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Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed during the 19th and early 20th centuries, between China (mostly referring to the Qing dynasty) and various European powers, such as the British Empire, France, the German Empire, and the Russian Empire, as well as Japan and the United States. The agreements, often reached after a military defeat, contained one-sided terms, requiring China to cede land, pay reparations, open treaty ports, or grant extraterritorial privileges to foreign citizens.

Unequal treaty
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese不平等條約
Simplified Chinese不平等条约
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinbù-píngděng tiáoyuē
Wade–Gilespu1 p'ing2 teng3 t'iao2 yüeh1
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingbat1 ping4 dang2 tiu4 joek3
Korean name
Hangul불평등 조약
Hanja不平等條約
Transcriptions
Revised Romanizationbul-pyeong-deung jo-yak
McCune–Reischauerpul-p'yŏng-dŭng cho-yak
Japanese name
Kanji不平等条約
Kanaふびょうどうじょうやく
Transcriptions
Romanizationfu byōdō jōyaku

With the rise of Chinese nationalism and anti-imperialism in the 1920s, both the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party used the concept to characterize the Chinese experience of losing sovereignty between roughly 1840 to 1950. The term "unequal treaty" became associated with the concept of China's "century of humiliation", especially the concessions to foreign powers and the loss of tariff autonomy through treaty ports.

Japanese and Koreans also use the term to refer to several treaties that resulted in the loss of their sovereignty, to varying degrees.

Contents

A French political cartoon in 1898, China – the cake of Kings and Emperors, showing Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan dividing China.
The Eight-Nation Alliance inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City, during a celebration ceremony after the signing of the Boxer Protocol, 1901.

In China, the term "unequal treaty" first came into use in the early 1920s. Dong Wang (王栋), a professor of contemporary and modern Chinese history, noted that "while the phrase has long been widely used, it nevertheless lacks a clear and unambiguous meaning" and that there is "no agreement about the actual number of treaties signed between China and foreign countries that should be counted as 'unequal'."

Historian Immanuel Hsu states that the Chinese viewed the treaties they signed with Western powers and Russia as unequal "because they were not negotiated by nations treating each other as equals but were imposed on China after a war, and because they encroached upon China's sovereign rights ... which reduced her to semicolonial status".

In response, historian Elizabeth Cobbs writes in American Umpire, her argument that "democratic capitalism" has never engaged in imperialism: "Ironically, however, the treaties also resulted partly from China's initial reluctance to consider any treaties whatsoever, since it viewed all other nations as inferior. It did not wish to be equal."

In many cases, China was effectively forced to pay large amounts of financial reparations, open up ports for trade, cede or lease territories (such as Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China (including Zhetysu) to the Russian Empire, Hong Kong and Weihaiwei to the United Kingdom, Guangzhouwan to France, Kwantung Leased Territory and Taiwan to the Empire of Japan, the Jiaozhou Bay concession to the German Empire and concession territory in Tientsin, Shamian, Hankou, Shanghai etc.), and make various other concessions of sovereignty to foreign spheres of influence, following military threats.

The earliest treaty later referred to as "unequal" was the 1841 Convention of Chuenpi negotiations during the First Opium War. The first treaty between China and the United Kingdom termed "unequal" was the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842.

Following Qing China's defeat, treaties with Britain opened up five ports to foreign trade, while also allowing foreign missionaries, at least in theory, to reside within China. Foreign residents in the port cities were afforded trials by their own consular authorities rather than the Chinese legal system, a concept termed extraterritoriality. Under the treaties, the UK and the US established the British Supreme Court for China and Japan and United States Court for China in Shanghai.

Chinese resentment

After World War I, patriotic consciousness in China focused on the treaties, which now became widely known as "unequal treaties". The Nationalist Party and the Communist Party competed to convince the public that their approach would be more effective. Germany was forced to terminate its rights, the Soviet Union surrendered them, and the United States organized the Washington Conference to negotiate them.

After Chiang Kai-shek declared a new national government in 1927, the Western powers quickly offered diplomatic recognition, arousing anxiety in Japan. The new government declared to the Great Powers that China had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties, and that the time for such treaties was over, demanding they renegotiate all of them on equal terms.

Towards the end of the unequal treaties

After the Boxer Rebellion and the signing of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902, Germany started to reassess the policy approach towards China. In 1907 Germany suggested a German-Chinese-American agreement that never materialised. Thus China entered the new era of ending unequal treaties on March 14, 1917 when it broke off diplomatic relations with Germany. China declared war on Germany on August 17 1917.

