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This article is about the predominant sect of Shia Islam. For other denominations which believe in The Twelve Imams, see Alevism and Alawites.


Twelver Shīʿīsm (Arabic:ٱثْنَا عَشَرِيَّة; ʾIthnā ʿAšarīyah), also known as Imāmīyyah (Arabic:إِمَامِيَّة), is the largest branch of Shīʿa Islam, comprising about 85 percent of all Shīʿa Muslims. The term Twelver refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, and their belief that the last Imam, Imam al-Mahdi, lives in Occultation and will reappear as The promised Mahdi (Arabic:المهدي المنتظر). According to the Shīʿa tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus (ʿĪsā), who, along with Mahdi, would kill the Dajjal.

Calligraphic representation of the Twelve Imams surrounding the name of Muhammad

Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the theology of Twelvers, the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the Muslim community (Ummah) with justice, but are also able to preserve and interpret the Islamic law (sharīʿa) and the esoteric meaning of the Quran. The words and deeds (sunnah) of Muhammad and the Imams are a guide and model for the Muslim community to follow; as a result, Muhammad and the Imams must be free from error and sin, a doctrine known as Ismah or infallibility, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.

There are approximately 150 million to 200 million Twelvers in the world today, making the majority of the total populations of Iran, Iraq, and Azerbaijan. Twelvers represent a sizable minority in Bahrain, Lebanon, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Nigeria, Chad, and Tanzania. Iran is the only country where Twelver Shi'ism is the state religion.

Twelvers share many tenets with other Shīʿīte sects, such as the belief in the Imamate, but the Ismāʿīlī and Nizārī branches believe in a different number of Imams and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate. They also differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelvers are also distinguished from Ismāʿīlīs by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin), in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of sharīʿa laws, and in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Alevis in Turkey and Albania, and Alawites in Syria and Lebanon, share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are markedly different.

Contents

See also: Rafidah

The term Twelver is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib and ending with Muhammad al-Mahdi, are Imams who have religious and political authority.

The Twelvers are also known by other names:

  • Shi'a refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment. Tabatabai states that the word referred to the partisans of Ali at the time of Muhammad himself.
  • Ja'fari refers exclusively to the Juridical school which is followed by Twelvers and Nizaris. The term is derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq who is considered by the Twelvers and Nizaris to be their sixth Imam who presented "a legal treatise". Ja'far al-Sadiq is also respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence.
  • Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver belief in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs also share the concept of Imamate, this term is mostly used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to twelve subsequent successors including Ali that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles.

Imamate Era

Twelver Imams amongst Shia

Emergence

In 610, when Muhammad received the first revelation, Ali was 10 years old. At the time of Muhammad, some of the supporters of Ali, particularly Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman the Persian, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, and Ammar ibn Yasir were called the Shiites of Ali. The division of Islam into Shia and Sunni traces back to the crisis of the succession to Muhammad. The followers of Ali fought with some of the Quraysh and some of the companions of Muhammad like Talhah and Zubayr. As most of his supporters were in Iraq, Ali moved the capital of Islam to Kufa and there began to fight against Mu'awiyah, who rejected giving allegiance to Ali. The death of Husayn played an important role in the spread of Shi'ism in the regions of Iraq, Yemen and Persia. At the end of the first century, the influential leaders in the government established the city of Qom for the settlement of the Shia.

Formulation

Muhammad Al-Baqir was teacher of law for 20 years and a reporter of hadith. He also introduced the principle of Taqiyya. Al-Baqir narrated many a hadith about Jurisprudence and other religious sciences which based the foundations for the Shia instructions. With change in political situations and a suitable conditions for the development of religious activities and the time of elaborating the religious sciences, Ja'far al-Sadiq had an important role in forming the Shia Jurisprudence. Ja'far al-Sadiq and al-Baqir are the founders of the Imami Shiite school of religious law. Al-Sadiq acquired a noteworthy group of scholars around himself, comprising some of the most eminent jurists, traditionists, and theologians of the time. During his time, Shia developed in the theological and legal issues. Both Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq improved the position of the Shia and elaborated the intellectual basis of the interpretation and practice of Shiite Islam. Their teachings were the basis for the development of Shiite spirituality and religious rituals.

Organizing

At the beginning of the third/ninth century once again Shia flourished and it was due to the translation of scientific and philosophical books from other languages to Arabic, Al-Ma'mun giving freedom to the propagation of different religious views and his interest in intellectual debates. Under the rule of al-Ma'mun, Shia was free from the political pressures and was somehow at liberty. In the fourth/tenth century, the weaknesses in the Abbasid government and coming up the Buyid rulers caused the spread, strength and open propagation of the Shi'ism. From the fifth/eleventh to the ninth century many Shia kings appeared in the Islamic world who propagated the Shi'ism.

Crisis and Consolidation

Baghdad school

During tenth century and Buyid era, Baghdad was the center of Mu'tazila theologians. Their ideas about attribute and justice of God and human free will affected Shia theologians. Bani Nawbakht, particularly Abu Sahl Al-Nawbakhti (d. 923–924), fuzed Mu'tazili theology with Imami system of thought. On the other hand, Imami traditionists of Qom, particularly Ibn Babawayh(d. 991), react to their theological ideas based on Twelve Imams' Hadiths. He tried to defend Imami ideas against Mu'tazili criticism regarding Anthropomorphism(Tashbih).

The three prominent figures of Baghdad school were Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid (d. 1022 CE), Sharif al-Murtaza (d. 1044) and Shaykh al-Tusi (d. 1067).

Al-Mufid was a Twelver theologian, Muhaddith and Fiqih who used Bani Nawbakht as well as Baghdadi Mu'tazila ideas to form his theology while trying to adapt theological ideas with Twelve Imams' Hadith. While the Mu'tazila was dominant in Baghdad, he tries to distinguish Shia and Mu'tazila ideas and assert reason needs revelation.

Shaykh Tusi, founder of Shia Ijtihad, was the first to establish the bases of reasoning in Shia Jurisprudence. His book al-Mabsut is the first book of Ijtihad which derives the subordinates from the principles. Tusi bought the Shia religious law to a new period. The main point is that he recognized the needs of the community and preserved the principles.

By his debates and books, Al-Mufid, Sayyid-al Murtada and Shaykh al-Tusi in Iraq were the first to introduce the Usul of the Jurisprudence under the influence of the Shafe'i and Mu'tazili doctrines. Al- Kulayni and al-Sadduq, in Qom and Ray, were concerned with traditionalist approach.

Twelver Imams amongst other Shia imam with their early Imams are shown in the chart below. This also indicate twelvers amongst various other sects in the present world.

Jurisprudencial and Theological Development

School of Hillah

The beginner of this school, Ibn Idris al-Hilli (d. 1202), with his rationalistic tendency, detailed Shi'ite jurisprudence in his al-Sara'ir. Ibn Idris, with rejecting the validity of the isolate hadith, states rational faculty ('aql) as the fourth source of law in deducing legal norms before Quran and hadith. But the real Usuli doctrinal movement began by al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli (d. 1277) who brought up ijtihad and qiyas (analogy) to jurisprudence. Ijtihad brought dynamism into Shia law. Muhaqqiq Hilli and al-Hilli gave a definite shape to Shia jurisprudence and they separated the weak hadith from the sound. According to John Cooper, after al-Hilli, Imami theology and legal methodology became thoroughly infused with the terminology and style of philosophy.

In 1256 the Abbasid dynasty collapsed with the invasion of Mongols to Baghdad. Under the ruling of Mongols, Shi'a were more free to develop and al-Hilla became the new learning center for Shia. Continuing the rationalistic tradition of the Baghdad School, defining reason as an important principle of Jurisprudence, al-Hillah school laid the theoretical foundation upon which the authority of Jurisprudents is based today.

The second wave of the Usulies was shaped in the Mongol period when al-Hilli used the term Mujtahid, the one who deduces the ordinance on the basis of the authentic arguments of the religion. By Ijtihad, al-Hilli meant the disciplined reasoning on the basis of the shari'ah. By developing the principles of the Usul, he introduced more legal and logical norms which extended the meaning of the Usul beyond the four principle sources of Shari'ah.

School of Jabal 'Amil

Amili was the first who fully formulated the principles of the Ijtihad.

Rising to Power

School of Isfahan

In 1501 Isma'il I took the power in Iran and set up the Safavid dynasty. While most of the larger cities of Iran were Sunni, he declared Twelverism as the official religion of his empire. Many Shia scholars were brought to set up the Shia seminaries in Iran. One of those was Karaki who stated that, for the interest of Umma, it is necessary for a Shia scholar to be a legitimate leader to carry out the tasks of the Imam who is hidden. Under Safavids, religious authorities (Shaykh al-Islam) were appointed for all major cities. Karaki established a great seminary (Hawza) in Qazvin and Isfahan, consequently, Iran once again became center of Imami jurisprudence. Suhrawardi tried to harmonize rational philosophy and intellectual intuition, but Mir Damad is the founder of it. Mir Damad combined the teachings of Ibn Arabi, Suhrawardi, Ibn Sina and Nair al-Din and founded a new intellectual dimension in the texture of Shi'ism. The scholars of the School of Isfahan integrated the philosophical, theological, and mystical traditions of Shi'ism into a metaphysical synthesis known as Divine Wisdom or theosophy(Persian:hikmat-i ilahi). The most important representative of the School of Isfahan was Mulla Sadra. Mulla Sadra produced his own synthesis of Muslim thought, including theology, peripatetic philosophy, philosophical mysticism, and Sufi studies, particularly the Sufism of Ibn al-'Arabi. Mulla Sadra trained eminent students, such as Mulla Muhsin Kashani and 'Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji who passed down the traditions of the School of Isfahan in later centuries in both Iran and India.

Akhbari-Usuli Controversies

By the end of the Safavid era (1736), the Usuli School of thought was attacked by the Akhbari (traditionalist) trend whose founder was Mulla Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi. Astarabadi attacked the idea of Ijtihad and called the Usulies as the enemies of religion. He recognized the hadith as the only source for the Islamic law and the understanding of the Quran.

Muhammad Baqir Behbahani, as the founder of a new stage in Shia Jurisprudence, took a new practical method. He attacked the Ikhbaries and their method was abandoned by Shia. The dominance of the Usuli over the Akhbari came in last half of the 18th century when Behbahani led Usulis to dominance and "completely routed the Akhbaris at Karbala and Najaf," so that "only a handful of Shi'i ulama have remained Akhbari to the present day." The reestablishment of the Usuli School led to the enhancement of the authority of the legal scholars in the Qajar dynasty.

Qom school, Iranian Revolution and Islamic Republic

Further information: Qom, Iranian Revolution, and Islamic Republic

During the 1960s, Ruhollah Khomeini called for the abolition of the western-backed monarchy in Iran. He was sent into exile in Iraq, where he continued his opposition to the Iranian regime. He further ordered the opposition to the Shah and led the 1979 revolution.

Main article: Theology of Twelvers

Twelver theology, which mainly consists of five principles, has formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of Quran, and hadiths from Muhammad and the Twelve Imams (especially Jafar al-Sadiq), and in response to the intellectual movements in the Muslim world and major events of the Twelver history, such as the Battle of Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi.

Mystics, philosophers, and traditional scholars all have diverse opinions about the unity of God, free will, and judgment day, as stated by Jafaar Seedaan. Care has been taken to mention the tradition view first then mention other views objectively.[citation needed]

Unity of God

Main article: Tawhid

According to Hossein Nasr, Ali ibn Abi Talib, the first Shia Imam is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God's unity (Tawhid).

Ali is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like, he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality or imagination. On another occasion, he is quoted saying:

The first step of religion is to accept, understand and realize him as the Lord ... The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize that he is so absolutely pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from his being. That is, one should realize that there is no difference between his person and his attributes, and his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his person.

Traditional Twelvers strictly believe that God is different from his creation, and that both are separate entities.

However, Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent Shia mystic and philosopher defines God as alone in being, along with his names, his attributes, his actions, his theophanies. The totality of being, therefore, is he, through him, comes from him, and returns to him. God is not a being next to or above other beings, his creatures; he is being, the absolute act of being (wujud mutlaq). The divine unitude does not have the meaning of an arithmetical unity, among, next to, or above other unities. For, if there were being other than he (i.e., creatural being), God would no longer be the Unique, i.e., the only one to be. As this Divine Essence is infinite, his qualities are the same as his essence. Essentially, there is one Reality, which is one and indivisible.

According to Twelver theology, Tawhid consists of several aspects, including Tawhid of the Essence, the attributes, the creatorship, the lordship and oneness in worship.

Tawhid of the Essence

Tawhid of the essence of God means his essence is one and peerless. Regarding this, Quran 112 states: Say, "He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent. "

Tawhid of the attributes

Tawhid of the attributes means God's attributes have no other reality than His essence. Ali argues that "Every attributes testifies to its being other than the object to which it is attributed, and every such object in turn testifies to its being other than the attribute. " Tawhid of the attributes means to deny the existence of any sort of multiplicity and combination in the Essence itself. A differentiation between the essence and the attributes or between the attributes implies a limitation in being.

Traditional Twelvers believe that God's names are created by Him and are not His attributes. A name is a combination of created letters while attributes are what is implied by that name. It is stated in Al-Kafi that whoever worships God's names has committed disbelief in God, as they are not Him.

Tawhid of Creatorship

Al-Hur Al-Amilly states that God created everything except humans' actions.

According to some Twelvers, Tawhid of Creatorship means that there is no creator but God, that is the causes and effects of the universe are not independent from God, just as the beings which are not independent in essence. There is no power except God, according to Motahari.

Tawhid of Lordship

Tawhid of Lordship means the governance of the world and that human beings only belong to God. This oneness of lordship has two aspects: creative governance (tadbir takwini), and religious governance (tadbir tashrii).

At last oneness in worship, i.e., God alone is deserved to be worshipped. According to Morteza Motahhari, oneness in worship means rejecting all kinds of counterfeit worship (such as worship of carnal desires, money or prestige), and as Quran says, every act of obedience to an order is worship.

Shirk

Contrary to Tawhid is Shirk. It is a belief that the world has more than one principle or pole.

According to the mystic and philosopher Morteza Motahhari, the distinction of theoretical Tawhid from Shirk is recognition of the idea that every reality and being in its essence, attributes and action are from him (from Him-ness (Arabic:انّالله)). Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God's permission as Quran points to it. Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end in itself, independent from God, but to assume it as a path to God (to Him-ness (Arabic:انّاالیه)) is Tawhid.

Justice of God

Ali insists that God is Just and he is the Justice Itself and the virtue of Justice flows from him to the souls of men. Since he is Justice, every thing he does is Just. Shiism considers Justice as innate to Divine nature, i.e. God can not act unjustly, because it is his nature to be just.

Justice in Creation

Twelvers believe that God grants every existent what is appropriate for it as the verse 20:50 states: Our Lord is He Who gave unto everything its nature, then guided it aright.

