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For the financial securities rating, see Underweight (stock market).

An underweight person is a person whose body weight is considered too low to be healthy. The same concept applies to animals.

Underweight
The underweight range according to the body mass index (BMI) is the white area on the chart.
SpecialtyEndocrinology

Contents

Category BMI (kgm-2)
Underweight (Severe) < 16.0
Underweight (Moderate) 16.0 – 16.9
Underweight (Mild) 17.0 – 18.4
Normal weight 18.5 – 24.9
Overweight 25.0 – 29.9
Obese ≥ 30.0

The body mass index, a ratio of a person's weight to their height, has traditionally been used to assess the health of a person as it pertains to weight: under the cut-off point at a BMI of 18.5, a person is considered underweight. The calculation is either weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared, or weight in pounds times 703, divided by height in inches, squared. Another measure of underweight is through comparison to the average weight of a cohort of people of a similar age and height: people who are at least 15% to 20% below the average weight for the group are considered underweight.

Body fat percentage has been suggested as another way to assess whether a person is underweight. Unlike the body mass index, which is a proxy measurement, the body fat percentage takes into account the difference in composition between adipose tissue (fat cells) and muscle tissue and their different roles in the body. The American Council on Exercise defines the amount of essential fat, below which a person is underweight, as 10–13% for women and 2–5% for men. The greater amount of essential body fat in women supports reproductive function.

Using the body mass index as a measure of weight-related health, with data from 2014, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight in women and men were 9.7% and 8.8%, respectively. These values were lower than what was reported for 1975 as 14.6% and 13,8%, respectively, indicating a worldwide reduction in the extent of undernutrition.

A person may be underweight due to genetics, improper metabolism of nutrients, lack of food (frequently due to poverty), drugs that affect appetite, illness (physical or mental) or the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

Being underweight is associated with certain medical conditions, including type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, cancer, and tuberculosis. People with gastrointestinal or liver problems may be unable to absorb nutrients adequately. People with certain eating disorders can also be underweight due to one or more nutrient deficiencies or excessive exercise, which exacerbates nutrient deficiencies.

Being underweight can be a symptom of an underlying condition, in which case it is secondary. Unexplained weight loss may require a professional medical diagnosis.

Being underweight can also cause other conditions, in which case it is primary. Severely underweight individuals may have poor physical stamina and a weak immune system, leaving them open to infection. According to Robert E. Black of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (JHSPH), "Underweight status ... and micronutrient deficiencies also cause decreases in immune and non-immune host defenses, and should be classified as underlying causes of death if followed by infectious diseases that are the terminal associated causes." People who are malnourished raise special concerns, as not only gross caloric intake may be inadequate, but also intake and absorption of other vital nutrients, especially essential amino acids and micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals.

In women, being severely underweight, as a result of an eating disorder or due to excessive strenuous exercise, can result in amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), infertility or complications during pregnancy if gestational weight gain is too low.

Malnourishment can also cause anemia and hair loss.

Being underweight is an established risk factor for osteoporosis, even for young people. This is seen in individuals suffering from relative energy deficiency in sport, formerly known as female athlete triad: when disordered eating or excessive exercise cause amenorrhea, hormone changes during ovulation leads to loss of bone mineral density. After this low bone mineral density causes the first spontaneous fractures, the damage is often irreversible.

Although being underweight has been reported to increase mortality at rates comparable to that seen in morbidly obese people, the effect is much less drastic when restricted to non-smokers with no history of disease, suggesting that smoking and disease-related weight loss are the leading causes of the observed effect.

Diet

Underweight individuals may be advised to gain weight by increasing calorie intake. This can be done by eating a sufficient volume of sufficiently calorie-dense foods. Body weight may also be increased through the consumption of liquid nutritional supplements.

Exercise

Another way for underweight people to gain weight is by exercising, since muscle hypertrophy increases body mass. Weight lifting exercises are effective in helping to improve muscle tone as well as helping with weight gain. Weight lifting has also been shown to improve bone mineral density, which underweight people are more likely to lack.

