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For other uses, see Tumulus (disambiguation).

A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.

Tomb of King Alyattes at Bin Tepe in Lydia, modern Turkey, built circa 560 BC. It is "one of the largest tumuli ever built", with a diameter of 360 meters and a height of 61 meters.
The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries. Originally, the site had 2,000 to 3,000 tumuli, but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain.
One of the Hallstatt culture-era tumuli in the Sulm valley necropolis

Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range; the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape.

The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb. Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe.

The word tumulus is Latin for 'mound' or 'small hill', which is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *teuh2- with extended zero grade *tum-, 'to bulge, swell' also found in tomb, tumor, tumescent, thumb, thigh, and thousand.

Contents

The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad. Patroclus is burned on a pyre, and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre. Achilles then sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, boxing, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing, archery and spear throwing.

Beowulf's body is taken to Hronesness, where it is burned on a funeral pyre. During cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widow's lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, and filled with treasure. A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord.

Parallels have also been drawn to the account of Attila's burial in Jordanes' Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attila's body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games.

An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession "halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, and the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot."

Archaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location, form, and date of construction (see also mound). Some British types are listed below:

  • Bank barrow
  • Bell barrow
  • Bowl barrow
  • D-shaped barrow – round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs.
  • Disc barrow
  • Fancy barrow – generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape.
  • Long barrow
  • Oval barrow – a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound.
  • Platform barrow – The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex.
  • Pond barrow – a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression, from the Bronze Age.
  • Ring barrow – a bank that encircles a number of burials.
  • Round barrow – a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and also the later Romans, Vikings, and Saxons. Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow – the Six Hills are a rare Roman example.
  • Saucer barrow – a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low, wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank.
  • Square barrow – burial site, usually of Iron Age date, consisting of a small, square, ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial, which may also have been covered by a mound.
Soulton Long Barrow, an example of the modern barrows

There is a contemporary revival in barrow building in the UK. In 2015 the first long barrow in thousands of years, the Long Barrow at All Cannings, inspired by those built in the Neolithic era, was built on land just outside the village of All Cannings. The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns.

This was followed by new barrows at:

Plans have also been announced for a barrow in Milton Keynes and in Powis.

Africa

Horn of Africa

Salweyn in Somaliland contains a very large field of cairns, which stretches for a distance of around 8 km. An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Révoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb, beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient, advanced civilization. The interred objects included pottery shards from Samos, some well-crafted enamels, and a mask of Ancient Greek design.

West Africa

Preceded by assumed earlier sites in the Eastern Sahara, tumuli with megalithic monuments developed as early as 4700 BC in the Saharan region of Niger. These megalithic monuments in the Saharan region of Niger and the Eastern Sahara may have served as antecedents for the mastabas and pyramids of ancient Egypt.

In Niger, there are two monumental tumuli – a cairn burial (5695 BP – 5101 BP) at Adrar Bous, and a tumulus covered with gravel (6229 BP – 4933 BP) at Iwelen, in the Aïr Mountains. Tenerians did not construct the two monumental tumuli at Adrar Bous and Iwelen. Rather, Tenerians constructed cattle tumuli at a time before the two monumental tumuli were constructed.

The Tichitt Tradition of eastern Mauritania dates from 2200 BC to 200 BC. Within the settled areas of Tichitt Culture (e.g., Dhar Tichitt, Dhar Tagant, Dhar Walata), with stone walls, which vary in scale from (e.g., 2 hectares, 80 hectares), there were walled agricultural land utilized for livestock or gardening as well as land with granaries and tumuli. Based on the hundreds of tumuli present in Dhar Tichitt, compared to a dozen tumuli present in Dhar Walata, it is likely that Dhar Tichitt was the primary center of religion for the people of Tichitt culture.

At Wanar, Senegal, megalithic monolith-circles and tumuli (1300/1100 BC – 1400/1500 AD) were constructed by West Africans who had a complex hierarchical society. In the mid-region of the Senegal River Valley, the Serer people may have created tumuli (before 13th century AD), shell middens (7th century AD – 13th century AD) in the central-west region, and shell middens (200 BC – Present) in the southern region. The funerary tumuli-building tradition of West Africa was widespread and a regular practice amid 1st millennium AD. More than ten thousand large funerary tumuli exist in Senegal.

At the Inner Niger Delta, in the Mali Lakes Region, there are two monumental tumuli constructed in the time period of the Trans-Saharan trade for the Sahelian kingdoms of West Africa. The El Oualadji monumental tumulus, which dates between 1030 AD and 1220 AD and has two human remains buried with horse remains and various items (e.g., horse harnesses, horse trappings with plaques and bells, bracelets, rings, beads, iron items), may have been, as highlighted by al-Bakri, the royal burial site of a king from the Ghana Empire. The Koï Gourrey monumental tumulus, which may date prior to 1326 AD and has over twenty human remains that were buried with various items (e.g., iron accessories, an abundant amount of copper bracelets, anklets and beads, an abundant amount of broken, but whole pottery, another set of distinct, intact, glazed pottery, a wooden-beaded bone necklace, a bird figurine, a lizard figurine, a crocodile figurine), and is situated within the Mali Empire.

Asia

Central Asia

Main article: Kurgan

The word kurgan is of Turkic origin, derives from Proto-Turkic *Kur- ("to erect (a building), to establish"). In Ukraine and Russia, there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains, such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv (excavated in the 19th century), Oleg's Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga, and vast, intricate Rurik's Hill near Russian Novgorod. Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples, notably the Scythians (e.g., Chortomlyk, Pazyryk) and early Indo-Europeans (e.g., Ipatovo kurgan) The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia naturally continue into Central Asia, in particular Kazakhstan.

It is constructed over a grave, often characterized by containing a single human body along with grave vessels, weapons and horses. Originally in use on the Pontic–Caspian steppe, kurgans spread into much of Central Asia and Eastern, Southeast, Western and Northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BC.

The earliest kurgans date to the 4th millennium BC in the Caucasus, and researchers associate these with the Indo-Europeans. Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic, Bronze, Iron, Antiquity and Middle Ages, with ancient traditions still active in Southern Siberia and Central Asia.

Near East

Turkey
The "Tomb of Midas" in Gordion, dated 740 BC.

On the Anatolian peninsula, there are several sites where one can find the biggest specimens of these artificial mounds throughout the world. Three of these sites are especially important. Bin Tepeler (and other Lydian mounds of the Aegean inland), Phrygian mounds in Gordium (Central Anatolia), and the famous Commagene tumulus on the Mount Nemrut (Southeastern Anatolia).

This is the most important of the enumerated sites with the number of specimens it has and with the dimensions of certain among them. It is in the Aegean inland of Turkey. The site is called "Bin Tepeler" (a thousand mounds in Turkish) and it is in the northwest of Salihli district of Manisa province. The site is very close to the southern shoreline of Lake Marmara (Lake Gyges or Gygaea). Bin Tepeler is a Lydian necropolis that dates back to 7th and 6th centuries BC. These mounds are called "the pyramids of Anatolia", as a giant specimen among them is 355 metres in diameter, 1115 metres in perimeter and 69 metres high. According to Herodotus, this giant tumulus belongs to the famous Lydian King Alyattes who ruled between 619 and 560 BC. There is also another mound belonging to King Gyges. The Gyges mound was excavated but the burial chamber hasn't been found yet. In this site, there are 75 tumuli dating back to Lydian period that belong to the nobility. A large number of smaller artificial mounds can also be observed in the site. There are other Lydian tumuli sites around Eşme district of Uşak province. Certain mounds in these sites had been plundered by raiders in the late 1960s, and the Lydian treasures found in their burial chambers were smuggled to the United States, which later returned them to Turkish authorities after negotiations. These artifacts are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Uşak.

Tumulus MM, Gordion, at sunset

Gordium (Gordion) was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Phrygia. Its ruins are in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı, near the Turkish capital Ankara. At this site, approximately 80–90 tumuli date back to the Phrygian, Persian and Hellenistic periods. Around 35 tumuli have been excavated so far, ranging in date from the 8th century BC to the 3rd or 2nd century BC. The biggest tumulus at the site is believed to have covered the burial of the famous Phrygian King Midas or that of his father. This mound, called Tumulus MM (for "Midas Mound"), was excavated in 1957 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania Museum, led by Rodney Young and his graduate students. Among the many fine bronze artifacts recovered from the wooden burial chamber were 170 bronze vessels, including numerous "omphalos bowls", and more than 180 bronze "Phrygian fibulae" (ancient safety pins). The wooden furniture found in the tomb is especially noteworthy, as wood seldom survives from archaeological contexts: the collection included nine tables, one of them elaborately carved and inlaid, and two ceremonial serving stands inlaid with religious symbols and geometric patterns. Important bronze and wooden artifacts were also found in other tumulus burials at the site.

The Mount Nemrut is 86 km in the east of Adıyaman province of Turkey. It is very close to Kahta district of the same province. The mountain has, at its peak, 3050 metres of height above the sea level. A tumulus that dates to the 1st century BC is at the peak of the mountain. This artificial mound has 150 metres of diameter and a height of 50 metres, which was originally 55 metres. It belongs to the Commagene King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene who ruled between 69 and 40 BC. This tumulus is made of broken stone pieces, which renders excavation attempts almost impossible. The tumulus is surrounded by ceremonial terraces in the east, west, and north. The east and west terraces have tremendous statues (reaching 8 to 10 meters of height) and bas reliefs of gods and goddesses from the Commagene pantheon where divine figures used to embody the Persian and Roman perceptions together.

Israel
Jerusalem tumulus #2 in 2004

A tumulus forms the center of the ancient megalithic structure of Rujm el-Hiri in the Golan Heights. Rujm in Arabic can mean tumulus, cairn or stone heap. Near the western city limits of modern Jerusalem, 19 tumuli have been documented (Amiran, 1958). Though first noticed in the 1870s by early surveyors, the first one to be formally documented was Tumulus #2 in 1923 by William Foxwell Albright, and the most recent one (Tumulus #4) was excavated by Gabriel Barkay in 1983. The association of these tumuli with the Judean kings who ruled Jerusalem does not substantiate Biblical history since it is mere speculation. No inscriptions naming any specific Judean king have been excavated from a tumulus.

  • More than half of these ancient Israeli structures have now been threatened or obliterated by modern construction projects, including Tumulus #4, which was excavated hastily in a salvage operation. The most noteworthy finds from this dig were two LMLK seal impressions and two other handles with associated Concentric Circle incisions, all of which suggests this tumulus belonged to either King Hezekiah or his son Manasseh.
  • When comparing the number of these tumuli to the total number of Israelite kings (northern and southern), note that Saul never ruled in Jerusalem, and Athaliah was never crowned. She took the throne by force (2Kings 11:1–3), and would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony following her brutal assassination.
  • The northern kings did not reign over the southern kingdom, and they would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony in Jerusalem; if any ceremonies were held for them, they would have transpired in the north (near Bethel, Tirzah, or Samaria).