Justice in Religious Dispensation

God guides each human through sending messengers and He does not impose upon them obligations that are beyond their capacity. In the Message of The Quran by Mohammad Asad, the interpretation of v 20:50 is as follows; He(Moses) replied (to Pharaoh); Our Sustainer is He who gives unto every thing [ that exists ] its true nature and form, and thereupon guides it [towards its fulfillment].

Justice in Recompense

Tabataba'i states that the Justice of God necessitates that the virtuous and evil people become separated; the virtuous have a good life and the evil have a wretched life. He will judge the beliefs and the deeds of all the people according to the truth and he will give every one his right due. Then the reality of every thing as it is will be revealed for the man. Through his faith and good deeds, he can get to friendship with God. The form of man's deeds are joined to his soul and accompany him which are the capital of his future life. The verse 96: 8 refers to getting back to God.

Predestination and Free Will

According to Twelvers' narrations, God does not create Humans' actions and instead they are fully created by humans. According to a narration by Musa Al-Khadhim, if God created humans' actions then He should not punish humans for it. Jaafar Al-Subhani argues that the justice of God requires that humans' actions cannot be created by God, otherwise God would be a doer of evil actions. Predestination is rejected in Shiism.

However, Some philosophers believe that all the existence is His creation including a human being and his actions. But actions have two dimensions. The first is committing the action by free will, the second is the creation of that action by God's will with which he gave the people the power to commit the action. Sadr al-Din Shirazi states that "God, may He be exalted, is far removed from doing any evil deeds and goes about His Kingdom at will. "

The view that God creates humans' actions is rejected by traditional Twelvers.


Holy sites

The Prophethood

Ja'far al-Sadiq narrates from his fathers that Muhammad, in one of his sermons expressed that "[God] sent to people messengers so they might be His conclusive argument against His creatures and so His messengers to them might be witnesses against them. He sent among them prophets bearing good tidings and warning. " Tabataba'i states that God has perfected the guidance of people through sending the prophets; When the doctrines and practices of the revealed law gets to its perfection, the prophecy comes to an end, too. That is why the Quran points out that Islam is the last and the most perfect religion and Muhammad is the "seal of the prophets", he adds. Al-Hilli states that "the Prophets are greater in merit than the angels, because the prophets have conflicts with rational power and they compel it to submit to reason. "

Angel

Belief in the existence of the angels is one of the articles of Iman. Unseen beings of a luminous and spiritual substance, angels act as intermediaries between God and the visible world. Although superior in substance, angels are inferior to mankind, because man can reflect the image of God. The verse 2:34 implies the superiority of the mankind. God revealed the Quran to Muhammad by Gabriel who was also his guide on Mi'raj. The angels record the deeds of men. They follow the commands of God and do not precede him 21:27. Izz al-Din Kashani discusses that the angels are different in degree and station. Some of them cling to the Threshold of Perfection, others manage the affairs of the creation. Al-Qazwini, on the base of Quran and hadith, names them as the Bearers of the Throne, the Spirit, he governs all the affairs of the earth and heaven according to the principle of creation; Israfil, he places the spirits in the bodies and will blow the trumpet on the Last Day. Gabriel, who took the revelation to Muhammad. Michael, Azrael, the angel of death. The cherubim (al-karrūbiyyūn) who just praise God. The angels of seven heavens and the Guardian angels, two of them are concerned with men. The Attendant angels, they bring blessings upon human. Munkar and Nakir who question the dead in the grave. The journeyers, Harut and Marut are also among them.

Revelation

Tabataba'i expresses that according to the thesis of general guidance, as the human reason cannot perceive the perfect law of happiness (Sa'adah) and he could not get it through the process of creation, there should be a general awareness of this law and it could be within the reach of every one. He adds there must be people who apprehend the real duties of life and bring them within the reach of human being. Tabataba'i refers to this power of perception, which is other than the reason and the sense, as the prophetic consciousness or the consciousness of revelation as the verse 4: 163 points to this perception namely revelation. Tabataba'i describes that the reception of revelation, its preservation and its propagation are three principles of ontological guidance. What the prophets got through the revelation was religion which consists of doctrine and practice or method. He further adds that with passing of the time and gradual development of the society, the gradual development in the revealed law is apparent. By three ways the speech of God reaches to man, by revelation or divine inspiration; behind a veil, man can hear God's speech but can not hear him; or by a messenger, an angel conveys the inspiration to the man. By the verses 72:26–28 two types of guardians protect the integrity of the revelation: an angel who protects the prophet against any kind of error, God who protects the angels and the prophets.

Miracle

Tabataba'i defines the miracle as a supernatural event which is shown by the prophet and the friends of God as a challenge to prove the claim of the prophethood and it is by God's permission. He states that the miracle should be according to the demands of the people of his own time. He adds that miracle has an inseparable connection with the claim of the prophethood and it is beyond the intellect and thinking. By miracle, al-Hilli means "the bringing into existence of something which is abnormal or the removal of something which normally exists, in a way which breaks through normality and which conforms to the claim (of prophethood which is made). " Sobhani regards some differences between miracles and extraordinary acts. He notes that miracles are not teachable and they are done without any prior training. As they are derived from the infinite power of God, the miracles are indisputable. The miracles are of unlimited types. The miracles are often concerned with spiritual matters rather worldly matters.

Imamah and Walayah

18th century mirror writing in Ottoman calligraphy. Depicts the phrase 'Ali is the vicegerent of God' in both directions.

Shia believe in the trilateral structure of authority; authority of God which is absolute and universal as the verse 3: 26 implies, authority of Muhammad which is legitimized by the grace of God as the verse 7: 158 points to it and the authority of the Imams who are blessed for the leadership of the community through Muhammad as the verses 5: 67 and 5: 3 verifies according to Shia fundamental belief. According to Shia, Imamah is the continuation of the prophetic mission. Shia believe in the Twelve Imams who are divinely inspired descendants of Muhammad. They must meet these attributes: nass (designation by the previous Imam), Ismah (infallibility), ilm (divine knowledge), Walayah (spiritual guidance). The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, based on Twelver's belief. It is believed in Shi'a Islam that 'Aql, a divine wisdom, was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge, called Hikmah, and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees. Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation, but has close relationship with God, through which God guides him, and the imam in turn guides the people. The Imamat, or belief in the divine guide is a fundamental belief in Shi'i Islam and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance.

According to Twelvers, there is always an Imam of the Age, who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community. Ali was the first Imam of this line, and in the Twelvers' view, the rightful successor to Muhammad, followed by male descendants of Muhammad (also known as Hasnain) through his daughter Fatimah. Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam, with the exception of Husayn Ibn Ali, who was the brother of Hasan Ibn Ali. The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al-Mahdi, who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive, and in hiding.

Names of The Fourteen Infallibles (Masūmeen - Descendants Of Muhammad) written in the form of Arabic name على 'Ali'

The Shi'a Imams are seen as infallible. It is an important aspect of Shia theology that they are not prophets (nabi) nor messengers (rasul), but instead carry out Muhammad's message.

The Succession to Muhammad

Shia believe that with the death of Muhammad, his religious and political authority were inherited to the Imams. Shia consider the Successor as the esoteric interpreter of the revelation and the Divine Law.

With the exception of Zaydis, Shi'ites believe in the Imamate, a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen, infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al-Bayt regardless of majority opinion, shura or election. They claim that before his death, Muhammad had given many indications, in the Event of Ghadir Khumm in particular, that he considered Ali, his cousin and son-in-law, as his successor. For the Twelvers, Ali and his eleven descendants, the twelve Imams, are believed to have been considered, even before their birth, as the only valid Islamic rulers appointed and decreed by God. Shia Muslims believe that with the exception of Ali and Hasan, all the caliphs following Muhammad's death were illegitimate and that Muslims had no obligation to follow them. They hold that the only guidance that was left behind, as stated in the hadith of the two weighty things, was the Quran and Muhammad's family and offspring. The latter, due to their infallibility, are considered to be able to lead the Muslim community with justice and equity.

Ziyarat and Tawassul

Main articles: Ziyarat and Tawassul

Ziyarah (literally: visit) is a religious practice that means to attend before religious leaders or their graves in order to express and indicate reverence/love and acquire spiritual blessings. The visitation of the imams is recommended even by Imams themselves and Shia scholars and jurists from an early period of Shia history. The most popular destinations for Shi'a pilgrims include Najaf and Karbala in Iraq, Qum and Mashhad in Iran, and Sayyida Zaynab in Syria.

According to Shi'is, the imams are revered because they had received inspiration and a degree of revelation from Allah.

Tawassul is an Arabic word originated from wa-sa-la- wasilat (Arabic: وسيلة-وسل). The wasilah is a means by which a person, goal or objective is approached, attained or achieved.

For Shi'is: to take advantage of factors to attain the goals is natural but these factors should not be taken as independent from God and should have been established in the Quran and hadith. This means can be anything which causes drawing proximity to God such as prayer, almsgiving.

Ismah

Main article: Ismah

In Shia theology Ismah means "impeccability", "immunity to sin" and "infallibility. " When Ismah is attributed to human beings, the concept means "the ability of avoiding acts of disobedience, in spite of having the power to commit them, " As in Prophets and Imams, Ismah is a Divine grace realized by God's preservation of the infallible, first by endowing them with pure constitution then, following in order, by blessing them with great excellences, giving them firm will against opponents, sending tranquility down upon them (as-Sakinah), and preserving their hearts and minds from sin.

According to the theology of Twelvers, the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice, but also is able to keep and interpret the Sharia and its esoteric meaning. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow; therefore, they must be free from error and sin, and must be chosen by divine decree, or nass, through Muhammad.

According to Twelvers the Islamic prophet Muhammad, his daughter Fatima Zahra; and the Twelve Imams are considered to be infallible under the theological concept of Ismah. Accordingly, they have the power to commit sin but are able to avoid doing so by their nature The Infallibles are believed to follow only God's desire in their actions, because of their supreme righteousness, consciousness, and love for God. They are also regarded as being immune to error: in practical matters, in calling people to religion, and in the perception of divine knowledge. Shias believe that the Fourteen Infallibles are superior to the rest of creation, as well as to the other major prophets.

From historical viewpoint, Wilferd Madelung claims that the purification of Ahl al-Bayt—the family of Muhammad—is guaranteed by the Verse of Purification in the Qur'an. Donaldson in his argument believed that the development of the Shi'ite theology in the period between the death of Muhammad and the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam originates the concept of Ismah which adds to its importance. Ann Lambton claims that neither the term nor the concept of Ismah is in the Qur'an or in canonical Sunni hadith. It was apparently first used by the Imamiyyah, perhaps during the beginning of the second century of the Islamic calendar in which they maintained that the Imam must be immune from sin (ma'sum). According to Hamid Algar, the concept Ismah is encountered as early as the first half of the second century of the Islamic calendar. The Shia scholars of the fourth and the fifth centuries of the Islamic calendar defined the infallibility of Muḥammad and the Twelve Imams in an increasingly stringent form until the doctrine came to exclude their commission of any sin or inadvertent error, either before or after they assumed office.

The Occultation

Main article: The Occultation

According to Twelvers, the conditions under the Abbasids caused Hasan al-Askari to hide the birth of his son, al-Mahdi.

The Day of Resurrection

By Shia theological doctrine, since the people have come from God, they will go back to God, and it is related to people's reaction to the prophecy. They argue that according to the Quran, 23: 115, God, whose actions are the absolute truth, does not create a man without any purpose. While the quality of this world makes the recompense impossible, the Justice of God necessitates that every one be recompensed according to his own actions. Tabataba'i describes the death as a transfer from one stage of life to another eternal stage. The verse 21:47 points to the precision of the scales of justice by which the deeds and intentions of people are weighed.

The Return (Raj'a)

Twelvers believe in the Return, the term refers to the revival of a group of Muslims back to this world after the appearance of Mahdi. The base of this belief derives from the revival of the dead in the past communities as mentioned in the Quran and the revival at the Day of Resurrection. Sobhani describes that Resurrection is both of body and spirit. Quran 17: 51, in response to those that ask "Who will restore us", answers: "He who brought you forth the first time. " In another place, verse 22: 5–6, it is like the revival of the earth in the season of the spring after the winter. He adds the verse 36: 79 implies that the person who is raised up at the Resurrection is the one who was alive on the earth. The purpose of the Resurrection of the body and rejoining the soul is that it experience the rewards and punishments which are sensible and they can not be experienced with the lack of the body.The purpose of spiritual resurrection is to observe those rewards and punishments which are especial to the spirit.

The Day of Judgement

God will resurrect all human beings and they will stand before God to be questioned about their lives on the world. On this day people are two groups, people who receive their book by their right hand who are the people of Paradise and their face is bright and the people who receive their book by their left hand who are the people of Hell and their face is dark. As the verse 41:21 points out, on the Day of Judgement, the ears, eyes and skin of disbelievers will testify against them saying "Allah has caused us to speak – He causes all things to speak."

Intercession

Belief to the Intercession derives from the Quran, 21: 28, 10: 3, 53: 26 and Sunna. Muhammad, the angels 53: 26, Imams and martyrs are among the intercessors by God's will. Muhammad has expressed that one of God's gifts to him is the right of intercession of those who have committed major sins. As Quran represents the sons of Jacob asked their father to intercede for them and their father promised to them that he will do it at the promised time.

According to Nasr, the root of the Shari'ah is Shr' which means road that all the men and women should follow. The Shari'ah or Divine Law of Islam is ritual, legal, ethical, and social aspects of Islam which is the concrete embodiment of the will of God. It governs the life of a Muslim from the cradle to the grave in order to get happiness in the Hereafter. He adds to get into Haqiqah, a Muslim should follow the Shari'ah which resides within the formal law. This interior part of the Shariah is Tariqah. The Shari'ah consists of Ibadat (worship) which is all the conjunctions that apply to the Islamic rites and muamalat which includes every kind of social, political and economic transactions. The Shari'ah divides all acts into five categories: obligatory(wajib), recommended(mandub), reprehensible or abominable(makruh), forbidden(haram) and acts toward which the Divine Law is indifferent(mubah). The evaluation of the act is on the base of the Shari'ah. God is the ultimate legislator (the Shari') and the roots of the Shari'ah is in the Quran. The Hadith and Sunnah are the second sources of the Shari'ah and the complements of the Quran. The Shari'ah has immutable principles but is applicable to new situations.

  • Salat (Prayer) – meaning "connection", establish the five daily prayers, called namāz in Persian and Urdu.
  • Sawm (Fasting) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan, called rūzeh in Persian.
  • Zakat (Poor-rate) – charity. Zakat means "to purify".
  • Khums ("Fifth" of one's savings) – tax.
  • Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Jihād (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater, internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life, called jihād akbār. The lesser, or external, jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life, called jihād asghār. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihād bil qalam "struggle of the pen") and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of jihād.
  • Commanding what is just.
  • Forbidding what is evil.
  • Tawalla – loving the Ahl al-Bayt and their followers.
  • Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlu l-Bayt.

