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"Reversed E (Cyrillic)" redirects here. For the character э, see E (Cyrillic).

Ukrainian Ye (Є є; italics:Є є) is a character of the Cyrillic script. It is a separate letter in the Ukrainian alphabet (8th position since 1992, 7th position before then), the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet, and both the Carpathian Rusyn alphabets; in all of these, it comes directly after Е. In modern Church Slavonic, it is considered a variant form of Ye (Е е) (there, the selection of Є and Е is driven by orthography rules). Until the mid-19th century, Є/є was also used in Romanian and Serbian (the letter was eliminated in Vuk Karadžić's alphabet and replaced by digraph је). Other modern Slavonic languages may use Є/є shapes instead of Е/е for decorative purposes. Then, the letter is usually referred to by the older name Yest and the descriptive name Long E.

Cyrillic letter
Ukrainian Ye
Phonetic usage:[je],[jɛ]
Numeric value:5
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
Non-Slavic letters
Archaic letters

In Ukrainian, Є/є commonly represents the sound/je/ or/jɛ/ like the pronunciation of ⟨ye⟩ in "yes". (See usage for more detail.)

Ukrainian Ye is romanized as ⟨je⟩, ⟨ê⟩, or even ⟨e⟩. See scientific transliteration of Cyrillic.

Contents

Letter Є/є was derived from one of the variant forms of Cyrillic Ye (Е е), known as "long E" or "anchor E". Є-shaped letters can be found in late uncial (ustav) and semi-uncial (poluustav) Cyrillic manuscripts, especially ones of Ukrainian origin. Typically it corresponds to the letter Iotated E (Ѥ ѥ) of older monuments. Certain old primers and grammar books of Church Slavonic language had listed Є/є as a letter distinct from Е/е and placed it near the end of the alphabet (the exact alphabet position varies). Among modern-style Cyrillic scripts (known as "civil script" or "Petrine script"), Є/є was first used in Serbian books (end of the 18th century and first half of the 19th century); sometimes, Serbian printers might be using Э/э instead of Є/є due to font availability. For the modern Ukrainian language, Є/є has been used since 1837 (orthography of almanach "Русалка Днѣстровая" (Rusalka Dnistrovaya)). In Cyrillic numerals, Є is always preferred to E to represent 5.

Ukrainian and Rusyn

In Ukrainian and Rusyn (as well as in old Serbian orthography), Є/є represents the sound combination/je/ or the vowel sound/e/ after a palatalized consonant.

Khanty

In Khanty, the letter represents the sound /je/.

Old Slavonic, Old East Slavic

In the oldest Slavonic manuscripts, Є was just a graphical variant of Е and thus represents/e/ without palatalization. Later Є replaced Ѥ (i.e. denotes/ʲe/ after consonants and/je/ after vowels and in an initial position). Later on, it also accepted both a decorative role (as an initial letter of a word, even if there was no iotation) and an orthographical role, to make the distinction between certain homonymical forms (mostly between plural and singular).

New Church Slavonic

Since the mid-17th century, the Church Slavonic orthography has the following main rules related to the usage of shapes Є and Е:

  • in an initial position, always use Є;
  • otherwise, use Е with the following exceptions:
    • in noun's endings, use -євъ and -ємъ for plural and -евъ, -емъ for singular;
    • in other endings, suffixes and roots of nouns, adjectives, participles, numerals and pronouns, use Є for plural/dual, if there exists a homonymous form in the singular (either of the same word or a different one; the actual rule is much more complicated and not well-defined, as there are multiple other ways to eliminate such homonymy);
    • publishers from Kyiv also use Є in the genitive case of three pronouns (менє, тебє, себє), and Е in the accusative case (мене, тебе, себе);
  • as a numerical sign (with value 5) use Є, not Е (the rule has often been ignored outside of the Russian Empire).

In the modern Church Slavonic alphabet, the 6th letter is typically shown as Єєе (one uppercase accompanied with two variants of lowercase).

The different shapes Є and Е exist only in lowercase; thus in all caps and small caps styles, the distinction between Є and Е disappears.

Old Believers print their books using an older variant of New Church Slavonic language. Its orthography combines the fully formal system described above with the older tradition to use Є phonetically (after vowels, to represent iotated/je/).

Similar characters

The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee uses , a character similar to capital Є, to represent the Cambrian Period in geologic history.

Є is similar to the symbol for the euro currency ⟨€⟩.

Character information
Preview Є є
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER
UKRAINIAN IE
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER
UKRAINIAN IE
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1028 U+0404 1108 U+0454
UTF-8 208 132 D0 84 209 148 D1 94
Numeric character reference Є Є є є
Named character reference Є є
KOI8-U 180 B4 164 A4
Code page 855 135 87 134 86
Code page 866 242 F2 243 F3
Windows-1251 170 AA 186 BA
ISO-8859-5 164 A4 244 F4
Macintosh Cyrillic 184 B8 185 B9
  1. Federal Geographic Data Committee, ed. (August 2006). FGDC Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization FGDC-STD-013-2006(PDF). U.S. Geological Survey for the Federal Geographic Data Committee. p. A–32–1. RetrievedAugust 23, 2010.
  • Півторак Г. П. Український алфавіт // Українська мова: Енциклопедія. — К.: Українська енциклопедія, 2000. ISBN 966-7492-07-9 — С. 679—680. (H. Pivtorak, "Ukrainian Alphabet")
  • The dictionary definition of Є at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of є at Wiktionary

