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Ulva lactuca, also known by the common name sea lettuce, is an edible green alga in the family Ulvaceae. It is the type species of the genus Ulva. A synonym is U. fenestrata, referring to its "windowed" or "holed" appearance.

Ulva lactuca
Ulva lactuca in Brofjorden, Sweden
Illustration of Ulva lactuca in English Botany (Sowerby, 1790-1814)
Scientific classification
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Class: Ulvophyceae
Order: Ulvales
Family: Ulvaceae
Genus: Ulva
Species:
U. lactuca
Binomial name
Ulva lactuca

Contents

Ulva lactuca is a thin flat green alga growing from a discoid holdfast. The margin is somewhat ruffled and often torn. It may reach 18 centimetres (7.1 in) or more in length, though generally much less, and up to 30 centimetres (12 in) across. The membrane is two cells thick, soft and translucent, and grows attached, without a stipe, to rocks or other algae by a small disc-shaped holdfast.

Green to dark green in colour, this species in the Chlorophyta is formed of two layers of cells irregularly arranged, as seen in cross-section. The chloroplast is cup-shaped in some references but as a parietal plate in others with one to three pyrenoids. There are other species of Ulva which are similar and not always easy to differentiate.

The distribution is worldwide: Europe, North America (west and east coasts), Central America, Caribbean Islands, South America, Africa, Indian Ocean Islands, South-west Asia, China, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand.

Ulva lactuca is very common on rocks and on other algae in the littoral and sublittoral on shores all around the British Isles, the coast of France, the Low Countries and up to Denmark. It is particularly prolific in areas where nutrients are abundant. This has been the case off the coast of Brittany where a high level of nitrates, from the intensive farming there, washes out to sea. The result is that large quantities of Ulva lactuca are washed up on beaches, where their decay produces methane, hydrogen sulfide, and other gases.

Certain environmental conditions can lead to the algae spreading over large areas. In August 2009, unprecedented levels of the algae washed up on the beaches of Brittany, France, causing a major public health scare as it decomposed. The rotting thalli produced large quantities of hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas which, like hydrogen cyanide, inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, inhibiting cellular respiration and resulting in critical cellular hypoxia. In one incident near Saint-Michel-en-Grève, a horse rider lost consciousness and his horse died after breathing the seaweed fumes. Environmentalists blamed the phenomenon on excessive use of fertilizers and the excretion of nitrates by pig and poultry farmers. In an earlier separate incident at the same beach in July 2009, a truck driver had died near his vehicle after hauling three truckloads of sea lettuce without protective gear during the annual cleanup. Although initially recorded as a heart attack, the death of the truck driver prompted French authorities to exhume his remains for an autopsy. It was later determined to be cardiac arrest resulting from pulmonary edema, which is an indication of possible hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Dead animals found on the algae-clogged beaches (including thirty-one wild boars in July 2011) were also claimed to be linked to toxic fumes by environmentalists.

The sporangial and gametangial thalli are morphologically alike. The diploid adult plant produces haploid zoospores by meiosis, these settle and grow to form haploid male and female plants similar to the diploid plants. When these haploid plants release gametes they unite to produce the zygote which germinates, and grows to produce the diploid plant.

U. lactuca is locally used in Scotland in soups and salads. In Hawaiʻi, U. lactuca is also called limu pālahala and eaten in different ways: mixed with other algae, salted and served with raw fish, boiled in water and served as a soup, or served with chili pepper, onions, soy sauce and sugar. Additionally, U. lactuca has traditional uses in Hawaiʻi as fertilizer and as adornment for hula. When U. lactuca is used for hula it is called limu pāpahapaha.