South Asia

India

The Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam built octagonal tumuli called Maidams for their kings and high officials. The kings were buried in a hillock at Charaideo in Sibsagar district of Assam, whereas other Maidams are found scattered more widely.

Pakistan

The damb was a type of mound, or small stone structure, found in Balochistan, including the coastal areas of Makran.

East Asia

China

The Chinese pyramids house the remains of some of China's former emperors.

Before the expansion of Shang and Zhou culture through the region, many hundreds of tumuli were also constructed by the "Baiyue" peoples of the Yangtze valley and southeastern China.

Japan
Daisen Kofun, the largest of all kofun

In Japan, powerful leaders built tumuli known as kofun. The Kofun period of Japanese history takes its name from these burial mounds. The largest is Daisen-ryo Kofun, or more commonly Nintoku-ryo Kofun, with a length of 840 metres. In addition to other shapes, kofun include a keyhole shape, typically seen in Daisen Kofun. Foreign museums possess some grave goods.

Korea
Burial mounds of the Silla kings in Korea

see also Cheonmachong, the Heavenly Horse Tomb

The first burial mounds in Korea were dolmens, which contained material from cultures of the 1st millennium AD, such as bronze-ware, pottery, and other symbols of society elite. The most famous tumuli in Korea, dating around 300 AD, are those left behind by the Korean Baekje, Goguryeo (Kogyuro/Koguryo), Silla, and Gaya states and are clustered around ancient capital cities in modern-day Pyongyang, Ji'an, Jilin, Seoul, and Gyeongju. The Goguryeo tombs, shaped like pyramids, are famous for the well-preserved wall murals like the ones at Anak Tomb No.3, which depict the culture and artistry of the people. The base of the tomb of King Gwanggaeto is 85 meters on each side, half of the size of the Great Pyramids. Goguryeo Silla tombs are most noted for the fabulous offerings that have been excavated such as delicate golden crowns and glassware and beads that probably made their way to Korea via the Silk Road. Many indigenous Korean artifacts and culture were transmitted to the tomb builders of early Japan, such as horsetrappings, bronze mirrors, paintings and iron-ware.

Europe

Southeast Europe

Albania

Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania. Some well-known local tumuli are:

Bosnia and Herzegovina

More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres. Man from Kupres – the skeleton found in one of the tumuli is believed to be more than 3000 years old and it is kept in Gorica museum in Livno. Glasinac has many tumuli. During the Bronze and Iron Age it was a place of strong Glasinac culture, who buried their dead in tumulus.

Bulgaria
Memorial of the Battle of Varna dedicated to Władysław III of Poland dug into an ancient Thracian tumulus

On the territory of Bulgaria there are over 60,000 ancient Thracian mounds, of which only about 1,000 have been studied. There are also Roman and Thraco-Roman burial tombs. Those tumulus over ancient tombs, temples and sanctuaries are found throughout the whole territory of Bulgaria. Some of the world's most significant and famous being the Kazanlak and Sveshtari tombs, UNESCO World Heritage sites. Located near the ancient Thracian capital cities of Seuthopolis (of the Odrysian kingdom) and Daosdava or Helis (of the Getae), perhaps they represented royal burials. Other notable tumulus are Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo, Thracian tomb Golyama Arsenalka, Thracian tomb Shushmanets, Thracian tomb Griffins, Thracian tomb Helvetia, Thracian tomb Ostrusha, Tomb of Seuthes III and the other tombs around Starosel, others contained offerings such as the Panagyurishte and Rogozen treasures. Some of the sites are located in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers. The mound of the Tomb of Seuthes III “Golyama Kosmatka” is among the largest mounds in Thrace, with a maximum height of 23 m. and a diameter of 130 m.

Croatia

There are thousands of tumuli throughout all Croatia, built of stone (Croatian: gomila, gromila) in the karst areas (by the Adriatic Sea) or made of earth (Croatian: humak) in the inland plains and hills. Most of these prehistoric structures were built in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC, from the middle Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age, by the Illyrians or their direct ancestors in the same place; the Liburnian inhumation of dead under tumuli was certainly inherited from the earlier times, as early as the Copper Age. Smaller tumuli were used as the burial mounds, while bigger (some up to 7 metres high with 60 metres long base) were the cenotaphs (empty tombs) and ritual places.

Greece
Main article: Vergina

Some of the world's most prominent Tumuli, the Macedonian tombs and a cist-grave at Vergina include the tomb of Philip II (359–336 BC), father of Alexander the Great (336–323 BC), as well as the tomb of Alexander IV (323–309 BC), son of Alexander the Great. A very large tumulus has been discovered in Amphipolis. Known as the Kasta Tomb, the tomb's occupant is presently unknown. Also numerous Mycenaean Greek Tombs are in all essence Tumuli, notably Agamemnon's site in Mycenae, and other sites in Tiryns, near Olympia and Pylos, and mostly in the Peloponnese peninsula near Mycenaean sites and Bronze Age settlements. Moreover, in Central Greece there are numerous Tumuli, some excavated, others not. A notable one is in Marathon, serving as a burial for the ones who fell during battle.

As of October 2014 there are ongoing excavations at the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis, Macedonia, Greece with the tumulus having a perimeter of 497 meters. The tomb within is assessed to be an ancient Macedonian burial monument of the last quarter of the 4th century BC.

Hungary

There are over 40,000 tumuli in the Great Hungarian Plain, the highest is Gödény-halom near the settlement of Békésszentandrás, in Békés county.

Sírhalom origins and forms are diverse: tells, graves, border barrows, watcher barrows.

Serbia

Western and Central Europe

Austria
Großmugl in Austria
Belgium
United Kingdom
Part of the burial ground at Sutton Hoo, Suffolk

In the United Kingdom, barrows of a wide range of types were in widespread use for burying the dead from the late Neolithic until the end of the Bronze Age, 2900–800 BC. Square barrows were occasionally used in the Iron Age (800 BC-43 AD) in the east of England. The traditional round barrow experienced a brief resurgence following the Anglo-Saxon conquests, with the introduction of northern Germanic burial practices from continental Europe. These later barrows were often built near older Bronze Age barrows. They included a few instances of ship burial. Barrow burial fell out of use during the 7th century as a result of the spread of Christianity. Early scholarly investigation of tumuli and theorising as to their origins was undertaken from the 17th century by antiquaries, notably John Aubrey, and William Stukeley. During the 19th century in England the excavation of tumuli was a popular pastime amongst the educated and wealthy upper classes, who became known as "barrow-diggers". This leisure activity played a key role in laying the foundations for the scientific study of the past in Britain but also resulted in untold damage to the sites.

Notable British barrows include:

Czech Republic

During the early Middle Ages, Slavic tribesmen inhabiting what is now the Czech Republic used to bury their dead under barrows. This practice has been widespread in southern and eastern Bohemia and some neighbouring regions, like Upper Austria and Lusatia, which at that time have been also populated with Slavic people. There are no known Slavic barrows in the central part of the country (around Prague), nor are they found in Moravia. This has led some of the archaeologists to speculations about at least three distinct waves of Slavic settlers, who colonized Czech lands separately from each other, each wave bringing its customs with it (including burial rituals).

At places where barrows have been constructed, they are usually found in groups (10 to 100 together), often forming several clearly distinct lines going from the west to the east. Only a few of them have been studied scientifically so far; in them, both burials by fire (with burnt ashes) and unburned skeletons have been found, even on the same site. It seems that builders of the barrows have at some time switched from burials by fire to burying of unburned corpses; the reason for such change is unknown. The barrows date too far back in history (700 AD to 800 AD) to contain any Christian influences.

Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. Painting by Viktor Vasnetsov.

As Czech barrows usually served for burials of poor villagers, only a few objects are found in them except for cheap pottery. Only one Slavic barrow is known to have contained gold.

Most of the Czech burial barrows have been damaged or destroyed by intense agriculture in the densely populated region. Those that remain are usually in forests, especially at hilltops in remote places. Therefore, there is no general knowledge about burial barrows among Czech population.

The best Slavic barrow sites can be found near to Vitín, a small village close to České Budějovice. There are two groups of barrows close to Vitín, each containing about 80 barrows ordered in lines. Some of the barrows are as much as 2 metres high.

There are also some prehistoric burial barrows in Czech Republic, built by unknown people. Unlike Slavic barrows, they can be found all across the country, though they are scarce. Distinguishing them from Slavic ones is not an easy task for the unskilled eye. Perhaps the most famous of them forms the top of the Žuráň hill near Slavkov u Brna; it is from here that Napoleon commanded his forces during the Battle of Austerlitz.

France
The mound of Dissignac is a megalithic monument located in the French town of Saint-Nazaire.
Germany

Hügelgrab ("barrow", "burial mound" or "tumulus") sites in Germany dating to the Early and Middle Bronze Age.

Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date Era
Auleben grave-hill field Auleben Nordhausen Thuringia Grave-hill field 1500–1200 BC Bronze Age
Benther hill Badenstedt [de] Region Hannover Lower Saxony Hilly-grave 1800–1100 BC Early Nordic Bronze Age
Kreuzlinger Forst [de]/Mühltal Gauting Munich area Bavaria Hilly-grave 2000–1500 BC Bronze Age
Germans Grave (Itzehoe) [de] Itzehoe Kreis Steinburg Schleswig-Holstein Hilly-grave 1500–1300 BC Bronze Age
Giesen Tumuli [de] Giesen (village) [de] Landkreis Hildesheim Lower Saxony Hilly-grave 1600–1200 BC Bronze Age
Bonstorf Barrows Bonstorf Landkreis Celle Lower Saxony grave-hill field 1500–1200 BC Bronze Age
Lahnberge Tumuli [de] Marburg Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Hesse >200 Hilly-graves 1600 – 5th century BC Middle Bronze Age (Tumulus culture), Late Bronze Age (Urnfield culture), Iron Age (Hallstatt Culture)
Wilhof mountain [de] Willhof Landkreis Schwandorf Bavaria Hilly-grave 1516 BC Middle Bronze Age, early La Tene culture
Daxberg Tumuli (Mömbris) Daxberg (Mömbris) [de] Landkreis Aschaffenburg Bavaria Hilly-grave field 2000–800 BC Iron Age
Hohenfelde Hohenfelde (Mecklenburg) Mecklenburgische Seenplatte Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 7 Hilly-graves 1700 BC Bronze Age
Neu Quitzenow Neu Quitzenow Rostock Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2 Hilly-graves 1800–600 BC
Grabhügel von Leubingen Leubingen Sömmerda Thuringen grave-hill 1940 BC Unetice culture

Barrows or tumuli sites in Germany dating to the Late Bronze and Iron Age.

Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date Era
Pöckinger Gemeindegebiet (Pöcking local community area) Pöcking Munich area Bavaria grave-hill field c. 750–500 BC Hallstatt culture
Glauberg Glauburg Wetteraukreis Hesse Kings graves 5th century BC Early Celtic Age
Lahnberge Marburg Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Hesse >200 Hilly graves c. 1600 – 5th century BC Middle Bronze Age (Tumulus culture), Late Bronze Age (Urnfield culture), Iron Age (Hallstatt Culture)
Hohmichele Hundersingen Landkreis Sigmaringen Baden-Württemberg Kings graves c. 600–450 BC Hallstatt culture
Grave-hill of Hochdorf Hochdorf an der Enz Landkreis Ludwigsburg Baden-Württemberg Hilly-grave 5th century BC Hallstatt culture
Lehbühl Schlaitdorf Landkreis Esslingen Baden-Württemberg Hill-grave c. 600–400 BC Hallstatt culture
Daxberg Tumuli (Mömbris) Daxberg (Mömbris) [de] Landkreis Aschaffenburg Bavaria Hilly-grave field c. 2000–800 BC Iron Age
Daxberg Tumuli (Erkheim) Daxberg (Erkheim) [de] Landkreis Unterallgäu Bavaria Hilly-grave field 8th century BC Iron Age
Neu Quitzenow Neu Quitzenow Rostock Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 2 Hilly-graves c. 1800–600 BC
Royal grave of Seddin [de] Seddin Landkreis Prignitz Brandenburg Kings graves 8th century BC Bronze Age
Pestrup Grave fields [de] Wildeshausen Landkreis Oldenburg Lower Saxony ~ 500 grave-hills c. 900–200 BC Bronze Age
Magdalenenberg Villingen Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis Baden-Württemberg Kings grave c. 616 BC Hallstatt culture
Wagon grave of Bell [de] Bell (Hunsrück) Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis Rhineland-Palatinate Wagon-grave 500 BC Hallstatt culture
Schweinert Tumuli [de] Falkenberg (in Schweinert Nature reserve) Landkreis Elbe-Elster Brandenburg 642-hill-graves field c. 1000 BC
Breitenfeld Neuhausen ob Eck Landkreis Tuttlingen Baden-Württemberg 21 grave-hills c. 700 BC – 450 AD Hallstatt culture

Barrows or tumuli sites in Germany dating to the Stone Age.

Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date Era
Grave fields of Grabau [de] Grabau (Stormarn) Kreis Stormarn Schleswig-Holstein 9 grave-hills 6500–5500 BC Young Stone Age
Mansenberge Groß Berßen Landkreis Emsland Lower Saxony Great stone grave 3600–2800 BC Megalith Culture

Other Barrows/tumuli in Germany of unstated date.

Ireland

A tumulus can be found close to the Grianán of Aileach in County Donegal. It has been suggested by historians such as George Petrie, who surveyed the site in the early 19th century, that the tumulus may predate the ringfort of Aileach by many centuries possibly to the neolithic age. Surrounding stones were laid horizontally, and converged towards the centre. the mound had been excavated in Petrie's time, but nothing explaining its meaning was discovered. It was subsequently destroyed, but its former position is marked by a heap of broken stones. Similar mounds can be found at The Hill of Tara and there are several prominent tumuli at Brú na Bóinne in County Meath.

Interior of the Tomba Margareth, Etruscan tumulus near Blera, Italy
Italy

Some large tumulus tombs can be found especially in the Etruscan culture. Smaller barrows are dated to the Villanova period (ninth-eighth centuries BC) but the biggest were used in the following centuries (from the seventh century afterwards) by the Etruscan aristocracy.

The Etruscan tumuli were normally family tombs that were used for many generation of the same noble family, and the deceased were buried with many precious objects that had to be the "grave goods" or the furnishings for these "houses" in the Afterlife. Many tombs also hold paintings, that in many cases represent the funeral or scenes of real life. The most important graveyards (necropolises) with tumulus tombs are Veio, Cerveteri, Vetulonia, Populonia. Many isolated big barrows can be found in the whole Etruscan territory (mostly in Central Italy). Tumulus of Montopoli is relative of arcaic center Colli della Città along paratiberina way in Tiber valley.

Netherlands
Vorstengraf near Oss (Netherlands) from above
Dissemination of tumuli in the Netherlands; in red "regular" tumuli, in blue urn fields

Burial mounds are the most numerous archaeological monuments in the Netherlands. In many places, these prehistoric graves are still clearly visible as low hills. The oldest tumuli (grafheuvels) in the Netherlands were built near Apeldoorn about 5,000 years ago. Concentrations of tumuli from the Bronze Age are located on the Veluwe and Drenthe.

Early scholarly investigation of tumuli and hunebedden and theorising as to their origins was undertaken from the 17th century by notably Johan Picardt. Although many have disappeared over the centuries, some 3000 tumuli are known of which 636 are protected as Rijksmonument. The largest tumulus in the Netherlands is the grave of a king near Oss. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Drents Museum, and Huis van Hilde have findings from tumuli in their collections.

Portugal
Tumulus at Outeiro de Gregos, Baião, Portugal (5th or 4th millennium BC)

One of the densest manifestations of the megalithic phenomenon in Europe occurred in Portugal. In the north of the country there are more than 1000 late prehistoric barrows. They generally occur in clusters, forming a necropolis. The method of inhumation usually involves a dolmen. The tumuli, dated from c. 4450 to 1900 BC, are up to 3 metres high, with diameters from 6 to 30 metres. Most of them are mounds of earth and stones, but the more recent ones are composed largely or entirely of stones (cairns). In Portuguese, barrows are calledmamoas, from the Latinmammulas, given to them by the Romans because of their shape, similar to the breast of a woman.

Scandinavia

Burial mounds were in use from the Stone Age until the 11th century in Scandinavia and figure heavily in Norse paganism. In their original state they usually appear as small, man-made hillocks, though many examples have been damaged by ploughing or plundering so that little visible evidence remains.

The tumuli of Scandinavia is of a great variety of designs, depending on the cultural traditions of the era in which they were constructed. The tumuli tombs may contain single graves, collective graves and both inhumation and cremation was practiced, again depending on the era, but also on geography. Many tumuli in Scandinavia shows a continuation of use from Stone Age to Viking Age. In the Viking Age (and perhaps in earlier times as well) burning the deceased, was believed to transfer the person to Valhalla by the consuming force of fire. Archaeological finds testifies that the cremation fire could reach temperatures of up to 1500 °C. The remains were often covered with cobblestones and then a layer of gravel and sand and finally a thin layer of turf or placed in urns. The tumuli were used for ancestral worshipping, an important practice in Norse culture and many places shows continuation of use for millennia.

Thus he (Odin) established by law that all dead men should be burned, and their belongings laid with them on the pile, and the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth. Thus, said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had with him upon the pile, and he would also enjoy whatever he himself buried in the earth. For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors distinguished for manhood, a standing stone. This custom remained long after Odin's time. [...] It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in the air, the higher he would be raised whose pile it was, and the richer he would be, the more property that was consumed with him.

Sweden
King Björn's barrow in Håga, Sweden
  • Anundshög, located just outside the City of Västerås, is Sweden's largest burial mound.
  • Gamla Uppsala, The Royal mounds (Swedish: Kungshögarna) is the name for the three large barrows which are located in Gamla Uppsala. According to ancient mythology and folklore, it would be the three gods Thor, Odin and Freyr lying in Kungshögarna or Uppsala högar.
  • Gravhög Gårdstånga, situated in Eslöv Municipality, Skåne County, is the site of a Bronze Age burial mound, (Swedish: Gravhög).
  • Hågahögen, King Björn's barrow in Håga (Old Norse word: haugr) near Uppsala has a very strong connection with Björn at Haugi.
  • Kungshögar, an archaeological site on the Lake Mälaren island of Adelsö in Ekerö Municipality, contains five large burial mounds.
  • Skalunda hög in Västergötland, the site of Skalunda Barrow, an historic burial mound.
Norway
Jellhaugen, Norway's 2nd biggest tumulus. Photo: Tore Schrøder
Denmark
The tumulus Tinghøjen located between Randers and Viborg, one of about 26,000 conserved tumuli in Denmark. Photo from January 2010.

Denmark has about 20,000 preserved tumuli, with the oldest being around 5,000 years old. A great number of tumuli in Denmark has been destroyed in the course of history, ploughed down for agricultural fields or used for road or dyke constructions. Tumuli have been protected by law since 1937 and is officially supervised by the Danish Agency for Culture. Examples of tumuli in Denmark are:

North America

Canada

Serpent Mounds Park, located near Peterborough, Ontario, was named because of the zig-zag serpent shapes of its mounds.

Human settlement in L'Anse Amour dates back at least 7,500 years as evidenced by the burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy. His body was wrapped in a shroud of bark or hide and placed face down with his head pointed to the west. The site was first excavated in the 1970s.

The Augustine Mound is an important Mi'kmaq burial site in New Brunswick.

Taber Hill is a Haudenosaunee burial mound in Toronto, Ontario.

In the southern regions of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, evidence of ancient mound builders was discovered by archaeologists, beginning with excavations by Henry Youle Hind in 1857.

In Southwestern British Columbia, several types of burial mounds are known from the Salishan region (Hill-Tout 1895).

United States

Mound building was a central feature of the public architecture of many Native American and Mesoamerican cultures from Chile to Minnesota. Thousands of mounds in the United States have been destroyed as a result of farming, pot-hunting, amateur and professional archaeology, road-building and construction. Surviving mounds are still found in river valleys, especially along the Mississippi, Tennessee and Ohio Rivers, and as far west as Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma.

Mounds were used for burial, to support residential and religious structures, to represent a shared cosmology, and to unite and demarcate community. Common forms include conical mounds, ridge-top mounds, platform mounds, and animal effigy mounds, but there are many variations. Mound building in the USA is believed to date back to at least 3400 BC in the Southeast (see Watson Brake). The Adena and the Mississippian cultures are principally known for their mounds, as is the Hopewell tradition. The largest mound site north of Mexico is Cahokia Mounds, a vast World Heritage Site located just east of St. Louis, Missouri.

South America

Uruguay

Cerritos in Rocha, Uruguay
Main article: Cerritos de Indios

The Cerritos de Indios (Spanish for: Indian Mounds or Indian Little Hills) are a collection of more than 3000 tumulus or earth mounds found mainly in the eastern region of Uruguay.

