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Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch, Irish: Albainis Ultach), also known as Ulster Scotch and Ullans, is the dialect of Scots spoken in parts of Ulster in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. It is generally considered a dialect or group of dialects of Scots, although groups such as the Ulster-Scots Language Society and Ulster-Scots Academy consider it a language in its own right, and the Ulster-Scots Agency and former Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure have used the term Ulster-Scots language.

Ulster Scots
Ulstèr-Scotch, Ullans,
(Braid) Scots, Scotch
Native toIreland
RegionUlster
EthnicityUlster Scots
Early forms
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byThe cross-border Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch, established as a result of the Good Friday Agreement
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologulst1239
Linguasphere52-ABA-aa
(varieties: 52-ABA-aar to -aat)
IETFsco-ulster
Approximate boundaries of the traditional Scots language areas in Ulster, shaded in turquoise. Based on The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster (1972) by R. J. Gregg.

Some definitions of Ulster Scots may also include Standard English spoken with an Ulster Scots accent. This is a situation like that of Lowland Scots and Scottish Standard English with words pronounced using the Ulster Scots phonemes closest to those of Standard English. Ulster Scots has been influenced by Hiberno-English, particularly Ulster English, and by Ulster Irish. As a result of the competing influences of English and Scots, varieties of Ulster Scots can be described as "more English" or "more Scots".

Contents

While once referred to as Scotch-Irish by several researchers, that has now been superseded by the term Ulster Scots. Speakers usually refer to their vernacular as 'Braid Scots', 'Scotch' or 'the hamely tongue'. Since the 1980s Ullans, a neologism popularized by the physician, amateur historian and politician Ian Adamson, merging Ulster and Lallans, the Scots for Lowlands, but also an acronym for “Ulster-Scots language in literature and native speech” and Ulstèr-Scotch, the preferred revivalist parlance, have also been used. Occasionally, the term Hiberno-Scots is used, but it is usually used for the ethnic group rather than the vernacular.

The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census in Northern Ireland aged 3 and above who stated that they could speak Ulster Scots

During the middle of the 20th century, the linguist Robert John Gregg established the geographical boundaries of Ulster's Scots-speaking areas based on information gathered from native speakers. By his definition, Ulster Scots is spoken in mid and east Antrim, north Down, north-east County Londonderry, and in the fishing villages of the Mourne coast. It is also spoken in the Laggan district and parts of the Finn Valley in east Donegal and in the south of Inishowen in north Donegal. Writing in 2020, the Fintona-born linguist Warren Maguire argued that some of the criteria that Gregg used as distinctive of Ulster Scots are common in south-west Tyrone and were found in other sites across Northern Ireland investigated by the Linguistic Survey of Scotland.

The 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey found that 2% of Northern Ireland residents claimed to speak Ulster Scots, which would mean a total speech community of approximately 30,000 in the territory. Other estimates range from 35,000 in Northern Ireland, to an "optimistic" total of 100,000 including the Republic of Ireland (mainly the east of County Donegal). Speaking at a seminar on 9 September 2004, Ian Sloan of the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL) accepted that the 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey "did not significantly indicate that unionists or nationalists were relatively any more or less likely to speak Ulster Scots, although in absolute terms there were more unionists who spoke Ulster Scots than nationalists".[citation needed]

In the 2011 census of Northern Ireland, 16,373 people (0.9% of the population) stated that they can speak, read, write and understand Ulster Scots and 140,204 people (8.1% of the population) reported having some ability in Ulster Scots.

Linguistic status

A bilingual street sign in Ballyhalbert, County Down

The majority of linguists treat Ulster Scots as a variety of the Scots language; Caroline Macafee, for example, writes that "Ulster Scots is [...] clearly a dialect of Central Scots." The Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure considers Ulster Scots to be "the local variety of the Scots language." Some linguists, such as Raymond Hickey, treat Ulster Scots (and other forms of Scots) as a dialect of English. It has been said that its "status varies between dialect and language".

Enthusiasts such as Philip Robinson (author of Ulster-Scots: a Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language), the Ulster-Scots Language Society and supporters of an Ulster-Scots Academy are of the opinion that Ulster Scots is a language in its own right. That position has been criticised by the Ulster-Scots Agency, a BBC report stating: "[The Agency] accused the academy of wrongly promoting Ulster-Scots as a language distinct from Scots." This position is reflected in many of the Academic responses[clarification needed] to the "Public Consultation on Proposals for an Ulster-Scots Academy"

Legal status

Ulster Scots is defined in an Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Ireland establishing implementation bodies done at Dublin on the 8th day of March 1999 in the following terms:

"Ullans" is to be understood as the variety of the Scots language traditionally found in parts of Northern Ireland and Donegal.

The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999, which gave effect to the implementation bodies incorporated the text of the agreement in its Schedule 1.

The declaration made by the British Government regarding the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages reads as follows:

The United Kingdom declares, in accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Charter that it recognises that Scots and Ulster Scots meet the Charter's definition of a regional or minority language for the purposes of Part II of the Charter.

This recognition differed significantly from the commitments entered into under the Charter in relation to Irish, for which specific provisions under Part III were invoked for the protection and promotion of that language. The definition of Ullans from the North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999 above was used on 1 July 2005 Second Periodical Report by the United Kingdom to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe outlining how the UK met its obligations under the Charter.

The Good Friday Agreement (which does not refer to Ulster Scots as a "language") recognises Ulster Scots as "part of the cultural wealth of the island of Ireland", and the Implementation Agreement established the cross-border Ulster-Scots Agency (Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch).

The legislative remit laid down for the agency by the North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999 is: "the promotion of greater awareness and the use of Ullans and of Ulster-Scots cultural issues, both within Northern Ireland and throughout the island".

The agency has adopted a mission statement: to promote the study, conservation, development and use of Ulster Scots as a living language; to encourage and develop the full range of its attendant culture; and to promote an understanding of the history of the Ulster-Scots people. Despite the Agency's reference to Ulster Scots as "a language", this eliding of the distinction between Ulster Scots as a linguistic form, and "Ulster Scots culture" broadly referring to cultural forms associated with the Scottish-descended population, continued thereafter.

