened by the auto rickshaws introduced in 2009 Provincial capitals like Toamasina Mahajanga Toliara and Antsiranana are taking to them rapidly citation needed They are known as bajaji in the north and tuk tuk or tik tik in the east and are now licensed to operate as taxis citation needed They are not yet allowed an operating licence in the congested and more polluted national capital Antananarivo citation needed 11 12 13 Nigeria Edit Aerial view of autorickshaw congestion from a pedestrian bridge in Uyo Southeast Nigeria The auto rickshaw is used to provide transportation in cities all over Nigeria Popularity and use varies across the country however In Lagos for example the keke Yoruba for bicycle is regulated and transportation around the state s highways is prohibited 14 South Africa Edit Tuk Tuk in Hermanus South Africa 2014 Tuk tuks introduced in Durban 15 in the late 1980s enjoyed growing popularity in recent years particularly in Gauteng 16 In Cape Town they are used to deliver groceries and more recently transport tourists 17 18 Rickshaw in Omdurman Sudan Sudan Edit Rickshaws known as Raksha in Sudan is the most common mean of transportation followed by the bus in the capital Khartoum Tanzania Edit Rickshaws are locally known as bajaji and are a common mode of transportation in Dar es Salaam 19 Uganda Edit A local delivery company called as Sokowatch in 2020 began a pilot project using electric tuk tuks to cut pollution 20 Zimbabwe Edit Hende Moto electric 3 Wheeler Zimbabwe Hende Moto EV amp Taxi company was founded in 2019 by Devine Mafa an American Zimbabwean businessman Hende Moto taxi s were first introduced in Zimbabwe as the first car manufactured by a Zimbabwean three wheeler manufacturing company Hende Moto Pvt Ltd Hende Moto Engine in a Safari fiberglass body The first Hende Moto Taxi was introduced in Kwekwe August 2019 Zimbabwe and thereafter Victoria Falls City came second and lastly Harare 2019 Hende Moto is also the manufacturer of the first Zimbabwean made electric passenger three wheeled vehicle It operates on a lithium ion battery that has a range of 70 miles on a 6 hour charge South Asia Edit Afghanistan Edit A tuk tuk in Herat Auto rickshaws are very common in the eastern Afghan city of Jalalabad where they are popularly decorated in art and colors 21 They are also popular in the northern city of Kunduz 22 Bangladesh Edit CNGs in Dhaka See also Rickshaw art in Bangladesh Auto rickshaws locally called baby taxis and more recently CNGs due to their fuel source compressed natural gas are one of the more popular modes of transport in Bangladesh mainly due to their size and speed They are best suited to narrow crowded streets and are thus the principal means of covering longer distances within urban areas 23 Two stroke engines had been identified as one of the leading sources of air pollution in Dhaka Thus since January 2003 traditional auto rickshaws were banned from the capital only the new natural gas powered models CNG were permitted to operate within the city limits All CNGs are painted green to signify that the vehicles are eco friendly and that each one has a meter built in 24 India Edit Most cities offer auto rickshaw service although cycle rickshaws are also common and even hand pulled rickshaws exist in certain areas such as Kolkata 25 15 57 156 Many state governments have launched an initiative of women friendly rickshaw service called the Pink Rickshaws driven by woman 26 The drivers are known as the Autokaarar auto wallah or tuktuk wallah Auto rickshaws are used in cities and towns for short distances they are less suited to long distances because they are slow and the carriages are open to air pollution 25 57 58 110 Auto rickshaws often called autos provide cheap and efficient transportation Modern auto rickshaws run on electicity as government pushes for e mobility through its FAME II scheme compressed natural gas CNG and liquified petroleum gas LPG due to government regulations and are environmentally friendly compared to full sized cars citation needed nb 1 To augment speedy movement of traffic auto rickshaws are not allowed