Of different sizes and shapes some of them date back to 5000–4000 years ago being among the oldest examples of tumulus building in the new world. It is still unknown to this day the name or the fate of the people group responsible for its construction as they disappeared long before the arrival of the first European explorers and left no written records.

It is believed that they were used for burial, as well for living and practicing agriculture in the flat marshlands and plains of eastern Uruguay.

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Tumulus Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Tumuli For other uses see Tumulus disambiguation A tumulus plural tumuli is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves Tumuli are also known as barrows burial mounds or kurgans and may be found throughout much of the world A cairn which is a mound of stones built for various purposes may also originally have been a tumulus Tomb of King Alyattes at Bin Tepe in Lydia modern Turkey built circa 560 BC 1 It is one of the largest tumuli ever built 2 with a diameter of 360 meters and a height of 61 meters 3 The Royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala in Sweden from the 5th and 6th centuries Originally the site had 2 000 to 3 000 tumuli but due to quarrying and agriculture only 250 remain La Cambe German war cemetery One of the Hallstatt culture era tumuli in the Sulm valley necropolis Kasta tumulus Amphipolis Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape In this respect a long barrow is a long tumulus usually constructed on top of several burials such as passage graves A round barrow is a round tumulus also commonly constructed on top of burials The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen a cist a mortuary enclosure a mortuary house or a chamber tomb Examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe The word tumulus is Latin for mound or small hill which is derived from the Proto Indo European root teuh2 with extended zero grade tum to bulge swell also found in tomb tumor tumescent thumb thigh and thousand 4 Contents 1 Tumulus burial accounts 2 Types of barrows 3 Modern barrows 4 Sites 4 1 Africa 4 1 1 Horn of Africa 4 1 2 West Africa 4 2 Asia 4 2 1 Central Asia 4 2 2 Near East 4 2 2 1 Turkey 4 2 2 2 Israel 4 2 3 South Asia 4 2 3 1 India 4 2 3 2 Pakistan 4 2 4 East Asia 4 2 4 1 China 4 2 4 2 Japan 4 2 4 3 Korea 4 3 Europe 4 3 1 Southeast Europe 4 3 1 1 Albania 4 3 1 2 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4 3 1 3 Bulgaria 4 3 1 4 Croatia 4 3 1 5 Greece 4 3 1 6 Hungary 4 3 1 7 Serbia 4 3 2 Western and Central Europe 4 3 2 1 Austria 4 3 2 2 Belgium 4 3 2 3 United Kingdom 4 3 2 4 Czech Republic 4 3 2 5 France 4 3 2 6 Germany 4 3 2 7 Ireland 4 3 2 8 Italy 4 3 2 9 Netherlands 4 3 2 10 Portugal 4 3 3 Scandinavia 4 3 3 1 Sweden 4 3 3 2 Norway 4 3 3 3 Denmark 4 4 North America 4 4 1 Canada 4 4 2 United States 4 5 South America 4 5 1 Uruguay 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksTumulus burial accounts EditThe funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad Patroclus is burned on a pyre and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat The barrow is built on the location of the pyre Achilles then sponsors funeral games consisting of a chariot race boxing wrestling running a duel between two champions to the first blood discus throwing archery and spear throwing Beowulf s body is taken to Hronesness where it is burned on a funeral pyre During cremation the Geats lament the death of their lord a widow s lament being mentioned in particular singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow Afterwards a mound is built on top of a hill overlooking the sea and filled with treasure A band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow singing dirges in praise of their lord Parallels have also been drawn to the account of Attila s burial in Jordanes Getica 5 Jordanes tells that as Attila s body was lying in state the best horsemen of the Huns circled it as in circus games An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession halted at a mound called Eala whereupon the corpse was laid and the mourners marched thrice solemnly round the spot Types of barrows EditArchaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location form and date of construction see also mound Some British types are listed below Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D shaped barrow round barrow with a purposely flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs Disc barrow Fancy barrow generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a simple hemispherical shape Long barrow Oval barrow a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical rather than rectangular or trapezoidal mound Platform barrow The least common of the recognised types of round barrow consisting of a flat wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch They occur widely across southern England with a marked concentration in East and West Sussex Pond barrow a barrow consisting of a shallow circular depression surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression from the Bronze Age Ring barrow a bank that encircles a number of burials Round barrow a circular feature created by the Bronze Age peoples of Britain and also the later Romans Vikings and Saxons Divided into subclasses such as saucer and bell barrow the Six Hills are a rare Roman example Saucer barrow a circular Bronze Age barrow that features a low wide mound surrounded by a ditch that may have an external bank Square barrow burial site usually of Iron Age date consisting of a small square ditched enclosure surrounding a central burial which may also have been covered by a mound Modern barrows Edit Soulton Long Barrow an example of the modern barrows There is a contemporary revival in barrow building in the UK 6 In 2015 the first long barrow in thousands of years the Long Barrow at All Cannings inspired by those built in the Neolithic era was built on land just outside the village of All Cannings 7 The barrow was designed to have a large number of private niches within the stone and earth structure to receive cremation urns This was followed by new barrows at the Willow Row Barrow at St Neots 8 The Soulton Long Barrow at Soulton in Shropshire 9 10 11 12 13 Higher Ground Meadow in Dorset 14 Warwickshire 15 Plans have also been announced for a barrow in Milton Keynes 16 and in Powis 17 Sites EditAfrica Edit Horn of Africa Edit Salweyn in Somaliland contains a very large field of cairns which stretches for a distance of around 8 km 18 An excavation of one of these tumuli by Georges Revoil in 1881 uncovered a tomb beside which were artefacts pointing to an ancient advanced civilization The interred objects included pottery shards from Samos some well crafted enamels and a mask of Ancient Greek design 19 West Africa Edit Preceded by assumed earlier sites in the Eastern Sahara tumuli with megalithic monuments developed as early as 4700 BC in the Saharan region of Niger 20 These megalithic monuments in the Saharan region of Niger and the Eastern Sahara may have served as antecedents for the mastabas and pyramids of ancient Egypt 20 In Niger there are two monumental tumuli a cairn burial 5695 BP 5101 BP at Adrar Bous and a tumulus covered with gravel 6229 BP 4933 BP at Iwelen in the Air Mountains 21 Tenerians did not construct the two monumental tumuli at Adrar Bous and Iwelen 21 Rather Tenerians constructed cattle tumuli at a time before the two monumental tumuli were constructed 21 The Tichitt Tradition of eastern Mauritania dates from 2200 BC 22 23 to 200 BC 24 25 Within the settled areas of Tichitt Culture e g Dhar Tichitt Dhar Tagant Dhar Walata with stone walls which vary in scale from e g 2 hectares 80 hectares there were walled agricultural land utilized for livestock or gardening as well as land with granaries and tumuli 25 Based on the hundreds of tumuli present in Dhar Tichitt compared to a dozen tumuli present in Dhar Walata it is likely that Dhar Tichitt was the primary center of religion for the people of Tichitt culture 26 At Wanar Senegal megalithic monolith circles and tumuli 1300 1100 BC 1400 1500 AD were constructed by West Africans who had a complex hierarchical society 27 In the mid region of the Senegal River Valley the Serer people may have created tumuli before 13th century AD shell middens 7th century AD 13th century AD in the central west region and shell middens 200 BC Present in the southern region 28 The funerary tumuli building tradition of West Africa was widespread and a regular practice amid 1st millennium AD 29 More than ten thousand large funerary tumuli exist in Senegal 29 At the Inner Niger Delta in the Mali Lakes Region there are two monumental tumuli constructed in the time period of the Trans Saharan trade for the Sahelian kingdoms of West Africa 30 The El Oualadji monumental tumulus which dates between 1030 AD and 1220 AD and has two human remains buried with horse remains and various items e g horse harnesses horse trappings with plaques and bells bracelets rings beads iron items may have been as highlighted by al Bakri the royal burial site of a king from the Ghana Empire 30 The Koi Gourrey monumental tumulus which may date prior to 1326 AD and has over twenty human remains that were buried with various items e g iron accessories an abundant amount of copper bracelets anklets and beads an abundant amount of broken but whole pottery another set of distinct intact glazed pottery a wooden beaded bone necklace a bird figurine a lizard figurine a crocodile figurine and is situated within the Mali Empire 30 Asia Edit Central Asia Edit Main article Kurgan The word kurgan is of Turkic origin derives from Proto Turkic Kur to erect a building to establish In Ukraine and Russia there are royal kurgans of Varangian chieftains such as the Black Grave in Ukrainian Chernihiv excavated in the 19th century Oleg s Grave in Russian Staraya Ladoga and vast intricate Rurik s Hill near Russian Novgorod Other important kurgans are found in Ukraine and South Russia and are associated with much more ancient steppe peoples notably the Scythians e g Chortomlyk Pazyryk and early Indo Europeans e g Ipatovo kurgan The steppe cultures found in Ukraine and South Russia naturally continue into Central Asia in particular Kazakhstan It is constructed over a grave often characterized by containing a single human body along with grave vessels weapons and horses Originally in use on the Pontic Caspian steppe kurgans spread into much of Central Asia and Eastern Southeast Western and Northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BC 31 The earliest kurgans date to the 4th millennium BC in the Caucasus 32 and researchers associate these with the Indo Europeans 33 Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic Bronze Iron Antiquity and Middle Ages with ancient traditions still active in Southern Siberia and Central Asia Near East Edit Turkey Edit The Tomb of Midas in Gordion dated 740 BC On the Anatolian peninsula there are several sites where one can find the biggest specimens of these artificial mounds throughout the world Three of these sites are especially important Bin Tepeler and other Lydian mounds of the Aegean inland Phrygian mounds in Gordium Central Anatolia and the famous Commagene tumulus on the Mount Nemrut Southeastern Anatolia This is the most important of the enumerated sites with the number of specimens it