These acts voided the unequal treaty of 1861, resulting in the reinstatement of Chinese control on the concessions of Tianjin and Hankou to China. In 1919, China refused to sign the Peace Treaty of Versailles. On May 20, 1921, China secured with the German-Chinese peace treaty (Deutsch-chinesischer Vertrag zur Wiederherstellung des Friedenszustandes), considered the first equal treaty between China and a European nation.

Many of the other treaties China considers unequal were repealed during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which started in 1937 and merged into the larger context of World War II. The United States Congress ended American extraterritoriality in December 1943. Significant examples outlasted World War II: treaties regarding Hong Kong remained in place until Hong Kong's 1997 handover, and in 1969, to improve Sino-Soviet relations in the wake of military skirmishes along their border, the People's Republic of China reconfirmed the 1858 Treaty of Aigun.[citation needed]

When the American Commodore Matthew Perry reached Japan in 1854, it signed the Convention of Kanagawa. Its importance was limited. Much more important was the Harris Treaty of 1858 negotiated by U.S. envoy Townsend Harris.

Korea's first unequal treaty was not with the West but instead with Japan. The Ganghwa Island incident, 1875, saw Japan send Captain Inoue Yoshika and the warship Un'yō with the implied threat of military action to coerce the Korean Kingdom of Joseon. This forced Korea to open its doors to Japan by signing the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876.

The unequal treaties ended at various times for the countries involved. Japan's victories in the 1894–95 First Sino-Japanese War convinced many in the West that unequal treaties could no longer be enforced on Japan. Korea's unequal treaties with European states became largely null and void in 1910, when it was annexed by Japan.

Imposed on China

Treaty Year Imposer Imposed on
English name Chinese name
Treaty of Nanking 南京條約 1842 United Kingdom Qing dynasty
Treaty of the Bogue 虎門條約 1843 United Kingdom
Treaty of Wanghia 中美望廈條約 1844 United States
Treaty of Whampoa 黃埔條約 1844 France
Treaty of Canton 中瑞廣州條約 1847 Sweden-Norway
Treaty of Kulja 中俄伊犁塔爾巴哈臺通商章程 1851 Russia
Treaty of Aigun 璦琿條約 1858 Russia
Treaty of Tientsin (1858) 天津條約 1858 France
United Kingdom
Russia
United States
Convention of Peking 北京條約 1860 United Kingdom
France
Russia
Treaty of Tientsin (1861) 中德通商条约 1861 Prussia, also for Deutscher Zollverein
Chefoo Convention 煙臺條約 1876 United Kingdom
Treaty of Livadia 里瓦幾亞條約 1879 Russia
Treaty of Saint Petersburg 伊犁條約 1881 Russia
Treaty of Tientsin (1885) 中法新約 1885 France
Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking 中葡北京條約 1887 Portugal
Treaty of Shimonoseki (Treaty of Maguan) 馬關條約 1895 Japan
Li–Lobanov Treaty 中俄密約 1896 Russia
Convention for the Lease of the Liaotung Peninsula 旅大租地条约 1898 Russia
Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory 展拓香港界址專條 1898 United Kingdom
Treaty of Kwangchow Wan [fr] 廣州灣租界條約 1899 France
Boxer Protocol 辛丑條約 1901 United Kingdom
United States
Japan
Russia
France
Germany
Italy
Austria-Hungary
Belgium
Spain
Netherlands
Simla Convention 西姆拉條約 1914 United Kingdom Republic of China
Twenty-One Demands 二十一條 1915 Japan
Tanggu Truce 塘沽協定 1933 Japan

Imposed on Japan

Treaty Year Imposer Imposed on
English name Japanese name
Convention of Kanagawa 日米和親条約 1854 United States Tokugawa shogunate
Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty 日英和親条約 1854 United Kingdom
Treaty of Shimoda 下田条約 1855 Russia
Ansei Treaties
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan (Harris Treaty) 安政条約 1858 United States
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Japan Netherlands
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the Russian Empire and Japan Russia
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between British Empire and Japan United Kingdom
Treaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan France
Prussian-Japanese Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation 日普修好通商条約 1861 Prussia
Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation between Austria and Japan 日墺修好通商航海条約 1868 Austria-Hungary Japan
Spanish-Japanese Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation 日西修好通商航海条約 1868 Spain
Retrocession following the Triple Intervention
Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula [ja]
遼東還付条約 1895 France
Russia
Germany