Exercise is catabolic, which results in a brief reduction in mass. However, during recovery, anabolic overcompensation causes the muscles to grow, which results in an overall increase in mass. This can happen through an increase in muscle proteins, or through enhanced storage of glycogen in muscles.[citation needed] Exercise can also help stimulate the appetite of a person who is not inclined to eat.

Appetite stimulants

Main article: Orexigenic

Certain drugs may increase appetite either as their primary effect or as a side effect. Antidepressants, such as mirtazapine or amitriptyline, and antipsychotics, particularly chlorpromazine and haloperidol, as well as tetrahydrocannabinol (found in cannabis), all present an increase in appetite as a side effect. In states where it is approved, medicinal cannabis may be prescribed for severe appetite loss, such as that caused by cancer, AIDS, or severe levels of persistent anxiety. Other drugs or supplements which may increase appetite include antihistamines (such as diphenhydramine, promethazine or cyproheptadine).

  1. The SuRF Report 2(PDF). The Surveillance of Risk Factors Report Series (SuRF). World Health Organization. 2005. p. 22.
  2. "Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk". National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Retrieved23 September 2012.
  3. Mahan, L. Kathleen (2000). Krause's Food, Nutrition & Diet Therapy, 10th Ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
  4. Pasco, Julie A.; Holloway, Kara L.; Dobbins, Amelia G.; Kotowicz, Mark A.; Williams, Lana J.; Brennan, Sharon L. (23 June 2014). "Body mass index and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight: a cross-sectional, population-based study". BMC Obesity. 1: 9. doi:10.1186/2052-9538-1-9. PMC4511447. PMID 26217501.
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  11. "Signs and Symptoms of Cancer". American Cancer Society. Retrieved24 September 2012.
  12. Hira, S. K.; H. L. Dupont; D. N. Lanjewar; Y. N. Dholakia (1998). "Severe weight loss: the predominant clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection in India". National Medical Journal of India. 11 (6): 256–58. PMID 10083790.
  13. Black, Robert E.; Morris, Saul S.; Bryce, Jennifer (28 June 2003), "Where and Why are 10 Million Children Dying Every Year?", The Lancet, 361 (9376): 2226–34, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13779-8, PMID 12842379, S2CID 14509705
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  16. Nattiv; Agostini, R; Drinkwater, B; Yeager, KK (1994). "The female athlete triad. The inter-relatedness of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis". Clinics in Sports Medicine. 13 (2): 405–18. doi:10.1016/S0278-5919(20)30338-0. PMID 8013041.
  17. Wilson; Wolman, RL (1994). "Osteoporosis and fracture complications in an amenorrhoeic athlete". British Journal of Rheumatology. 33 (5): 480–1. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/33.5.480. PMID 8173855.
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  21. "Gain Weight and Be Healthy". About.com. RetrievedOctober 23, 2010.
  22. "Achieving Healthy Weight Gain". Health Central. RetrievedOctober 23, 2010.
  23. "Healthy Weight Gain". Children's Hospital Boston, Center for Young Women's Health. RetrievedOctober 23, 2010.
  24. "Men's Health". Men's Health. RetrievedOctober 23, 2010.
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Underweight Article Talk Language Watch Edit For the financial securities rating see Underweight stock market An underweight person is a person whose body weight is considered too low to be healthy The same concept applies to animals UnderweightThe underweight range according to the body mass index BMI is the white area on the chart SpecialtyEndocrinology Contents 1 Assessment 2 Prevalence 3 Causes 4 Problems 5 Treatment 5 1 Diet 5 2 Exercise 5 3 Appetite stimulants 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksAssessment EditCategory 1 BMI kgm 2 Underweight Severe lt 16 0Underweight Moderate 16 0 16 9Underweight Mild 17 0 18 4Normal weight 18 5 24 9Overweight 25 0 29 9Obese 30 0 The body mass index a ratio of a person s weight to their height has traditionally been used to assess the health of a person as it pertains to weight under the cut off point at a BMI of 18 5 a person is considered underweight 2 The calculation is either weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared or weight in pounds times 703 divided by height in inches squared Another measure of underweight is through comparison to the average weight of a cohort of people of a similar age and height people who are at least 15 to 20 below the average weight for the group are considered underweight 3 Body fat percentage