has and with the dimensions of certain among them It is in the Aegean inland of Turkey The site is called Bin Tepeler a thousand mounds in Turkish and it is in the northwest of Salihli district of Manisa province The site is very close to the southern shoreline of Lake Marmara Lake Gyges or Gygaea Bin Tepeler is a Lydian necropolis that dates back to 7th and 6th centuries BC These mounds are called the pyramids of Anatolia as a giant specimen among them is 355 metres in diameter 1115 metres in perimeter and 69 metres high According to Herodotus this giant tumulus belongs to the famous Lydian King Alyattes who ruled between 619 and 560 BC There is also another mound belonging to King Gyges The Gyges mound was excavated but the burial chamber hasn t been found yet In this site there are 75 tumuli dating back to Lydian period that belong to the nobility A large number of smaller artificial mounds can also be observed in the site There are other Lydian tumuli sites around Esme district of Usak province Certain mounds in these sites had been plundered by raiders in the late 1960s and the Lydian treasures found in their burial chambers were smuggled to the United States which later returned them to Turkish authorities after negotiations These artifacts are now exhibited in the Archaeological Museum of Usak Tumulus MM Gordion at sunset Gordium Gordion was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Phrygia Its ruins are in the immediate vicinity of Polatli near the Turkish capital Ankara At this site approximately 80 90 tumuli date back to the Phrygian Persian and Hellenistic periods Around 35 tumuli have been excavated so far ranging in date from the 8th century BC to the 3rd or 2nd century BC The biggest tumulus at the site is believed to have covered the burial of the famous Phrygian King Midas or that of his father This mound called Tumulus MM for Midas Mound was excavated in 1957 by a team from the University of Pennsylvania Museum led by Rodney Young and his graduate students Among the many fine bronze artifacts recovered from the wooden burial chamber were 170 bronze vessels including numerous omphalos bowls and more than 180 bronze Phrygian fibulae ancient safety pins The wooden furniture found in the tomb is especially noteworthy as wood seldom survives from archaeological contexts the collection included nine tables one of them elaborately carved and inlaid and two ceremonial serving stands inlaid with religious symbols and geometric patterns Important bronze and wooden artifacts were also found in other tumulus burials at the site The Mount Nemrut is 86 km in the east of Adiyaman province of Turkey It is very close to Kahta district of the same province The mountain has at its peak 3050 metres of height above the sea level A tumulus that dates to the 1st century BC is at the peak of the mountain This artificial mound has 150 metres of diameter and a height of 50 metres which was originally 55 metres It belongs to the Commagene King Antiochus I Theos of Commagene who ruled between 69 and 40 BC This tumulus is made of broken stone pieces which renders excavation attempts almost impossible The tumulus is surrounded by ceremonial terraces in the east west and north The east and west terraces have tremendous statues reaching 8 to 10 meters of height and bas reliefs of gods and goddesses from the Commagene pantheon where divine figures used to embody the Persian and Roman perceptions together Israel Edit Jerusalem tumulus 2 in 2004 A tumulus forms the center of the ancient megalithic structure of Rujm el Hiri in the Golan Heights Rujm in Arabic can mean tumulus cairn or stone heap Near the western city limits of modern Jerusalem 19 tumuli have been documented Amiran 1958 Though first noticed in the 1870s by early surveyors the first one to be formally documented was Tumulus 2 in 1923 by William Foxwell Albright and the most recent one Tumulus 4 was excavated by Gabriel Barkay in 1983 The association of these tumuli with the Judean kings who ruled Jerusalem does not substantiate Biblical history since it is mere speculation No inscriptions naming any specific Judean king have been excavated from a tumulus More than half of these ancient Israeli structures have now been threatened or obliterated by modern construction projects including Tumulus 4 which was excavated hastily in a salvage operation The most noteworthy finds from this dig were two LMLK seal impressions and two other handles with associated Concentric Circle incisions all of which suggests this tumulus belonged to either King Hezekiah 34 or his son Manasseh 35 When comparing the number of these tumuli to the total number of Israelite kings northern and southern note that Saul never ruled in Jerusalem and Athaliah was never crowned She took the throne by force 2Kings 11 1 3 and would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony following her brutal assassination The northern kings did not reign over the southern kingdom and they would certainly not have been honored with a tumulus ceremony in Jerusalem if any ceremonies were held for them they would have transpired in the north near Bethel Tirzah or Samaria South Asia Edit India Edit The Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam built octagonal tumuli called Maidams for their kings and high officials The kings were buried in a hillock at Charaideo in Sibsagar district of Assam whereas other Maidams are found scattered more widely Pakistan Edit The damb was a type of mound or small stone structure found in Balochistan including the coastal areas of Makran East Asia Edit China Edit The Chinese pyramids house the remains of some of China s former emperors Before the expansion of Shang and Zhou culture through the region many hundreds of tumuli were also constructed by the Baiyue peoples of the Yangtze valley and southeastern China Japan Edit Daisen Kofun the largest of all kofun Hashihaka Kofun Sakurai Nara 3rd century In Japan powerful leaders built tumuli known as kofun The Kofun period of Japanese history takes its name from these burial mounds 36 The largest is Daisen ryo Kofun or more commonly Nintoku ryo Kofun with a length of 840 metres In addition to other shapes kofun include a keyhole shape typically seen in Daisen Kofun Foreign museums possess some grave goods Korea Edit Burial mounds of the Silla kings in Korea see also Cheonmachong the Heavenly Horse Tomb The first burial mounds in Korea were dolmens which contained material from cultures of the 1st millennium AD such as bronze ware pottery and other symbols of society elite The most famous tumuli in Korea dating around 300 AD are those left behind by the Korean Baekje Goguryeo Kogyuro Koguryo Silla and Gaya states and are clustered around ancient capital cities in modern day Pyongyang Ji an Jilin Seoul and Gyeongju The Goguryeo tombs shaped like pyramids are famous for the well preserved wall murals like the ones at Anak Tomb No 3 which depict the culture and artistry of the people The base of the tomb of King Gwanggaeto is 85 meters on each side half of the size of the Great Pyramids 37 Goguryeo Silla tombs are most noted for the fabulous offerings that have been excavated such as delicate golden crowns and glassware and beads that probably made their way to Korea via the Silk Road Many indigenous Korean artifacts and culture were transmitted to the tomb builders of early Japan such as horsetrappings bronze mirrors paintings and iron ware Europe Edit Southeast Europe Edit Albania Edit Tumuli are one of the most prominent types of prehistoric monuments spread throughout northern and southern Albania Some well known local tumuli are Kamenica Tumulus Lofkend Tumulus Pazhok TumulusBosnia and Herzegovina Edit More than 50 burial mounds were found in Kupres Man from Kupres the skeleton found in one of the tumuli is believed to be more than 3000 years old and it is kept in Gorica museum in Livno Glasinac has many tumuli During the Bronze and Iron Age it was a place of strong Glasinac culture who buried their dead in tumulus Bulgaria Edit Main articles Valley of the Thracian Rulers and Thracians The Entrance to the tomb or temple mound of Sveshtari Alexandrovo burial mound Thracian tomb or temple Shushmanets Thracian tomb of Seuthes III Goliama Kosmatka Memorial of the Battle of Varna dedicated to Wladyslaw III of Poland dug into an ancient Thracian tumulus On the territory of Bulgaria there are over 60 000 ancient Thracian mounds of which only about 1 000 have been studied There are also Roman and Thraco Roman burial tombs Those tumulus over ancient tombs temples and sanctuaries are found throughout the whole territory of Bulgaria Some of the world s most significant and famous being the Kazanlak and Sveshtari tombs UNESCO World Heritage sites Located near the ancient Thracian capital cities of Seuthopolis of the Odrysian kingdom and Daosdava or Helis of the Getae perhaps they represented royal burials Other notable tumulus are Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo Thracian tomb Golyama Arsenalka Thracian tomb Shushmanets Thracian tomb Griffins Thracian tomb Helvetia Thracian tomb Ostrusha Tomb of Seuthes III and the other tombs around Starosel others contained offerings such as the Panagyurishte and Rogozen treasures Some of the sites are located in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers The mound of the Tomb of Seuthes III Golyama Kosmatka is among the largest mounds in Thrace with a maximum height of 23 m and a diameter of 130 m Croatia Edit There are thousands of tumuli throughout all Croatia built of stone Croatian gomila gromila in the karst areas by the Adriatic Sea or made of earth Croatian humak in the inland plains and hills Most of these prehistoric structures were built in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC from the middle Bronze Age to the end of the Iron Age by the Illyrians or their direct ancestors in the same place the Liburnian inhumation of dead under tumuli was certainly inherited from the earlier times as early as the Copper Age Smaller tumuli were used as the burial mounds while bigger some up to 7 metres high with 60 metres long base were the cenotaphs empty tombs and ritual places 38 Greece Edit Main article Vergina Some of the world s most prominent Tumuli the Macedonian tombs and a cist grave at Vergina include the tomb of Philip II 359 336 BC father of Alexander the Great 336 323 BC as well as the tomb of Alexander IV 323 309 BC son of Alexander the Great A very large tumulus has been discovered in Amphipolis Known as the Kasta Tomb the tomb s occupant is presently unknown Also numerous Mycenaean Greek Tombs are in all essence Tumuli notably Agamemnon s site in Mycenae and other sites in Tiryns near Olympia and Pylos and mostly in the Peloponnese peninsula near Mycenaean sites and Bronze Age settlements Moreover in Central Greece there are numerous Tumuli some excavated others not A notable one is in Marathon serving as a burial for the ones who fell during battle As of October 2014 there are ongoing excavations at the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis Macedonia Greece with the tumulus having a perimeter of 497 meters The tomb within is assessed to be an ancient Macedonian burial monument of the last quarter of the 4th century BC Macedonian Tombs Korinos Macedonian Tombs KateriniHungary Edit There are over 40 000 tumuli in the Great Hungarian Plain the highest is Godeny halom near the settlement of Bekesszentandras in Bekes county 