The Northern Ireland (St Andrews Agreement) Act 2006 amended the Northern Ireland Act 1998 to insert a section (28D) entitled Strategies relating to Irish language and Ulster Scots language etc. which inter alia laid on the Executive Committee a duty to "adopt a strategy setting out how it proposes to enhance and develop the Ulster Scots language, heritage and culture." This reflects the wording used in the St Andrews Agreement to refer to the enhancement and development of "the Ulster Scots language, heritage and culture". There is still controversy on the status of Ulster Scots.

Middle Scots inscription "Godis Providens Is My Inheritans" over the main entrance door leading to the tower in Ballygally Castle

Scots, mainly Gaelic-speaking, had been settling in Ulster since the 15th century, but large numbers of Scots-speaking Lowlanders, some 200,000, arrived during the 17th century following the 1610 Plantation, with the peak reached during the 1690s. In the core areas of Scots settlement, Scots outnumbered English settlers by five or six to one.

Literature from shortly before the end of the unselfconscious tradition at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is almost identical with contemporary writing from Scotland. W. G. Lyttle, writing in Paddy McQuillan's Trip Tae Glesco, uses the typically Scots forms kent and begood, now replaced in Ulster by the more mainstream Anglic forms knew, knowed or knawed and begun. Many of the modest contemporary differences between Scots as spoken in Scotland and Ulster may be due to dialect levelling and influence from Mid Ulster English brought about through relatively recent demographic change rather than direct contact with Irish, retention of older features or separate development.[citation needed]

The earliest identified writing in Scots in Ulster dates from 1571: a letter from Agnes Campbell of County Tyrone to Queen Elizabeth on behalf of Turlough O'Neil, her husband. Although documents dating from the Plantation period show conservative Scots features, English forms started to predominate from the 1620s as Scots declined as a written medium.

In Ulster Scots-speaking areas there was traditionally a considerable demand for the work of Scottish poets, often in locally printed editions. These include Alexander Montgomerie's The Cherrie and the Slae in 1700; shortly over a decade later an edition of poems by Sir David Lindsay; nine printings of Allan Ramsay's The Gentle shepherd between 1743 and 1793; and an edition of Robert Burns' poetry in 1787, the same year as the Edinburgh edition, followed by reprints in 1789, 1793 and 1800. Among other Scottish poets published in Ulster were James Hogg and Robert Tannahill.

Poetry by Robert Huddlestone (1814–1887) inscribed in paving in Writers' Square, Belfast

That was complemented by a poetry revival and nascent prose genre in Ulster, which started around 1720. The most prominent of these was the rhyming weaver poetry, of which, some 60 to 70 volumes were published between 1750 and 1850, the peak being in the decades 1810 to 1840,[clarification needed] although the first printed poetry (in the Habbie stanza form) by an Ulster Scots writer was published in a broadsheet in Strabane in 1735. These weaver poets looked to Scotland for their cultural and literary models and were not simple imitators but clearly inheritors of the same literary tradition following the same poetic and orthographic practices; it is not always immediately possible to distinguish traditional Scots writing from Scotland and Ulster. Among the rhyming weavers were James Campbell (1758–1818), James Orr (1770–1816), Thomas Beggs (1749–1847), David Herbison (1800–1880), Hugh Porter (1780–1839) and Andrew McKenzie (1780–1839).

Scots was also used in the narrative by Ulster novelists such as W. G. Lyttle (1844–1896) and Archibald McIlroy (1860–1915). By the middle of the 19th century the Kailyard school of prose had become the dominant literary genre, overtaking poetry. This was a tradition shared with Scotland which continued into the early 20th century. Scots also frequently appeared in Ulster newspaper columns, especially in Antrim and Down, in the form of pseudonymous social commentary employing a folksy first-person style. The pseudonymous Bab M'Keen (probably successive members of the Weir family: John Weir, William Weir, and Jack Weir) provided comic commentaries in the Ballymena Observer and County Antrim Advertiser for over a hundred years from the 1880s.

A somewhat diminished tradition of vernacular poetry survived into the 20th century in the work of poets such as Adam Lynn, author of the 1911 collection Random Rhymes frae Cullybackey, John Stevenson (died 1932), writing as "Pat M'Carty", and John Clifford (1900–1983) from East Antrim. In the late 20th century the poetic tradition was revived, albeit often replacing the traditional Modern Scots orthographic practice with a series of contradictory idiolects. Among the significant writers is James Fenton, mostly using a blank verse form, but also occasionally the Habbie stanza. He employs an orthography that presents the reader with the difficult combination of eye dialect, dense Scots, and a greater variety of verse forms than employed hitherto. The poet Michael Longley (born 1939) has experimented with Ulster Scots for the translation of Classical verse, as in his 1995 collection The Ghost Orchid. The writing of Philip Robinson (born 1946) has been described as verging on "post-modern kailyard". He has produced a trilogy of novels Wake the Tribe o Dan (1998), The Back Streets o the Claw (2000) and The Man frae the Ministry (2005), as well as story books for children Esther, Quaen o tha Ulidian Pechts and Fergus an tha Stane o Destinie, and two volumes of poetry Alang the Shore (2005) and Oul Licht, New Licht (2009).

A team in Belfast has begun translating portions of the Bible into Ulster Scots. The Gospel of Luke was published in 2009 by the Ullans Press. It is available in the YouVersion Bible Project.

Since the 1990s

A sign for the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure. It shows the Irish translation (middle) and a translation in a form of Ulster Scots (bottom).

In 1992 the Ulster-Scots Language Society was formed for the protection and promotion of Ulster Scots, which some of its members viewed as a language in its own right, encouraging use in speech, writing and in all areas of life.

Within the terms of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages the British Government is obliged, among other things, to:

  • Facilitate and/or encourage of the use of Scots in speech and writing, in public and private life.
  • Provide appropriate forms and means for the teaching and study of the language at all appropriate stages.
  • Provide facilities enabling non-speakers living where the language is spoken to learn it if they so desire.
  • Promote study and research of the language at universities of equivalent institutions.

The Ulster-Scots Agency, funded by DCAL in conjunction with the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, is responsible for promotion of greater awareness and use of Ullans and of Ulster-Scots cultural issues, both within Northern Ireland and throughout the island. The agency was established as a result of the Belfast Agreement of 1998. Its headquarters are on Great Victoria Street in central Belfast, while the agency has a major office in Raphoe, County Donegal.

In 2001 the Institute of Ulster Scots Studies was established at the University of Ulster.