in the southern part of Mumbai 27 India is the location of the annual Rickshaw Run There are two types of auto rickshaws in India In older versions the engines were below the driver s seat while in newer versions engines are in the rear They normally run on petrol CNG or diesel The seating capacity of a normal rickshaw is four including the driver s seat Six seater rickshaws exist in different parts of the country but the model was officially banned in the city of Pune on 10 January 2003 by the Regional Transport Authority RTA 28 Apart from this modern electric auto rickshaws which runs on electric motor have high torque and loading capacity with better speed is also gaining popularity in India Many auto drivers moved to electric three wheeler as the prices of CNG or Diesel is very high and that type of auto rickshaws are much costlier compared to the electric auto rickshaw Government is also taking actions to convert current CNG and Diesel rickshaws to Electric Rickshaws 29 CNG autos in many cities e g Delhi Agra are distinguishable from the earlier petrol powered autos by a green and yellow livery as opposed to the earlier black and yellow appearance In other cities such as Mumbai the only distinguishing feature is the CNG print found on the back or side of the auto Some local governments are considering four stroke engines instead of two stroke versions citation needed Auto rickshaw manufacturers in India include Bajaj Auto Atul Auto Limited Oculus Auto 30 31 Kerala Automobiles Limited Force Motors Mahindra amp Mahindra Piaggio Ape TVS Motors and Fleek Motors In Delhi there also used to be a variant powered by a Harley Davidson engine called the phat phati because of the sound it made The story goes that shortly after Independence a stock of Harley Davidson motorbikes were found that had been used by British troops during World War II and left behind in a military storage house in Delhi Some enterprising drivers purchased these bikes added on a gear box probably from a Willys jeep welded on a passenger compartment that was good for four to six passengers and put the unconventional vehicles onto the roads A 1998 ruling of the Supreme Court against the use of polluting vehicles finally signed the death warrant of Delhi s phat phatis 32 33 34 35 As of 2018 update India has about 1 5 million battery powered three wheeled rickshaws on its roads Some 11 000 new ones hit the streets each month creating a US 1 5 billion market Manufacturers include Mahindra amp Mahindra Ltd and Kinetic Engineering A hindrance to adoption to electric vehicles is the paucity of charging stations India had only 425 at year end 2017 By 2022 the number is projected to rise to 2 800 36 Oculus Auto s electric auto rickshaw in Gujarat CNG green auto rickshaw in Delhi A bajaj auto rickshaw at Hyderabad A Piaggio Ape auto rickshaw at Madurai A bajaj auto rickshaw at Mumbai A bajaj auto rickshaw at Bengaluru Legislation Edit Generally rickshaw fares are controlled by the government 37 however auto and taxi driver unions frequently go on strike demanding fare hikes They have also gone on strike multiple times in Delhi to protest against the government and High Court s 2012 order to install GPS systems and even though GPS installation in public transport was made mandatory in 2015 as of 2017 compliance remains very low 38 39 40 Nepal Edit Auto rickshaws were a popular mode of transport in Nepal during the 1980s and 1990s until the government banned the movement of 600 such vehicles in the early 2000s 41 The earliest auto rickshaws running in Kathmandu were manufactured by Bajaj Auto citation needed Nepal has been a popular destination for the Rickshaw Run The 2009 Fall Run took place in Goa India and ended in Pokhara Nepal 42 Pakistan Edit Auto rickshaws are a popular mode of transport in Pakistani towns 43 and are mainly used for travelling short distances within cities One of the major manufacturers of auto rickshaws is Piaggio The government is taking measures to convert all gasoline powered auto rickshaws to cleaner CNG rickshaws by 2015 in all the major cities of Pakistan by issuing easy