39 Sirhalom origins and forms are diverse tells graves border barrows watcher barrows 40 Serbia Edit Main article List of tumuli in Serbia Mrcajevci several prehistoric tumuli Bukovac Illyrian tumuli and necropolis Five prehistoric tumuli in the Morava valley Gromile Serbian tumuli in Ravna Gora 41 KinđaWestern and Central Europe Edit Austria Edit Grossmugl in Austria Burgstallkogel Sulm valley Grossmugl Lower Austria Pillichsdorf Lower Austria Niederhollabrunn Lower Austria Gaisruck 42 in Niederosterreich Langenlebarn 43 in Niederosterreich Deutsch Altenburg 44 in Niederosterreich Bernhardsthal 45 Lower Austria Siegendorf Burgenland Schandorf 46 Burgenland Kleinklein 47 Styria Niederfellabrunn Lower Austria Oberhofen am Irrsee Upper Austria Obermallebarn Lower Austria Unterzogersdorf Lower Austria Belgium Edit Two Tumuli of Ambresin Liege Province Tumulus of Avernas in Hannut Liege height 8 m circumference 100 m Tumulus of the champ de la Tombe in Braives Liege 1st century AD Roman tomb Tumulus of Court Saint Etienne Walloon Brabant around 3 000 BC Tumulus of Glimes in Incourt Walloon Brabant Gallo Roman period height 11 m diameter 50 m Tumulus of Hottomont in Ramillies Walloon Brabant tomb of who height 11 5 m diameter 50 m Tumulus of Oleye Liek Liege 48 Tumulus of Pepin of Landen in Landen Flemish Brabant Tumuli of the Sonian Forest Flemish Brabant 1st millennium BC Three Tumuli of Grimde in Tienen Flemish Brabant 1st century BC Gallo Roman tombs 49 Tumulus of Trou de Billemont in Antoing Hainaut Province 6th and 7th century Merovingian tombs Tumulus of Walhain Walloon Brabant Two Tumuli of Waremme Liege Tumuli of Weris Belgian Luxembourg 4th and 3rd millennium BC United Kingdom Edit See also Anglo Saxon burial mounds Part of the burial ground at Sutton Hoo Suffolk In the United Kingdom barrows of a wide range of types were in widespread use for burying the dead from the late Neolithic until the end of the Bronze Age 2900 800 BC Square barrows were occasionally used in the Iron Age 800 BC 43 AD in the east of England The traditional round barrow experienced a brief resurgence following the Anglo Saxon conquests with the introduction of northern Germanic burial practices from continental Europe These later barrows were often built near older Bronze Age barrows They included a few instances of ship burial Barrow burial fell out of use during the 7th century as a result of the spread of Christianity Early scholarly investigation of tumuli and theorising as to their origins was undertaken from the 17th century by antiquaries notably John Aubrey and William Stukeley During the 19th century in England the excavation of tumuli was a popular pastime amongst the educated and wealthy upper classes who became known as barrow diggers This leisure activity played a key role in laying the foundations for the scientific study of the past in Britain but also resulted in untold damage to the sites Notable British barrows include West Kennet Long Barrow Neolithic long barrow in Wiltshire Wayland s Smithy Neolithic long barrow and chamber tomb in Oxfordshire historically Berkshire Belas Knap Neolithic long barrow in Gloucestershire Maeshowe Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave on Mainland Orkney Duggleby Howe Neolithic round barrow in the East Riding of Yorkshire Sutton Hoo 7th century East Anglian ship burial with exceptionally rich grave goods in Suffolk Devil s Humps Bronze Age barrow group on Bow Hill in West Sussex Devil s Jumps Bronze Age barrow group on the South Downs of West Sussex Seamer Beacon Bronze Age barrow near Scarborough North YorkshireCzech Republic Edit During the early Middle Ages Slavic tribesmen inhabiting what is now the Czech Republic used to bury their dead under barrows This practice has been widespread in southern and eastern Bohemia and some neighbouring regions like Upper Austria and Lusatia which at that time have been also populated with Slavic people There are no known Slavic barrows in the central part of the country around Prague nor are they found in Moravia This has led some of the archaeologists to speculations about at least three distinct waves of Slavic settlers who colonized Czech lands separately from each other each wave bringing its customs with it including burial rituals At places where barrows have been constructed they are usually found in groups 10 to 100 together often forming several clearly distinct lines going from the west to the east Only a few of them have been studied scientifically so far in them both burials by fire with burnt ashes and unburned skeletons have been found even on the same site It seems that builders of the barrows have at some time switched from burials by fire to burying of unburned corpses the reason for such change is unknown The barrows date too far back in history 700 AD to 800 AD to contain any Christian influences Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912 Painting by Viktor Vasnetsov As Czech barrows usually served for burials of poor villagers only a few objects are found in them except for cheap pottery Only one Slavic barrow is known to have contained gold Most of the Czech burial barrows have been damaged or destroyed by intense agriculture in the densely populated region Those that remain are usually in forests especially at hilltops in remote places Therefore there is no general knowledge about burial barrows among Czech population The best Slavic barrow sites can be found near to Vitin a small village close to Ceske Budejovice There are two groups of barrows close to Vitin each containing about 80 barrows ordered in lines Some of the barrows are as much as 2 metres high There are also some prehistoric burial barrows in Czech Republic built by unknown people Unlike Slavic barrows they can be found all across the country though they are scarce Distinguishing them from Slavic ones is not an easy task for the unskilled eye Perhaps the most famous of them forms the top of the Zuran hill near Slavkov u Brna it is from here that Napoleon commanded his forces during the Battle of Austerlitz France Edit The mound of Dissignac is a megalithic monument located in the French town of Saint Nazaire Bougon Deux Sevres tumuli are a set of five tumuli all at one site the building and using took place over a long period from 4 500 to 3 000 BC This set is considered to be one of the oldest western European megalithic necropolis 50 The Bussy le Chateau commune Marne has five Roman Visigoth and Burgundian tumuli three of them remain relatively intact along the Noblette river fr 51 The neolithic Saint Michel de Carnac tumulus in Carnac was built between 5 000 and 3 400 BC A few kilometers from Carnac are the 140 by 20 metres 459 ft 66 ft neolithic Er Grah tumuli fr near the famous broken Menhir 52 The five Tumulus de champ Chalons fr in the Benon forest form a neolithic necropolis in the Courcon commune Charente Maritime 53 Dissignac tumulus fr is a neolithic monument located about 5 kilometres west of Saint Nazaire Loire Atlantique 54 The tumulus of Lamalou dolmen is situated at the headwaters of the Lamalou river 55 Tumulus and burial chamber dolmen of Bergerie de Panissiere is located near Ales Gard 56 Tanouedou tumulus is located near Bourbriac Cotes d Armor Brittany 57 Pere Tumulus fr on Prisse la Charriere commune Deux Sevres a neolithic long barrow with tumulus 100 by 20 metres 328 ft 66 ft dating from 4 450 to 4 000 BC 58 Saint Fiacre tumulus fr on the Melrand commune Morbihan is listed as monument historique since 1972 59 Appenwihr tumuli on the Appenwihr commune Haut Rhin are a set of nine small tumuli about 1 50 metres 4 9 ft tall and one higher at 4 to 5 metres 13 to 16 ft not far to the north west The results of the excavations are exposed in the Unterlinden Museum in Colmar Germany Edit Hugelgrab barrow burial mound or tumulus sites in Germany dating to the Early and Middle Bronze Age Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date EraAuleben grave hill field Auleben Nordhausen Thuringia Grave hill field 1500 1200 BC Bronze AgeBenther hill Badenstedt de Region Hannover Lower Saxony Hilly grave 1800 1100 BC Early Nordic Bronze AgeKreuzlinger Forst de Muhltal Gauting Munich area Bavaria Hilly grave 2000 1500 BC Bronze AgeGermans Grave Itzehoe de Itzehoe Kreis Steinburg Schleswig Holstein Hilly grave 1500 1300 BC Bronze AgeGiesen Tumuli de Giesen village de Landkreis Hildesheim Lower Saxony Hilly grave 1600 1200 BC Bronze AgeBonstorf Barrows Bonstorf Landkreis Celle Lower Saxony grave hill field 1500 1200 BC Bronze AgeLahnberge Tumuli de Marburg Landkreis Marburg Biedenkopf Hesse gt 200 Hilly graves 1600 5th century BC Middle Bronze Age Tumulus culture Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture Iron Age Hallstatt Culture Wilhof mountain de Willhof Landkreis Schwandorf Bavaria Hilly grave 1516 BC Middle Bronze Age early La Tene cultureDaxberg Tumuli Mombris Daxberg Mombris de Landkreis Aschaffenburg Bavaria Hilly grave field 2000 800 BC Iron AgeHohenfelde Hohenfelde Mecklenburg Mecklenburgische Seenplatte Mecklenburg Vorpommern 7 Hilly graves 1700 BC Bronze AgeNeu Quitzenow Neu Quitzenow Rostock Mecklenburg Vorpommern 2 Hilly graves 1800 600 BCGrabhugel von Leubingen Leubingen Sommerda Thuringen grave hill 1940 BC Unetice culture Barrows or tumuli sites in Germany dating to the Late Bronze and Iron Age Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date EraPockinger Gemeindegebiet Pocking local community area Pocking Munich area Bavaria grave hill field c 750 500 BC Hallstatt cultureGlauberg Glauburg Wetteraukreis Hesse Kings graves 5th century BC Early Celtic AgeLahnberge Marburg Landkreis Marburg Biedenkopf Hesse gt 200 Hilly graves c 1600 5th century BC Middle Bronze Age Tumulus culture Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture Iron Age Hallstatt Culture Hohmichele Hundersingen Landkreis Sigmaringen Baden Wurttemberg Kings graves c 600 450 BC Hallstatt cultureGrave hill of Hochdorf Hochdorf an der Enz Landkreis Ludwigsburg Baden Wurttemberg Hilly grave 5th century BC Hallstatt cultureLehbuhl Schlaitdorf Landkreis Esslingen Baden Wurttemberg Hill grave c 600 400 BC Hallstatt cultureDaxberg Tumuli Mombris Daxberg Mombris de Landkreis Aschaffenburg Bavaria Hilly grave field c 2000 800 BC Iron AgeDaxberg Tumuli Erkheim Daxberg Erkheim de Landkreis Unterallgau Bavaria Hilly grave field 8th century BC Iron AgeNeu Quitzenow Neu Quitzenow Rostock Mecklenburg Vorpommern 2 Hilly graves c 1800 600 BCRoyal grave of Seddin de Seddin Landkreis Prignitz Brandenburg Kings graves 8th century BC Bronze AgePestrup Grave fields de Wildeshausen Landkreis Oldenburg Lower Saxony 500 grave hills c 900 200 BC Bronze AgeMagdalenenberg Villingen Schwarzwald Baar Kreis Baden Wurttemberg Kings grave c 616 BC Hallstatt cultureWagon grave of Bell de Bell Hunsruck Rhein Hunsruck Kreis Rhineland Palatinate Wagon grave 500 BC Hallstatt cultureSchweinert Tumuli de Falkenberg in Schweinert Nature reserve Landkreis Elbe Elster Brandenburg 642 hill graves field c 1000 BCBreitenfeld Neuhausen ob Eck Landkreis Tuttlingen Baden Wurttemberg 21 grave hills c 700 BC 450 AD Hallstatt culture Barrows or tumuli sites in Germany dating to the Stone Age Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date EraGrave fields of Grabau de Grabau Stormarn Kreis Stormarn Schleswig Holstein 9 grave hills 6500 5500 BC Young Stone AgeMansenberge Gross Berssen Landkreis Emsland Lower Saxony Great stone grave 3600 2800 BC Megalith