Imposed on Korea

Treaty Year Imposer Imposed on
English name Korean name
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876
(Treaty of Ganghwa)
강화도 조약 (江華島條約) 1876 Japan Joseon dynasty
United States–Korea Treaty of 1882 조미수호통상조약 (朝美修好通商條約) 1882 United States
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1882
(Treaty of Chemulpo)
제물포 조약 (濟物浦條約) 1882 Japan
China–Korea Treaty of 1882
(Joseon-Qing Communication and Commerce Rules)
조청상민수륙무역장정 (朝淸商民水陸貿易章程) 1882 Qing dynasty
Germany–Korea Treaty of 1883 조독수호통상조약 (朝獨修好通商條約) 1883 Germany
United Kingdom–Korea Treaty of 1883 조영수호통상조약 (朝英修好通商條約) 1883 United Kingdom
Russia–Korea Treaty of 1884 조로수호통상조약 (朝露修好通商條約) 1884 Russia
Italy–Korea Treaty of 1884 조이수호통상조약 (朝伊修好通商條約) 1884 Italy
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1885
(Treaty of Hanseong)
한성조약 (漢城條約) 1885 Japan
France–Korea Treaty of 1886 조불수호통상조약 (朝佛修好通商條約) 1886 France
Austria–Korea Treaty of 1892 조오수호통상조약 (朝奧修好通商條約) 1892 Austria-Hungary
Belgium–Korea Treaty of 1901 조벨수호통상조약 (朝白修好通商條約) 1901 Belgium Korean Empire
Denmark–Korea Treaty of 1902 조덴수호통상조약 (朝丁修好通商條約) 1902 Denmark
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1904 한일의정서 (韓日議定書) 1904 Japan
Japan-Korea Protocol of August 1904 제1차 한일협약 (第一次韓日協約) 1904 Japan
Japan-Korea Protocol of April 1905 1905 Japan
Japan-Korea Protocol of August 1905 1905 Japan
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905
제2차 한일협약 (第二次韓日協約)
(을사조약 (乙巳條約))
1905 Japan
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907 제3차 한일협약 (第三次韓日協約)
(정미조약 (丁未條約))
1907 Japan
Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910 한일병합조약 (韓日倂合條約) 1910 Japan

In 2018, Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad compared Chinese Belt and Road Initiative infrastructure projects in Malaysia to unequal treaties. He said "They know that when they lend big sums of money to a poor country, in the end they may have to take the project for themselves," and "China knows very well that it had to deal with unequal treaties in the past imposed upon China by Western powers. So China should be sympathetic toward us. They know we cannot afford this".

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  37. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated August 22, 1904"
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  39. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated April 1, 1905"
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  41. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated August 13, 1905"
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  43. Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921–1922 identified this as "Alleged Treaty, dated November 17, 1905"
  44. Korean Mission, p. 35., p. 35, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated July 24, 1907."
  45. Korean Mission, p. 36., p. 36, at Google Books; excerpt, "Alleged Treaty, dated August 20, 1910."
  46. Bland, Ben (June 24, 2018). "Malaysian backlash tests China's Belt and Road ambitions". Financial Times. RetrievedMarch 22, 2022.
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Bibliography