An Ulster Scots Academy has been planned with the aim of conserving, developing, and teaching the language of Ulster-Scots in association with native speakers to the highest academic standards.

The 2010 documentary The Hamely Tongue by filmmaker Deaglán O Mocháin traces back the origins of this culture and language, and relates its manifestations in today's Ireland.

New orthographies

A trilingual sign at Strule Arts Centre in Omagh showing English, Irish (middle) and a form of Ulster Scots (bottom)

By the early 20th century the literary tradition was almost extinct, though some 'dialect' poetry continued to be written. Much revivalist Ulster Scots has appeared, for example as "official translations", since the 1990s. However, it has little in common with traditional Scots orthography as described in Grant and Dixon's Manual of Modern Scots (1921). Aodán Mac Póilin, an Irish language activist, has described these revivalist orthographies as an attempt to make Ulster Scots an independent written language and to achieve official status. They seek "to be as different to English (and occasionally Scots) as possible". He described it as a hotchpotch of obsolete words, neologisms (example: stour-sucker for vacuum cleaner), redundant spellings (example: qoho for who) and "erratic spelling". This spelling "sometimes reflects everyday Ulster Scots speech rather than the conventions of either modern or historic Scots, and sometimes does not". The result, Mac Póilin writes, is "often incomprehensible to the native speaker". In 2000, John Kirk described the "net effect" of that "amalgam of traditional, surviving, revived, changed, and invented features" as an "artificial dialect". He added,

It is certainly not a written version of the vestigial spoken dialect of rural County Antrim, as its activists frequently urge, perpetrating the fallacy that it’s wor ain leid. (Besides, the dialect revivalists claim not to be native speakers of the dialect themselves!). The colloquialness of this new dialect is deceptive, for it is neither spoken nor innate. Traditional dialect speakers find it counter-intuitive and false...

In 2005, Gavin Falconer questioned officialdom's complicity, writing: "The readiness of Northern Ireland officialdom to consign taxpayers’ money to a black hole of translations incomprehensible to ordinary users is worrying". Recently produced teaching materials, have, on the other hand, been evaluated more positively.

Sample texts

The three text excerpts below illustrate how the traditional written form of Ulster Scots from the 18th to early 20th century was virtually indistinguishable from contemporary written Scots from Scotland.

The Muse Dismissed (Hugh Porter 1780–1839)

Be hush'd my Muse, ye ken the morn
Begins the shearing o' the corn,
Whar knuckles monie a risk maun run,
An' monie a trophy's lost an' won,
Whar sturdy boys wi' might and main
Shall camp, till wrists an' thumbs they strain,
While pithless, pantin' wi' the heat,
They bathe their weazen'd pelts in sweat
To gain a sprig o' fading fame,
Before they taste the dear-bought cream—
But bide ye there, my pens an' papers,
For I maun up, an' to my scrapers—
Yet, min', my lass— ye maun return
This very night we cut the churn.

To M.H. (Barney Maglone 1820?–1875)

This wee thing's o' little value,
But for a' that it may be
Guid eneuch to gar you, lassie,
When you read it, think o' me.
Think o' whan we met and parted,
And o' a' we felt atween—
Whiles sae gleesome, whiles doon-hearted—
In yon cosy neuk at e'en.
Think o' when we dander't
Doon by Bangor and the sea;
How yon simmer day, we wander't
'Mang the fields o' Isle Magee.
Think o' yon day's gleefu' daffin'
(Weel I wot ye mind it still)
Whan we had sic slips and lauchin',
Spielin' daftly up Cave Hill.
Dinna let your e'en be greetin'
Lassie, whan ye think o' me,
Think upo' anither meetin',
Aiblins by a lanward sea.

From The Lammas Fair (Robert Huddleston 1814–1889)

Tae sing the day, tae sing the fair,
That birkies ca' the lammas;
In aul' Belfast, that toun sae rare,
Fu' fain wad try't a gomas.
Tae think tae please a', it were vain,
And for a country plain boy;
Therefore, tae please mysel' alane,
Thus I began my ain way,
Tae sing that day.
Ae Monday morn on Autumn's verge
To view a scene so gay,
I took my seat beside a hedge,
To loiter by the way.
Lost Phoebus frae the clouds o' night,
Ance mair did show his face—
Ance mair the Emerald Isle got light,
Wi' beauty, joy, an' grace;
Fu' nice that day.

The examples below illustrate how 21st century Ulster Scots texts seldom adhere to the previous literary tradition, Yer guide tae the cheenge-ower, perhaps being a rare exception. Instead there has been an increase in the use of somewhat creative phonetic spellings based on the perceived sound-to-letter correspondences of Standard English, i.e. dialect writing, as exemplified in Alice's Carrànts in Wunnerlan or the adoption of a more esoteric "amalgam of traditional, surviving, revived, changed, and invented features" as exemplified in Hannlin Rede.

From Yer guide tae the cheenge-ower (digitaluk 2012)

Dae A need a new aerial?
Gin ye hae guid analogue reception the nou, ye'r like no tae need tae replace yer ruiftap or set-tap aerial for the cheenge-ower – thare nae sic thing as a 'deegital aerial'. But gin ye hae ill analogue reception the nou, ye’ll mebbe need tae replace it.
Find oot by gaun til the aerial-pruifer on Teletext page 284. Anither wey is tae wait until efter the cheenge-ower for tae see if yer pictur's affect.

From Alice's Carrànts in Wunnerlan (Anne Morrison-Smyth, 2013)

The Caterpillar an Alice lukt at ither fur a quare while wi’oot taakin: finally the Caterpillar tuk the hookah oot o its mooth, an spoke tae hir in a languid, dozy voice.
“Wha ir yae?” said the Caterpillar.
This wusnae a pooerfu guid openin fur a yarn. Alice answert brev an baakwardly, “A—A harly know, Sir, jest at this minute—at least A know wha A wus this moarnin, but heth, A hae bin changed a wheen o times since thin.”
“What dae yae mean bae that?” said the Caterpillar sternly. “Explain yersel!”
“A cannae explain maesel, A’m feart, Sir,” said Alice, “baecaas A’m naw maesel, yae see.”
“A dinnae see,” said the Caterpillar.
“A cannae mak it onie mair clear,” Alice answer, while polite, “fur A cannae unnerstan it maesel tae stairt wi; an baein sae monie different sizes in yin dae haes turnt mae heid.”