loans through commercial banks Environment Canada is implementing pilot projects in Lahore Karachi and Quetta with engine technology developed in Mississauga Ontario Canada that uses CNG instead of gasoline in the two stroke engines in an effort to combat environmental pollution and noise levels citation needed In many cities in Pakistan there are also motorcycle rickshaws usually called chand gari moon car or chingchi after the Chinese company Jinan Qingqi Motorcycle Co Ltd who first introduced these to the market citation needed There are many rickshaw manufacturers in Pakistan Lahore is the hub of CNG auto rickshaw manufacturing Manufacturers include New Asia automobile Pvt Ltd AECO Export Company STAHLCO Motors Global Sources Parhiyar Automobiles Global Ledsys Technologies Siwa Industries Prime Punjab Automobiles Murshid Farm Industries Sazgar Automobiles NTN Enterprises and Imperial Engineering Company Chingchee in Pakistan Auto rickshaw Karachi Auto rickshaw Karachi Auto rickshaw LahoreSri Lanka Edit Trishaw in Polonnaruwa Sri Lanka Auto rickshaws commonly known as Three wheelers tuk tuks Sinhala ට ක ට ක pronounced ṭuk ṭuk or trishaws can be found on all roads in Sri Lanka from the curvy roads in the hill country to the congested roads of Colombo transporting locals foreigners or freight about Sri Lankan three wheelers are of the style of the light Phnom Penh type Most of the three wheelers in Sri Lanka are a slightly modified Indian Bajaj model imported from India though there are few manufactured locally and increasingly imports from other countries in the region and other brands of three wheelers such as Piaggio Ape As of mid 2018 update a new gasoline powered tuk tuk typically costs around US 4 300 while a newly introduced Chinese electric model cost around US 5 900 44 Since 2008 the Sri Lankan government has banned the import of all 2 stroke gasoline engines due to environmental concerns 44 Ones imported to the island now are four stroke engines Most three wheelers are available as hired vehicles with few being used to haul goods or as private company or advertising vehicles Bajaj enjoys a virtual monopoly in the island with its agent being David Pieries Motor Co Ltd 45 A few three wheelers in Sri Lanka have distance meters In the capital city it is becoming more and more common The vast majority of fares are negotiated between the passenger and driver There are 1 2 million trishaw s in Sri Lanka and most are on financial loans In Sri Lanka tourists are able to drive a tuktuk Through the Automobile Association of Ceylon tourists are able to get a temporary Recognition Permit which allows them to drive a three wheeler legally 46 self published source Southeast Asia Edit Tuktuks and palmyra palms on the Mekong bank in Thakhek Laos Tuk tuk taxi sidecar in Laos Tuk tuk Phnom Penh CambodiaCambodia Edit In Cambodia a passenger carrying three wheeled vehicle is known as lemorque from the French remorque It is a widely used form of transportation in the capital of Phnom Penh and for visitors touring the Angkor temples in Siem Reap Some have four wheels and is composed of a motorcycle which leans and trailer which does not Cambodian cities have a much lower volume of automobile traffic than Thai cities and tuk tuks are still the most common form of urban transport There are more than 6 000 tuk tuks in Phnom Penh according to the Independent Democracy of Informal Economy Association IDEA a union that represents tuk tuk drivers among other members 47 Indonesia Edit In Indonesia auto rickshaws are popular in Jakarta as Bajay Java Medan and Gorontalo as Bentor and some parts of Sulawesi and other places in the country In Jakarta the auto rickshaws are called Bajay or Bajaj and they are the same to as the ones in India but are colored blue for the ones which use Compressed natural gas and orange for the ones which use normal gasoline fuel 48 The blue ones are imported from India with the brand of Bajaj and TVS and the orange ones are the old design from 1990 and are not powered by gas like the blue ones yet the government is increasing units of the blue Bajays