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This article is about oil of turpentine. For crude turpentine, see oleoresin. For other uses, see turpentine (disambiguation).

Turpentine (which is also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, terebenthene, terebinthine and (colloquially) turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin harvested from living trees, mainly pines. Mainly used as a specialized solvent, it is also a source of material for organic syntheses.

Turpentine

Turpentine distilled at the Georgia Museum of Agriculture & Historic Village as it was circa 1900
Identifiers
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.407
EC Number
  • 232-688-5
UNII
Properties
C10H16
Molar mass 136.238 g·mol−1
Appearance Viscous liquid
Odor Resinous
Melting point −55 °C (−67 °F; 218 K)
Boiling point 154 °C (309 °F; 427 K)
20 mg/L
Hazards
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
1
3
0
Flash point 35 °C (95 °F; 308 K)
220 °C (428 °F; 493 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Turpentine is composed of terpenes, primarily the monoterpenes alpha- and beta-pinene, with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene. Mineral turpentine or other petroleum distillates are used to replace turpentine – although the constituent chemicals are very different.

Contents

The word turpentine derives (via French and Latin), from the Greek word τερεβινθίνη terebinthine, in turn the feminine form (to conform to the feminine gender of the Greek word, which means "resin") of an adjective (τερεβίνθινος) derived from the Greek noun (τερέβινθος), for the terebinth tree.

Although the word originally referred to the resinous exudate of terebinth trees (e.g. Chios turpentine, Cyprus turpentine, and Persian turpentine), it now refers to that of coniferous trees, namely crude turpentine (e.g. Venice turpentine is the oleoresin of larch.), or the volatile oil part thereof, namely oil (spirit) of turpentine; the later usage is much more common today.

"Herty system" in use on turpentine trees in Northern Florida, circa 1936
Chipping a turpentine tree in Georgia (US), circa 1906-20
Turpentine distillery at Manlyn, North Carolina
Chemical structure of α-pinene, a major component of turpentine

Important pines for turpentine production include: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran pine (Pinus merkusii), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).

To tap into the sap producing layers of the tree, turpentiners used a combination of hacks to remove the pine bark. Once debarked, pine trees secrete crude turpentine (oleoresin) onto the surface of the wound as a protective measure to seal the opening, resist exposure to micro-organisms and insects, and prevent vital sap loss. Turpentiners wounded trees in V-shaped streaks down the length of the trunks to channel the crude turpentine into containers. It was then collected and processed into spirits of turpentine. Crude turpentine yield may be increased by as much as 40% by applying paraquat herbicides to the exposed wood.

The V-shaped cuts are called "catfaces" for their resemblance to a cat's whiskers. These marks on a pine tree signify it was used to collect resin for turpentine production.

Crude turpentine collected from the trees may be evaporated by steam distillation in a copper still. Molten rosin remains in the still bottoms after turpentine has been distilled out. Such turpentine is called gum turpentine. The term gum turpentine may also refer to crude turpentine, which causes considerable confusion.

Turpentine may alternatively be extracted from destructive distillation of pine wood, such as shredded pine stumps, roots, and slash, using the light end of the heavy naphtha fraction (boiling between 90 and 115 °C or 195 and 240 °F) from a crude oil refinery. Such turpentine is called wood turpentine. Multi-stage counter-current extraction is commonly used so fresh naphtha first contacts wood leached in previous stages and naphtha laden with turpentine from previous stages contacts fresh wood before vacuum distillation to recover naphtha from the turpentine. Leached wood is steamed for additional naphtha recovery prior to burning for energy recovery.

When producing chemical wood pulp from pines or other coniferous trees, sulfate turpentine may be condensed from the gas generated in Kraft process pulp digesters. The average yield of crude sulfate turpentine is 5–10 kg/t pulp. Unless burned at the mill for energy production, sulfate turpentine may require additional treatment measures to remove traces of sulfur compounds.