From Hannlin Rede [annual report] 2012–2013 (Männystèr o Fairms an Kintra Fordèrin, 2012)

We hae cum guid speed wi fettlin tae brucellosis, an A'm mintin at bein haleheidit tae wun tae tha stannin o bein redd o brucellosis aathegither. Forbye, A'm leukkin tae see an ettlin in core at fettlin tae tha TB o Kye, takkin in complutherin anent a screengin ontak, tha wye we'll can pit owre an inlaik in ootlay sillert wi resydentèrs. Mair betoken, but, we'll be leukkin forbye tae uphaud an ingang airtit wi tha hannlins furtae redd ootcum disayses. An we'r fur stairtin in tae leukk bodes agane fur oor baste kenmairk gate, 'at owre tha nixt wheen o yeirs wull be tha ootcum o sillerin tae aboot £60m frae resydentèrs furtae uphaud tha hale hannlin adae wi beef an tha mïlk-hoose.
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  65. Falconer, Gavin (2005) “Breaking Nature’s Social Union – The Autonomy of Scots in Ulster” in John Kirk & Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Legislation, Literature and Sociolinguistics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, pp. 48–59.
  66. "An Evaluation of the Work of the Curriculum Development Unit for Ulster-Scots"(PDF). Stranmillis University College. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 March 2009. Retrieved17 April 2015.
  67. Falconer, G. The Scots Tradition in Ulster, Scottish Studies Review, Vol. 7/2, 2006. p.94
  68. Robert Arthur Wilson
  69. "Digital Television Information Brochure"(PDF). Digital.co.uk. Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 November 2012. Retrieved17 April 2015.
  70. Carroll, Lewis. 2013. Alice's Carrànts in Wunnerlan' ;, tr. Anne Morrison-Smith. 2nd edition. Cathair na Mart: Evertype, ISBN 978-1-78201-011-1 (1st edition 2011 ISBN 978-1-904808-80-0)
  71. "Hannlin Rede 2012-2013" [Annual Report 2012-2013](PDF) (in Scots). Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original(PDF) on 5 October 2015. Retrieved17 April 2015.