and is step by step decreasing the orange bajays 48 The Bajaj is one of the most popular modes of transportation in the city Outside of Jakarta the bentor style auto rickshaw is ubiquitous with the passenger cabin mounted as a sidecar like in Medan or in front like the ones in some parts of Sulawesi to a motorcycle Bentor in North Sumatra Bentor in Tana Toraja South Sulawesi Gasoline fuelled Bajaj in Jakarta CNG fuelled Bajaj in Jakarta Philippines Edit Main article Motorized tricycle Philippines See also Cycle rickshaw Philippines In the Philippines a similar mode of public transport is the tricycle Filipino traysikel Cebuano traysikol 49 Unlike auto rickshaws however it has a motorcycle with a sidecar configuration and a different origin The exact date of its appearance in the Philippines is unknown but it started appearing after World War 2 roughly at the same time as the appearance of the jeepney It is most likely derived from the Rikuo Type 97 military motorcycle used by the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines starting at 1941 The motorcycle was essentially a licensed copy of a Harley Davidson with a sidecar 9 However there is also another hypothesis which places the origin of the tricycle to the similarly built trisikad a human powered cycle rickshaw built in the same configuration as the tricycle However the provenance of the trisikad is also unknown Prior to the tricycles and trisikad the most common means of mass public transport in the Philippines is a carriage pulled by horses or carabaos known as the kalesa calesa or carromata in Philippine Spanish 50 The pulled rickshaw never gained acceptance in the Philippines Americans tried to introduce it in the early 20th century but it was strongly opposed by local Filipinos who viewed it as an undignified mode of transport that turned humans into beasts 51 The design and configuration of tricycles vary widely from place to place but tends towards rough standardization within each municipality The usual design is a passenger or cargo sidecar fitted to a motorbike usually on the right of the motorbike It is rare to find one with a left sidecar A larger variant of the tricycle with the motorcycle in the center enclosed by a passenger cab with two side benches is known as a motorela It is found in the islands of Mindanao Camiguin and Bohol 52 Another notable variant are the tricycles of the Batanes Islands which have cabs made from wood and roofed with thatched cogon grass 53 In Pagadian City tricycles are also uniquely built with the passenger cab slanting upwards due to the city s streets that run along steep hills 54 Tricycles can carry three passengers or more in the sidecar one or two pillion passengers behind the driver and even a few on the roof of the sidecar Tricycles are one of the main contributors to air pollution in the Philippines 55 56 which account for 45 of all volatile organic compound emissions 57 since majority of them employ two stroke engines However some local governments are working towards phasing out two stroke tricycles for ones with cleaner four stroke engines 55 58 Tuk Tuks have now been accepted as Three Wheeled Vehicles by the Land Transportation Office Philippines as distinct from tricycles and are now seen in Philippine streets Electric versions are now seen especially in the city of Manila where they are called e trikes 59 Combustion engine tuktuks are locally distributed by TVS Motors and Bajaj Auto through dealerships 60 Motorized tricycle Dumaguete City 7 passenger tricycle with large sidecar Province of Aklan Tricycle stand Banaue Municipal TownThailand Edit The auto rickshaw called tuk tuk Thai tuk pronounced tuk tuk in Thailand is a widely used form of urban transport in Bangkok and other Thai cities The name is onomatopoeic mimicking the sound of a small often two cycle engine It is particularly popular where traffic congestion is a major problem such as in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima In Bangkok in the 1960s these were called samlaws Bangkok and other cities in Thailand have many tuk tuks which are a more open variation