Shahada (Declaration of faith)

Main articles: Shahada and Declaration of faith

While sharing the Unity of God and the divine guidance through his messenger Muhammad, Shia maintain that for the spiritual and moral guidance of the community, God instructed Muhammad to designate Ali as the leader of the community which was made public at Ghadir Khumm. Twelvers, along with Sunnis, agree that a single honest recitation of the shahādah in Arabic is all that is required for a person to become a Muslim according to most traditional schools. A vast majority of Twelvers often add ʻAlīyun waliyu l-Lāh (علي ولي الله "Ali is the vicegerent of God") at the end of the Shahādah. This testifies that ʻAlī is also the Leader of the Believers along with God and Muhammad, proof of which Shi'a theologians find in the Qur'an. [Quran 5:55]

Prayer

Main articles: Salah, Ghusl, and Wudu

The canonical prayers are the most central rite of Islam which is incumbent on all Muslims, both male and female, from the age of adolescence until death. The prayers must be performed in the direction of the Ka'bah in Mecca five times a day: in the early morning, between dawn and sunrise; at noon; in the afternoon; at sunset; and at night before midnight. The call to prayer (adhan) and ritual ablution (wudu) are preceded before the prayer and it can be performed on any ritually clean ground whether outdoors or indoors as long as one has the permission of the owner. The units (rak'ah) of prayer are two in the morning, four at noon, four in the afternoon, three in the evening, and four at night. Shia perform prayers on especial occasions like fear, joy, thanksgiving and at the pilgrimages and at the end of Ramadan. There are minor differences between Sunnis and Twelvers in how the prayer ritual is performed. During the purification ritual in preparation for prayer (which consists of washing the face, arms, feet, etc. and saying of some prayers), the Shīʻa view wiping the feet with wet hands as sufficient. Also, Shīʻa do not use their fingers to clean inside the ears during the ablution ritual. A prerequisite for purification is that one has to be clean before performing the purification ritual.

During prayer, it is the Jaʻfarī view that it is preferable to prostrate on earth, leaves that are not edible or wood, as these three things are considered purest by Muhammad in hadith specifically mentioning Tayammum. Hence many Shīʻa use a turbah, a small tablet of soil, often taken from the ground of a holy site, or wood during their daily prayers upon which they prostrate.

In the Jaʻfarī view, the hands are to be left hanging straight down the side during the standing position of the prayer. The Jaʻfarī consider the five daily prayers to be compulsory, though the Jaʻfarī consider it acceptable to pray the second and third prayer, and the fourth and fifth prayer, one after the other during the parts of the day where they believe the timings for these prayers to overlap.

Fasting

Main article: Sawm

Nasr describes that Fasting is abstaining oneself from food, drink and sexual intercourse from the dawn to the sunset during the month of Ramadan. The Fast also requires the abstaining one's mind and tongue away from evil thoughts and words. It is obligatory from the age of adolescence until the time one possesses the physical strength to undertake it. The fast is not obligatory for the sick, those travelling and breast-feeding mothers, but they must make up the lost days when possible. According to Tabataba'ei, Arabic:الصوم (Fasting) means to abstain oneself from something, which later in the development of the religion was applied to abstaining from some particular things, from break of dawn up to sunset, with intention (niyyah,النّيّة). Fasting results in piety i.e., to abstain oneself from gratifying worldly matters, results in the perfection of the spirit. He adds, one should care about matters which take him away from his Lord: this is called piety. This abstinence from common lawful things causes him to abstain from unlawful things and to come nearer to God. The end of Ramadan comes with the prayer of the Eid after which a sum of money equal to the cost of all the meals not eaten by oneself and one's family during this month is usually given to the poor.

Khums and Zakah

Main articles: Khums and Zakat

The term Zakah is related to the purity in Arabic. It is the annual taxation of one's excess wealth at certain rates for different valuables. It is a form of social welfare program, by which wealth is redistributed and the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small elite prevented. It is also seen as a ritual purification of one's wealth.Khums (خمس), meaning one fifth, is an annual tax of one-fifth which is levied on net income (after paying all expenses). This tax is to be spent on Muhammad, his family, orphans, the needy and the travelers. Half of the Khums is the share of the Imam which is his inheritance from Muhammad and at the absence of Imam, it is paid to Marja' as the representative of Imam.

The items which are eligible for khums are seven:

  1. the profit or the surplus of the income.
  2. the legitimate wealth which is mixed with some illegitimate wealth.
  3. mines and minerals.
  4. the precious stones obtained from sea by diving.
  5. treasures.
  6. the land which a dhimmi kafir buys from a Muslim.
  7. the spoils of war.

Khums is mandatory on seven assets: earned profits, net income (after paying all expenses), Zakat or alms is levied on crops, livestock, gold, silver and cash

In Islamic legal terminology, it means "one-fifth of certain items which a person acquires as wealth, and which must be paid as an Islamic tax". According to Shi'a, the items eligible for khums are referred to as Ghanima (الْغَنيمَة) in the Quran. The Arabic word Ghanima has two meanings

  • "spoils of war" or "war booty"
  • gain or profit

The Sunni translate this word exclusively as "war booty" or "spoils of war". The Twelvers hold the view that the word Ghanima has two meanings as mentioned above, the second meaning is illustrated by the common use of the Islamic banking term al-ghunm bil-ghurm meaning "gains accompany liability for loss or risk".

Also, in a famous supplication, the supplication after the noon prayer, the person asks God to bestow on him His favors, one of those favors which the person asks is the benefit or gain from every act of righteousness, the word used here is al-ghanima (وَالْغَنيمَةَ مِنْ كُلِّ بِر ) this is in accordance with the second meaning of the word.

Hajj

Main article: Hajj

Hajj is the supreme pilgrimage of the Muslim to the Ka'bah in Mecca. This rite involves circumambulation around the Ka'bah, certain movements, prayers, and the sacrifice of an animal in Mecca and adjoining holy areas according to Sunnah. Muslims believe that if the Hajj was performed by sincerity, their sins will be forgiven by God. It is performed in the month of Dhu'l-hijjah and is obligatory for all the Muslims who possess physical and financial ability. There is also lesser Hajj or hajj al-'umrah which is performed on the remaining of the year.

Jihad

Main article: Jihad

According to Nasr, Jihad literally means effort but in the path of God in the whole of life. Shia associates the doctrine of Jihad directly to the Walayah or allegiance to the Imamah, i.e., it is Imam who can distinguish the situation which necessitates the Jihad and just this kind of Jihad may cause the entry to the paradise. Nasr states that as equilibrium, both outward and inward, is the prerequisite for the spiritual flight, all Muslims should carry out Jihad against any outward and inward forces to maintain equilibrium. The outward Jihad is related to the defense of the Muslim world against non-Islamic forces. It also includes the defense of one's honor, family and rights and establishing justice in the whole environment. But this lesser jihad should be completed by a greater Jihad which is war against all forces that are against the nobility of the human. He adds that from the spiritual point of view all the pillars of Islam like Shahadah, prayer ... are the weapons for the practice of this inner Jihad. So inner Jihad is the path for the realization of the One who is the ultimate message of the Islam. This inner Jihad continues until every breath of man echoes that reality who is the origin of every thing and all things return to him. Nasr adds that every religious deed is Jihad because it is a striving between one's passionate soul(nafs) and the demands of the immortal spirit. Islam sees Jihad as a care against every thing which distracts one from God. Shia believe that Jihad as defense is legitimate not as aggression. The Jihad can not be done against the innocent and the enemy should be treated with Justice and kindness and Jihad should be carried out on the basis of truth not on the basis of anger. The killing of women, children, even animals and the destruction is forbidden in Jihad.

Tawalla and Tabarra

Main articles: Tawalla and Tabarra

Love of Muhammad is incumbent upon all Muslims and is the key for the love of God. To love God needs that God love the one and God does not love the one who does not love his messengers.

Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil

In addition to leading a virtuous life, a Muslim should enjoin all other Muslims to do the same and to avoid all vices prohibited.

Dissimulation (Taqiyya)

Main article: Taqiya

By Shia, acting according to religion is incumbent on every one, but if the expression of a belief endanger one's life, honor and property, he can conceal his belief as the verse 16: 106 implies. It is as a weapon for the weak before the tyrants. If Dissimulation cause the disappearance of the religion or the fundamentals of the religion, it is forbidden and Muslims are to give up their lives but if there is no advantage in their being killed, it is to dissimulate. There is no place for Dissimulation regarding the teaching of the doctrines of the religion. As Shia has been a minority under the rule of regimes who were in hostility to their beliefs, they choose to be cautious to prevent their extinction.

Henry Corbin, states that "the practice was instituted by the Imams themselves, not only for reasons of personal safety, but as an attitude called for by the absolute respect for high doctrines: nobody has strictly the right to listen to them except those who are capable of listening to, and comprehending, the truth. "

Mut'ah: Temporary marriage

Main article: Nikah mut'ah

Nikāḥ al-Mut'ah, Nikah el Mut'a (Arabic:نكاح المتعة, also Nikah Mut'ah literally, "marriage of pleasure"), or sighah, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari'a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the marriage is automatically dissolved. It has many conditions that can be considered as pre-requisite, similar to that of permanent marriage. However, it is regarded as haram (prohibited) by Sunnis. This is a highly controversial fiqh topic; Sunnis and Shi'a hold diametrically opposed views on its permissibility. However, some Sunni Muslims recognize Nikah Misyar.

Mutah is claimed to have existed during the time of Muhammad, and during a portion of his time, it was not prohibited. On this basis, Shias believe that anything that was allowed during the time of Muhammad should remain allowed after. Mut'ah was allegedly practiced from the time of revelation to Muhammad until the time of Umar as the verse 70: 29 points to it.

According to Shia, the Quran, the Sunna, intellect and consensus are the bases of the jurisprudence. As Islam is considered by Shia to be the last and the most perfect religion, by ijtihad, it deduces the responses through Islamic sources. Thus ijtihad brings flexibility to Islamic system. According to Ja'fari jurisprudence, Sharia is derived from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The difference between Sunni and Shīʻa Sharia results from a Shīʻa belief that Muhammad assigned ʻAlī to be the first ruler and the leader after him (the Khalifa or steward).[citation needed] This difference resulted in the Shīʻa:

  1. Following hadith from Muħammad and his descendants the 12 Imāms.
  2. Some of them are not accepting the "examples", verdicts, and ahādīth of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman ibn Affan (who are considered by Sunnīs to be the first three Caliphs).
  3. Attributing the concept of the masūm "infallibility" to the Twelve Imāms or The Fourteen Infallibles (including Muhammad and his daughter Fatimah) and accepting the examples and verdicts of this special group.

Akhbari and Usuli schools

Rejecting the function of the Mujtahid, comparing to the authority of Imam, Mullah Muhammad Amin al-Astarabadi (d. 1626-27) knew the Mujtahid unnecessary as the people themselves following the instructions of the Imam which is sufficient for the guidance of the Shia. Akhbaries only rely on the hadith of the prophet and the Imams. Knowing them as non-systematic and purely doctrinal without tolerating the rational judgement, Usulies depicted themselves as "a living continuous leadership of the believers" with "flexibility regarding legal and especially political questions". Usuli implies the doctrine of Usul which means the principle of the Jurisprudence, and Ilm al-Usul concerns with establishing the legal standards on the basis of Quran, hadith, Ijma' and Aql. Ijma' is the unanimous consensus. Aql, in Shia Jurisprudence, is applied to four practical principles namely bara'at (immunity), ihtiyat (precaution), takhyir (selection), and istishab (continuity in the previous state) which are applied when other religious proofs are not applicable.

Guardianship of the jurisprudent

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By Shia political thought, at the absence of an infallible Imam, a capable jurist (faqih) takes the responsibility of leadership of the community. By Shia jurisprudence, the basis of the juristic authority is derived from the Imamate as the expansion of the prophecy and knowledge (ilm) which is also the basis for the religious and political authority of the Imam. As Islam is the foundation of Muslim's culture, it needs government in order to be implemented. and establishing an Islamic society is the aim of the Islamic government. The Islamic authority responds to social needs by Islamic norms. God's absolute authority is the foundation of Twelvers political thought, though every one who wishes to have authority must be assigned by Him. In referring to the Hakim (Wali) Ja'far as-Sadiq states that: "I have appointed him a hakim over you. If such a person orders (judges) according to our ruling and the person concerned does not accept it, then he has shown contempt for the ruling of God and rejects us; and he who rejects us, actually rejects Allah and such a person is close to association [Shirk] with Allah. " Regarding the priority of the guardianship over all other religious law, Khomeini states that: "The government, or the absolute guardianship (alwilayat al-mutlaqa) that is delegated to the noblest messenger of Allah, is the most important divine law and has priority over all other ordinances of the law. If the powers of the government be restricted to the framework of ordinances of the law then the delegation of the authority to Muhammad would be a senseless phenomenon. " Shaykh al-Saduq and Shaykh al-Tusi transmit the hadith that Muhammad al-Mahdi, in response to Ishaq ibn Yaqub, through Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Umari expresses that: "As for the events that may occur (al-hawadith al-waqi'a) [when you may need guidance] refer to the transmitters (ruwat) of our teachings who are my hujjah (proof) to you and I am the Proof of God (Hujjatullah) to you all. " Ja'afar al-Sadiq, pointing to verse 4: 60, forbids referring to tyrannical government for all the times. " In fact, the idea of jurist authority is based on the belief that establishing an ideal society without any aid from God's revelation, is not possible. According to Twelvers, Juristic authority emphasizes on the role of Shari'a in society. According to Al-Murtaza, on certain conditions holding office on behalf of the true Leaders is obligatory: to enable the office to order what is right and forbid what is wrong, to protect the Shi'ites, the Shi'ites are threatened to death, otherwise. Traditionally Twelvers consider 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and the subsequent further eleven Imams not only religious guides but political leaders, based on a crucial hadith where Muhammad passes on his power to command Muslims to Ali. Since the last Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, went into "occultation" in 941 and is not expected back until end times, this left Shi'a without religiously sanctioned governance.[citation needed]

The first Shi'a regime, the Safavid dynasty in Iran, propagated the Twelver faith, made Twelver's law the law of the land, and patronized Twelver scholarship. For this, Twelver ulema "crafted a new theory of government" which held that while "not truly legitimate", the Safavid monarchy would be "blessed as the most desirable form of government during the period of awaiting" for Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam. In general, the Shi'a adhere to one of three approaches towards the state: either full participation in government, i.e., attempting to influence policies by becoming active in politics, or passive cooperation with it, i.e. minimal participation, or else most commonly, mere toleration of it, i.e. remaining aloof from it. This changed with Iranian Revolution where the Twelver Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters established a new theory of governance for the Islamic Republic of Iran.[citation needed] It is based on Khomeini's theory of guardianship of the Islamic jurist as rule of the Islamic jurist, and jurists as "legatees" of Muhammad. While not all Twelvers accept this theory, it is uniquely Twelver and the basis of the constitution of Iran, the largest Shi'a Muslim country, where the Supreme Leader must be an Islamic jurist.[citation needed]

Ijtihad and Taqlid (Accepting a scholar's verdict)

The use of Ijtihad and Taqlid associates with a religious and judicial problem that its answer is not in the Quran and hadith. Regarding Ijtihad, Halm explains that while the religious material is limited, what procedure should be taken if a problem arises. Here human reason comes in; God gave reason to human to discover His Will. If no answer was given by tradition (naql) the intellect (aql) should come in. This rational effort to find the solutions for the temporary issues is called Ijtihad (making of an effort). It is derived form the word jihad which means the struggle for the attainment of God's Will on earth. The participle of ijtihad is mujtahid (the person who makes effort). They should master the Arabic language and be familiar with the foundations of Quran and hadith. They also should know the principles of Jurisprudence and logic. The remaining other believers, who are not expert, exercise taqlid which means authorization; that is common believers authorize the experts to make decisions for them. If the mujtahid make a mistake, the believer is not responsible for his error. Though ijtihad makes the Shia theology flexible. The traces of Ijtihad refers back to the time of Imams when they trained scholars to answer to the judicial problems of the people. As al-Baqir said to Aban ibn Taghlib: "Sit down at the door of the mosque and pronounce fatwa (judgement) to the people ..." According to Nasr, the mujtahids acted as the guard against tyrannical government and they had religious and social functions. Al-Karaki narrates a hadith from his teachers that the scholar is the guardian of the religion, successor of the Imam and he should draw conclusions from the sources by the reasoning.