Primary sources

Unequal treaty Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Unequal treaties Unequal treaty is the name given by the Chinese to a series of treaties signed during the 19th and early 20th centuries between China mostly referring to the Qing dynasty and various European powers such as the British Empire France the German Empire and the Russian Empire as well as Japan and the United States 1 The agreements often reached after a military defeat contained one sided terms requiring China to cede land pay reparations open treaty ports or grant extraterritorial privileges to foreign citizens 2 Unequal treatyChinese nameTraditional Chinese不平等條約Simplified Chinese不平等条约TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyinbu pingdeng tiaoyueWade Gilespu1 p ing2 teng3 t iao2 yueh1Yue CantoneseJyutpingbat1 ping4 dang2 tiu4 joek3Korean nameHangul불평등 조약Hanja不平等條約TranscriptionsRevised Romanizationbul pyeong deung jo yakMcCune Reischauerpul p yŏng dŭng cho yakJapanese nameKanji不平等条約KanaふびょうどうじょうやくTranscriptionsRomanizationfu byōdō jōyaku With the rise of Chinese nationalism and anti imperialism in the 1920s both the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party used the concept to characterize the Chinese experience of losing sovereignty between roughly 1840 to 1950 The term unequal treaty became associated with the concept of China s century of humiliation especially the concessions to foreign powers and the loss of tariff autonomy through treaty ports Japanese and Koreans also use the term to refer to several treaties that resulted in the loss of their sovereignty to varying degrees Contents 1 China 1 1 Chinese resentment 1 2 Towards the end of the unequal treaties 2 Japan and Korea 3 Mongolia China and Russia 4 Selected list of treaties 4 1 Imposed on China 4 2 Imposed on Japan 4 3 Imposed on Korea 5 Modern uses 6 See also 7 References 7 1 Bibliography 7 2 Primary sourcesChina Edit A French political cartoon in 1898 China the cake of Kings and Emperors showing Britain Germany Russia France and Japan dividing China The Eight Nation Alliance inside the Chinese imperial palace the Forbidden City during a celebration ceremony after the signing of the Boxer Protocol 1901 In China the term unequal treaty first came into use in the early 1920s 3 Dong Wang 王栋 a professor of contemporary and modern Chinese history noted that while the phrase has long been widely used it nevertheless lacks a clear and unambiguous meaning and that there is no agreement about the actual number of treaties signed between China and foreign countries that should be counted as unequal 3 Historian Immanuel Hsu states that the Chinese viewed the treaties they signed with Western powers and Russia as unequal because they were not negotiated by nations treating each other as equals but were imposed on China after a war and because they encroached upon China s sovereign rights which reduced her to semicolonial status 4 In response historian Elizabeth Cobbs writes in American Umpire her argument that democratic capitalism has never engaged in imperialism Ironically however the treaties also resulted partly from China s initial reluctance to consider any treaties whatsoever since it viewed all other nations as inferior It did not wish to be equal 5 In many cases China was effectively forced to pay large amounts of financial reparations open up ports for trade cede or lease territories such as Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China including Zhetysu to the Russian Empire Hong Kong and Weihaiwei to the United Kingdom Guangzhouwan to France Kwantung Leased Territory and Taiwan to the Empire of Japan the Jiaozhou Bay concession to the German Empire and concession territory in Tientsin Shamian Hankou Shanghai etc and make various other concessions of sovereignty to foreign spheres of influence following military threats 6 The earliest treaty later referred to as unequal was the 1841 Convention of Chuenpi negotiations during the First Opium War The first treaty between China and the United Kingdom termed unequal was the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842 6 Following Qing China s defeat treaties with Britain opened up five ports to foreign trade while also allowing foreign missionaries at least in theory to reside within China Foreign residents in the port cities were afforded trials by their own consular authorities rather than the Chinese legal system a concept termed extraterritoriality 6 Under the treaties the UK and the US established the British Supreme Court for China and Japan and United States Court for China in Shanghai Chinese resentment Edit After World War I patriotic consciousness in China focused on the treaties which