Ulster Scots dialect Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Ulster Scots dialects Ulster Scots or Ulster Scots Ulster Scotch Irish Albainis Ultach 6 7 also known as Ulster Scotch and Ullans is the dialect of Scots spoken in parts of Ulster in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland 5 8 9 It is generally considered a dialect or group of dialects of Scots although groups such as the Ulster Scots Language Society 10 and Ulster Scots Academy 11 consider it a language in its own right and the Ulster Scots Agency 12 and former Department of Culture Arts and Leisure 13 have used the term Ulster Scots language Ulster ScotsUlster Scotch Ullans Braid Scots 1 2 Scotch 3 4 Native toIrelandRegionUlsterEthnicityUlster ScotsLanguage familyIndo European GermanicWest GermanicNorth Sea GermanicAnglo FrisianAnglicScotsUlster ScotsEarly formsNorthumbrian Old English Early Middle English Early Scots Middle ScotsOfficial statusRecognised minority language inNorthern IrelandRegulated byThe cross border Boord o Ulster Scotch established as a result of the Good Friday AgreementLanguage codesISO 639 3 Glottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id ulst1239 ulst1239 a Linguasphere52 ABA aa br varieties 52 ABA aar to aat IETFsco ulsterApproximate boundaries of the traditional Scots language areas in Ulster shaded in turquoise Based on The Scotch Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster 1972 by R J Gregg 5 Some definitions of Ulster Scots may also include Standard English spoken with an Ulster Scots accent 14 15 This is a situation like that of Lowland Scots and Scottish Standard English 16 with words pronounced using the Ulster Scots phonemes closest to those of Standard English 16 Ulster Scots has been influenced by Hiberno English particularly Ulster English and by Ulster Irish As a result of the competing influences of English and Scots varieties of Ulster Scots can be described as more English or more Scots 15 Contents 1 Names 2 Speaker population and spread 3 Status 3 1 Linguistic status 3 2 Legal status 4 History and literature 4 1 Since the 1990s 4 1 1 New orthographies 4 2 Sample texts 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksNames EditWhile once referred to as Scotch Irish by several researchers that has now been superseded by the term Ulster Scots 17 Speakers usually refer to their vernacular as Braid Scots 1 Scotch 3 18 or the hamely tongue 19 Since the 1980s Ullans a neologism popularized by the physician amateur historian and politician Ian Adamson 20 merging Ulster and Lallans the Scots for Lowlands 21 but also an acronym for Ulster Scots language in literature and native speech 22 and Ulster Scotch 6 7 the preferred revivalist parlance have also been used Occasionally the term Hiberno Scots is used 23 but it is usually used for the ethnic group rather than the vernacular 24 Speaker population and spread Edit The proportion of respondents in the 2011 census in Northern Ireland aged 3 and above who stated that they could speak Ulster Scots During the middle of the 20th century the linguist Robert John Gregg established the geographical boundaries of Ulster s Scots speaking areas based on information gathered from native speakers 25 By his definition Ulster Scots is spoken in mid and east Antrim north Down north east County Londonderry and in the fishing villages of the Mourne coast It is also spoken in the Laggan district and parts of the Finn Valley in east Donegal and in the south of Inishowen in north Donegal 26 Writing in 2020 the Fintona born linguist Warren Maguire argued that some of the criteria that Gregg used as distinctive of Ulster Scots are common in south west Tyrone and were found in other sites across Northern Ireland investigated by the Linguistic Survey of Scotland 27 The 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey found that 2 of Northern Ireland residents claimed to speak Ulster Scots which would mean a total speech community of approximately 30 000 in the territory 28 Other estimates range from 35 000 in Northern Ireland 29 to an optimistic total of 100 000 including the Republic of Ireland mainly the east of County Donegal 30 Speaking at a seminar on 9 September 2004 Ian Sloan of the Northern Ireland Department of Culture Arts and Leisure DCAL accepted that the 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey did not significantly indicate that unionists or nationalists were relatively any more or less likely to speak Ulster Scots although in absolute terms there were more unionists who spoke Ulster Scots than nationalists citation needed In the 2011 census of Northern Ireland 16 373 people 0 9 of the population stated that they can speak read write and understand Ulster Scots and 140 204 people 8 1 of the population reported having some ability in Ulster Scots 31 Status EditMain article Scots language Status Linguistic status Edit A bilingual street sign in Ballyhalbert County Down The majority of linguists treat Ulster Scots as a variety of the Scots language Caroline Macafee for example writes that Ulster Scots is clearly a dialect of Central Scots 8 The Northern Ireland Department of Culture Arts and Leisure considers Ulster Scots to be the local variety of the Scots language 29 Some linguists such as Raymond Hickey 32 treat Ulster Scots and other forms of Scots as a dialect of English It has been said that its status varies between dialect and language 33 Enthusiasts such as Philip Robinson author of Ulster Scots a Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language 34 the Ulster Scots Language Society 35 and supporters of an Ulster Scots Academy 36 are of the opinion that Ulster Scots is a language in its own right That position has been criticised by the Ulster Scots Agency a BBC report stating The Agency accused the academy of wrongly promoting Ulster Scots as a language distinct from Scots 37 This position is reflected in many of the Academic responses clarification needed to the Public Consultation on Proposals for an Ulster Scots Academy 38 Legal status Edit Ulster Scots is defined in an Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Ireland establishing implementation bodies done at Dublin on the 8th day of March 1999 in the following terms Ullans is to be understood as the variety of the Scots language traditionally found in parts of Northern Ireland and Donegal The North South Co operation Implementation Bodies Northern Ireland Order 1999 39 which gave effect to the implementation bodies incorporated the text of the agreement in its Schedule 1 The declaration made by the British Government regarding the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages reads as follows 40 The United Kingdom declares in accordance with Article 2 paragraph 1 of the Charter that it recognises that Scots and Ulster Scots meet the Charter s definition of a regional or minority language for the purposes of Part II of the Charter This recognition differed significantly from the commitments entered into under the Charter in relation to Irish for which specific provisions under Part III were invoked for the protection and promotion of that language The definition of Ullans from the North South Co operation Implementation Bodies Northern Ireland Order 1999 above was used on 1 July 2005 Second Periodical Report by the United Kingdom to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe outlining how the UK met its obligations under the Charter 41 The Good Friday Agreement which does not refer to Ulster Scots as a language recognises Ulster Scots as part of the cultural wealth of the island of Ireland and the Implementation Agreement established the cross border Ulster Scots Agency Tha Boord o Ulster Scotch The legislative remit laid down for the agency by the North South Co operation Implementation Bodies Northern Ireland Order 1999 is the promotion of greater awareness and the use of Ullans and of Ulster Scots cultural issues both within Northern Ireland and throughout the island The agency has adopted a mission statement to promote