Solvent

As a solvent, turpentine is used for thinning oil-based paints, for producing varnishes, and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Its use as a solvent in industrialized nations has largely been replaced by the much cheaper turpentine substitutes obtained from petroleum. A solution of turpentine and beeswax or carnauba wax has long been used as a furniture wax.

Source of organic compounds

Turpentine is also used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds. Commercially used camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol are all usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which are two of the chief chemical components of turpentine. These pinenes are separated and purified by distillation. The mixture of diterpenes and triterpenes that is left as residue after turpentine distillation is sold as rosin.

Medicinal elixir

Turpentine and petroleum distillates such as coal oil and kerosene have been used medicinally since ancient times, as topical and sometimes internal home remedies. Topically, it has been used for abrasions and wounds, as a treatment for lice, and when mixed with animal fat it has been used as a chest rub, or inhaler for nasal and throat ailments. Vicks chest rubs still contain turpentine in their formulations, although not as an active ingredient.

Turpentine, now understood to be dangerous for consumption, was a common medicine among seamen during the Age of Discovery. It is one of several products carried aboard Ferdinand Magellan's fleet during the first circumnavigation of the globe. Taken internally it was used as a treatment for intestinal parasites. This is dangerous, due to the chemical's toxicity.

Turpentine enemas, a very harsh purgative, had formerly been used for stubborn constipation or impaction. Turpentine enemas were also given punitively to political dissenters in post-independence Argentina.

Niche uses

  • Turpentine is also added to many cleaning and sanitary products due to its antiseptic properties and its "clean scent".
  • In early 19th-century America, turpentine was sometimes burned in lamps as a cheap alternative to whale oil. It was most commonly used for outdoor lighting, due to its strong odour. A blend of ethanol and turpentine called camphine served as the dominant lamp fuel replacing whale oil until the advent of kerosene.
  • In 1946, Soichiro Honda fueled the first Honda motorcycles with a blend of gasoline and turpentine to cover the smell of gasoline, due to the scarcity of gasoline in Japan following World War II.
  • In his book If Only They Could Talk, veterinarian and author James Herriot describes the use of its reaction with resublimed iodine to "drive the iodine into the tissue" - or perhaps just impress the watching customer with a spectacular treatment.
  • Turpentine was added extensively into gin during the Gin Craze.
NFPA 704
fire diamond
1
3
0

As an organic solvent, its vapour can irritate the skin and eyes, damage the lungs and respiratory system, as well as the central nervous system when inhaled, and cause damage to the renal system when ingested, among other things. Ingestion can cause burning sensations, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, confusion, convulsions, diarrhea, tachycardia, unconsciousness, respiratory failure, and chemical pneumonia.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for turpentine exposure in the workplace as 100 ppm (560 mg/m3) over an 8-hour workday. The same threshold was adopted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as the recommended exposure limit (REL). At levels of 800 ppm (4480 mg/m3), turpentine is immediately dangerous to life and health.