Culture Other Barrows tumuli in Germany of unstated date Name Place Region Bundesland Type Date EraBeckdorf Beckdorf Landkreis Stade Lower Saxony Hilly graveHeidelberg Wiera Schwalm Eder Kreis Hesse Hill grave Bronze AgeMellingstedt Lemsahl Mellingstedt Wandsbek Hamburg Hilly grave Bronze AgeHoltinghausen Holtinghausen Landkreis Cloppenburg Lower Saxony Hilly grave fieldPlankenheide Nettetal Kreis Viersen North Rhine Westphalia Hill graveKranzberger Forst Kranzberg Landkreis Freising Bavaria 19 Hilly graves Bronze AgeMaaschwitz Maaschwitz Muldentalkreis Saxony Hilly gravesPlaggenschale Plaggenschale Landkreis Osnabruck Lower SaxonyTumulus von Nennig Nennig Landkreis Merzig Wadern Saarland Grave hill Bronze AgeWinckelbarg Landkreis Stade Lower SaxonyIreland Edit A tumulus can be found close to the Grianan of Aileach in County Donegal It has been suggested by historians such as George Petrie who surveyed the site in the early 19th century that the tumulus may predate the ringfort of Aileach by many centuries possibly to the neolithic age Surrounding stones were laid horizontally and converged towards the centre the mound had been excavated in Petrie s time but nothing explaining its meaning was discovered It was subsequently destroyed but its former position is marked by a heap of broken stones Similar mounds can be found at The Hill of Tara and there are several prominent tumuli at Bru na Boinne in County Meath Interior of the Tomba Margareth Etruscan tumulus near Blera Italy Italy Edit Some large tumulus tombs can be found especially in the Etruscan culture Smaller barrows are dated to the Villanova period ninth eighth centuries BC but the biggest were used in the following centuries from the seventh century afterwards by the Etruscan aristocracy The Etruscan tumuli were normally family tombs that were used for many generation of the same noble family and the deceased were buried with many precious objects that had to be the grave goods or the furnishings for these houses in the Afterlife Many tombs also hold paintings that in many cases represent the funeral or scenes of real life The most important graveyards necropolises with tumulus tombs are Veio Cerveteri Vetulonia Populonia Many isolated big barrows can be found in the whole Etruscan territory mostly in Central Italy Tumulus of Montopoli is relative of arcaic center Colli della Citta along paratiberina way in Tiber valley Netherlands Edit Vorstengraf near Oss Netherlands from above Dissemination of tumuli in the Netherlands in red regular tumuli in blue urn fields 60 Burial mounds are the most numerous archaeological monuments in the Netherlands In many places these prehistoric graves are still clearly visible as low hills The oldest tumuli grafheuvels in the Netherlands were built near Apeldoorn about 5 000 years ago Concentrations of tumuli from the Bronze Age are located on the Veluwe and Drenthe Early scholarly investigation of tumuli and hunebedden and theorising as to their origins was undertaken from the 17th century by notably Johan Picardt Although many have disappeared over the centuries some 3000 tumuli are known of which 636 are protected as Rijksmonument 61 The largest tumulus in the Netherlands is the grave of a king near Oss Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Drents Museum and Huis van Hilde have findings from tumuli in their collections Portugal Edit Tumulus at Outeiro de Gregos Baiao Portugal 5th or 4th millennium BC One of the densest manifestations of the megalithic phenomenon in Europe occurred in Portugal In the north of the country there are more than 1000 late prehistoric barrows They generally occur in clusters forming a necropolis The method of inhumation usually involves a dolmen The tumuli dated from c 4450 to 1900 BC are up to 3 metres high with diameters from 6 to 30 metres Most of them are mounds of earth and stones but the more recent ones are composed largely or entirely of stones cairns In Portuguese barrows are called mamoas from the Latin mammulas given to them by the Romans because of their shape similar to the breast of a woman Scandinavia Edit Kuninkaanhauta in Panelia Finland Burial mounds were in use from the Stone Age until the 11th century in Scandinavia and figure heavily in Norse paganism In their original state they usually appear as small man made hillocks though many examples have been damaged by ploughing or plundering so that little visible evidence remains The tumuli of Scandinavia is of a great variety of designs depending on the cultural traditions of the era in which they were constructed The tumuli tombs may contain single graves collective graves and both inhumation and cremation was practiced again depending on the era but also on geography Many tumuli in Scandinavia shows a continuation of use from Stone Age to Viking Age In the Viking Age and perhaps in earlier times as well burning the deceased was believed to transfer the person to Valhalla by the consuming force of fire Archaeological finds testifies that the cremation fire could reach temperatures of up to 1500 C The remains were often covered with cobblestones and then a layer of gravel and sand and finally a thin layer of turf or placed in urns The tumuli were used for ancestral worshipping an important practice in Norse culture and many places shows continuation of use for millennia Thus he Odin established by law that all dead men should be burned and their belongings laid with them on the pile and the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth Thus said he every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had with him upon the pile and he would also enjoy whatever he himself buried in the earth For men of consequence a mound should be raised to their memory and for all other warriors distinguished for manhood a standing stone This custom remained long after Odin s time It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in the air the higher he would be raised whose pile it was and the richer he would be the more property that was consumed with him Ynglinga saga Sweden Edit King Bjorn s barrow in Haga Sweden Anundshog located just outside the City of Vasteras is Sweden s largest burial mound Gamla Uppsala The Royal mounds Swedish Kungshogarna is the name for the three large barrows which are located in Gamla Uppsala According to ancient mythology and folklore it would be the three gods Thor Odin and Freyr lying in Kungshogarna or Uppsala hogar Gravhog Gardstanga situated in Eslov Municipality Skane County is the site of a Bronze Age burial mound Swedish Gravhog Hagahogen King Bjorn s barrow in Haga Old Norse word haugr near Uppsala has a very strong connection with Bjorn at Haugi Kungshogar an archaeological site on the Lake Malaren island of Adelso in Ekero Municipality contains five large burial mounds Skalunda hog in Vastergotland the site of Skalunda Barrow an historic burial mound Norway Edit Jellhaugen Norway s 2nd biggest tumulus Photo Tore Schroder Raknehaugen dated to c 550 AD is located in the traditional district of Romerike At 77 m in diameter and a height of 15 m it is the largest tumulus in Northern Europe 62 Jellhaugen outside Halden Ostfold considered the 2nd biggest in Norway and dated back to around 500 AD Gokstadhaugen a burial mound in Sandefjord Vestfold revealed a ship burial containing the Gokstad ship a Viking era ship dating to the 9th century The ship is the largest in the Viking Ship Museum in Bygdoy Oslo Oseberghaugen the Oseberg burial mound at Oseberg near Tonsberg in Vestfold county contained the Oseberg ship a well preserved Viking era ship dating from around 800 AD Borrehaugene Borre mound cemetery forms part of the Borre National Park in Horten Vestfold The park covers 45 acres 180 000 m2 and its collection of burial mounds includes seven large mounds and one 25 small cairns Bathaugen a boat burial mound found at Rolvsoy in Tune Ostfold contained the Tune ship a Viking Age ship of the karv type The ship was built around AD 900 and is made of clinkered oak planks Storhaug Great Mound ship s burial mound Avaldsnes on Karmoy in Rogaland County Norway contained a ship made of oak Gronhaug Green Mound a ship burial at Avaldsnes contained an approximately 15 metre 49 ft long boat with remains of a man s grave from the 10th century Flagghaugen Flag Hill Mound at Avaldsnes one of Norway s richest grave dating from the pre Viking Period contained a neck ring of 600 grams 19 ozt of pure gold weapons bandoleer mountings and various tubs of silver and bronze Karnilshaugen in Gloppen in the county of Sogn og Fjordane is Karnil s tumulus Osneshaugen in Ulsteinvik in the county of More og Romsdal is a tumulus overlooking the Osnes beach It is believed to have been sacked and has not been excavated in modern times It has been dated to the Bronze Age Denmark Edit The tumulus Tinghojen located between Randers and Viborg one of about 26 000 63 conserved tumuli in Denmark Photo from January 2010 Denmark has about 20 000 preserved tumuli with the oldest being around 5 000 years old A great number of tumuli in Denmark has been destroyed in the course of history ploughed down for agricultural fields or used for road or dyke constructions Tumuli have been protected by law since 1937 and is officially supervised by the Danish Agency for Culture 64 Examples of tumuli in Denmark are 65 66 67 Yding Skovhoj in Horsens municipality Jutland is one of Denmark s Bronze Age burial mounds built on the top of the hill Hov Das in Thisted municipality North Jutland is one of Denmark s neolithic burial mounds built on the top of the hill Klekkende Hoj is a megalithic passage grave constructed in the Stone Age on the island of Mon It takes its name from the nearby village of Klekkende Lindholm Hoje is a major Viking and Iron Age burial site and former settlement situated to the north of and overlooking the city of Aalborg Gronjaegers Hoj meaning the mound of Green Hunter dates to the Nordic Bronze Age and is located near Fanefjord Church on the Danish island of Mon Gorm and Thyra s Hoje two huge burial mounds at Jelling North America Edit Canada Edit Serpent Mounds Park located near Peterborough Ontario was named because of the zig zag serpent shapes of its mounds Human settlement in L Anse Amour dates back at least 7 500 years as evidenced by the burial mound of a Maritime Archaic boy His body was wrapped in a shroud of bark or hide and placed face down with his head pointed to the west The site was first excavated in the 1970s The Augustine Mound is an important Mi kmaq burial site in New Brunswick Taber Hill is a Haudenosaunee burial mound in Toronto Ontario In the southern regions of Manitoba and Saskatchewan evidence of ancient mound builders was discovered by archaeologists beginning with excavations by Henry Youle Hind in 1857 68 69 70 In Southwestern British Columbia several types of burial mounds are known from the Salishan region Hill Tout 1895 United States Edit Main articles Mound builder people and List of burial mounds in the United States Grave Creek Mound located in Moundsville West Virginia was built by the Adena culture Ocmulgee National Monument Funeral Mound circa 1876 Mound building was a central feature of the public architecture of many Native American and Mesoamerican cultures from Chile to Minnesota Thousands of mounds in the United States have been destroyed as a result of farming pot hunting amateur and professional archaeology road building and construction Surviving mounds are still found