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Twelvers celebrate the following annual holidays:

The following holidays are observed by Twelvers unless otherwise noted:

  • The Mourning of Muharram or Remembrance of Muharram and Ashurah (عاشوراء) for Shia commemorate Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala. Imam Husayn was grandson of Muhammad, who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah, the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate (and the first one by heredity). One group of Sunni Scholars have deemed Yazeed to be a kaafir (e.g. Sunni Scholar Ibn Jauzi in Wafa al-Wafa). Sunnis also commemorate Imam Husayn ibn Ali's martyrdom, but do not engage in the spectacle displayed by Shi'as.
  • Arba'een (Arabic word for forty) commemorates 40th day of Imam Husain's martydom (40th day is an auspicious day for any deceased as per Islam), remembering the suffering of Imam Husayn and his household, the women and children. After Husayn was killed, his household was marched over the desert, from Karbala (central Iraq) to Shaam (Damascus, Syria). Many children (some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad) died of thirst and exposure along the route. Arba'een occurs on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after Ashurah.
  • Milad al-Nabi, Muhammad's birth date, is celebrated by the Shia on the 17th of Rabi' al-awwal, which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam, Ja'far al-Sadiq.
  • Mid-Sha'aban is the birth date of the 12th and final imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi. It is celebrated by Twelvers on the 15th of Sha'aban. Many Shia fast on this day to show gratitude.
  • Eid al-Ghadeer celebrates Ghadir Khum, the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali's imamate before a multitude of Muslims. Eid al-Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah.
  • Al-Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al-Bayt (household of Muhammad) and a Christian deputation from Najran. Al-Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al-Hijjah.

Marja' are the supreme legal authority for Twelvers. Some of the historical and notable scholars include Mulla Sadra, Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Shaykh Tusi, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Al-Hilli.[citation needed]