  1. Record of Turpentine in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  2. Mayer, Ralph (1991).The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques (Fifth ed.). New York: Viking. p. 404. ISBN 0-670-83701-6.
  3. Kent, James A. Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry (Eighth Edition) Van Nostrand Reinhold Company (1983) ISBN 0-442-20164-8 p.569
  4. "Solvents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. 2002. doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_437.
  5. Barnhart, R. K. (1995). The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-270084-7.
  6. Skeat, Walter W. (1882). A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 579.
  7. Mills, John S.; White, Raymond (1977). "Natural Resins of Art and Archaeology Their Sources, Chemistry, and Identification". Studies in Conservation. 22 (1): 12–31. doi:10.2307/1505670. ISSN 0039-3630. JSTOR 1505670.
  8. Mahood, S. A. (1921-03-01). "Larch (Venice) Turpentine from Western Larch (Larix occidentalis)". Journal of Forestry. 19 (3): 274–282. doi:10.1093/jof/19.3.274. ISSN 0022-1201.
  9. "Turpentine". Britannica. Retrieved2022-03-02.
  10. Kent p.571
  11. Prizer, Tom (June 11, 2010). "Catfaces: Totems of Georgia's Turpentiners | Daily Yonder | Keep It Rural". dailyyonder.com. Archived from the original on July 26, 2015. RetrievedJune 5, 2012.
  12. "Turpentine". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved2022-05-16.
  13. Kent pp.571&572
  14. Stenius, Per, ed. (2000). "2". Forest Products Chemistry. Papermaking Science and Technology. Vol. 3. Finland. pp. 73–76. ISBN 952-5216-03-9.
  15. Kent p.572
  16. "Surviving 'The Spanish Lady' (Spanish flu)". CBC News. 2003-04-10. Event occurs at 03:20. Archived from the original on 2020-08-07. Retrieved2018-12-29. A turpentine and hot water, and [wring hot towels out of there], and put it on their chest and back. --Elsie Miller (nee Smith)
  17. "DailyMed - VICKS VAPORUB (camphor- synthetic, eucalyptus oil, and menthol ointment". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-05-05. Retrieved2021-05-05.
  18. Laurence Bergreen (2003).Over the edge of the world : Magellan's terrifying circumnavigation of the globe. ISBN 0066211735. Retrieved2009-09-14.
  19. "Home Remedies - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation". American Memory Timeline. The Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 2017-02-07. Retrieved2017-02-06.
  20. "ICSC 1063 - TURPENTINE". www.inchem.org. Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved2006-04-02.
  21. "Turpentine enema". Biology-Online Dictionary. Biology-Online. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-04-21. Retrieved2019-12-26.
  22. "Ribbons and Rituals". In Problems in Modern Latin American History. Ed. Chasteen and Wood. Oxford, UK: Scholarly Resources, 2005. p. 97
  23. Charles H. Haswell. "Reminiscences of New York By an Octogenarian (1816 - 1860)". Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. Retrieved2008-10-07.
  24. "The "Whale Oil Myth"". PBS NewsHour. 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved25 March 2018.
  25. "Honda History". Smokeriders.com. Archived from the original on 2009-04-28. Retrieved2009-09-17.
  26. If Only They Could Talk. 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved28 June 2018 – via www.amazon.co.uk., summarised at "James Herriot Books". Retrieved28 June 2018.[permanent dead link]
  27. Rohrer, Finlo (28 July 2014). "When gin was full of sulphuric acid and turpentine". BBC News. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved2 January 2018.
  28. "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Turpentine - Symptoms". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved2015-11-27.
  29. "Turpentine". International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved2006-04-02.
  30. "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Turpentine". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved2015-11-27.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toTurpentine.
Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Turpentine.
Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.) article Turpentine.