on the Indian auto rickshaw About 20 000 tuk tuks were registered as taxis in Thailand in 2017 61 Bangkok alone is reported to have 9 000 tuk tuks 62 Tuk tuk hua kob tuk hwkb literally frog headed tuk tuk is a unique tuk tuk with a cab looking like a frog s head Only Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya and Trang have vehicles like this 63 64 in 2018 MuvMi an electric tuk tuk ride hailing service launched in Bangkok 65 Tuk tuk in Bangkok Police tuk tuk Chiang Mai Thai northeast Isan style half tuk tuk half songthaew Udon Thani it known as skylab Tuk tuk hua kob Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Electric MuvMi tuk tuk in BangkokEast Asia Edit China Edit Auto rickshaw Haikou Various types of auto rickshaw are used around China where they are called san lun che 三轮车 and sometimes san beng zǐ 三蹦子 meaning three wheeler or tricycle They may be used to transport cargo or passengers in the more rural areas However in many urban areas the auto rickshaws for passengers are often operated illegally as they are considered unsafe and an eyesore 66 67 They are permitted in some towns and cities however The Southeast Asian word tuk tuk is transliterated as du du che 嘟嘟车 or beep beep car in Chinese 68 Europe Edit France Edit A number of tuk tuks 250 in 2013 according to the Paris Prefecture are used as an alternative tourist transport system in Paris some of them being pedal operated with electric motor assist They are not yet fully licensed to operate and await customers on the streets Velotaxis were common during the Occupation years in Paris due to fuel restrictions 69 Italy Edit An Ape C 1956 1967 Auto rickshaws have been commonly used in Italy since the late 1940s providing a low cost means of transportation in the post World War II years when the country was short of economic resources The Piaggio Ape Tukxi designed by Vespa creator Corradino D Ascanio and first manufactured in 1948 by the Italian company Piaggio though primarily designed for carrying freight has also been widely used as an auto rickshaw It is still extremely popular throughout the country being particularly useful in the narrow streets found in the center of many little towns in central and southern Italy Though it no longer has a key role in transportation Piaggio Ape is still used as a minitaxi in some areas such as the islands of Ischia and Stromboli on Stromboli no cars are allowed It has recently been re launched as a trendy ecological means of transportation or relying on the role the Ape played in the history of Italian design as a promotional tool Portugal Edit Tuk Tuk Taxi in Albufeira Portugal Tuk Tuks are used in the resort city of Albufeira in the Algarve as a novel form of transport for visitors during the tourist season United Kingdom Edit Tuk Tuks amp Auto Rickshaws were introduced into the UK by Tukshop in 2004 Founded by mrsteve the first shipments of Bajaj vehicles arrived in Southampton where they were assembled and modified for UK road use Tuctucs booking auto rickshaw at Brighton Marina In 2006 a British travel writer Antonia Bolingbroke Kent and her friend Jo Huxster travelled 12 561 miles 20 215 km with an auto rickshaw from Bangkok to Brighton With this 98 days trip they set a Guinness World Record for the longest journey ever with an auto rickshaw citation needed Montenegro Edit Tuk Tuk Montenegro has implemented tours with electric Tuk Tuks in Kotor Montenegro in 2018 70 The Americas Edit Bajaj mototaxis in El Salvador El Salvador Edit The mototaxi or moto is the El Salvadoran version of the auto rickshaw These are most commonly made from the front end and engine of a motorcycle attached to a two wheeled passenger area in back Commercially produced models such as the Indian Bajaj brand are also employed citation needed Guatemala Edit In Guatemala tuk tuks operate both as taxis and private vehicles in Guatemala City around the island town of Flores Peten in the mountain city of Antigua Guatemala and in many small towns in the mountains In 2005 the tuk tuks were prevalent in the Lago de Atitlan towns of Panajachel and Santiago Atitlan United States