Ukrainian Ye Article Talk Language Watch Edit Reversed E Cyrillic redirects here For the character e see E Cyrillic Ukrainian Ye Ye ye italics Ye ye is a character of the Cyrillic script It is a separate letter in the Ukrainian alphabet 8th position since 1992 7th position before then the Pannonian Rusyn alphabet and both the Carpathian Rusyn alphabets in all of these it comes directly after E In modern Church Slavonic it is considered a variant form of Ye E e there the selection of Ye and E is driven by orthography rules Until the mid 19th century Ye ye was also used in Romanian and Serbian the letter was eliminated in Vuk Karadzic s alphabet and replaced by digraph јe Other modern Slavonic languages may use Ye ye shapes instead of E e for decorative purposes Then the letter is usually referred to by the older name Yest and the descriptive name Long E Cyrillic letter Ukrainian YePhonetic usage je jɛ Numeric value 5The Cyrillic scriptSlavic lettersAA A BVGGDЂЃEЀYoYeZhZZ ЅIIYiI 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uncial ustav and semi uncial poluustav Cyrillic manuscripts especially ones of Ukrainian origin Typically it corresponds to the letter Iotated E Ѥ ѥ of older monuments Certain old primers and grammar books of Church Slavonic language had listed Ye ye as a letter distinct from E e and placed it near the end of the alphabet the exact alphabet position varies Among modern style Cyrillic scripts known as civil script or Petrine script Ye ye was first used in Serbian books end of the 18th century and first half of the 19th century sometimes Serbian printers might be using E e instead of Ye ye due to font availability For the modern Ukrainian language Ye ye has been used since 1837 orthography of almanach Rusalka Dnѣstrovaya Rusalka Dnistrovaya In Cyrillic numerals Ye is always preferred to E to represent 5 Usage EditUkrainian and Rusyn Edit In Ukrainian and Rusyn as well as in old Serbian orthography Ye ye represents the sound combination je or the vowel sound e after a palatalized consonant Khanty Edit In Khanty the letter represents the sound je Old Slavonic Old East Slavic Edit In the oldest Slavonic manuscripts Ye was just a graphical variant of E and thus represents e without palatalization Later Ye replaced Ѥ i e denotes ʲe after consonants and je after vowels and in an initial position Later on it also accepted both a decorative role as an initial letter of a word even if there was no iotation and an orthographical role to make the distinction between certain homonymical forms mostly between plural and singular New Church Slavonic Edit Since the mid 17th century the Church Slavonic orthography has the following main rules related to the usage of shapes Ye and E in an initial position always use Ye otherwise use E with the following exceptions in noun s endings use yev and yem for plural and ev em for singular in other endings suffixes and roots of nouns adjectives participles numerals and pronouns use Ye for plural dual if there exists a homonymous form in the singular either of the same word or a different one the actual rule is much more complicated and not well defined as there are multiple other ways to eliminate such homonymy publishers from Kyiv also use Ye in the genitive case of three pronouns menye tebye sebye and E in the accusative case mene tebe sebe as a numerical sign with value 5 use Ye not E the rule has often been ignored outside of the Russian Empire In the modern Church Slavonic alphabet the 6th letter is typically shown as Yeyee one uppercase accompanied with two variants of lowercase The different shapes Ye and E exist only in lowercase thus in all caps and small caps styles the distinction between Ye and E disappears Old Believers print their books using an older variant of New Church Slavonic language Its orthography combines the fully formal system described above with the older tradition to use Ye phonetically after vowels to represent iotated je Similar characters Edit The United States Federal Geographic Data Committee uses Ꞓ a character similar to capital Ye to represent the Cambrian Period in geologic history 1 Ye is similar to the symbol for the euro currency Related letters and other similar characters EditE e Greek letter Epsilon Ɛ ɛ Latin letter Epsilon E e Cyrillic letter Ye Yo yo Cyrillic letter Yo E e Cyrillic letter E Ԑ ԑ Cyrillic letter Reversed Ze E e Latin letter E Ꞓ ꞓ Latin letter Ꞓ or Element mathematics Computing codes EditCharacter information Preview Ye yeUnicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER UKRAINIAN IE CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER UKRAINIAN IEEncodings decimal hex dec hexUnicode 1028 U 0404 1108 U 0454UTF 8 208 132 D0 84 209 148 D1 94Numeric character reference amp 1028 wbr amp x404 wbr amp 1108 wbr amp x454 wbr Named character reference amp Jukcy amp jukcy KOI8 U 180 B4 164 A4Code page 855 135 87 134 86Code page 866 242 F2 243 F3Windows 1251 170 AA 186 BAISO 8859 5 164 A4 244 F4Macintosh Cyrillic 184 B8 185 B9References Edit Federal Geographic Data Committee ed August 2006 FGDC Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization FGDC STD 013 2006 PDF U S Geological Survey for the Federal Geographic Data Committee p A 32 1 Retrieved August 23 2010 Further reading EditPivtorak G P Ukrayinskij alfavit Ukrayinska mova Enciklopediya K Ukrayinska enciklopediya 2000 ISBN 966 7492 07 9 S 679 680 H Pivtorak Ukrainian Alphabet External links Edit The dictionary definition of Ye at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of ye at Wiktionary Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Ukrainian Ye amp oldid 1090142784, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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