Turpentine Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about oil of turpentine For crude turpentine see oleoresin For other uses see turpentine disambiguation Turpentine which is also called spirit of turpentine oil of turpentine terebenthene terebinthine and colloquially turps 2 is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin harvested from living trees mainly pines Mainly used as a specialized solvent it is also a source of material for organic syntheses Turpentine Turpentine distilled at the Georgia Museum of Agriculture amp Historic Village as it was circa 1900IdentifiersCAS Number 9005 90 7ECHA InfoCard 100 029 407EC Number 232 688 5PubChem CID 48418114UNII XJ6RUH0O4GCompTox Dashboard EPA DTXSID6027680Properties 1 Chemical formula C 10H 16Molar mass 136 238 g mol 1Appearance Viscous liquidOdor ResinousMelting point 55 C 67 F 218 K Boiling point 154 C 309 F 427 K Solubility in water 20 mg LHazardsNFPA 704 fire diamond 130Flash point 35 C 95 F 308 K Autoignition temperature 220 1 C 428 F 493 K Except where otherwise noted data are given for materials in their standard state at 25 C 77 F 100 kPa Infobox references Turpentine is composed of terpenes primarily the monoterpenes alpha and beta pinene with lesser amounts of carene camphene dipentene and terpinolene 3 Mineral turpentine or other petroleum distillates are used to replace turpentine although the constituent chemicals are very different 4 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Source trees 3 Converting crude turpentine to oil of turpentine 4 Industrial and other end uses 4 1 Solvent 4 2 Source of organic compounds 4 3 Medicinal elixir 4 4 Niche uses 5 Hazards 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology EditThe word turpentine derives via French and Latin from the Greek word terebin8inh terebinthine in turn the feminine form to conform to the feminine gender of the Greek word which means resin of an adjective terebin8inos derived from the Greek noun terebin8os for the terebinth tree 5 Although the word originally referred to the resinous exudate of terebinth trees e g Chios turpentine Cyprus turpentine and Persian turpentine 6 7 it now refers to that of coniferous trees namely crude turpentine e g Venice turpentine is the oleoresin of larch 8 or the volatile oil part thereof namely oil spirit of turpentine the later usage is much more common today 9 Source trees Edit Herty system in use on turpentine trees in Northern Florida circa 1936 Chipping a turpentine tree in Georgia US circa 1906 20 Turpentine distillery at Manlyn North Carolina Chemical structure of a pinene a major component of turpentine Important pines for turpentine production include maritime pine Pinus pinaster Aleppo pine Pinus halepensis Masson s pine Pinus massoniana Sumatran pine Pinus merkusii longleaf pine Pinus palustris loblolly pine Pinus taeda slash pine Pinus elliottii and ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa To tap into the sap producing layers of the tree turpentiners used a combination of hacks to remove the pine bark Once debarked pine trees secrete crude turpentine oleoresin onto the surface of the wound as a protective measure to seal the opening resist exposure to micro organisms and insects and prevent vital sap loss Turpentiners wounded trees in V shaped streaks down the length of the trunks to channel the crude turpentine into containers It was then collected and processed into spirits of turpentine Crude turpentine yield may be increased by as much as 40 by applying paraquat herbicides to the exposed wood 10 The V shaped cuts are called catfaces for their resemblance to a cat s whiskers These marks on a pine tree signify it was used to collect resin for turpentine production 11 Converting crude turpentine to oil of turpentine EditCrude turpentine collected from the trees may be evaporated by steam distillation in a copper still Molten rosin remains in the still bottoms after turpentine has been distilled out 10 Such turpentine is called gum turpentine 12 The term gum turpentine may also refer to crude turpentine which causes considerable confusion Turpentine may alternatively be extracted from destructive distillation of pine wood 3 such as shredded pine stumps roots and slash using the light end of the heavy naphtha fraction boiling between 90 and 115 C or 195 and 240 F from a crude oil refinery Such turpentine is called wood turpentine Multi stage counter current extraction is commonly used so fresh naphtha first contacts wood leached in previous stages and naphtha laden with turpentine from previous stages contacts fresh wood before vacuum distillation to recover naphtha from the turpentine Leached wood is steamed