has been suggested as another way to assess whether a person is underweight Unlike the body mass index which is a proxy measurement the body fat percentage takes into account the difference in composition between adipose tissue fat cells and muscle tissue and their different roles in the body 4 The American Council on Exercise defines the amount of essential fat below which a person is underweight as 10 13 for women and 2 5 for men 5 The greater amount of essential body fat in women supports reproductive function Prevalence EditUsing the body mass index as a measure of weight related health with data from 2014 age standardised global prevalence of underweight in women and men were 9 7 and 8 8 respectively These values were lower than what was reported for 1975 as 14 6 and 13 8 respectively indicating a worldwide reduction in the extent of undernutrition 6 Causes EditA person may be underweight due to genetics 7 8 improper metabolism of nutrients lack of food frequently due to poverty drugs that affect appetite illness physical or mental or the eating disorder anorexia nervosa Being underweight is associated with certain medical conditions including type 1 diabetes 9 hyperthyroidism 10 cancer 11 and tuberculosis 12 People with gastrointestinal or liver problems may be unable to absorb nutrients adequately People with certain eating disorders can also be underweight due to one or more nutrient deficiencies or excessive exercise which exacerbates nutrient deficiencies Problems EditBeing underweight can be a symptom of an underlying condition in which case it is secondary Unexplained weight loss may require a professional medical diagnosis Being underweight can also cause other conditions in which case it is primary Severely underweight individuals may have poor physical stamina and a weak immune system leaving them open to infection According to Robert E Black of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health JHSPH Underweight status and micronutrient deficiencies also cause decreases in immune and non immune host defenses and should be classified as underlying causes of death if followed by infectious diseases that are the terminal associated causes 13 People who are malnourished raise special concerns as not only gross caloric intake may be inadequate but also intake and absorption of other vital nutrients especially essential amino acids and micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals In women being severely underweight as a result of an eating disorder or due to excessive strenuous exercise can result in amenorrhea absence of menstruation 14 infertility or complications during pregnancy if gestational weight gain is too low Malnourishment can also cause anemia and hair loss Being underweight is an established 15 risk factor for osteoporosis even for young people This is seen in individuals suffering from relative energy deficiency in sport formerly known as female athlete triad when disordered eating or excessive exercise cause amenorrhea hormone changes during ovulation leads to loss of bone mineral density 16 17 After this low bone mineral density causes the first spontaneous fractures the damage is often irreversible Although being underweight has been reported to increase mortality at rates comparable to that seen in morbidly obese people 18 the effect is much less drastic when restricted to non smokers with no history of disease 19 suggesting that smoking and disease related weight loss are the leading causes of the observed effect Treatment EditDiet Edit Underweight individuals may be advised to gain weight by increasing calorie intake This can be done by eating a sufficient volume of sufficiently calorie dense foods 20 21 22 Body weight may also be increased through the consumption of liquid nutritional supplements 23 Exercise Edit Another way for underweight people to gain weight is by exercising since muscle hypertrophy increases body mass Weight lifting exercises are effective in helping to improve muscle tone as well as helping with weight gain 24 Weight lifting has also been shown to improve bone mineral density 25 which underweight people are more likely to lack 26 Exercise is catabolic which results in a brief reduction in mass However during recovery anabolic overcompensation causes the muscles to grow which results in an overall increase in mass This can happen through an increase in muscle proteins or through enhanced storage of glycogen in muscles citation needed Exercise can also help stimulate the appetite of a person who is not inclined to eat Appetite stimulants Edit Main article Orexigenic Certain drugs may increase appetite either as their primary effect or as a side effect Antidepressants such as mirtazapine or amitriptyline