Notes

  1. Usul al-Din (Arabic:اصول الدین)
  2. Adl (Arabic:عدل)

Citations

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  2. Momen 1985, p. 174
  3. Weiss 2006, p. 14
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  10. "Talaq rights proposed for Shia women". Daily News and Analysis, www. dnaindia.com. 5 November 2006. Retrieved2010-06-21.
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  14. http://merln.ndu.edu/archive/icg/shiitequestion.pdf Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine International Crisis Group. The Shiite Question in Saudi Arabia, Middle East Report No. 45, 19 Sep
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  16. Tabatabae'i 1975, pp. 74–75 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTabatabae'i1975 (help)
  17. Campo 2009, p. 676 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCampo2009 (help)
  18. Nasr, pp. 143–144 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNasr (help)
  19. Tabataba'ei 1975, p. 34 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTabataba'ei1975 (help)
  20. Kahlmeyer, André; Janin, Hunt (9 January 2015). Islamic Law: The Sharia from Muhammad's Time to the Present. McFarland. p. 25. ISBN 9781476608815.
  21. Momen 2015, p. chapter 2 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMomen2015 (help)
  22. Wynbrandt, James (14 May 2014). A Brief History of Saudi Arabia. Infobase Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 9781438108308.
  23. Daftary 2013
  24. Nasr 2007, p. 117
  25. Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, pp. 148–149
  26. Cornell 2007, p. 221
  27. Pakatchi 1988, p. 159 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPakatchi1988 (help)
  28. Cornell 2007, pp. 221–222
  29. Cornell 2007, p. 230
  30. Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, pp. 151–152
  31. Kraemer 1992, pp. 73 and 74
  32. Pakatchi, Ahmad. "امامیه". دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی. Retrieved2015-05-29.
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  36. Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1989, pp. 284–285
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  38. Martin 2003, p. 717 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMartin2003 (help)
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  40. Nasr & Leaman 2001, p. 1047
  41. Halm 1997, pp. 100–101
  42. Halm 1997, pp. 106–108
  43. Vaezi 2004, p. 80
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  45. Nasr, 2000 & p-152 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNasr2000p-152 (help)
  46. Cornell 2007, p. 226
  47. Momen 1985, p. 127
  48. Cornell 2007, p. 228
  49. Nasr, Dabashi & Nasr 1988, p. 287
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Twelver Shi ism Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Twelver This article is about the predominant sect of Shia Islam For other denominations which believe in The Twelve Imams see Alevism and Alawites Twelver Shiʿism Arabic ٱث ن ا ع ش ر ي ة ʾIthna ʿAsariyah also known as Imamiyyah Arabic إ م ام ي ة is the largest branch of Shiʿa Islam comprising about 85 percent of all Shiʿa Muslims The term Twelver refers to its adherents belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders known as the Twelve Imams and their belief that the last Imam Imam al Mahdi lives in Occultation and will reappear as The promised Mahdi Arabic المهدي المنتظر According to the Shiʿa tradition the Mahdi s tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus ʿisa who along with Mahdi would kill the Dajjal Calligraphic representation of the Twelve Imams surrounding the name of Muhammad Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad According to the theology of Twelvers the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the Muslim community Ummah with justice but are also able to preserve and interpret the Islamic law shariʿa and the esoteric meaning of the Quran The words and deeds sunnah of Muhammad and the Imams are a guide and model for the Muslim community to follow as a result Muhammad and the Imams must be free from error and sin a doctrine known as Ismah or infallibility and must be chosen by divine decree or nass through Muhammad 1 2 3 There are approximately 150 million to 200 million Twelvers in the world today 4 5 6 7 making the majority of the total populations of Iran Iraq and Azerbaijan 8 Twelvers represent a sizable minority in Bahrain Lebanon India Pakistan Afghanistan Saudi Arabia Bangladesh Kuwait Oman UAE Qatar Nigeria Chad and Tanzania 9 10 11 12 13 14 Iran is the only country where Twelver Shi ism is the state religion 15 Twelvers share many tenets with other Shiʿite sects such as the belief in the Imamate but the Ismaʿili and Nizari branches believe in a different number of Imams and for the most part a different path of succession regarding the Imamate They also differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam Twelvers are also distinguished from Ismaʿilis by their belief in Muhammad s status as the Seal of the Prophets Khatam an Nabiyyin in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of shariʿa laws and in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran 16 Alevis in Turkey and Albania and Alawites in Syria and Lebanon share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers but their theological doctrines are markedly different Contents 1 Terminology 2 History 2 1 Imamate Era 2 1 1 Twelver Imams amongst Shia 2 1 2 Emergence 2 1 3 Formulation 2 1 4 Organizing 2 2 Crisis and Consolidation 2 2 1 Baghdad school 2 3 Jurisprudencial and Theological Development 2 3 1 School of Hillah 2 3 2 School of Jabal Amil 2 4 Rising to Power 2 4 1 School of Isfahan 2 4 2 Akhbari Usuli Controversies 2 4 3 Qom school Iranian Revolution and Islamic Republic 3 Theological doctrine 3 1 Unity of God 3 1 1 Tawhid of the Essence 3 1 2 Tawhid of the attributes 3 1 3 Tawhid of Creatorship 3 1 4 Tawhid of Lordship 3 1 5 Shirk 3 2 Justice of God 3 2 1 Justice in Creation 3 2 2 Justice in Religious Dispensation 3 2 3 Justice in Recompense 3 2 4 Predestination and Free Will 3 3 Holy sites 3 4 The Prophethood 3 4 1 Angel 3 4 2 Revelation 3 4 3 Miracle 3 5 Imamah and Walayah 3 5 1 The Succession to Muhammad 3 5 2 Ziyarat and Tawassul 3 5 3 Ismah 3 5 4 The Occultation 3 6 The Day of Resurrection 3 6 1 The Return Raj a 3 6 2 The Day of Judgement 3 6 3 Intercession 4 Shari ah Furu al Din 4 1 Shahada Declaration of faith 4 2 Prayer 4 3 Fasting 4 4 Khums and Zakah 4 5 Hajj 4 6 Jihad 4 7 Tawalla and Tabarra 4 8 Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil 5 Differences 5 1 Dissimulation Taqiyya 5 2 Mut ah Temporary marriage 6 Jurisprudence Fiqh 6 1 Akhbari and Usuli schools 6 2 Guardianship of the jurisprudent 6 3 Ijtihad and Taqlid Accepting a scholar s verdict 7 Calendar 8 Notable scholars 9 See also 10 References 10 1 Notes 10 2 Citations 10 3 Sources 11 External linksTerminology EditSee also Rafidah The term Twelver is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad starting with ʿAli ibn Abi Ṭalib and ending with Muhammad al Mahdi are Imams who have religious and political authority 17 The Twelvers are also known by other names Shi a refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment 18 Tabatabai states that the word referred to the partisans of Ali at the time of Muhammad himself 19 Ja fari refers exclusively to the Juridical school which is followed by Twelvers and Nizaris The term is derived from the name of Ja far al Sadiq who is considered by the Twelvers and Nizaris to be their sixth Imam who presented a legal treatise 20 Ja far al Sadiq is also respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence 21 Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver belief in the infallibility of the Imams Although the Isma ilis also share the concept of Imamate this term is mostly used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to twelve subsequent successors including Ali that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles 22 History EditSee also History of Shia Islam and Origin of Shia Islam Imamate Era Edit Twelver Imams amongst Shia Edit Emergence Edit In 610 when Muhammad received the first revelation Ali was 10 years old At the time of Muhammad some of the supporters of Ali particularly Miqdad ibn al Aswad Salman the Persian Abu Dharr al Ghifari and Ammar ibn Yasir were called the Shiites of Ali The division of Islam into Shia and Sunni traces back to the crisis of the succession to Muhammad 23 The followers of Ali fought with some of the Quraysh and some of the companions of Muhammad like Talhah and Zubayr As most of his supporters were in Iraq Ali moved the capital of Islam to Kufa and there began to fight against Mu awiyah who rejected giving allegiance to Ali 24 The death of Husayn played an important role in the spread of Shi ism in the regions of Iraq Yemen and Persia At the end of the first century the influential leaders in the government established the city of Qom for the settlement of the Shia 25 Formulation Edit Muhammad Al Baqir was teacher of law for 20 years and a reporter of hadith He also introduced the principle of Taqiyya 26 Al Baqir narrated many a hadith about Jurisprudence and other religious sciences which based the foundations for the Shia instructions With change in political situations and a suitable conditions for the development of religious activities and the time of elaborating the religious sciences Ja far al Sadiq had an important role in forming the Shia Jurisprudence 27 Ja far al Sadiq and al Baqir are the founders of the Imami Shiite school of religious law Al Sadiq acquired a noteworthy group of scholars around himself comprising some of the most eminent jurists traditionists and theologians of the time During his time Shia developed in the theological and legal issues 28 Both Muhammad al Baqir and Ja far al Sadiq improved the position of the Shia and elaborated the intellectual basis of the interpretation and practice of Shiite Islam Their teachings were the basis for the development of Shiite spirituality and religious rituals 29 Organizing Edit At the beginning of the third ninth century once again Shia flourished and it was due to the translation of scientific and philosophical books from other languages to Arabic Al Ma mun giving freedom to the propagation of different religious views and his interest in intellectual debates Under the rule of al Ma mun Shia was free from the political pressures and was somehow at liberty In the fourth tenth century the weaknesses in the Abbasid government and coming up the Buyid rulers caused the spread strength and open propagation of the Shi ism From the fifth eleventh to the ninth century many Shia kings appeared in the Islamic world who propagated the Shi ism 30 Crisis and Consolidation Edit Baghdad school Edit During tenth century and Buyid era Baghdad was the center of Mu tazila theologians Their ideas about attribute and justice of God and human free will affected Shia theologians 31 Bani Nawbakht particularly Abu Sahl Al Nawbakhti d 923 924 32 fuzed Mu tazili theology with Imami system of thought On the other hand Imami traditionists of Qom particularly Ibn Babawayh d 991 react to their theological ideas based on Twelve Imams Hadiths He tried to defend Imami ideas against Mu tazili criticism regarding Anthropomorphism Tashbih 33 The three prominent figures of Baghdad school were Al Shaykh Al Mufid d 1022 CE Sharif al Murtaza d 1044 and Shaykh al Tusi d 1067 34 Al Mufid was a Twelver theologian Muhaddith and Fiqih who used Bani Nawbakht as well as Baghdadi Mu tazila ideas to form his theology while trying to adapt theological ideas with Twelve Imams Hadith 32 While the Mu tazila was dominant in Baghdad he tries to distinguish Shia and Mu tazila ideas and assert reason needs revelation 33 Shaykh Tusi founder of Shia Ijtihad was the first to establish the bases of reasoning in Shia Jurisprudence His book al Mabsut is the first book of Ijtihad which derives the subordinates from the principles Tusi bought the Shia religious law to a new period The main point is that he recognized the needs of the community and preserved the principles 35 By his debates and books Al Mufid Sayyid al Murtada and Shaykh al Tusi in Iraq were the first to introduce the Usul of the Jurisprudence under the influence of the Shafe i and Mu tazili doctrines Al Kulayni and al Sadduq in Qom and Ray were concerned with traditionalist approach 36 Twelver Imams amongst other Shia imam with their early Imams are shown in the chart below This also indicate twelvers amongst various other sects in the present world Jurisprudencial and Theological Development Edit School of Hillah Edit The beginner of this school Ibn Idris al Hilli d 1202 with his rationalistic tendency detailed Shi ite jurisprudence in his al Sara ir Ibn Idris with rejecting the validity of the isolate hadith states rational faculty aql as the fourth source of law in deducing legal norms before Quran and hadith 37 38 But the real Usuli doctrinal movement began by al Muhaqqiq al Hilli d 1277 who brought up ijtihad and qiyas analogy to jurisprudence Ijtihad brought dynamism into Shia law 38 Muhaqqiq Hilli and al Hilli gave a definite shape to Shia jurisprudence and they separated the weak hadith from the sound 39 According to John Cooper after al Hilli Imami theology and legal methodology became thoroughly infused with the terminology and style of philosophy 40 In 1256 the Abbasid dynasty collapsed with the invasion of Mongols to Baghdad Under the ruling of Mongols Shi a were more free to develop and al Hilla became the new learning center for Shia Continuing the rationalistic tradition of the Baghdad School defining reason as an important principle of Jurisprudence al Hillah school laid the theoretical foundation upon which the authority of Jurisprudents is based today 41 The second wave of the Usulies was shaped in the Mongol period when al Hilli used the term Mujtahid the one who deduces the ordinance on the basis of the authentic arguments of the religion By Ijtihad al Hilli meant the disciplined reasoning on the basis of the shari ah By developing the principles of the Usul he introduced more legal and logical norms which extended the meaning of the Usul beyond the four principle sources of Shari ah 36 School of Jabal Amil Edit Amili was the first who fully formulated the principles of the Ijtihad 36 Rising to Power Edit School of Isfahan Edit In 1501 Isma il I took the power in Iran and set up the Safavid dynasty While most of the larger cities of Iran were Sunni he declared Twelverism as the official religion of his empire Many Shia scholars were brought to set up the Shia seminaries in Iran One of those was Karaki who stated that for the interest of Umma it is necessary for a Shia scholar to be a legitimate leader to carry out the tasks of the Imam who is hidden Under Safavids religious authorities Shaykh al Islam were appointed for all major cities 42 Karaki established a great seminary Hawza in Qazvin and Isfahan consequently Iran once again became center of Imami jurisprudence 43 Suhrawardi tried to harmonize rational philosophy and intellectual intuition but Mir Damad is the founder of it 44 Mir Damad combined the teachings of Ibn Arabi Suhrawardi Ibn Sina and Nair al Din and founded a new intellectual dimension in the texture of Shi ism 45 The scholars of the School of Isfahan integrated the philosophical theological and mystical traditions of Shi ism into a metaphysical synthesis known as Divine Wisdom or theosophy Persian hikmat i ilahi The most important representative of the School of Isfahan was Mulla Sadra Mulla Sadra produced his own synthesis of Muslim thought including theology peripatetic philosophy philosophical mysticism and Sufi studies particularly the Sufism of Ibn al Arabi Mulla Sadra trained eminent students such as Mulla Muhsin Kashani and Abd al Razzaq Lahiji who passed down the traditions of the School of Isfahan in later centuries in both Iran and India 46 Akhbari Usuli Controversies Edit By the end of the Safavid era 1736 the Usuli School of thought was attacked by the Akhbari traditionalist trend whose founder was Mulla Muhammad Amin al Astarabadi 38 Astarabadi attacked the idea of Ijtihad and called the Usulies as the enemies of religion He recognized the hadith as the only source for the Islamic law and the understanding of the Quran 46 Muhammad Baqir Behbahani as the founder of a new stage in Shia Jurisprudence took a new practical method 36 He attacked the Ikhbaries and their method was abandoned by Shia 39 The dominance of the Usuli over the Akhbari came in last half of the 18th century when Behbahani led Usulis to dominance and completely routed the Akhbaris at Karbala and Najaf so that only a handful of Shi i ulama have remained Akhbari to the present day 47 The reestablishment of the Usuli School led to the enhancement of the authority of the legal scholars in the Qajar dynasty 46 Qom school Iranian Revolution and Islamic Republic Edit Further information Qom Iranian Revolution and Islamic Republic During the 1960s Ruhollah Khomeini called for the abolition of the western backed monarchy in Iran He was sent into exile in Iraq where he continued his opposition to the Iranian regime He further ordered the opposition to the Shah and led the 1979 revolution 48 Theological doctrine EditMain article Theology of Twelvers Twelver theology which mainly consists of five principles a has formed over the course of history on the basis of the teachings of Quran and hadiths from Muhammad and the Twelve Imams especially Jafar al Sadiq and in response to the intellectual movements in the Muslim world and major events of the Twelver history such as the Battle of Karbala and the occultation of the twelfth Imam Muhammad al Mahdi 49 Mystics philosophers and traditional scholars all have diverse opinions about the unity of God free will and judgment day as stated by Jafaar Seedaan 50 Care has been taken to mention the tradition view first then mention other views objectively citation needed Unity of God Edit Main article Tawhid According to Hossein Nasr Ali ibn Abi Talib the first Shia Imam is credited with having established Islamic theology and among Muslims his sermons contain the first rational proofs of the God s unity Tawhid 51 Ali is quoted as arguing that unity of God means that he has no like he is not subject to numeration and is not divisible either in reality or imagination 52 On another occasion he is quoted saying The first step of religion is to accept understand and realize him as the Lord The correct form of belief in his unity is to realize that he is so absolutely pure and above nature that nothing can be added to or subtracted from his being That is one should realize that there is no difference between his person and his attributes and his attributes should not be differentiated or distinguished from his person 53 Traditional Twelvers strictly believe that God is different from his creation and that both are separate entities 54 However Sayyid Haydar Amuli a prominent Shia mystic and philosopher defines God as alone in being along with his names his attributes his actions his theophanies The totality of being therefore is he through him comes from him and returns to him God is not a being next to or above other beings his creatures he is being the absolute act of being wujud mutlaq The divine unitude does not have the meaning of an arithmetical unity among next to or above other unities For if there were being other than he i e creatural being God would no longer be the Unique i e the only one to be 55 As this Divine Essence is infinite his qualities are the same as his essence Essentially there is one Reality which is one and indivisible 56 According to Twelver theology Tawhid consists of several aspects including Tawhid of the Essence the attributes the creatorship the lordship and oneness in worship 57 Tawhid of the Essence Edit Tawhid of the essence of God means his essence is one and peerless 58 Regarding this Quran 112 states Say He is Allah who is One Allah the Eternal Refuge He neither begets nor is born Nor is there to Him any equivalent 59 Tawhid of the attributes Edit Tawhid of the attributes means God s attributes have no other reality than His essence 60 Ali argues that Every attributes testifies to its being other than the object to which it is attributed and every such object in turn testifies to its being other than the attribute 61 Tawhid of the attributes means to deny the existence of any sort of multiplicity and combination in the Essence itself A differentiation between the essence and the attributes or between the attributes implies a limitation in being 62 Traditional Twelvers believe that God s