Edit In the 1950s and 1960s the United States Post Office replaced in 1971 by the United States Postal Service used the WestCoaster Mailster a close relative of the tuk tuk 71 Similar vehicles remain in limited use for parking enforcement mall security and other niche applications Westcoaster Mailster Cuba Edit In Cuba the autorickshaws are small and look like a coconut hence the name Cocotaxi Cocotaxis in Havana Cuba Peru Edit In Peru a version of this vehicle is called a motocar 72 or mototaxi 73 Fuel efficiency and pollution EditIn July 1998 the Supreme Court of India ordered the Government of Delhi to implement CNG or LPG Autogas fuel for all autos and for the entire bus fleet in and around the city Delhi s air quality has improved with the switch to CNG Initially auto rickshaw drivers in Delhi had to wait in long queues for CNG refueling but the situation improved following an increase in the number of CNG stations Gradually many state governments passed similar laws thus shifting to CNG or LPG vehicles in most large cities to improve air quality and reduce pollution Certain local governments are pushing for four stroke engines instead of two stroke ones Typical mileage for an Indian made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometres per litre 99 mpg imp 82 mpg US of petrol Pakistan has passed a similar law prohibiting auto rickshaws in certain areas CNG auto rickshaws have started to appear in huge numbers in many Pakistani cities citation needed In January 2007 the Sri Lankan government also banned two stroke trishaws to reduce air pollution In the Philippines 74 there are projects to convert carburated two stroke engines to direct injected via Envirofit technology Research has shown LPG or CNG gas direct injection can be retrofitted to existing engines in similar fashion to the Envirofit system 75 In Vigan City majority of tricycles for hire as of 2008 are powered by motorcycles with four stroke engines as tricycles with two stroke motorcycles are prevented from receiving operating permits Direct injection is standard equipment on new machines in India 76 77 In March 2009 an international consortium coordinated by the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies initiated a two year public private partnership of local and international stakeholders aiming at operating a fleet of 15 hydrogen fueled three wheeled vehicles in New Delhi s Pragati Maidan complex 78 As of January 2011 the project was nearing completion citation needed Hydrogen internal combustion HICV use in three wheelers has only recently being started to be looked into mainly by developing countries to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost 79 80 At some point Bajaj Auto made a HICV auto rickshaw together with the company Energy Conversion Devices 81 They made a report on it called Clean Hydrogen Technology for 3 Wheel Transportation in India and it stated that the performance was comparable with CNG autos In 2012 Mahindra amp Mahindra showcased their first HICV auto rickshaw called the Mahindra HyAlfa 81 The development of the hydrogen powered rickshaw happened with support from the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies See also EditFuel gas powered scooter Formic acid vehicle a type of hydrogen based vehicle Jeepney Rickshaw disambiguation Explanatory notes Edit Typical fuel economy for an Indian made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometres per litre 99 mpg imp 82 mpg US of petrol citation needed References Edit Bajaj Auto in top gear Fortune India Great Cars of Mazda Mazda Go 3 wheeled Trucks 1931 Mazda Motor Corporation Archived from the original on 2019 02 09 ミゼット物語 木村信之 著 高原書店 Nobuyuki Kimura Story of Midget Published on 10 November 1998 Daihatsu Motor Co Ltd public relations section NPOみらいネットワーク寄附講座 ホテル観光学科の学生に日タイ関係をピーアール 日本での就職機会に関心 Bangkok Shuho in Japanese 2007 11 19 Archived from the original on 2009 04 30 index php option com content amp view article amp id 321 2009 11 30 05 34 59 amp catid 54 2009 09 09 07 52 31 amp Itemid 232 Royal Thai Embassy Tokyo Japan 日本生まれのタイのトゥクトゥク Tuk Tuk of Thailand