and antipsychotics particularly chlorpromazine and haloperidol as well as tetrahydrocannabinol found in cannabis all present an increase in appetite as a side effect In states where it is approved medicinal cannabis may be prescribed for severe appetite loss such as that caused by cancer AIDS or severe levels of persistent anxiety Other drugs or supplements which may increase appetite include antihistamines such as diphenhydramine promethazine or cyproheptadine 27 See also EditEssential nutrient List of phytochemicals in food Body image Emaciation Malnutrition Stunted growthReferences Edit The SuRF Report 2 PDF The Surveillance of Risk Factors Report Series SuRF World Health Organization 2005 p 22 Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Retrieved 23 September 2012 Mahan L Kathleen 2000 Krause s Food Nutrition amp Diet Therapy 10th Ed Philadelphia W B Saunders Co Pasco Julie A Holloway Kara L Dobbins Amelia G Kotowicz Mark A Williams Lana J Brennan Sharon L 23 June 2014 Body mass index and measures of body fat for defining obesity and underweight a cross sectional population based study BMC Obesity 1 9 doi 10 1186 2052 9538 1 9 PMC 4511447 PMID 26217501 ACE Fit Body Fat Percentage Calculator Retrieved 28 February 2020 NCD Risk Factor Collaboration NCD RisC April 2016 Trends in adult body mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014 a pooled analysis of 1698 population based measurement studies with 19 2 million participants Lancet 387 10026 1377 96 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 16 30054 X PMID 27115820 Body Shape Is Down to Genes Indian Express Retrieved October 23 2010 Skinny Gene Exists Science Daily September 5 2007 Retrieved October 23 2010 Unexplained Weight Loss Reasons Symptoms amp Causes Retrieved 2017 11 28 Milas Kresimira Hyperthyroidism Symptoms Signs and symptoms caused by excessive amounts of thyroid hormones Endocrine Web Retrieved 24 September 2012 Signs and Symptoms of Cancer American Cancer Society Retrieved 24 September 2012 Hira S K H L Dupont D N Lanjewar Y N Dholakia 1998 Severe weight loss the predominant clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection in India National Medical Journal of India 11 6 256 58 PMID 10083790 Black Robert E Morris Saul S Bryce Jennifer 28 June 2003 Where and Why are 10 Million Children Dying Every Year The Lancet 361 9376 2226 34 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 03 13779 8 PMID 12842379 S2CID 14509705 MJH Life Sciences Informing Healthcare Professionals Gjesdal Halse JI Eide GE Brun JG Tell GS 2008 Impact of lean mass and fat mass on bone mineral density the Hordaland Health Study Maturitas 59 2 191 200 doi 10 1016 j maturitas 2007 11 002 PMID 18221845 Nattiv Agostini R Drinkwater B Yeager KK 1994 The female athlete triad The inter relatedness of disordered eating amenorrhea and osteoporosis Clinics in Sports Medicine 13 2 405 18 doi 10 1016 S0278 5919 20 30338 0 PMID 8013041 Wilson Wolman RL 1994 Osteoporosis and fracture complications in an amenorrhoeic athlete British Journal of Rheumatology 33 5 480 1 doi 10 1093 rheumatology 33 5 480 PMID 8173855 Waaler HT 1984 Height weight and mortality The Norwegian experience Acta Med Scand Suppl 215 679 1 56 doi 10 1111 j 0954 6820 1984 tb12901 x PMID 6585126 Body Weight and Mortality What is the optimum weight for a longer life Zeratsky Katherine 23 August 2011 Underweight See how to add pounds healthfully Nutrition and healthy eating Mayo Clinic Retrieved 19 March 2012 Gain Weight and Be Healthy About com Retrieved October 23 2010 Achieving Healthy Weight Gain Health Central Retrieved October 23 2010 Healthy Weight Gain Children s Hospital Boston Center for Young Women s Health Retrieved October 23 2010 Men s Health Men s Health Retrieved October 23 2010 Gleeson Peggy Elizabeth J Protas Adrian D Leblanc Victor S Schneider Harlan J Evans February 1990 Effects of weight lifting on bone mineral density in premenopausal women Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5 2 153 158 doi 10 1002 jbmr 5650050208 PMID 2316403 S2CID 72034011 Coin A G Sergi P Beninca L Lupoli G Cinti L Ferrara G Benedetti G Tomasi C Pisent G Enzi 2000 Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Underweight and Normal Elderly Subjects Osteoporosis International 11 12 1043 1050 doi 10 1007 s001980070026 PMID 11256896 S2CID 1298271 Homnick Douglas N 2005 Long term trial of cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis Pediatric Pulmonology 40 3 251 256 doi 10 1002 ppul 20265 PMID 16015665 S2CID 22837100 External links Edit Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Underweight amp oldid 1089952918, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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