  1. Bates, Colin. "An introduction to the (macro) algae of British Columbia". Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia, University of British Columbia. Retrieved29 July 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. "Ulva lactuca". Gettysburg College. RetrievedDecember 28, 2007.
  3. Burrows, E.M. (1991). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Vol. 2. London: Natural History Museum. ISBN 978-0-565-00981-6.
  4. "Ulva lactuca Linnaeus". AlgaeBase.
  5. Hardy, F.G.; Guiry, M.D. (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. London: British Phycological Society. ISBN 978-3-906166-35-3.
  6. "Tisbe taxon details: Ulva lactuca Linnaeus, 1753". Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ).
  7. Geertz-Hansen, O.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Hansen, D. F.; Christiansen, A. (September 1993). "Growth and grazing control of abundance of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca L. in a eutrophic Danish estuary". Aquatic Botany. 46 (2): 101–109. doi:10.1016/0304-3770(93)90039-Y.
  8. Michael Guiry. "Overview of Ulva lactuca ecology". The Seaweed Site. RetrievedDecember 28, 2007.
  9. Hirst, Michael (August 11, 2009). "Toxic seaweed clogs French coast". BBC News. RetrievedAugust 11, 2009.
  10. "Seaweed suspected in French death". BBC News. September 7, 2009. Retrieved2009-09-08.
  11. Nedergaard, Rasmus I.; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Finster, Kai (August 17, 2002). "The importance of sulfate reduction associated with Ulva lactuca thalli during decomposition: a mesocosm experiment". Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 275 (1): 15–29. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(02)00211-3.
  12. Hirst, Michael (2009-08-11). "Toxic seaweed clogs French coast". BBC. Retrieved2009-08-11.
  13. Samuel, Henry (2009-08-11). "Almost 100 places in Brittany have toxic seaweed". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved2009-08-11.
  14. Lymbery, Philip (2014). Farmageddon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 179. ISBN 9781408846421.
  15. Chrisafis, Angelique. "Brittany beaches hit by toxic algae". The Guardian. No. 27 July 2011. Retrieved31 December 2015.
  16. McKenna, Maryn (26 July 2011). "Attack of the Deadly Slime: Farm Effluent Ruins French Beaches". Wired. Retrieved31 December 2015.
  17. Abbott, I.A. & Hollenberg, G.J. (1976). Marine Algae of California.. California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0867-8.
  18. Mondragon, J. & Mondragon, J. (2003). Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast.. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers. ISBN 978-0-930118-29-7.
  19. ""Plant Science 4 U". Retrieved5 July 2016.
  20. Indergaad, M and Minsaas, J. 1991 in Guiry, M.D. and Blunden, G. 1991. Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons ISBN 0 471 92947 6
  21. "Ulva Recipes". Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Archived from the original on January 2, 2008. RetrievedDecember 28, 2007.
  22. Aiona., Abbott, Isabella (1996). Limu : an ethnobotanical study of some Hawaiian seaweeds. National Tropical Botanical Garden. OCLC 34798092.