was born in Japan Tuk Tuk Thailand s most notorious mode of transport deSIAM www desiam com ダイハツ ミゼット DKA DSA型 幌付3輪スクーター型トラック 旧式商用車図鑑 route0030 blog fc2 com a b The History of the Philippines Tricycle Tuk Tuk 3 Wheelers 22 November 2018 Retrieved 25 March 2020 Tuk Tuks replace mules on Gaza streets Maan News Agency 12 September 2010 Retrieved 2011 03 22 Jay Heale Zawiah Abdul Latif 2008 Madagascar Volume 15 of Cultures of the World Cultures of the World Group 15 2 ed Marshall Cavendish pp 75 76 ISBN 978 0761430360 Madagascar Travel Guide 7 ed Lonely Planet 2012 ISBN 978 1743213018 Retrieved 2013 04 13 Bajaj a Mahajanga Entre 70 et 100 clients par jour Midi Madagasikara in French 2014 05 30 Odunsi Wale 16 November 2017 Lagos bans okada keke from 520 roads areas Full list Daily Post Durban offers beaches and culteral diversity Zululand Tourism Retrieved 22 September 2015 Tuk Tuks Mororised covered tricycles which carry up to six passengers Ideal for short hops between the beachfront and city centre Steyn Lisa 18 January 2013 Cheap cheap tuk tuk taxis take over Jozi Retrieved 22 September 2015 Tuk tuks also known as auto rickshaws are becoming an increasingly common sight on South Africa s roads because people are trying to travel short distances at lower costs than driving and at less risk than walking Ryan Tamlyn September 2016 Tuk tuks are coming to Cape Town Inside Guide Govender Suthentira 2017 01 25 Buddibox grocery delivery programme set to create 10 000 young entrepreneurs in Gauteng TimesLIVE Kalagho Kenan 13 February 2012 Tanzania Bajaji Dar es Salaam s Indispensable Taxi AllAfrica Retrieved 22 September 2015 Until the year 2010 Dar es Salaam had no room for the Indian Bajaji and or a tricycle to be used as a means of transporting passengers Today it is a common feature around Dar es Salaam Clean Technica Eat Africa s first commercial electric tuk tuks 4 December 2020 McHugh John D In Taliban country inside the city of Jalalabad The Irish Times Auto rickshaws clogging Kunduz arteries www pajhwok com 23 May 2012 Lane Jo Asia s love affair with the rickshaw asiancorrespondent com asiancorrespondent com Retrieved 2015 07 30 Police purge for Dhaka rickshaws BBC News 20 December 2002 Retrieved 2011 03 22 a b Pippa de Bruyn Keith Bain David Allardice Shonar Joshi 2010 Frommer s India Fourth ed John Wiley and Sons ISBN 978 0470645802 PINK AUTO RICKSHAW PROJECT PDF July 17 2019 Pippa de Bruyn Keith Bain David Allardice Shonar Joshi 2010 Frommer s India Fourth ed John Wiley and Sons p 110 ISBN 978 0470645802 Six seater rickshaws banned in city Times of India 25 September 2003 Retrieved 2014 01 11 Patna Transport department to ban all diesel run buses auto rickshaws from April 1 India Today March 29 2022 Retrieved 2022 03 29 OCULUS AUTO launches its new Electric Auto Rickshaw MI7 packed with Best in class features About Oculus Remembering Delhi s phat phatis India News The Times of India Domain parked by OnlyDomains olddelhiheritage in The Phatphatis of Delhi 23 September 2011 Phat Phatis of Delhi Toothless Blog MouthShut com www mouthshut com Ward Jill Upadhyay Anindya 26 October 2018 India s Rickshaw Revolution Leaves China in the Dustina in dust Bloomberg Retrieved 28 October 2018 Maharashtra Govt refuses to increase autorickshaw taxi fares newKerala com UNI Archived from the original on 2013 05 18 Autos taxis in Delhi to go on strike today demanding fare hike India Today 15 October 2012 Retrieved 2017 02 19 Delhi High Court Directs City Auto Rickshaws To Install GPS Medianama 28 September 2012 Retrieved 2017 02 19 GPS installation in public transport becomes mandatory Times of India 2 June 2015 Retrieved 2017 02 19 Nepal Government decides to ban 3 wheeler auto rickshaws from Nepal s road BBC 28 July 1999 Retrieved 2011 12 06 Rickshaw Run on 3 Wheelers from Goa India to Pokhara Nepal The National 29 August 2009 Retrieved 2011 12 06 Sebastian Abbot Associated Press 8 February 2013 Eye Catching Rickshaws Promote Peace in Pakistan ABC News Retrieved 2013 04 13 a b Ranasinghe A K 3 September 2018 Can He Convince Sri Lankan Tuk Tuk Owners to Go Green OZY Retrieved 