the study conservation development and use of Ulster Scots as a living language to encourage and develop the full range of its attendant culture and to promote an understanding of the history of the Ulster Scots people 6 Despite the Agency s reference to Ulster Scots as a language this eliding of the distinction between Ulster Scots as a linguistic form and Ulster Scots culture broadly referring to cultural forms associated with the Scottish descended population continued thereafter The Northern Ireland St Andrews Agreement Act 2006 42 amended the Northern Ireland Act 1998 to insert a section 28D entitled Strategies relating to Irish language and Ulster Scots language etc which inter alia laid on the Executive Committee a duty to adopt a strategy setting out how it proposes to enhance and develop the Ulster Scots language heritage and culture This reflects the wording used in the St Andrews Agreement to refer to the enhancement and development of the Ulster Scots language heritage and culture 43 There is still controversy on the status of Ulster Scots 44 History and literature EditSee also History of the Scots language Middle Scots inscription Godis Providens Is My Inheritans over the main entrance door leading to the tower in Ballygally Castle Scots mainly Gaelic speaking had been settling in Ulster since the 15th century but large numbers of Scots speaking Lowlanders some 200 000 arrived during the 17th century following the 1610 Plantation with the peak reached during the 1690s 45 In the core areas of Scots settlement Scots outnumbered English settlers by five or six to one 46 Literature from shortly before the end of the unselfconscious tradition at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is almost identical with contemporary writing from Scotland 47 W G Lyttle writing in Paddy McQuillan s Trip Tae Glesco uses the typically Scots forms kent and begood now replaced in Ulster by the more mainstream Anglic forms knew knowed or knawed and begun Many of the modest contemporary differences between Scots as spoken in Scotland and Ulster may be due to dialect levelling and influence from Mid Ulster English brought about through relatively recent demographic change rather than direct contact with Irish retention of older features or separate development citation needed The earliest identified writing in Scots in Ulster dates from 1571 a letter from Agnes Campbell of County Tyrone to Queen Elizabeth on behalf of Turlough O Neil her husband Although documents dating from the Plantation period show conservative Scots features English forms started to predominate from the 1620s as Scots declined as a written medium 48 In Ulster Scots speaking areas there was traditionally a considerable demand for the work of Scottish poets often in locally printed editions These include Alexander Montgomerie s The Cherrie and the Slae in 1700 shortly over a decade later an edition of poems by Sir David Lindsay nine printings of Allan Ramsay s The Gentle shepherd between 1743 and 1793 and an edition of Robert Burns poetry in 1787 the same year as the Edinburgh edition followed by reprints in 1789 1793 and 1800 Among other Scottish poets published in Ulster were James Hogg and Robert Tannahill Poetry by Robert Huddlestone 1814 1887 inscribed in paving in Writers Square Belfast That was complemented by a poetry revival and nascent prose genre in Ulster which started around 1720 49 The most prominent of these was the rhyming weaver poetry of which some 60 to 70 volumes were published between 1750 and 1850 the peak being in the decades 1810 to 1840 clarification needed although the first printed poetry in the Habbie stanza form by an Ulster Scots writer was published in a broadsheet in Strabane in 1735 50 These weaver poets looked to Scotland for their cultural and literary models and were not simple imitators but clearly inheritors of the same literary tradition following the same poetic and orthographic practices it is not always immediately possible to distinguish traditional Scots writing from Scotland and Ulster Among the rhyming weavers were James Campbell 1758 1818 James Orr 1770 1816 Thomas Beggs 1749 1847 David Herbison 1800 1880 Hugh Porter 1780 1839 and Andrew McKenzie 1780 1839 Scots was also used in the narrative by Ulster novelists such as W G Lyttle 1844 1896 and Archibald McIlroy 1860 1915 By the middle of the 19th century the Kailyard school of prose had become the dominant literary genre overtaking poetry This was a tradition shared with Scotland which continued into the early 20th century 49 Scots also frequently appeared in Ulster newspaper columns especially in Antrim and Down in the form of pseudonymous social commentary employing a folksy first person style 48 The pseudonymous Bab M Keen probably successive members of the Weir family John Weir William Weir and Jack Weir provided comic commentaries in the Ballymena Observer and County Antrim Advertiser for over a hundred years from the 1880s 51 A somewhat diminished tradition of vernacular poetry survived into the 20th century in the work of poets such as Adam Lynn author of the 1911 collection Random Rhymes frae Cullybackey John Stevenson died 1932 writing as Pat M Carty and John Clifford 1900 1983 from East Antrim 52 In the late 20th century the poetic tradition was revived albeit often replacing the traditional Modern Scots orthographic practice with a series of contradictory idiolects 53 Among the significant writers is James Fenton mostly using a blank verse form but also occasionally the Habbie stanza 49 He employs an orthography that presents the reader with the difficult combination of eye dialect dense Scots and a greater variety of verse forms than employed hitherto 53 The poet Michael Longley born 1939 has experimented with Ulster Scots for the translation of Classical verse as in his 1995 collection The Ghost Orchid 51 The writing of Philip Robinson born 1946 has been described as verging on post modern kailyard 51 He has produced a trilogy of novels Wake the Tribe o Dan 1998 The Back Streets o the Claw 2000 and The Man frae the Ministry 2005 as well as story books for children Esther Quaen o tha Ulidian Pechts and Fergus an tha Stane o Destinie and two volumes of poetry Alang the Shore 2005 and Oul Licht New Licht 2009 54 A team in Belfast has begun translating portions of the Bible into Ulster Scots The Gospel of Luke was published in 2009 by the Ullans Press It is available in the YouVersion Bible Project 55 Since the 1990s Edit A sign for the Northern Ireland Department of Culture Arts and Leisure It shows the Irish translation middle and a translation in a form of Ulster Scots bottom 56 In 1992 the Ulster Scots Language Society was formed for the protection and promotion of Ulster Scots which some of its members viewed as a language in its own right encouraging use in speech writing and in all areas of life Within the terms of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages the British Government is obliged among other things to Facilitate and or encourage of the use of Scots in speech and writing in public and private life Provide appropriate forms and means for the teaching and study of the language at all appropriate stages Provide facilities enabling non speakers living where the language is spoken to learn it if they so desire Promote study and research of the language at universities of equivalent institutions The Ulster Scots Agency funded by DCAL in conjunction with the Department of Culture Heritage and the Gaeltacht is responsible for promotion of greater awareness and use of Ullans and of Ulster Scots cultural issues both within Northern Ireland and throughout the island The agency was established as a result of the Belfast Agreement of 1998 Its headquarters are on Great Victoria Street in central Belfast while the agency has a major office in Raphoe County Donegal In 2001 the Institute of Ulster Scots Studies was established at the University of Ulster 57 An Ulster Scots Academy has been planned with the aim of conserving developing and teaching the