for additional naphtha recovery prior to burning for energy recovery 13 When producing chemical wood pulp from pines or other coniferous trees sulfate turpentine may be condensed from the gas generated in Kraft process pulp digesters The average yield of crude sulfate turpentine is 5 10 kg t pulp 14 Unless burned at the mill for energy production sulfate turpentine may require additional treatment measures to remove traces of sulfur compounds 15 Industrial and other end uses EditSolvent Edit As a solvent turpentine is used for thinning oil based paints for producing varnishes and as a raw material for the chemical industry Its use as a solvent in industrialized nations has largely been replaced by the much cheaper turpentine substitutes obtained from petroleum A solution of turpentine and beeswax or carnauba wax has long been used as a furniture wax Source of organic compounds Edit Turpentine is also used as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds Commercially used camphor linalool alpha terpineol and geraniol are all usually produced from alpha pinene and beta pinene which are two of the chief chemical components of turpentine These pinenes are separated and purified by distillation The mixture of diterpenes and triterpenes that is left as residue after turpentine distillation is sold as rosin Medicinal elixir Edit Turpentine and petroleum distillates such as coal oil and kerosene have been used medicinally since ancient times as topical and sometimes internal home remedies Topically it has been used for abrasions and wounds as a treatment for lice and when mixed with animal fat it has been used as a chest rub or inhaler for nasal and throat ailments 16 Vicks chest rubs still contain turpentine in their formulations although not as an active ingredient 17 Turpentine now understood to be dangerous for consumption was a common medicine among seamen during the Age of Discovery It is one of several products carried aboard Ferdinand Magellan s fleet during the first circumnavigation of the globe 18 Taken internally it was used as a treatment for intestinal parasites This is dangerous due to the chemical s toxicity 19 20 Turpentine enemas a very harsh purgative had formerly been used for stubborn constipation or impaction 21 Turpentine enemas were also given punitively to political dissenters in post independence Argentina 22 Niche uses Edit Turpentine is also added to many cleaning and sanitary products due to its antiseptic properties and its clean scent In early 19th century America turpentine was sometimes burned in lamps as a cheap alternative to whale oil It was most commonly used for outdoor lighting due to its strong odour 23 A blend of ethanol and turpentine called camphine served as the dominant lamp fuel replacing whale oil until the advent of kerosene 24 In 1946 Soichiro Honda fueled the first Honda motorcycles with a blend of gasoline and turpentine to cover the smell of gasoline due to the scarcity of gasoline in Japan following World War II 25 In his book If Only They Could Talk veterinarian and author James Herriot describes the use of its reaction with resublimed iodine to drive the iodine into the tissue or perhaps just impress the watching customer with a spectacular treatment 26 Turpentine was added extensively into gin during the Gin Craze 27 Hazards EditNFPA 704 fire diamond 130 As an organic solvent its vapour can irritate the skin and eyes damage the lungs and respiratory system as well as the central nervous system when inhaled and cause damage to the renal system when ingested among other things 28 Ingestion can cause burning sensations abdominal pain nausea vomiting confusion convulsions diarrhea tachycardia unconsciousness respiratory failure 29 and chemical pneumonia The Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA has set the legal limit permissible exposure limit for turpentine exposure in the workplace as 100 ppm 560 mg m3 over an 8 hour workday The same threshold was adopted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH as the recommended exposure limit REL At levels of 800 ppm 4480 mg m3 turpentine is immediately dangerous to life and health 30 See also EditCharles Herty Chemist academic businessman football coach Galipot McCranie s Turpentine Still Naval stores industry Patent medicine Medicine sold regardless of effectiveness Retsina Greek wine Russia leather a water resistant leather using a birch oil distillate similar to turpentine in its manufacture White spirit also known as Turpentine substitute Petroleum derived clear transparent liquid Mineral spiritReferences Edit a b Record of Turpentine in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Mayer Ralph 