names are created by Him and are not His attributes A name is a combination of created letters while attributes are what is implied by that name It is stated in Al Kafi that whoever worships God s names has committed disbelief in God as they are not Him 63 Tawhid of Creatorship Edit Al Hur Al Amilly states that God created everything except humans actions 64 According to some Twelvers Tawhid of Creatorship means that there is no creator but God 65 that is the causes and effects of the universe are not independent from God just as the beings which are not independent in essence There is no power except God according to Motahari 62 Tawhid of Lordship Edit Tawhid of Lordship means the governance of the world and that human beings only belong to God This oneness of lordship has two aspects creative governance tadbir takwini and religious governance tadbir tashrii 66 At last oneness in worship i e God alone is deserved to be worshipped 67 According to Morteza Motahhari oneness in worship means rejecting all kinds of counterfeit worship such as worship of carnal desires money or prestige and as Quran says every act of obedience to an order is worship 62 Shirk Edit Contrary to Tawhid is Shirk It is a belief that the world has more than one principle or pole According to the mystic and philosopher Morteza Motahhari the distinction of theoretical Tawhid from Shirk is recognition of the idea that every reality and being in its essence attributes and action are from him from Him ness Arabic ان الله Every supernatural action of the prophets is by God s permission as Quran points to it Shirk in practice is to assume something as an end in itself independent from God but to assume it as a path to God to Him ness Arabic ان االیه is Tawhid 62 Justice of God Edit Ali insists that God is Just and he is the Justice Itself and the virtue of Justice flows from him to the souls of men Since he is Justice every thing he does is Just 68 Shiism considers Justice b as innate to Divine nature i e God can not act unjustly because it is his nature to be just 69 Justice in Creation Edit Twelvers believe that God grants every existent what is appropriate for it as the verse 20 50 states Our Lord is He Who gave unto everything its nature then guided it aright 70 Justice in Religious Dispensation Edit God guides each human through sending messengers and He does not impose upon them obligations that are beyond their capacity 70 In the Message of The Quran by Mohammad Asad the interpretation of v 20 50 is as follows He Moses replied to Pharaoh Our Sustainer is He who gives unto every thing that exists its true nature and form and thereupon guides it towards its fulfillment Justice in Recompense Edit Tabataba i states that the Justice of God necessitates that the virtuous and evil people become separated the virtuous have a good life and the evil have a wretched life He will judge the beliefs and the deeds of all the people according to the truth and he will give every one his right due 71 Then the reality of every thing as it is will be revealed for the man Through his faith and good deeds he can get to friendship with God The form of man s deeds are joined to his soul and accompany him which are the capital of his future life The verse 96 8 refers to getting back to God 72 Predestination and Free Will Edit According to Twelvers narrations God does not create Humans actions and instead they are fully created by humans According to a narration by Musa Al Khadhim if God created humans actions then He should not punish humans for it 73 Jaafar Al Subhani argues that the justice of God requires that humans actions cannot be created by God otherwise God would be a doer of evil actions 74 Predestination is rejected in Shiism 75 However Some philosophers believe that all the existence is His creation including a human being and his actions But actions have two dimensions The first is committing the action by free will the second is the creation of that action by God s will with which he gave the people the power to commit the action Sadr al Din Shirazi states that God may He be exalted is far removed from doing any evil deeds and goes about His Kingdom at will 76 The view that God creates humans actions is rejected by traditional Twelvers 77 Holy sites Edit Holiest sites in Twelver Shia 78 sanctuary locationMasjid al Haram MeccaAl Masjid an Nabawi MedinaAl Haram al Sharif JerusalemImam Ali Mosque NajafImam Husayn Shrine KarbalaAl Baqi MedinaJannat al Mu alla MeccaSayyidah Zaynab Mosque DamascusAl Abbas Mosque KarbalaSayyidah Ruqayya Mosque DamascusBab al Saghir Cemetery DamascusImam Reza Shrine MashhadAl Kadhimiya Mosque BaghdadAl Askari Mosque SamarraFatima Masumeh Shrine QomThe Prophethood Edit Ja far al Sadiq narrates from his fathers that Muhammad in one of his sermons expressed that God sent to people messengers so they might be His conclusive argument against His creatures and so His messengers to them might be witnesses against them He sent among them prophets bearing good tidings and warning 79 Tabataba i states that God has perfected the guidance of people through sending the prophets When the doctrines and practices of the revealed law gets to its perfection the prophecy comes to an end too That is why the Quran points out that Islam is the last and the most perfect religion and Muhammad is the seal of the prophets he adds 80 Al Hilli states that the Prophets are greater in merit than the angels because the prophets have conflicts with rational power and they compel it to submit to reason 81 Angel Edit Belief in the existence of the angels is one of the articles of Iman Unseen beings of a luminous and spiritual substance angels act as intermediaries between God and the visible world Although superior in substance angels are inferior to mankind because man can reflect the image of God The verse 2 34 implies the superiority of the mankind 82 God revealed the Quran to Muhammad by Gabriel who was also his guide on Mi raj The angels record the deeds of men 83 They follow the commands of God and do not precede him 21 27 84 Izz al Din Kashani discusses that the angels are different in degree and station Some of them cling to the Threshold of Perfection others manage the affairs of the creation Al Qazwini on the base of Quran and hadith names them as the Bearers of the Throne the Spirit he governs all the affairs of the earth and heaven according to the principle of creation Israfil he places the spirits in the bodies and will blow the trumpet on the Last Day Gabriel who took the revelation to Muhammad Michael Azrael the angel of death The cherubim al karrubiyyun who just praise God The angels of seven heavens and the Guardian angels two of them are concerned with men The Attendant angels they bring blessings upon human Munkar and Nakir who question the dead in the grave The journeyers Harut and Marut are also among them 85 Revelation Edit Tabataba i expresses that according to the thesis of general guidance as the human reason cannot perceive the perfect law of happiness Sa adah and he could not get it through the process of creation there should be a general awareness of this law and it could be within the reach of every one He adds there must be people who apprehend the real duties of life and bring them within the reach of human being Tabataba i refers to this power of perception which is other than the reason and the sense as the prophetic consciousness or the consciousness of revelation as the verse 4 163 points to this perception namely revelation 86 Tabataba i describes that the reception of revelation its preservation and its propagation are three principles of ontological guidance What the prophets got through the revelation was religion which consists of doctrine and practice or method He further adds that with passing of the time and gradual development of the society the gradual development in the revealed law is apparent 87 By three ways the speech of God reaches to man by revelation or divine inspiration behind a veil man can hear God s speech but can not hear him or by a messenger an angel conveys the inspiration to the man 88 By the verses 72 26 28 two types of guardians protect the integrity of the revelation an angel who protects the prophet against any kind of error God who protects the angels and the prophets 89 Miracle Edit Tabataba i defines the miracle as a supernatural event which is shown by the prophet and the friends of God as a challenge to prove the claim of the prophethood and it is by God s permission 90 91 He states that the miracle should be according to the demands of the people of his own time 92 He adds that miracle has an inseparable connection with the claim of the prophethood and it is beyond the intellect and thinking 93 By miracle al Hilli means the bringing into existence of something which is abnormal or the removal of something which normally exists in a way which breaks through normality and which conforms to the claim of prophethood which is made 94 Sobhani regards some differences between miracles and extraordinary acts He notes that miracles are not teachable and they are done without any prior training As they are derived from the infinite power of God the miracles are indisputable The miracles are of unlimited types The miracles are often concerned with spiritual matters rather worldly matters 95 Imamah and Walayah Edit Main articles Imamah Shi a Twelver doctrine and Walayah Twelver doctrine 18th century mirror writing in Ottoman calligraphy Depicts the phrase Ali is the vicegerent of God in both directions Shia believe in the trilateral structure of authority authority of God which is absolute and universal as the verse 3 26 implies authority of Muhammad which is legitimized by the grace of God as the verse 7 158 points to it and the authority of the Imams who are blessed for the leadership of the community through Muhammad as the verses 5 67 and 5 3 verifies according to Shia fundamental belief 96 According to Shia Imamah is the continuation of the prophetic mission 97 Shia believe in the Twelve Imams who are divinely inspired descendants of Muhammad They must meet these attributes nass designation by the previous Imam Ismah infallibility ilm divine knowledge Walayah spiritual guidance 98 The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad based on Twelver s belief 99 It is believed in Shi a Islam that Aql a divine wisdom was the source of the souls of the prophets and imams and gave them esoteric knowledge called Hikmah and that their sufferings were a means of divine grace to their devotees 99 100 101 Although the Imam was not the recipient of a divine revelation but has close relationship with God through which God guides him and the imam in turn guides the people The Imamat or belief in the divine guide is a fundamental belief in Shi i Islam and is based on the concept that God would not leave humanity without access to divine guidance 102 According to Twelvers there is always an Imam of the Age who is the divinely appointed authority on all matters of faith and law in the Muslim community Ali was the first Imam of this line and in the Twelvers view the rightful successor to Muhammad followed by male descendants of Muhammad also known as Hasnain through his daughter Fatimah Each Imam was the son of the previous Imam with the exception of Husayn Ibn Ali who was the brother of Hasan Ibn Ali 99 The twelfth and final Imam is Muhammad al Mahdi who is believed by the Twelvers to be currently alive and in hiding 102 Names of The Fourteen Infallibles Masumeen Descendants Of Muhammad written in the form of Arabic name على Ali The Shi a Imams are seen as infallible It is an important aspect of Shia theology that they are not prophets nabi nor messengers rasul but instead carry out Muhammad s message 103 104 105 The Succession to Muhammad Edit Main article Succession to Muhammad Shia believe that with the death of Muhammad his religious and political authority were inherited to the Imams 106 Shia consider the Successor as the esoteric interpreter of the revelation and the Divine Law 107 With the exception of Zaydis 108 Shi ites believe in the Imamate a principle by which rulers are Imams who are divinely chosen infallible and sinless and must come from the Ahl al Bayt regardless of majority opinion shura or election 109 They claim that before his death Muhammad had given many indications in the Event of Ghadir Khumm in particular that he considered Ali his cousin and son in law as his successor 110 For the Twelvers Ali and his eleven descendants the twelve Imams are believed to have been considered even before their birth as the only valid Islamic rulers appointed and decreed by God 111 112 Shia Muslims believe that with the exception of Ali and Hasan all the caliphs following Muhammad s death were illegitimate and that Muslims had no obligation to follow them 113 They hold that the only guidance that was left behind as stated in the hadith of the two weighty things was the Quran and Muhammad s family and offspring 114 The latter due to their infallibility are considered to be able to lead the Muslim community with justice and equity 115 Ziyarat and Tawassul Edit Main articles Ziyarat and Tawassul Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala Iraq where the Battle of Karbala took place Ziyarah literally visit is a religious practice that means to attend before religious leaders or their graves in order to express and indicate reverence love and acquire spiritual blessings The visitation of the imams is recommended even by Imams themselves and Shia scholars and jurists from an early period of Shia history 116 The most popular destinations for Shi a pilgrims include Najaf and Karbala in Iraq 117 Qum and Mashhad in Iran 118 and Sayyida Zaynab in Syria 119 According to Shi is the imams are revered because they had received inspiration and a degree of revelation from Allah 116 Tawassul is an Arabic word originated from wa sa la wasilat Arabic وسيلة وسل The wasilah is a means by which a person goal or objective is approached attained or achieved 120 For Shi is to take advantage of factors to attain the goals is natural but these factors should not be taken as independent from God and should have been established in the Quran and hadith This means can be anything which causes drawing proximity to God such as prayer almsgiving 121 Ismah Edit Main article Ismah In Shia theology Ismah means impeccability immunity to sin and infallibility 122 When Ismah is attributed to human beings the concept means the ability of avoiding acts of disobedience in spite of having the power to commit them 122 As in Prophets and Imams Ismah is a Divine grace 123 realized by God s preservation of the infallible first by endowing them with pure constitution then following in order by blessing them with great excellences giving them firm will against opponents sending tranquility down upon them as Sakinah and preserving their hearts and minds from sin 124 According to the theology of Twelvers the successor of Muhammad is an infallible human individual who not only rules over the community with justice but also is able to keep and interpret the Sharia and its esoteric meaning The words and deeds of Muhammad and the imams are a guide and model for the community to follow therefore they must be free from error and sin and must be chosen by divine decree or nass through Muhammad 125 126 According to Twelvers the Islamic prophet Muhammad his daughter Fatima Zahra and the Twelve Imams are considered to be infallible under the theological concept of Ismah 127 128 Accordingly they have the power to commit sin but are able to avoid doing so by their nature The Infallibles are believed to follow only God s desire in their actions because of their supreme righteousness consciousness and love for God 129 They are also regarded as being immune to error in practical matters in calling people to religion and in the perception of divine knowledge 130 Shias believe that the Fourteen Infallibles are superior to the rest of creation as well as to the other major prophets 131 From historical viewpoint Wilferd Madelung claims that the purification of Ahl al Bayt the family of Muhammad is guaranteed by the Verse of Purification in the Qur an 132 Donaldson in his argument believed that the development of the Shi ite theology in the period between the death of Muhammad and the disappearance of the Twelfth Imam originates the concept of Ismah which adds to its importance 133 Ann Lambton claims that neither the term nor the concept of Ismah is in the Qur an or in canonical Sunni hadith It was apparently first used by the Imamiyyah perhaps during the beginning of the second century of the Islamic calendar in which they maintained that the Imam must be immune from sin ma sum 123 According to Hamid Algar the concept Ismah is encountered as early as the first half of the second century of the Islamic calendar The Shia scholars of the fourth and the fifth centuries of the Islamic calendar defined the infallibility of Muḥammad and the Twelve Imams in an increasingly stringent form until the doctrine came to exclude their commission of any sin or inadvertent error either before or after they assumed office 134 The Occultation Edit Main article The Occultation According to Twelvers the conditions under the Abbasids caused Hasan al Askari to hide the birth of his son al Mahdi 135 The Day of Resurrection Edit By Shia theological doctrine since the people have come from God they will go back to God and it is related to people s reaction to the prophecy 136 They argue that according to the Quran 23 115 God whose actions are the absolute truth does not create a man without any purpose While the quality of this world makes the recompense impossible the Justice of God necessitates that every one be recompensed according to his own actions 137 Tabataba i describes the death as a transfer from one stage of life to another eternal stage 138 The verse 21 47 points to the precision of the scales of justice by which the deeds and intentions of people are weighed 139 The Return Raj a Edit Twelvers believe in the Return the term refers to the revival of a group of Muslims back to this world after the appearance of Mahdi The base of this belief derives from the revival of the dead in the past communities as mentioned in the Quran and the revival at the Day of Resurrection 140 Sobhani describes that Resurrection is both of body and spirit Quran 17 51 in response to those that ask Who will restore us answers He who brought you forth the first time In another place verse 22 5 6 it is like the revival of the earth in the season of the spring after the winter He adds the verse 36 79 implies that the person who is raised up at the Resurrection is the one who was alive on the earth The purpose of the Resurrection of the body and rejoining the soul is that it experience the rewards and punishments which are sensible and they can not be experienced with the lack of the body The purpose of spiritual resurrection is to observe those rewards and punishments which are especial to the spirit 141 The Day of Judgement Edit God will resurrect all human beings and they will stand before God to be questioned about their lives on the world 142 On this day people are two groups people who receive their book by their right hand who are the people of Paradise and their face is bright and the people who receive their book by their left hand who are the people of Hell and their face is dark 143 As the verse 41 21 points out on the Day of Judgement the ears eyes and skin of disbelievers will testify against them saying Allah has caused us to speak He causes all things to speak 144 Intercession Edit Belief to the Intercession derives from the Quran 21 28 10 3 53 26 and Sunna Muhammad the angels 53 26 Imams and martyrs are among the intercessors by God s will Muhammad has expressed that one of God s gifts to him is the right of intercession of those who have committed major sins 145 As Quran represents the sons of Jacob asked their father to intercede for them and their father promised to them that he will do it at the promised time 146 Shari ah Furu al Din EditMain articles Shari ah and Ancillaries of the Faith According to Nasr the root of the Shari ah is Shr which means road that all the men and women should follow The Shari ah or Divine Law of Islam is ritual legal ethical and social aspects of Islam which is the concrete embodiment of the will of God It governs the life of a Muslim from the cradle to the grave in order to get happiness in the Hereafter He adds to get into Haqiqah a Muslim should follow the Shari ah which resides within the formal law This interior part of the Shariah is Tariqah The Shari ah consists of Ibadat worship which is all the