in river valleys especially along the Mississippi Tennessee and Ohio Rivers and as far west as Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma Mounds were used for burial to support residential and religious structures to represent a shared cosmology and to unite and demarcate community Common forms include conical mounds ridge top mounds platform mounds and animal effigy mounds but there are many variations Mound building in the USA is believed to date back to at least 3400 BC in the Southeast see Watson Brake The Adena and the Mississippian cultures are principally known for their mounds as is the Hopewell tradition The largest mound site north of Mexico is Cahokia Mounds a vast World Heritage Site located just east of St Louis Missouri South America Edit Uruguay Edit Cerritos in Rocha Uruguay Main article Cerritos de Indios The Cerritos de Indios Spanish for Indian Mounds or Indian Little Hills are a collection of more than 3000 tumulus or earth mounds found mainly in the eastern region of Uruguay Of different sizes and shapes some of them date back to 5000 4000 years ago being among the oldest examples of tumulus building in the new world It is still unknown to this day the name or the fate of the people group responsible for its construction as they disappeared long before the arrival of the first European explorers and left no written records 71 It is believed that they were used for burial as well for living and practicing agriculture in the flat marshlands and plains of eastern Uruguay 72 See also EditBarrow downs in Minor places in Middle earth Dolmen StupaReferences Edit The Tomb of Atyattes in French 1993 Taylor Richard P 2000 Death and the Afterlife A Cultural Encyclopedia ABC CLIO p 381 ISBN 978 0874369397 Fergusson James Rude Stone Monuments pp 31 32 Calvert Watkins American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots 2000 p 92 Frederick Klaeber Attila s and Beowulf s funeral PMLA 1927 Martin Puhvel The Ride around Beowulf s Barrow Folklore 1983 Kennedy Maev 26 October 2016 Burial mounds make a comeback in 21st century Britain The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Retrieved 20 May 2020 Middleton Christopher 13 November 2014 Stonehenge steward builds his own burial chamber Telegraph co uk Retrieved 19 August 2017 Makey Julian 23 October 2016 First burial barrow in thousands of years is completed at Hail Weston Cambridge news co uk Retrieved 19 August 2017 Wainwright Oliver 18 March 2019 Tomb with a view why burial mounds are a better way to go The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Retrieved 20 May 2020 Countryfile Shropshire BBC One Retrieved 20 May 2020 Congregation An exhibition of secular and sacred architecture London Architecture Diary Archived from the original on 28 February 2020 Retrieved 20 May 2020 Heathcote Edwin 2 March 2020 In praise of new sacred buildings Financial Times Retrieved 20 May 2020 Buxton Pamela Faith buildings extend inclusivity in changing times www ribaj com Retrieved 20 May 2020 Jones Ivor 2 September 2017 A beautiful place for loved ones to rest New round barrow to be built at Higher Ground Meadow near Beaminster Bridport and Lyme Regis News Retrieved 27 April 2018 Mid England Barrow are you looking to store cremation ashes urns an alternative to natural burial and funeral venue Mid England Barrow are you looking to store cremation ashes urns an alternative to natural burial and funeral venue Retrieved 20 May 2020 Tooley David 18 May 2020 Stone Age Style long barrow for people to leave ashes in planned for Milton Keynes MKFM Retrieved 20 May 2020 20 0249 FUL Construction of a neolithic style passage tomb and covering mound Neolithic Barn Pantmawr Llanidloes Powys pa powys gov uk Retrieved 20 May 2020 Somali Studies International Association 1992 Charles L Geshekter Hussein M Adam eds The Proceedings of the First International Congress of Somali Studies Scholars Press pp 39 40 ISBN 0 89130 658 7 Retrieved 13 October 2014 Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London Royal Geographical Society of London 1881 p 571 Retrieved 18 October 2014 a b Hassan F A 2002 Palaeoclimate Food And Culture Change In Africa An Overview SpringerLink Droughts Food and Culture pp 11 26 doi 10 1007 0 306 47547 2 2 ISBN 0 306 46755 0 a b c Garcea Elena A A 2013 Gobero The No return Frontier Archaeology and Landscape at the Saharo Sahelian Borderland Africa Magna Verlag p 258 McDougall E Ann 2019 Saharan Peoples and Societies Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History Oxford Research Encyclopedias Oxford Research Encyclopedias doi 10 1093 acrefore 9780190277734 013 285 ISBN 978 0 19 027773 4 Holl Augustin F C Coping with uncertainty Neolithic life in the Dhar Tichitt Walata Mauritania ca 4000 2300 BP ScienceDirect Comptes Rendus Geoscience MacDonald K Vernet R 2007 Early domesticated pearl millet in Dhar Nema Mauritania evidence of crop processing waste as ceramic temper Netherlands Barkhuis pp 71 76 ISBN 9789077922309 a b Kay Andrea U 2019 Diversification Intensification and Specialization Changing Land Use in Western Africa from 1800 BC to AD 1500 Journal of World Prehistory 32 2 179 228 doi 10 1007 s10963 019 09131 2 S2CID 134223231 Monroe J Cameron Elephants for Want of Towns Archaeological Perspectives on West African Cities and Their Hinterlands Academia Journal of Archaeological Research Holl Augustin F C Megaliths and Cultural Landscape Archaeology of the Petit Bao Bolon Drainage Academia Academia Sall Moustapha Academic Research In West Africa The Case Of Senegal Academia Field Manual for African Archaeology a b Coutros Peter R The Malian Lakes Region redefined archaeological survey of the Gorbi Valley PDF Cambridge University Press Antiquity Publications a b c Marot Laurence Garenne Mille Benoit Copper based metal in the Inland Niger delta metal and technology at the time of the Empire of Mali ResearchGate Archetype Publications Random House Unabridged Dictionary 2019 Kurgan Dictionary com Random House Kipfer Barbara Ann 2000 Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology New York Kluwer Academic Plenum p 291 ISBN 0 306 46158 7 Mallory James P Adams Douglas Q eds 1997 Encyclopedia of Indo European Culture Fitzroy Dearborn p 339 ISBN 1 884964 98 2 Barkay 2003 p 68 Grena 2004 p 326 前橋市教育委員会 29 February 2016 赤城山南麓の古墳 Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan Retrieved 2 September 2016 Nelson Sarah M 13 May 1993 The Archaeology of Korea Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0521407830 Goran Majetic 9 July 2008 Tumulusi u Hrvatskoj velicanstvene prapovijesne piramide in Croatian udruga kameleon ht Archived from the original on 13 May 2010 Retrieved 8 October 2010 Picture of Godeny halom Archived from the original on 11 December 2008 A Puszta 1999 A Kunhalmok Vedelme es Megmentesuk Lehetosegei The Possibilities of Protecting and Rescuing Mounds PDF www nimfea hu in Hungarian pp 240 287 Prof dr Ljubisa Folic Crucified Heritage kosovo net Retrieved 8 October 2010 BEd Herbert KALSER Pettendorf gt Kulturdenkmaler Hausleiten in Austrian German Retrieved 15 July 2018 Die hallstattzeitlichen Hugelgraber von Langenlebarn Niederosterreich FOMat A 12 in German Retrieved 15 July 2018 Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek Deutsch Altenburg www bildarchivaustria at Retrieved 15 July 2018 Szameit Erik 1993 Zu den fruhmittelalterlichen Funden aus dem Tumulus I von Bernhardsthal Niederosterreich On the early medieval finds from Tumulus I at Bernhardsthal Lower Austria PDF museumbernhardsthal at in Austrian German ArchA77 1993 Archived from the original PDF on 11 August 2016 Die Hugelgraber Schandorf schandorf at in Austrian German Retrieved 15 July 2018 Koerbler Marktgemeinde Grossklein Die Furstengraber von Kleinklein www grossklein gv at in German Retrieved 15 July 2018 List of Dutch exonyms for places in Belgium Location Tumuli of Grimde Tienen Bougon Tumulus on Megalithic Portal Map Search P H Letaudin 1869 Etude historique sur La Cheppe le camp d Attila et ses environs in French Le Roy pp 5 Retrieved 27 April 2013 Locmariaquer tumuli on Megalithic Portal Map Search Necropole de Champ Chalons on Megalithic Portal Map Search Dissignac tumulus on Megalithic Portal Map Search Dolmen Bergerie de Lamalou on Megalithic Portal Map Search Bergerie de Panissiere on Megalithic Portal Map Search Tanouedou tumulus on Megalithic Portal Map Search Pere Tumulus on Megalithic Portal Map Search Base Merimee PA00091440 Ministere francais de la Culture in French Cultuurhistorisch Beheer chbeheer nl Bourgeois Quentin 2008 Grafheuvelonderzoek in Nederland een gedane zaak Burial mound research in the Netherlands a done deal grafheuvels nl in Dutch Universiteit Leiden Archived from the original on 21 February 2014 Retrieved 3 February 2014 Raknehaugen Norway by Google translate Inge Adriansen Nationale symboler i det Danske Rige 1830 2000 Vol 2 2003 p 123 ISBN 978 87 7289 794 3 Fredede Fortidsminder in Danish Danish Agency for Culture 28 January 2015 Archived from the original on 21 August 2014 Retrieved 2 September 2015 gravhoj Gyldendal Den Store Danske www denstoredanske dk in Danish Retrieved 10 December 2017 Tusinder af gravhoje Gyldendal Den Store Danske www denstoredanske dk in Danish Retrieved 10 December 2017 Professor Vi risikerer at gravplyndrere rover hele vores historie DR in Danish Retrieved 10 December 2017 Manitoba History The Manitoba Mound Builders The Making of an Archaeological Myth 1857 1900 Gwen Rempel 1994 Retrieved 6 February 2017 Aboriginal Mounds in Southern Manitoba An Evaluative Overview E Leigh Syms 1978 Retrieved 6 February 2017 History of Archaeology Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan Retrieved 6 February 2017 The Earthen Mounds Cerritos of Southern Brazil and Uruguay Research Gate Lopez Mazz Jose M September 2001 Las Estructuras Tumulares Cerritos del Litoral Atlantico Uruguayo The Tumular Structures Cerritos of the Uruguayan Atlantic Coastline PDF Latin American Antiquity in Spanish Cambridge University Press 12 3 231 255 doi 10 2307 971631 JSTOR 971631 Sources EditAlbright William F 1923 Interesting finds in tumuli near Jerusalem Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research The American Schools of Oriental Research 10 April 1 3 doi 10 2307 1354763 JSTOR 1354763 S2CID 163409706 Amiran Ruth 1958 The tumuli west of Jerusalem Survey and Excavations 1953 Israel Exploration Journal 8 4 205 27 Barkay Gabriel 2003 Mounds of mystery where the kings of Judah were lamented Biblical Archaeology Review 29 3 32 9 66 68 Grena G M 2004 LMLK A Mystery Belonging to the King vol 1 Redondo Beach California 4000 Years of Writing History ISBN 0 9748786 0 X Grinsell L V 1936 The Ancient Burial mounds of England London Methuen Nelson Sarah Milledge 1993 The Archaeology of Korea New York Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 40783 4 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Tumuli Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article about Barrows Tumulus Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed 1911 English Heritage Monument Class Descriptions The Victorian Barrow Diggers of Wales Location Tumuli of Grimde Tienen Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan Heritage Quest research project using LiDAR data Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tumulus amp oldid 1092661603, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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