1991 The Artist s Handbook of Materials and Techniques Fifth ed New York Viking p 404 ISBN 0 670 83701 6 a b Kent James A Riegel s Handbook of Industrial Chemistry Eighth Edition Van Nostrand Reinhold Company 1983 ISBN 0 442 20164 8 p 569 Solvents Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Weinheim Wiley VCH 2002 doi 10 1002 14356007 a24 437 Barnhart R K 1995 The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology New York Harper Collins ISBN 0 06 270084 7 Skeat Walter W 1882 A Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English Language Oxford UK Oxford University Press p 579 Mills John S White Raymond 1977 Natural Resins of Art and Archaeology Their Sources Chemistry and Identification Studies in Conservation 22 1 12 31 doi 10 2307 1505670 ISSN 0039 3630 JSTOR 1505670 Mahood S A 1921 03 01 Larch Venice Turpentine from Western Larch Larix occidentalis Journal of Forestry 19 3 274 282 doi 10 1093 jof 19 3 274 ISSN 0022 1201 Turpentine Britannica Retrieved 2022 03 02 a b Kent p 571 Prizer Tom June 11 2010 Catfaces Totems of Georgia s Turpentiners Daily Yonder Keep It Rural dailyyonder com Archived from the original on July 26 2015 Retrieved June 5 2012 Turpentine Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 2022 05 16 Kent pp 571 amp 572 Stenius Per ed 2000 2 Forest Products Chemistry Papermaking Science and Technology Vol 3 Finland pp 73 76 ISBN 952 5216 03 9 Kent p 572 Surviving The Spanish Lady Spanish flu CBC News 2003 04 10 Event occurs at 03 20 Archived from the original on 2020 08 07 Retrieved 2018 12 29 A turpentine and hot water and wring hot towels out of there and put it on their chest and back Elsie Miller nee Smith Sarah Rieger December 29 2018 100 years ago a train carrying Spanish flu pulled into Calgary Within weeks Alberta was in crisis CBC News Archived from the original on December 29 2018 Retrieved December 29 2018 DailyMed VICKS VAPORUB camphor synthetic eucalyptus oil and menthol ointment dailymed nlm nih gov Archived from the original on 2021 05 05 Retrieved 2021 05 05 Laurence Bergreen 2003 Over the edge of the world Magellan s terrifying circumnavigation of the globe ISBN 0066211735 Retrieved 2009 09 14 Home Remedies American Memory Timeline Classroom Presentation American Memory Timeline The Library of Congress Archived from the original on 2017 02 07 Retrieved 2017 02 06 ICSC 1063 TURPENTINE www inchem org Archived from the original on 2006 04 27 Retrieved 2006 04 02 Turpentine enema Biology Online Dictionary Biology Online 7 October 2019 Archived from the original on 2019 04 21 Retrieved 2019 12 26 Ribbons and Rituals In Problems in Modern Latin American History Ed Chasteen and Wood Oxford UK Scholarly Resources 2005 p 97 Charles H Haswell Reminiscences of New York By an Octogenarian 1816 1860 Archived from the original on 2008 07 24 Retrieved 2008 10 07 The Whale Oil Myth PBS NewsHour 20 August 2008 Archived from the original on 10 May 2019 Retrieved 25 March 2018 Honda History Smokeriders com Archived from the original on 2009 04 28 Retrieved 2009 09 17 If Only They Could Talk 28 June 2012 Archived from the original on 13 February 2021 Retrieved 28 June 2018 via www amazon co uk summarised at James Herriot Books Retrieved 28 June 2018 permanent dead link Rohrer Finlo 28 July 2014 When gin was full of sulphuric acid and turpentine BBC News Archived from the original on 19 July 2018 Retrieved 2 January 2018 CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Turpentine Symptoms www cdc gov Archived from the original on 2015 12 08 Retrieved 2015 11 27 Turpentine International Programme on Chemical Safety World Health Organization Archived from the original on 2006 04 27 Retrieved 2006 04 02 CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Turpentine www cdc gov Archived from the original on 2015 12 08 Retrieved 2015 11 27 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Turpentine Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopaedia article Turpentine Wikisource has the text of the Encyclopaedia Britannica 9th ed article Turpentine Inchem org IPCS INCHEM Turpentine classification hazard and property table CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Turpentine FAO org Gum naval stores Turpentine and rosin from pine resin FloridaMemory com Florida State Archive photographs of turpentine camps and laborers HCHSonline org Timber and Turpentine Industries Distil my beating heart Florida s Turpmtine Camps Turpentine Industry at A History of Central Florida Podcast Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Turpentine amp oldid 1093563366, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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