conjunctions that apply to the Islamic rites and muamalat which includes every kind of social political and economic transactions The Shari ah divides all acts into five categories obligatory wajib recommended mandub reprehensible or abominable makruh forbidden haram and acts toward which the Divine Law is indifferent mubah The evaluation of the act is on the base of the Shari ah God is the ultimate legislator the Shari and the roots of the Shari ah is in the Quran The Hadith and Sunnah are the second sources of the Shari ah and the complements of the Quran The Shari ah has immutable principles but is applicable to new situations 147 Salat Prayer meaning connection establish the five daily prayers called namaz in Persian and Urdu Sawm Fasting fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan called ruzeh in Persian Zakat Poor rate charity Zakat means to purify Khums Fifth of one s savings tax Hajj Pilgrimage performing the pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad Struggle struggling to please God The greater internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one s soul in every aspect of life called jihad akbar The lesser or external jihad is the struggle against the evil of one s environment in every aspect of life called jihad asghar This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means Holy War Writing the truth jihad bil qalam struggle of the pen and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla loving the Ahl al Bayt and their followers Tabarra dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlu l Bayt 148 Shahada Declaration of faith Edit Main articles Shahada and Declaration of faith While sharing the Unity of God and the divine guidance through his messenger Muhammad Shia maintain that for the spiritual and moral guidance of the community God instructed Muhammad to designate Ali as the leader of the community which was made public at Ghadir Khumm 149 Twelvers along with Sunnis agree that a single honest recitation of the shahadah in Arabic is all that is required for a person to become a Muslim according to most traditional schools 150 A vast majority of Twelvers often add ʻAliyun waliyu l Lah علي ولي الله Ali is the vicegerent of God at the end of the Shahadah This testifies that ʻAli is also the Leader of the Believers along with God and Muhammad proof of which Shi a theologians find in the Qur an Quran 5 55 Prayer Edit Main articles Salah Ghusl and Wudu The canonical prayers are the most central rite of Islam which is incumbent on all Muslims both male and female from the age of adolescence until death The prayers must be performed in the direction of the Ka bah in Mecca five times a day in the early morning between dawn and sunrise at noon in the afternoon at sunset and at night before midnight The call to prayer adhan and ritual ablution wudu are preceded before the prayer and it can be performed on any ritually clean ground whether outdoors or indoors as long as one has the permission of the owner The units rak ah of prayer are two in the morning four at noon four in the afternoon three in the evening and four at night Shia perform prayers on especial occasions like fear joy thanksgiving and at the pilgrimages and at the end of Ramadan 151 152 There are minor differences between Sunnis and Twelvers in how the prayer ritual is performed During the purification ritual in preparation for prayer which consists of washing the face arms feet etc and saying of some prayers the Shiʻa view wiping the feet with wet hands as sufficient Also Shiʻa do not use their fingers to clean inside the ears during the ablution ritual A prerequisite for purification is that one has to be clean before performing the purification ritual During prayer it is the Jaʻfari view that it is preferable to prostrate on earth leaves that are not edible or wood as these three things are considered purest by Muhammad in hadith specifically mentioning Tayammum Hence many Shiʻa use a turbah a small tablet of soil often taken from the ground of a holy site or wood during their daily prayers upon which they prostrate In the Jaʻfari view the hands are to be left hanging straight down the side during the standing position of the prayer The Jaʻfari consider the five daily prayers to be compulsory though the Jaʻfari consider it acceptable to pray the second and third prayer and the fourth and fifth prayer one after the other during the parts of the day where they believe the timings for these prayers to overlap Fasting Edit Main article Sawm Nasr describes that Fasting is abstaining oneself from food drink and sexual intercourse from the dawn to the sunset during the month of Ramadan The Fast also requires the abstaining one s mind and tongue away from evil thoughts and words It is obligatory from the age of adolescence until the time one possesses the physical strength to undertake it The fast is not obligatory for the sick those travelling and breast feeding mothers but they must make up the lost days when possible 153 According to Tabataba ei Arabic الصوم Fasting means to abstain oneself from something which later in the development of the religion was applied to abstaining from some particular things from break of dawn up to sunset with intention niyyah الن ي ة Fasting results in piety i e to abstain oneself from gratifying worldly matters results in the perfection of the spirit He adds one should care about matters which take him away from his Lord this is called piety This abstinence from common lawful things causes him to abstain from unlawful things and to come nearer to God 154 The end of Ramadan comes with the prayer of the Eid after which a sum of money equal to the cost of all the meals not eaten by oneself and one s family during this month is usually given to the poor 153 Khums and Zakah Edit Main articles Khums and Zakat The term Zakah is related to the purity in Arabic 155 It is the annual taxation of one s excess wealth at certain rates for different valuables It is a form of social welfare program by which wealth is redistributed and the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a small elite prevented It is also seen as a ritual purification of one s wealth 156 Khums خمس meaning one fifth is an annual tax of one fifth which is levied on net income after paying all expenses This tax is to be spent on Muhammad his family orphans the needy and the travelers Half of the Khums is the share of the Imam which is his inheritance from Muhammad and at the absence of Imam it is paid to Marja as the representative of Imam 157 The items which are eligible for khums are seven the profit or the surplus of the income the legitimate wealth which is mixed with some illegitimate wealth mines and minerals the precious stones obtained from sea by diving treasures the land which a dhimmi kafir buys from a Muslim the spoils of war 158 Khums is mandatory on seven assets earned profits net income after paying all expenses Zakat or alms is levied on crops livestock gold silver and cash In Islamic legal terminology it means one fifth of certain items which a person acquires as wealth and which must be paid as an Islamic tax According to Shi a the items eligible for khums are referred to as Ghanima ال غ نيم ة in the Quran The Arabic word Ghanima has two meanings spoils of war or war booty gain or profit The Sunni translate this word exclusively as war booty or spoils of war 159 The Twelvers hold the view that the word Ghanima has two meanings as mentioned above the second meaning is illustrated by the common use of the Islamic banking term al ghunm bil ghurm meaning gains accompany liability for loss or risk 160 161 Also in a famous supplication the supplication after the noon prayer the person asks God to bestow on him His favors one of those favors which the person asks is the benefit or gain from every act of righteousness the word used here is al ghanima و ال غ نيم ة م ن ك ل ب ر this is in accordance with the second meaning of the word 162 Hajj Edit Main article Hajj Hajj is the supreme pilgrimage of the Muslim to the Ka bah in Mecca This rite involves circumambulation around the Ka bah certain movements prayers and the sacrifice of an animal in Mecca and adjoining holy areas according to Sunnah Muslims believe that if the Hajj was performed by sincerity their sins will be forgiven by God It is performed in the month of Dhu l hijjah and is obligatory for all the Muslims who possess physical and financial ability There is also lesser Hajj or hajj al umrah which is performed on the remaining of the year 163 Jihad Edit Main article Jihad According to Nasr Jihad literally means effort but in the path of God in the whole of life 164 Shia associates the doctrine of Jihad directly to the Walayah or allegiance to the Imamah i e it is Imam who can distinguish the situation which necessitates the Jihad and just this kind of Jihad may cause the entry to the paradise 165 Nasr states that as equilibrium both outward and inward is the prerequisite for the spiritual flight all Muslims should carry out Jihad against any outward and inward forces to maintain equilibrium The outward Jihad is related to the defense of the Muslim world against non Islamic forces It also includes the defense of one s honor family and rights and establishing justice in the whole environment But this lesser jihad should be completed by a greater Jihad which is war against all forces that are against the nobility of the human He adds that from the spiritual point of view all the pillars of Islam like Shahadah prayer are the weapons for the practice of this inner Jihad So inner Jihad is the path for the realization of the One who is the ultimate message of the Islam This inner Jihad continues until every breath of man echoes that reality who is the origin of every thing and all things return to him 166 Nasr adds that every religious deed is Jihad because it is a striving between one s passionate soul nafs and the demands of the immortal spirit Islam sees Jihad as a care against every thing which distracts one from God 164 Shia believe that Jihad as defense is legitimate not as aggression 167 The Jihad can not be done against the innocent and the enemy should be treated with Justice and kindness and Jihad should be carried out on the basis of truth not on the basis of anger The killing of women children even animals and the destruction is forbidden in Jihad 168 Tawalla and Tabarra Edit Main articles Tawalla and Tabarra Love of Muhammad is incumbent upon all Muslims and is the key for the love of God To love God needs that God love the one and God does not love the one who does not love his messengers 169 Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil Edit Main articles Commanding what is just and Forbidding what is evil In addition to leading a virtuous life a Muslim should enjoin all other Muslims to do the same and to avoid all vices prohibited 170 Differences EditDissimulation Taqiyya Edit Main article Taqiya By Shia acting according to religion is incumbent on every one but if the expression of a belief endanger one s life honor and property he can conceal his belief as the verse 16 106 implies It is as a weapon for the weak before the tyrants 171 If Dissimulation cause the disappearance of the religion or the fundamentals of the religion it is forbidden and Muslims are to give up their lives but if there is no advantage in their being killed it is to dissimulate There is no place for Dissimulation regarding the teaching of the doctrines of the religion 172 As Shia has been a minority under the rule of regimes who were in hostility to their beliefs they choose to be cautious to prevent their extinction 173 Henry Corbin states that the practice was instituted by the Imams themselves not only for reasons of personal safety but as an attitude called for by the absolute respect for high doctrines nobody has strictly the right to listen to them except those who are capable of listening to and comprehending the truth 174 Mut ah Temporary marriage Edit Main article Nikah mut ah Nikaḥ al Mut ah Nikah el Mut a Arabic نكاح المتعة also Nikah Mut ah literally marriage of pleasure 175 or sighah is a fixed time marriage which according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari a Islamic law is a marriage with a preset duration after which the marriage is automatically dissolved It has many conditions that can be considered as pre requisite similar to that of permanent marriage However it is regarded as haram prohibited by Sunnis This is a highly controversial fiqh topic Sunnis and Shi a hold diametrically opposed views on its permissibility However some Sunni Muslims recognize Nikah Misyar 176 Mutah is claimed to have existed during the time of Muhammad and during a portion of his time it was not prohibited On this basis Shias believe that anything that was allowed during the time of Muhammad should remain allowed after Mut ah was allegedly practiced from the time of revelation to Muhammad until the time of Umar as the verse 70 29 points to it 177 Jurisprudence Fiqh EditMain articles Ja fari jurisprudence and Sources of sharia According to Shia the Quran the Sunna intellect and consensus are the bases of the jurisprudence As Islam is considered by Shia to be the last and the most perfect religion by ijtihad it deduces the responses through Islamic sources 178 Thus ijtihad brings flexibility to Islamic system 179 According to Ja fari jurisprudence Sharia is derived from the Qur an and the Sunnah The difference between Sunni and Shiʻa Sharia results from a Shiʻa belief that Muhammad assigned ʻAli to be the first ruler and the leader after him the Khalifa or steward citation needed This difference resulted in the Shiʻa Following hadith from Muħammad and his descendants the 12 Imams 180 Some of them are not accepting the examples verdicts and ahadith of Abu Bakr Umar and Uthman ibn Affan who are considered by Sunnis to be the first three Caliphs Attributing the concept of the masum infallibility to the Twelve Imams or The Fourteen Infallibles including Muhammad and his daughter Fatimah and accepting the examples and verdicts of this special group Akhbari and Usuli schools Edit Rejecting the function of the Mujtahid comparing to the authority of Imam Mullah Muhammad Amin al Astarabadi d 1626 27 knew the Mujtahid unnecessary as the people themselves following the instructions of the Imam which is sufficient for the guidance of the Shia Akhbaries only rely on the hadith of the prophet and the Imams Knowing them as non systematic and purely doctrinal without tolerating the rational judgement Usulies depicted themselves as a living continuous leadership of the believers with flexibility regarding legal and especially political questions 181 Usuli implies the doctrine of Usul which means the principle of the Jurisprudence and Ilm al Usul concerns with establishing the legal standards on the basis of Quran hadith Ijma and Aql Ijma is the unanimous consensus Aql in Shia Jurisprudence is applied to four practical principles namely bara at immunity ihtiyat precaution takhyir selection and istishab continuity in the previous state which are applied when other religious proofs are not applicable 36 Guardianship of the jurisprudent Edit Main article Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists The neutrality of this article is disputed Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met May 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message By Shia political thought at the absence of an infallible Imam a capable jurist faqih takes the responsibility of leadership of the community 182 By Shia jurisprudence the basis of the juristic authority is derived from the Imamate as the expansion of the prophecy and knowledge ilm which is also the basis for the religious and political authority of the Imam 183 As Islam is the foundation of Muslim s culture it needs government in order to be implemented 184 and establishing an Islamic society is the aim of the Islamic government 185 The Islamic authority responds to social needs by Islamic norms 186 God s absolute authority is the foundation of Twelvers political thought though every one who wishes to have authority must be assigned by Him 187 In referring to the Hakim Wali Ja far as Sadiq states that I have appointed him a hakim over you If such a person orders judges according to our ruling and the person concerned does not accept it then he has shown contempt for the ruling of God and rejects us and he who rejects us actually rejects Allah and such a person is close to association Shirk with Allah 188 Regarding the priority of the guardianship over all other religious law Khomeini states that The government or the absolute guardianship alwilayat al mutlaqa that is delegated to the noblest messenger of Allah is the most important divine law and has priority over all other ordinances of the law If the powers of the government be restricted to the framework of ordinances of the law then the delegation of the authority to Muhammad would be a senseless phenomenon 189 Shaykh al Saduq and Shaykh al Tusi transmit the hadith that Muhammad al Mahdi in response to Ishaq ibn Yaqub through Muhammad ibn Uthman al Umari expresses that As for the events that may occur al hawadith al waqi a when you may need guidance refer to the transmitters ruwat of our teachings who are my hujjah proof to you and I am the Proof of God Hujjatullah to you all 190 Ja afar al Sadiq pointing to verse 4 60 forbids referring to tyrannical government for all the times 191 In fact the idea of jurist authority is based on the belief that establishing an ideal society without any aid from God s revelation is not possible 192 According to Twelvers Juristic authority emphasizes on the role of Shari a in society 193 According to Al Murtaza on certain conditions holding office on behalf of the true Leaders is obligatory to enable the office to order what is right and forbid what is wrong to protect the Shi ites the Shi ites are threatened to death otherwise 194 Traditionally Twelvers consider Ali ibn Abi Talib and the subsequent further eleven Imams not only religious guides but political leaders based on a crucial hadith where Muhammad passes on his power to command Muslims to Ali Since the last Imam Muhammad al Mahdi went into occultation in 941 and is not expected back until end times this left Shi a without religiously sanctioned governance citation needed The first Shi a regime the Safavid dynasty in Iran propagated the Twelver faith made Twelver s law the law of the land and patronized Twelver scholarship For this Twelver ulema crafted a new theory of government which held that while not truly legitimate the Safavid monarchy would be blessed as the most desirable form of government during the period of awaiting for Muhammad al Mahdi the twelfth imam 195 In general the Shi a adhere to one of three approaches towards the state either full participation in government i e attempting to influence policies by becoming active in politics or passive cooperation with it i e minimal participation or else most commonly mere toleration of it i e remaining aloof from it 196 This changed with Iranian Revolution where the Twelver Ayatollah Khomeini and his supporters established a new theory of governance for the Islamic Republic of Iran citation needed It is based on Khomeini s theory of guardianship of the Islamic jurist as rule of the Islamic jurist and jurists as legatees of Muhammad While not all Twelvers accept this theory it is uniquely Twelver and the basis of the constitution of Iran the largest Shi a Muslim country where the Supreme Leader must be an Islamic jurist citation needed Ijtihad and Taqlid Accepting a scholar s verdict Edit See also Marja Islamic law and Usuli The use of Ijtihad and Taqlid associates with a religious and judicial problem that its answer is not in the Quran and hadith Regarding Ijtihad Halm explains that while the religious material is limited what procedure should be taken if a problem arises Here human reason comes in God gave reason to human to discover His Will If no answer was given by tradition naql the intellect aql should come in This rational effort to find the solutions for the temporary issues is called Ijtihad making of an effort It is derived form the word jihad which means the struggle for the attainment of God s Will on earth The participle of ijtihad is mujtahid the person who makes effort They should master the Arabic language and be familiar with the foundations of Quran and hadith They also should know the principles of Jurisprudence and logic The remaining other believers who are not expert exercise taqlid which means authorization that is common believers authorize the experts to make decisions for them If the mujtahid make