language of Ulster Scots in association with native speakers to the highest academic standards 36 The 2010 documentary The Hamely Tongue by filmmaker Deaglan O Mochain traces back the origins of this culture and language and relates its manifestations in today s Ireland New orthographies Edit A trilingual sign at Strule Arts Centre in Omagh showing English Irish middle and a form of Ulster Scots bottom 58 By the early 20th century the literary tradition was almost extinct 59 though some dialect poetry continued to be written 60 Much revivalist Ulster Scots has appeared for example as official translations since the 1990s However it has little in common with traditional Scots orthography as described in Grant and Dixon s Manual of Modern Scots 1921 Aodan Mac Poilin an Irish language activist has described these revivalist orthographies as an attempt to make Ulster Scots an independent written language and to achieve official status They seek to be as different to English and occasionally Scots as possible 61 He described it as a hotchpotch of obsolete words neologisms example stour sucker 62 for vacuum cleaner redundant spellings example qoho 63 for who and erratic spelling 61 This spelling sometimes reflects everyday Ulster Scots speech rather than the conventions of either modern or historic Scots and sometimes does not 61 The result Mac Poilin writes is often incomprehensible to the native speaker 61 In 2000 John Kirk described the net effect of that amalgam of traditional surviving revived changed and invented features as an artificial dialect He added It is certainly not a written version of the vestigial spoken dialect of rural County Antrim as its activists frequently urge perpetrating the fallacy that it s wor ain leid Besides the dialect revivalists claim not to be native speakers of the dialect themselves The colloquialness of this new dialect is deceptive for it is neither spoken nor innate Traditional dialect speakers find it counter intuitive and false 64 In 2005 Gavin Falconer questioned officialdom s complicity writing The readiness of Northern Ireland officialdom to consign taxpayers money to a black hole of translations incomprehensible to ordinary users is worrying 65 Recently produced teaching materials have on the other hand been evaluated more positively 66 Sample texts Edit The three text excerpts below illustrate how the traditional written form of Ulster Scots from the 18th to early 20th century was virtually indistinguishable from contemporary written Scots from Scotland 67 The Muse Dismissed Hugh Porter 1780 1839 Be hush d my Muse ye ken the morn Begins the shearing o the corn Whar knuckles monie a risk maun run An monie a trophy s lost an won Whar sturdy boys wi might and main Shall camp till wrists an thumbs they strain While pithless pantin wi the heat They bathe their weazen d pelts in sweat To gain a sprig o fading fame Before they taste the dear bought cream But bide ye there my pens an papers For I maun up an to my scrapers Yet min my lass ye maun return This very night we cut the churn To M H Barney Maglone 68 1820 1875 This wee thing s o little value But for a that it may be dd Guid eneuch to gar you lassie When you read it think o me dd Think o whan we met and parted And o a we felt atween dd Whiles sae gleesome whiles doon hearted In yon cosy neuk at e en dd Think o when we dander tDoon by Bangor and the sea dd How yon simmer day we wander t Mang the fields o Isle Magee dd Think o yon day s gleefu daffin Weel I wot ye mind it still dd Whan we had sic slips and lauchin Spielin daftly up Cave Hill dd Dinna let your e en be greetin Lassie whan ye think o me dd Think upo anither meetin Aiblins by a lanward sea dd From The Lammas Fair Robert Huddleston 1814 1889 Tae sing the day tae sing the fair That birkies ca the lammas dd In aul Belfast that toun sae rare Fu fain wad try t a gomas dd Tae think tae please a it were vain And for a country plain boy dd Therefore tae please mysel alane Thus I began my ain way Tae sing that day dd dd dd dd Ae Monday morn on Autumn s vergeTo view a scene so gay dd I took my seat beside a hedge To loiter by the way dd Lost Phoebus frae the clouds o night Ance mair did show his face dd Ance mair the Emerald Isle got light Wi beauty joy an grace Fu nice that day dd dd dd The examples below illustrate how 21st century Ulster Scots texts seldom adhere to the previous literary tradition Yer guide tae the cheenge ower perhaps being a rare exception Instead there has been an increase in the use of somewhat creative phonetic spellings based on the perceived sound to letter correspondences of Standard English i e dialect writing as exemplified in Alice s Carrants in Wunnerlan or the adoption of a more esoteric amalgam of traditional surviving revived changed and invented features 64 as exemplified in Hannlin Rede From Yer guide tae the cheenge ower digitaluk 2012 69 Dae A need a new aerial Gin ye hae guid analogue reception the nou ye r like no tae need tae replace yer ruiftap or set tap aerial for the cheenge ower thare nae sic thing as a deegital aerial But gin ye hae ill analogue reception the nou ye ll mebbe need tae replace it Find oot by gaun til the aerial pruifer on Teletext page 284 Anither wey is tae wait until efter the cheenge ower for tae see if yer pictur s affect From Alice s Carrants in Wunnerlan Anne Morrison Smyth 2013 70 The Caterpillar an Alice lukt at ither fur a quare while wi oot taakin finally the Caterpillar tuk the hookah oot o its mooth an spoke tae hir in a languid dozy voice Wha ir yae said the Caterpillar This wusnae a pooerfu guid openin fur a yarn Alice answert brev an baakwardly A A harly know Sir jest at this minute at least A know wha A wus this moarnin but heth A hae bin changed a wheen o times since thin What dae yae mean bae that said the Caterpillar sternly Explain yersel A cannae explain maesel A m feart Sir said Alice baecaas A m naw maesel yae see A dinnae see said the Caterpillar A cannae mak it onie mair clear Alice answer while polite fur A cannae unnerstan it maesel tae stairt wi an baein sae monie different sizes in yin dae haes turnt mae heid From Hannlin Rede annual report 2012 2013 Mannyster o Fairms an Kintra Forderin 2012 71 We hae cum guid speed wi fettlin tae brucellosis an A m mintin at bein haleheidit tae wun tae tha stannin o bein redd o brucellosis aathegither Forbye A m leukkin tae see an ettlin in core at fettlin tae tha TB o Kye takkin in complutherin anent a screengin ontak tha wye we ll can pit owre an inlaik in ootlay sillert wi resydenters Mair betoken but we ll be leukkin forbye tae uphaud an ingang airtit wi tha hannlins furtae redd ootcum disayses An we r fur stairtin in tae leukk bodes agane fur oor baste kenmairk gate at owre tha nixt wheen o yeirs wull be tha ootcum o sillerin tae aboot 60m frae resydenters furtae uphaud tha hale hannlin adae wi beef an tha milk hoose See also EditScots language Ulster Ulster Scots people Unionism in Ireland 5 4 Defence of British Unionist culture 5 5 Ulster Scots and New Decade New Approach Ulster Irish Dictionary of the Scots Language History of the Scots language Languages of Ireland Languages in the United Kingdom Literature in the otheyacher languages of Britain W F Marshall Mid Ulster EnglishReferences Edit a b Traynor Michael 1953 The English Dialect of Donegal Dublin Royal Irish Academy p 36 Ulster Scots the Dialect of the Laggan Askaboutireland ie Archived from the original on 5 May 2020 Retrieved 17 April 2015 a b Traynor 1953 p 244 Nic Craith M 2002 Plural Identities singular Narratives Berghahn Books p 107 a b Gregg R J 1972 The Scotch Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster in Wakelin M F Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles London Athlone Press a b c Ulster Scots Agency Ulster Scots Agency Retrieved 17 April 2015 a b Anent Oorsels Ulsterscotslanguage com Retrieved 17 April 2015 a b Macafee C 2001 Lowland Sources of Ulster Scots in J M Kirk amp D P o Baoill Languages Links the Languages of Scotland and Ireland Belfast Clo Ollscoil na Banriona