Ulva lactuca Article Talk Language Watch Edit Ulva lactuca also known by the common name sea lettuce is an edible green alga in the family Ulvaceae It is the type species of the genus Ulva A synonym is U fenestrata referring to its windowed or holed appearance 1 Ulva lactucaUlva lactuca in Brofjorden SwedenIllustration of Ulva lactuca in English Botany Sowerby 1790 1814 Scientific classification unranked ViridiplantaeDivision ChlorophytaClass UlvophyceaeOrder UlvalesFamily UlvaceaeGenus UlvaSpecies U lactucaBinomial nameUlva lactuca L Contents 1 Description 2 Distribution 3 Ecology 4 Life history 5 Uses 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksDescription EditUlva lactuca is a thin flat green alga growing from a discoid holdfast The margin is somewhat ruffled and often torn It may reach 18 centimetres 7 1 in or more in length though generally much less and up to 30 centimetres 12 in across 2 The membrane is two cells thick soft and translucent and grows attached without a stipe to rocks or other algae by a small disc shaped holdfast 3 Green to dark green in colour this species in the Chlorophyta is formed of two layers of cells irregularly arranged as seen in cross section The chloroplast is cup shaped in some references but as a parietal plate in others 3 with one to three pyrenoids There are other species of Ulva which are similar and not always easy to differentiate Distribution EditThe distribution is worldwide Europe North America west and east coasts Central America Caribbean Islands South America Africa Indian Ocean Islands South west Asia China Pacific Islands Australia and New Zealand 3 4 Ecology EditUlva lactuca is very common on rocks and on other algae in the littoral and sublittoral on shores all around the British Isles 5 the coast of France 6 the Low Countries 6 and up to Denmark 7 It is particularly prolific in areas where nutrients are abundant 8 This has been the case off the coast of Brittany where a high level of nitrates from the intensive farming there washes out to sea 9 10 The result is that large quantities of Ulva lactuca are washed up on beaches where their decay produces methane hydrogen sulfide and other gases 9 11 Certain environmental conditions can lead to the algae spreading over large areas In August 2009 unprecedented levels of the algae washed up on the beaches of Brittany France 12 13 causing a major public health scare as it decomposed The rotting thalli produced large quantities of hydrogen sulfide a toxic gas which like hydrogen cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase inhibiting cellular respiration and resulting in critical cellular hypoxia In one incident near Saint Michel en Greve a horse rider lost consciousness and his horse died after breathing the seaweed fumes Environmentalists blamed the phenomenon on excessive use of fertilizers and the excretion of nitrates by pig and poultry farmers 12 In an earlier separate incident at the same beach in July 2009 a truck driver had died near his vehicle after hauling three truckloads of sea lettuce without protective gear during the annual cleanup Although initially recorded as a heart attack the death of the truck driver prompted French authorities to exhume his remains for an autopsy It was later determined to be cardiac arrest resulting from pulmonary edema which is an indication of possible hydrogen sulfide poisoning 10 14 Dead animals found on the algae clogged beaches including thirty one wild boars in July 2011 were also claimed to be linked to toxic fumes by environmentalists 15 16 Life history EditThe sporangial and gametangial thalli are morphologically alike The diploid adult plant produces haploid zoospores by meiosis these settle and grow to form haploid male and female plants similar to the diploid plants When these haploid plants release gametes they unite to produce the zygote which germinates and grows to produce the diploid plant 17 18 19 Uses EditU lactuca is locally used in Scotland in soups and salads 20 21 In Hawaiʻi U lactuca is also called limu palahala and eaten in different ways mixed with other algae salted and served with raw fish boiled in water and served as a soup or served with chili pepper onions soy sauce and sugar 22 Additionally U lactuca has traditional uses in Hawaiʻi as fertilizer and as adornment for hula 22 When U lactuca is used for hula it is called limu papahapaha 22 References Edit Bates Colin An introduction to the macro algae of British Columbia Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia University of British Columbia Retrieved 29 July 2020 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link Ulva lactuca Gettysburg College Retrieved December 28 2007 a b c Burrows E M 1991 Seaweeds of the British Isles Vol 2 London Natural History Museum ISBN 978 0 565 00981 6 Ulva lactuca Linnaeus AlgaeBase Hardy F G Guiry M D 2006 A Check list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland London British Phycological Society ISBN 978 3 906166 35 3 a b Tisbe taxon details Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753 Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ Geertz Hansen O Sand Jensen K Hansen D F Christiansen A September 1993 Growth and grazing control of abundance of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca L in a eutrophic Danish estuary Aquatic Botany 46 2 101 109 doi 10 1016 0304 3770 93 90039 Y Michael Guiry Overview of Ulva lactuca ecology The Seaweed Site Retrieved December 28 2007 a b Hirst Michael August 11 2009 Toxic seaweed clogs French coast BBC News Retrieved August 11 2009 a b Seaweed suspected in French death BBC News September 7 2009 Retrieved 2009 09 08 Nedergaard Rasmus I Risgaard Petersen Nils Finster Kai August 17 2002 The importance of sulfate reduction associated with Ulva lactuca thalli during decomposition a mesocosm experiment Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 275 1 15 29 doi 10 1016 S0022 0981 02 00211 3 a b Hirst Michael 2009 08 11 Toxic seaweed clogs French coast BBC Retrieved 2009 08 11 Samuel Henry 2009 08 11 Almost 100 places in Brittany have toxic seaweed Telegraph co uk Retrieved 2009 08 11 Lymbery Philip 2014 Farmageddon The True Cost of Cheap Meat Bloomsbury Publishing p 179 ISBN 9781408846421 Chrisafis Angelique Brittany beaches hit by toxic algae The Guardian No 27 July 2011 Retrieved 31 December 2015 McKenna Maryn 26 July 2011 Attack of the Deadly Slime Farm Effluent Ruins French Beaches Wired Retrieved 31 December 2015 Abbott I A amp Hollenberg G J 1976 Marine Algae of California California Stanford University Press ISBN 978 0 8047 0867 8 Mondragon J amp Mondragon J 2003 Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast Monterey California Sea Challengers ISBN 978 0 930118 29 7 Plant Science 4 U Retrieved 5 July 2016 Indergaad M and Minsaas J 1991 in Guiry M D and Blunden G 1991 Seaweed Resources in Europe Uses and Potential John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 0 471 92947 6 Ulva Recipes Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Archived from the original on January 2 2008 Retrieved December 28 2007 a b c Aiona Abbott Isabella 1996 Limu an ethnobotanical study of some Hawaiian seaweeds National Tropical Botanical Garden OCLC 34798092 Further reading EditHayden H S Blomster J Maggs C A Silva P C Stanhope M J and Waaland J R 2003 Linnaeus was right all along Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera European Journal of Phycology 38 pp 277 294 doi 10 1080 1364253031000136321External links EditUlva lactuca AlgaeBase entry Ulva lactuca University of Rhode Island Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Ulva lactuca amp oldid 1089882859, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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