a mistake the believer is not responsible for his error Though ijtihad makes the Shia theology flexible 197 The traces of Ijtihad refers back to the time of Imams when they trained scholars to answer to the judicial problems of the people As al Baqir said to Aban ibn Taghlib Sit down at the door of the mosque and pronounce fatwa judgement to the people 198 According to Nasr the mujtahids acted as the guard against tyrannical government and they had religious and social functions 199 Al Karaki narrates a hadith from his teachers that the scholar is the guardian of the religion successor of the Imam and he should draw conclusions from the sources by the reasoning 200 Calendar EditThis article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Twelver Shi ism news newspapers books scholar JSTOR October 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Twelvers celebrate the following annual holidays 201 202 203 204 Eid ul Fitr عيد الفطر which marks the end of fasting during the month of Ramadan and falls on the first day of Shawwal Eid al Adha which marks the end of the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca starts on the 10th day of Dhu al Hijjah The following holidays are observed by Twelvers unless otherwise noted The Mourning of Muharram or Remembrance of Muharram and Ashurah عاشوراء for Shia commemorate Imam Husayn ibn Ali s martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala Imam Husayn was grandson of Muhammad who was killed by Yazid ibn Muawiyah the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate and the first one by heredity One group of Sunni Scholars have deemed Yazeed to be a kaafir e g Sunni Scholar Ibn Jauzi in Wafa al Wafa Sunnis also commemorate Imam Husayn ibn Ali s martyrdom but do not engage in the spectacle displayed by Shi as Arba een Arabic word for forty commemorates 40th day of Imam Husain s martydom 40th day is an auspicious day for any deceased as per Islam remembering the suffering of Imam Husayn and his household the women and children After Husayn was killed his household was marched over the desert from Karbala central Iraq to Shaam Damascus Syria Many children some of whom were direct descendants of Muhammad died of thirst and exposure along the route Arba een occurs on the 20th of Safar 40 days after Ashurah Milad al Nabi Muhammad s birth date is celebrated by the Shia on the 17th of Rabi al awwal which coincides with the birth date of the sixth imam Ja far al Sadiq Mid Sha aban is the birth date of the 12th and final imam Muhammad al Mahdi It is celebrated by Twelvers on the 15th of Sha aban Many Shia fast on this day to show gratitude Eid al Ghadeer celebrates Ghadir Khum the occasion when Muhammad announced Ali s imamate before a multitude of Muslims Eid al Ghadeer is held on the 18th of Dhu al Hijjah Al Mubahila celebrates a meeting between the Ahl al Bayt household of Muhammad and a Christian deputation from Najran Al Mubahila is held on the 24th of Dhu al Hijjah Notable scholars EditSee also List of marjas and List of Shi a Muslim scholars of Islam Marja are the supreme legal authority for Twelvers Some of the historical and notable scholars include Mulla Sadra Muhammad Baqir Majlisi Muhammad ibn Ya qub al Kulayni Al Shaykh al Saduq Al Shaykh Al Mufid Shaykh Tusi Nasir al Din al Tusi and Al Hilli citation needed See also EditBada Ismaili List of Shia books List of Shia Islamic dynasties List of Shia Muslim scholars of Islam List of Shia Muslims List of Shia Muslims flags List of Shia converts Persecution of Shia Muslims Rafidah Shia Islam ZaidiyyahReferences EditNotes Edit Usul al Din Arabic اصول الدین Adl Arabic عدل Citations Edit Tabataba i 1977 p 10harvnb error no target CITEREFTabataba i1977 help Momen 1985 p 174 Weiss 2006 p 14 Shia Islam s Holiest Sites Worldatlas com 25 April 2017 Retrieved 1 March 2022 World Population Clock 7 9 Billion People 2022 Worldometer Worldometers info Retrieved 1 March 2022 Atlas of the Middle East Second ed Washington D C National Geographic 2008harvnb error no target CITEREFAtlas of the Middle East Second ed Washington D C National Geographic2008 help The World Factbook 2010 amp Retrieved 2010 08 25 harvnb error no target CITEREFThe World Factbook 2010Retrieved 2010 08 25 help Jul 21 John Bugnacki on 2014 Six Charts that Explain Shia Islam American Security Project Retrieved 2020 10 29 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint numeric names authors list link Shia women too can initiate divorce The Times of India November 6 2006 Retrieved 2010 06 21 Talaq rights proposed for Shia women Daily News and Analysis www dnaindia com 5 November 2006 Retrieved 2010 06 21 Obama s Overtures The Tribune Retrieved 2010 07 21 Imperialism and Divide amp Rule Policy Boloji Retrieved 2010 07 21 Ahmadinejad on way NSA says India to be impacted if Iran wronged by others Indian Express 21 April 2008 Retrieved 2010 07 21 http merln ndu edu archive icg shiitequestion pdf Archived 2008 12 17 at the Wayback Machine International Crisis Group The Shiite Question in Saudi Arabia Middle East Report No 45 19 Sep Iran United States Department of State Retrieved 2021 09 29 Tabatabae i 1975 pp 74 75harvnb error no target CITEREFTabatabae i1975 help Campo 2009 p 676harvnb error no target CITEREFCampo2009 help Nasr pp 143 144harvnb error no target CITEREFNasr help Tabataba ei 1975 p 34harvnb error no target CITEREFTabataba ei1975 help Kahlmeyer Andre Janin Hunt 9 January 2015 Islamic Law The Sharia from Muhammad s Time to the Present McFarland p 25 ISBN 9781476608815 Momen 2015 p chapter 2harvnb error no target CITEREFMomen2015 help Wynbrandt James 14 May 2014 A Brief History of Saudi Arabia Infobase Publishing p 64 ISBN 9781438108308 Daftary 2013 Nasr 2007 p 117 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 pp 148 149 Cornell 2007 p 221 Pakatchi 1988 p 159harvnb error no target CITEREFPakatchi1988 help Cornell 2007 pp 221 222 Cornell 2007 p 230 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 pp 151 152 Kraemer 1992 pp 73 and 74 a b Pakatchi Ahmad امامیه دائره المعارف بزرگ اسلامی Retrieved 2015 05 29 a b Kraemer 1992 p 74 Black 2011 p 41 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 pp 234 235 a b c d e Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 pp 284 285 AMir Moezzi 1994 p 134harvnb error no target CITEREFAMir Moezzi1994 help a b c Martin 2003 p 717harvnb error no target CITEREFMartin2003 help a b Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 230 Nasr amp Leaman 2001 p 1047 Halm 1997 pp 100 101 Halm 1997 pp 106 108 Vaezi 2004 p 80 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 p 164 Nasr 2000 amp p 152harvnb error no target CITEREFNasr2000p 152 help a b c Cornell 2007 p 226 Momen 1985 p 127 Cornell 2007 p 228 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 287 Our way in intellectual debates by Jafaar Seedaan p 10 Nasr 2006 p 120 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 114 Lakhani Shah Kazemi amp Lewisohn 2006 p 15 Our way in intellectual debates by Jafaar Seedaan p 26 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 197 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 115 Sobhani 2001 pp 20 30harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Sobhani 2001 p 20harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Faruki 1965 p 32 Campo 2009 p 678harvnb error no target CITEREFCampo2009 help Sobhani amp Shah Kazemi 2001 pp 21 and 22harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhaniShah Kazemi2001 help a b c d Motahari 1985 Al Kafi by Al Kullainy the book of God s oneness Who is worshipped chapter volume 01 p 87 Al Fusool Al Muhimahh Fi Usool Al Aimahh by Al Hur Al Amilli volume 01 p 255 Sobhani 2001 p 22harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Sobhani 2001 p 24harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Sobhani 2001 p 30harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Nasr 2002 p 249 Tabataba ei 1979 p 13 a b Sobhani 2001 p 52harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 223 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 224 مناظرة الإمام الكاظم ع مع أبي حنيفة في أن المعصية من فعل العبد الشیعة Arabic al shia org Retrieved 1 March 2022 في أن أفعال العباد ليست مخلوقة لل ه سبحانه Research rafed net Retrieved 1 March 2022 Need of Religion by Sayyid Sa id Akhtar Rizvi p 14 Nasr amp Leaman 1996 pp 253 258harvnb error no target CITEREFNasrLeaman1996 help Our way in intellectual debates by Jafaar Seedaan p 27 Shia Islam s Holiest Sites 25 April 2017 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 119 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 131 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 153 Nasr 2008 p 601 Nasr 2008 pp 579 581 Nasr 2008 p 582 Nasr 2008 pp 583 5 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 pp 128 129 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 pp 130 131 Sobhani amp Shah Kazemi 2001 p 39 Sobhani amp Shah Kazemi 2001 p 71 Tabataba i 1984 p 31harvnb error no target CITEREFTabataba i1984 help Tabataba i 1986 p 22harvnb error no target CITEREFTabataba i1986 help Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 132 Tabataba i 1983 p 151harvnb error no target CITEREFTabataba i1983 help Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 142 Sobhani amp Shah Kazemi 2001 pp 67 68 Dabashi 1989 pp 110 112 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 155 Campo 2009 pp 678 679harvnb error no target CITEREFCampo2009 help a b c Shi ite Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2007 Retrieved 2007 11 06 Nasr 1979 p 15 Corbin 1993 pp 45 51 a b Gleave Robert 2004 Imamate Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim world vol 1 MacMillan ISBN 0 02 865604 0 Shirazi Sultanu l Wa izin Peshawar Nights THE Sunni Ulema s Condemnation of Abu Hanifa Al islam org Rizvi Muhammad Shi ism Imamate and Wilayat S V Mir Ali Ayatollah Mahdi Puya Commentary of Quran Verse 2 124 Martin 2003 p 651harvnb error no target CITEREFMartin2003 help Nasr 2000 pp 144 145 Robinson Francis 1984 Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500 New York Facts on File p 47 ISBN 0871966298 Sheriff Ahmed H 1991 Leadership by Divine Appointment p 13 Rizvi Kishwar 2017 Affect Emotion and Subjectivity in Early Modern Muslim Empires BRILL p 101 ISBN 978 90 04 35284 1 Malbouisson Cofie D 2007 Focus on Islamic Issues Nova Publishers p 17 ISBN 978 1 60021 204 8 Stefon Matt 2009 Islamic Beliefs and Practices The Rosen Publishing Group Inc p 57 ISBN 978 1 61530 017 4 Madelung Wilferd 1985 Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam Variorum Reprints p 414 ISBN 978 0 86078 161 5 Galian Laurence 2003 The Sun at Midnight The Revealed Mysteries of the Ahlul Bayt Sufis p 230 Mishal Shaul Goldberg Ori 2014 Understanding Shiite Leadership The Art of the Middle Ground in Iran and Lebanon Cambridge University Press p 37 ISBN 978 1 107 04638 2 a b Nakash Yitzhak 1995 The Visitation of the Shrines of the Imams and the Shi i Mujtahids in the Early Twentieth Century Studia Islamica Brill 81 153 164 doi 10 2307 1596023 JSTOR 1596023 Szanto Edith The largest contemporary Muslim pilgrimage isn t the hajj to Mecca it s the Shiite pilgrimage to Karbala in Iraq The Conversation Retrieved 2020 12 10 Fischer Michael M J 1946 2003 Iran from religious dispute to revolution Madison University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 978 0 299 18473 5 OCLC 294908077 a href wiki Template Cite book title Template Cite book cite book a CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Szanto Edith May 2012 Sayyida Zaynab in the State of Exception Shiʿi Sainthood as Qualified Life in Contemporary Syria International Journal of Middle East Studies 44 2 285 299 doi 10 1017 S0020743812000050 ISSN 1471 6380 S2CID 162260813 Julian Millie 2008 Supplicating Naming offering Tawassul in West Java Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 39 1 107 122 doi 10 1017 S0022463408000052 S2CID 145679335 Sobhani 2001 pp 155 156harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help a b al Shaykh al Saduq 1982 pp 151 152harvnb error no target CITEREFal Shaykh al Saduq1982 help a b Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 p 99 al Shaykh al Saduq 1982 p 151harvnb error no target CITEREFal Shaykh al Saduq1982 help Nasr 1979 p 10 Momen 1985 p 174 Dabashi 2006 p 463harvnb error no target CITEREFDabashi2006 help Corbin 1993 p 48 Donaldson 1933 p 326harvnb error no target CITEREFDonaldson1933 help Ansariyan 2007 p 89harvnb error no target CITEREFAnsariyan2007 help Algar 1990harvnb error no target CITEREFAlgar1990 help Madelung 1998 p 15 and 51harvnb error no target CITEREFMadelung1998 help Donaldson 1933 pp 334 335harvnb error no target CITEREFDonaldson1933 help Algar 1990harvnb error no target CITEREFAlgar1990 help Jasim 1982harvnb error no target CITEREFJasim1982 help Murata amp Chittick 1994 p 43 Sobhani 2001 p 121harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 220 Leaman 2006 p 228harvnb error no target CITEREFLeaman2006 help Sobhani 2001 pp 159 164harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Sobhani 2001 pp 122 124harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Leaman 2006 p 705harvnb error no target CITEREFLeaman2006 help Leaman 2006 pp 198 705harvnb error no target CITEREFLeaman2006 help Leaman 2006 p 451harvnb error no target CITEREFLeaman2006 help Sobhani 2001 pp 133 134harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Sobhani 2001 p 136harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Nasr 2007 pp 75 80 Momen Moojan An Introduction to Shi i Islam The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi ism 1987 pp 176 181 Yale University Press ISBN 978 0 300 03531 5 Cornell 2007 p 217 Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World Marshall Cavendish 2011 ISBN 9780761479291 Nasr 2007 pp 92 93 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 245 a b Nasr 2007 pp 93 94 Tabataba ei 1982 pp 5 7 Nasr 2007 p 95 Leaman 2006 p 316harvnb error no target CITEREFLeaman2006 help Momen 1985 pp 179 180 Rizvi 1992 Surah 8 Spoils Of War Booty Glossary of Islamic Banking Terms Challenges Facing Islamic Banking The Keys to Paradise chapter 1 section 2 title special prayers مفاتيح الجنان Nasr 2007 pp 94 95 a b Nasr 2007 pp 91 96 97 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 p 58 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 pp 275 278 Nasr 2002 p 262 Nasr 2002 pp 264 267 Nasr 2002 p 35 Momen 1985 p 189 Sobhani 2001 p 150harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Sobhani 2001 p 153harvnb error no target CITEREFSobhani2001 help Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 206 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 207 Mut ah from Encyclopaedia Britannica Mahmood Shabnam Nye Catrin 13 May 2013 I do for now UK Muslims revive temporary marriages BBC News Retrieved 23 May 2013 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 215 Sobahni 2001 p 182harvnb error no target CITEREFSobahni2001 help Zaezi 2004 p 32harvnb error no target CITEREFZaezi2004 help Muslim ibn al Hajjaj translated by Aftab Shahryar 2004 Sahih Muslim Abridged Islamic Book Service ISBN 81 7231 592 9 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 p 281 Vaezi 2004 p 53 Arjomand 1988 p 3harvnb error no target CITEREFArjomand1988 help Vaezi 2004 pp 10 11 Vaezi 2004 p 12 Vaezi 2004 p 35 Vaezi 2004 p 58 Vaezi 2004 p 90 Vaezi 2004 p 97 Vaezi 2004 pp 104 105 Vaezi 2004 p 111 Vaezi 2004 p 133 Vaezi 2004 p 135 Black 2011 p 44 Nasr Vali The Shia Revival Norton 2006 pp 74 75 Momen An Introduction to Shi i Islam 1985 p 193 Halm 1997 pp 102 105 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1988 p 229 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 p 163 Nasr Dabashi amp Nasr 1989 p 188 Barr Sabrina EID AL ADHA 2019 WHEN IS IT HOW IS IT CELEBRATED AND HOW TO WISH SOMEONE A HAPPY EID independent Archived from the original on 11 August 2019 Retrieved 11 August 2019 The Significance of Hari Raya Aidiladha muslim sg Retrieved 17 October 2019 Elias Jamal J 1999 Islam Routledge p 75 ISBN 978 0 415 21165 9 Retrieved 24 October 2012 Muslim Information Service of Australia Eid al Adha Festival of Sacrifice Missionislam com Retrieved 28 December 2011 Sources Edit Black Antony 2011 The history of Islamic political thought from the prophet to the present Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press ISBN 978 0 7486 3987 8 Corbin Henry 1993 History of Islamic Philosophy Translated by Liadain Sherrard Philip Sherrard London Kegan Paul International in association with Islamic Publications for The Institute of Ismaili Studies ISBN 0 7103 0416 1 Cornell Vincent J 2007 Voices of Islam Westport Conn Praeger Publishers ISBN 978 0 275 98732 9 Dabashi Hamid 1989 Authority in Islam from the rise of Muhammad to the establishment of the Umayyads New Brunswick U S A Transaction Publishers ISBN 978 0 88738 288 8 Daftary Farhad 2013 A history of Shi i Islam ISBN 978 0 85773 524 9 Faruki Kemal 1965 Tawhid and the doctrine of Ismah Islamic Studies 4 1 31 43 JSTOR 20832784 Halm Heinz translated from the German by Allison 1997 Shi a Islam from religion to revolution 2 printing ed Princeton NJ Markus Wiener Publishers ISBN 978 1 55876 134 6 Kraemer Joel L 1992 Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age BRILL ISBN 978 90 04 09736 0 Lakhani M Ali Shah Kazemi Reza Lewisohn Leonard 2006 The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam The Teachings of ʻAli Ibn Abi Ṭalib World Wisdom Inc ISBN 978 1 933316 26 0 Momen Moojan 1985 An Introduction to Shi i Islam the History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi ism New Haven Yale University Press ISBN 978 0 300 03531 5 Motahari Morteza 1985 Fundamentals of Islamic thought God man and the universe Mizan Press OCLC 909092922 Murata Sachiko Chittick William 1994 Vision of Islam reflecting on the Hadith of Gabriel 1st ed New York NY Paragon House ISBN 978 1 55778 516 9 Nasr Hossein Dabashi Hamid Nasr Vali 1988 Shiʻism doctrines thought and spirituality Albany SUNY ISBN 978 0 585 08860 0 Nasr Seyyed Hossein Leaman Oliver 2001 History of Islamic Philosophy London Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 25934 7 Nasr Seyyed Hossein 2002 The heart of Islam enduring values for humanity Pymble NSW PerfectBound ISBN 0 06 051665 8 Nasr Seyyed Hossein 2006 Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present SUNY Press ISBN 978 0 7914 6799 2 Nasr Seyyed Hossein 2000 Ideals and realities of Islam New rev ed Chicago IL ABC International Group ISBN 978 1 930637 11 5 Nasr Dabashi Nasr 1989 Expectation of the Millennium Shiʻism in History Albany State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0 585 07849 6 Nasr Seyyed Hossein 2007 Islam religion history and civilization Pymble NSW HarperCollins e books ISBN 978 0 06 155642 5 Nasr Seyyed Hossein 2008 Islamic spirituality foundations London Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 44262 6 Rizvi Sayyid Muhammad 1992 Khums An Islamic Tax Ansaryan Rizvi Sayyid Muhammad 2004 Islam Faith Practice amp History Ansariyan Publications ISBN 978 964 438 620 6 Sachedina Abdulaziz Abdulhussein 1988 The Just Ruler al sultan Al ʻadil in Shi ite Islam The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence Oxford University Press US ISBN 978 0 19 511915 2 Sobhani Ja far Shah Kazemi Reza 2001 The Doctrines of Shi ism A Compendium of Imami Beliefs and Practices I B Tauris ISBN 978 1 86064 780 2 Tabataba ei Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn 1979 Shi ite Islam Hossein Nasr translator SUNY press ISBN 0 87395 272 3 Tabataba ei Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn 1983 Al Mizan an exegesis of the Qurʼan Vol 1 WOFIS OCLC 311256759 Tabataba ei Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn 1984 Al Mizan an exegesis of the Qurʼan Vol 2 WOFIS Tabataba ei Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn 1982 Al Mizan an exegesis of the Qurʼan Vol 3 WOFIS Tabataba ei Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn 1986 Al Mizan an exegesis of the Qurʼan Vol 6 WOFIS Vaezi Ahmad 2004 Shia political thought London Islamic Centre of England ISBN 978 1 904934 01 1 Weiss Bernard G 2006 The Spirit of Islamic Law University of Georgia Press ISBN 978 0 8203 2827 0 External links EditA brief introduction of Twelve Imams A Brief History Of The Lives Of The Twelve Imams a chapter of Shi a Islam book by Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei A Short History of the Lives of The Twelve Imams Ithna Ashariyah An article by Encyclopaedia Britannica online Twelver Media Source Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Twelver Shi 27ism amp oldid 1094490400, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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