p 121 Harris J 1985 Phonological Variation and Change Studies in Hiberno English Cambridge p 15 Language Ulster Scots Language Society Retrieved 12 May 2017 Montgomery Prof Michael An Academy established and the task begun A report on work in progress Ulster Scots Academy Retrieved 12 May 2017 An introduction to the Ulster Scots Language Ulster Scots Agency Retrieved 12 May 2017 Strategy to Enhance and Develop the Ulster Scots Dialect Heritage and Culture 2015 2035 PDF Department of Culture Arts and Leisure Northern Ireland Archived from the original on 3 October 2015 Retrieved 17 May 2017 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Gregg R J 1964 Scotch Irish Urban Speech in Ulster a Phonological Study of the Regional Standard English of Larne County Antrim in Adams G B Ulster Dialects an Introductory Symposium Cultura Ulster Folk Museum a b Harris J 1985 Phonological Variation and Change Studies in Hiberno English Cambridge p 14 a b Harris 1984 English in the north of Ireland in P Trudgill Language in the British Isles Cambridge p 119 Harris J 1985 Phonological Variation and Change Studies in Hiberno English Cambridge p 13 Nic Craith M 2002 Plural Identities Singular Narratives Berghahn Books p 107 Fenton J 1995 The Hamely Tongue a Personal Record of Ulster Scots in County Antrim Ulster Scots Academic Press Falconer G 2006 The Scots Tradition in Ulster Scottish Studies Review Vol 7 No 2 p 97 Hickey R 2004 A Sound Atlas of Irish English Walter de Gruyter p 156 Tymoczko M amp Ireland C A 2003 Language and Tradition in Ireland Continuities and Displacements Univ of Massachusetts Press p 159 Wells J C 1982 Accents of English the British Isles Cambridge University Press p 449 Winston A 1997 Global Convulsions Race Ethnicity and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century SUNY Press p 161 Gregg R J 1972 The Scotch Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster in Wakelin M F Patterns in the Folk Speech of the British Isles London Athlone Press Caroline I Macafee ed A Concise Ulster Dictionary Oxford Oxford University Press 1996 pp xi xii Maguire Warren 2020 Language and Dialect Contact in Ireland The Phonological Origins of Mid Ulster English Edinburgh University Press p 4 ISBN 9781474452908 NI Life and Times Survey 1999 USPKULST Ark ac uk 9 May 2003 Retrieved 17 April 2015 a b Frequently Asked Questions DCAL Internet Dcalni gov uk Archived from the original on 21 December 2010 Retrieved 17 April 2015 Ulster Scots Uni due de Archived from the original on 5 February 2015 Retrieved 17 April 2015 NINIS Home Page Ninis2 nisra gov uk 26 March 2015 Retrieved 17 April 2015 Raymond Hickey Irish English History and Present Day Forms Cambridge University Press 2007 pp 85 120 Crowley Tony 2006 The Political Production of a Language Journal of Linguistic Anthropology Volume 16 Issue 1 pp 23 35 ulsterscotsagency com Archived from the original on 5 January 2009 Language Ulsterscotslanguage com Retrieved 17 April 2015 a b 結婚式の準備 役立つ知っておきたいこと まとめ Ulsterscotsacademy org Retrieved 17 April 2015 Conor Spackman 31 July 2008 UK Northern Ireland Ulster Scots academy misguided BBC News Retrieved 17 April 2015 PUBLIC CONSULTATION ON PROPOSALS FOR AN ULSTER SCOTS ACADEMY Dcalni gov uk Archived from the original Doc on 23 September 2015 Retrieved 17 April 2015 The North South Co operation Implementation Bodies Northern Ireland Order 1999 Opsi gov uk 5 December 2013 Retrieved 17 April 2015 List of declarations made with respect to treaty No 148 Conventions coe int Retrieved 17 April 2015 PDF PDF Archived from the original PDF on 25 December 2009 Text of the Northern Ireland St Andrews Agreement Act 2006 as in force today including any amendments within the United Kingdom from legislation gov uk Home Department of Taoiseach Taoiseach gov ie 19 May 2009 Retrieved 17 April 2015 McCoy Gordon and O Reilly Camille 2003 Essentialising Ulster the Ulster Scots Language Movement In Language and Tradition in Ireland Maria Tymoczko amp Colin Ireland eds Amherst University of Massachusetts Press Montgomery amp Gregg 1997 572 Adams 1977 57 Montgomery amp Gregg 1997 585 a b Corbett John McClure J Derrick amp Stuart Smith Jane eds 2003 The Edinburgh Companion to Scots Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press ISBN 0 7486 1596 2 a b c Robinson 2003 The historical presence of Ulster Scots in Ireland in The Languages of Ireland ed Cronin Michael amp o Cuilleanain Cormac Dublin Four Courts Press ISBN 1 85182 698 X Hewitt John ed 1974 Rhyming Weavers Belfast Blackstaff Press a b c Ferguson Frank ed 2008 Ulster Scots Writing Dublin Four Courts Press ISBN 978 1 84682 074 8 Ferguson Frank ed 2008 Ulster Scots Writing Dublin Four Courts Press ISBN 978 1 84682 074 8 p 21 a b abdn ac uk Archived from the original on 4 October 2013 Philip Robinson Ulsterscotslanguage com Retrieved 17 April 2015 Luik Bible com Fowkgates is a neologism based on folkways the traditional Scots word being cultur dsl ac uk Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine Cf pictur dsl ac uk Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Scots for leisure is leisur e ˈliːʒer aisedom easedom Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine is generally not used outwith the north east of Scotland and is semantically different University of Ulster Archived from the original on 24 May 2011 An ingang is simply an entrance or entry SND Ingang Cludgie is a slang term for water closet SND Cludgie Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Warkschap an esoteric respelling of what tradition would likely render warkshap Montgomery Michael Gregg Robert 1997 The Scots language in Ulster in Jones ed p 585 Ferguson Frank ed 2008 Ulster Scots Writing Dublin Four Courts Press ISBN 978 1 84682 074 8 p 376 a b c d BBC NI Learning A State Apart Culture Article 1c Bbc co uk 9 February 1999 Retrieved 17 April 2015 The Scots form would be souker Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Older Scots spelling was usually quha Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine a b Kirk John M 2000 The New Written Scots Dialect in Present day Northern Ireland in Magnus Ljung ed Language Structure and Variation Stockholm Almqvist amp Wiksell pp 121 138 Falconer Gavin 2005 Breaking Nature s Social Union The Autonomy of Scots in Ulster in John Kirk amp Donall o Baoill eds Legislation Literature and Sociolinguistics Northern Ireland the Republic of Ireland and Scotland Belfast Queen s University pp 48 59 An Evaluation of the Work of the Curriculum Development Unit for Ulster Scots PDF Stranmillis University College Archived from the original PDF on 26 March 2009 Retrieved 17 April 2015 Falconer G The Scots Tradition in Ulster Scottish Studies Review Vol 7 2 2006 p 94 Robert Arthur Wilson Digital Television Information Brochure PDF Digital co uk Archived from the original PDF on 25 November 2012 Retrieved 17 April 2015 Carroll Lewis 2013 Alice s Carrants in Wunnerlan tr Anne Morrison Smith 2nd edition Cathair na Mart Evertype ISBN 978 1 78201 011 1 1st edition 2011 ISBN 978 1 904808 80 0 Hannlin Rede 2012 2013 Annual Report 2012 2013 PDF in Scots Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Archived from the original PDF on 5 October 2015 Retrieved 17 April 2015 External links EditBBC Ulster Scots BBC A Kist o Wurds BBC Robin s Readings The Ulster Scots Language Society Ulster Scots Academy Pronunciation of Ulster Scots Aw Ae Oo Scots in Scotland and Ulster and Aw Ae Wey Written Scots in Scotland and Ulster Listen to an Ulster Scots accent Hover amp Hear Ulster Scots pronunciations and compare with other accents from the UK and around the World Language Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland Public policy and Scots in Northern Ireland Ulster Scots voices BBC site Ulster Scots Online Website promoting Ullans to the Gaelic community of Ireland Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Ulster Scots dialect amp oldid 1092582288, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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