3 September 2018 Tuk tuks play a vital role in urban Sri Lanka s passenger transport system providing what traffic experts call last mile service Police and government workers rely on them too to navigate congested streets In rural Sri Lanka they are everything from taxi to ambulance Bajaj ready with 4 stroke autos for SL Indiacar net Archived from the original on 2009 06 27 Retrieved 2010 04 03 Renting amp Driving a Tuk Tuk in Sri Lanka Full 2022 Guide Wilkins Emily 19 February 2014 New Futuristic Tuk Tuks Arrive on the Streets of Phnom Penh The Cambodia Daily Retrieved 30 January 2015 a b Bajaj Oranye Menunggu Giliran Dimusnahkan Republika Online in Indonesian 7 January 2016 Retrieved 26 May 2018 Motorcycles and tricycles Utrecht Faculty of Education Archived from the original on 7 March 2009 Retrieved 2009 03 14 Filipino Icon Tricycle and Pedicab FFE Magazine 29 December 2016 Retrieved 25 March 2020 Pante Michael D 14 August 2014 Rickshaws and Filipinos Transnational Meanings of Technology and Labor in American Occupied Manila International Review of Social History 59 S22 133 159 doi 10 1017 S0020859014000315 Tricycle Motorela amp Habal Habal Silent Gardens Retrieved 25 March 2020 Corsino Nikka 24 October 2013 A day on Sabtang Island in Batanes GMA News Online Retrieved 25 March 2020 WATCH What makes Pagadian tricycles unique Rappler 23 January 2017 Retrieved 25 March 2020 a b Tricycles in the Philippines cleanairasia org Retrieved 7 January 2019 Taruc Paolo 25 March 2015 Tricycles As iconic as jeepneys and just as problematic CNN Philippines Retrieved 7 January 2019 Felongco Gilbert P 22 November 2015 Philippines Tricycles and motorcycles responsible for 45 per cent of harmful emissions Gulf News Retrieved 7 January 2019 Mandaluyong City 2 Stroke Replacement Project cleanairasia org Retrieved 7 January 2019 E R A P Manila electric tricycle project Second batch of beneficiaries ready www bemac philippines com TVS King Deluxe Three Wheeler Vs Tricycle Tuk Tuk 3 Wheelers 20 October 2019 Wattanasukchai Sirinya 2 February 2017 With our tuk tuks let s copy the Dutch Bangkok Post Retrieved 2 February 2017 Thailand government says Bangkok has too many tuk tuks Asian Correspondent 2016 04 15 Retrieved 2016 04 15 Frog headed Tuk Tuk Symbol of Aytthaya Go Ayutthaya Retrieved 2019 05 30 Muangkaew Methee 2013 02 19 Tuk tuk endangered species in Trang Bangkok Post Retrieved 2019 05 30 MuvMi ThailandMagazine com 2022 02 15 Retrieved 2022 06 18 明珠路上规模浩大的等客车队 危险逆行载客 珠江晚报 3 November 2009 Archived from the original on 2015 04 04 天津 面对 三蹦子 请您大声说 不 auto sohu 東南亞的三輪車 Global Voices 25 March 2012 A Paris les tuk tuks fleurissent tout comme les PV La Depeche in French Toulouse AFP 2013 08 20 A little bit about us Tuk Tuk Montenegro Retrieved 2022 01 12 National Postal Museum 25 August 2009 Archived from the original on 25 August 2009 Motocar Peru Motor Archived from the original on 3 October 2018 Tony Dunnell 28 July 2017 A Traveler s Guide to Mototaxis in Peru tripsavvy Retrieved 27 November 2017 Envirofit s Tricycle Retrofit Program Funded Colorado State University 19 May 2006 Archived from the original on 29 September 2011 Retrieved 2011 03 22 Microsoft Word SETC LPG2T doc PDF Retrieved 2010 04 03 Bajaj rolls out low emission fuel efficient autorickshaw Business Line The Hindu 2007 12 09 Retrieved 2010 04 03 Bajaj Begins Production of 2 Stroke Direct Injection Auto Rickshaw Green Car Congress 2007 05 18 Retrieved 2010 04 03 A fleet of hydrogen rickshaws to circulate in New Delhi by 2010 International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies Archived from the original on 2011 07 28 Retrieved 2011 03 22 Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engines see page 7 Clean Hydrogen Technology for 3 Wheel Transportation in India a b India Showcases Hydrogen Fuel Auto Rickshaws February 21 2012 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Auto rickshaws The India 1000 an article in Wired about auto rickshaw racing Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Auto rickshaw amp oldid 1093778553, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.