now became widely known as unequal treaties The Nationalist Party and the Communist Party competed to convince the public that their approach would be more effective 6 Germany was forced to terminate its rights the Soviet Union surrendered them and the United States organized the Washington Conference to negotiate them 7 After Chiang Kai shek declared a new national government in 1927 the Western powers quickly offered diplomatic recognition arousing anxiety in Japan 8 The new government declared to the Great Powers that China had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties and that the time for such treaties was over demanding they renegotiate all of them on equal terms 9 Towards the end of the unequal treaties Edit After the Boxer Rebellion and the signing of the Anglo Japanese Alliance of 1902 Germany started to reassess the policy approach towards China In 1907 Germany suggested a German Chinese American agreement that never materialised Thus China entered the new era of ending unequal treaties on March 14 1917 when it broke off diplomatic relations with Germany China declared war on Germany on August 17 1917 10 These acts voided the unequal treaty of 1861 resulting in the reinstatement of Chinese control on the concessions of Tianjin and Hankou to China In 1919 China refused to sign the Peace Treaty of Versailles On May 20 1921 China secured with the German Chinese peace treaty Deutsch chinesischer Vertrag zur Wiederherstellung des Friedenszustandes considered the first equal treaty between China and a European nation 11 Many of the other treaties China considers unequal were repealed during the Second Sino Japanese War which started in 1937 and merged into the larger context of World War II The United States Congress ended American extraterritoriality in December 1943 Significant examples outlasted World War II treaties regarding Hong Kong remained in place until Hong Kong s 1997 handover and in 1969 to improve Sino Soviet relations in the wake of military skirmishes along their border the People s Republic of China reconfirmed the 1858 Treaty of Aigun citation needed Japan and Korea EditWhen the American Commodore Matthew Perry reached Japan in 1854 it signed the Convention of Kanagawa Its importance was limited Much more important was the Harris Treaty of 1858 negotiated by U S envoy Townsend Harris 12 Korea s first unequal treaty was not with the West but instead with Japan The Ganghwa Island incident 1875 saw Japan send Captain Inoue Yoshika and the warship Un yō with the implied threat of military action to coerce the Korean Kingdom of Joseon This forced Korea to open its doors to Japan by signing the Japan Korea Treaty of 1876 13 The unequal treaties ended at various times for the countries involved Japan s victories in the 1894 95 First Sino Japanese War convinced many in the West that unequal treaties could no longer be enforced on Japan Korea s unequal treaties with European states became largely null and void in 1910 when it was annexed by Japan 14 Mongolia China and Russia EditMain article Treaty of Kyakhta 1915 Selected list of treaties EditImposed on China Edit Treaty Year Imposer Imposed on English name Chinese name Treaty of Nanking 南京條約 1842 United Kingdom Qing dynastyTreaty of the Bogue 虎門條約 1843 United KingdomTreaty of Wanghia 中美望廈條約 1844 United StatesTreaty of Whampoa 黃埔條約 1844 FranceTreaty of Canton 中瑞廣州條約 1847 Sweden NorwayTreaty of Kulja 中俄伊犁塔爾巴哈臺通商章程 1851 RussiaTreaty of Aigun 璦琿條約 1858 RussiaTreaty of Tientsin 1858 天津條約 1858 France United Kingdom Russia United StatesConvention of Peking 北京條約 1860 United Kingdom France RussiaTreaty of Tientsin 1861 中德通商条约 1861 Prussia also for Deutscher ZollvereinChefoo Convention 煙臺條約 1876 United KingdomTreaty of Livadia 里瓦幾亞條約 1879 RussiaTreaty of Saint Petersburg 伊犁條約 1881 RussiaTreaty of Tientsin 1885 中法新約 1885 FranceSino Portuguese Treaty of Peking 中葡北京條約 1887 PortugalTreaty of Shimonoseki Treaty of Maguan 馬關條約 1895 JapanLi Lobanov Treaty 中俄密約 1896 RussiaConvention for the Lease of the Liaotung Peninsula 旅大租地条约 1898 RussiaConvention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory 展拓香港界址專條 1898 United KingdomTreaty of Kwangchow Wan fr 廣州灣租界條約 1899 FranceBoxer Protocol 辛丑條約 1901 United Kingdom United States Japan Russia France Germany Italy Austria Hungary Belgium Spain NetherlandsSimla Convention 西姆拉條約 1914 United Kingdom Republic of ChinaTwenty One Demands 二十一條 1915 JapanTanggu Truce 塘沽協定 1933 JapanImposed on Japan Edit Treaty Year Imposer Imposed onEnglish name Japanese nameConvention of Kanagawa 日米和親条約 1854 15 United States Tokugawa shogunateAnglo Japanese Friendship Treaty 日英和親条約 1854 16 United KingdomTreaty of Shimoda 下田条約 1855 RussiaAnsei TreatiesTreaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan Harris Treaty 安政条約 1858 17 United StatesTreaty of Amity and Commerce between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Japan NetherlandsTreaty of Amity and Commerce between the Russian Empire and Japan RussiaTreaty of Amity and Commerce between British Empire and Japan United KingdomTreaty of Amity and Commerce between France and Japan FrancePrussian Japanese Treaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation 日普修好通商条約 1861 18 PrussiaTreaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation between Austria and Japan 日墺修好通商航海条約 1868 19 Austria Hungary JapanSpanish Japanese Treaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation 日西修好通商航海条約 1868 20 SpainRetrocession following the Triple Intervention Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula ja 遼東還付条約 1895 21 France Russia GermanyImposed on Korea Edit Treaty Year Imposer Imposed onEnglish name Korean nameJapan Korea Treaty of 1876 Treaty of Ganghwa 강화도 조약 江華島條約 1876 22 Japan Joseon dynastyUnited States Korea Treaty of 1882 조미수호통상조약 朝美修好通商條約 1882 23 United StatesJapan Korea Treaty of 1882 Treaty of Chemulpo 제물포 조약 濟物浦條約 1882 JapanChina Korea Treaty of 1882 Joseon Qing Communication and Commerce Rules 조청상민수륙무역장정 朝淸商民水陸貿易章程 1882 24 Qing dynastyGermany Korea Treaty of 1883 조독수호통상조약 朝獨修好通商條約 1883 25 GermanyUnited Kingdom Korea Treaty of 1883 조영수호통상조약 朝英修好通商條約 1883 26 United KingdomRussia Korea Treaty of 1884 조로수호통상조약 朝露修好通商條約 1884 27 RussiaItaly Korea Treaty of 1884 조이수호통상조약 朝伊修好通商條約 1884 28 ItalyJapan Korea Treaty of 1885 Treaty of Hanseong 한성조약 漢城條約 1885 29 JapanFrance Korea Treaty of 1886 조불수호통상조약 朝佛修好通商條約 1886 30 FranceAustria Korea Treaty of 1892 조오수호통상조약 朝奧修好通商條約 1892 31 Austria HungaryBelgium Korea Treaty of 1901 조벨수호통상조약 朝白修好通商條約 1901 32 Belgium Korean EmpireDenmark Korea Treaty of 1902 조덴수호통상조약 朝丁修好通商條約 1902 33 DenmarkJapan Korea Treaty of 1904 한일의정서 韓日議定書 1904 34 Japan 35 Japan Korea Protocol of August 1904 제1차 한일협약 第一次韓日協約 1904 36 Japan 37 Japan Korea Protocol of April 1905 1905 38 Japan 39 Japan Korea Protocol of August 1905 1905 40 Japan 41 Japan Korea Treaty of 1905 제2차 한일협약 第二次韓日協約 을사조약 乙巳條約 1905 42 Japan 43 Japan Korea Treaty of 1907 제3차 한일협약 第三次韓日協約 정미조약 丁未條約 1907 44 JapanJapan Korea Treaty of 1910 한일병합조약 韓日倂合條約 1910 45 JapanModern uses EditIn 2018 Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad compared Chinese Belt and Road Initiative infrastructure projects in Malaysia to unequal treaties 46 47 He said They know that when they lend big sums of money to a poor country in the end they may have to take the project for themselves and China knows very well that it had to deal with unequal treaties in the past imposed upon China by Western powers So China should be sympathetic toward us They know we cannot afford this 48 See also EditWestern imperialism in Asia Concessions in China List of Chinese treaty ports Sick man of Asia Century of humiliation Client state Puppet state Most favoured nation Normanton incidentReferences Edit Unequal Treaties with China Encyclopedie d histoire numerique de l Europe Retrieved May 22 2022 Fravel M Taylor October 1 2005 Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation Explaining China s Compromises in Territorial Disputes International Security 30 2 46 83 doi 10 1162 016228805775124534 ISSN 0162 2889 S2CID 56347789 a b Wang Dong 2005 China s Unequal Treaties Narrating National History Lanham Maryland Lexington Books pp 1 2 ISBN 9780739112083 Hsu Immanuel C Y 1970 The Rise of Modern China New York Oxford University Press p 239 ISBN 0195012402 Cobbs Elizabeth 2013 American Umpire Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press p 111 ISBN 9780674055476 a b c d Dong Wang China s Unequal Treaties Narrating National History Lanham Md Lexington Books 2005 Akira Iriye After Imperialism The Search for a New Order in the Far East 1921 1931 Cambridge Harvard University Press 1965 Reprinted Chicago Imprint Publications 1990 passim Akira Iriye After Imperialism The Search for a New Order in the Far East 1921 1931 Cambridge Harvard University Press 1965 Reprinted Chicago Imprint Publications 1990 passim CHINA Nationalist Notes TIME June 25 1928 Archived from the original on November 21 2010 Retrieved April 11 2011 Andreas Steen Deutsch chinesische Beziehungen 1911 1927 Vom Kolonialismus zur Gleichberechtigung Eine Quellensammlung Berlin Akademie Verlag 2006 S 221 Andreas Steen Deutsch chinesische Beziehungen 1911 1927 Vom Kolonialismus zur Gleichberechtigung Eine Quellensammlung Berlin Akademie Verlag 2006 S 221 Michael R Auslin 2006 Negotiating with Imperialism The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy Harvard University Press pp 17 44 ISBN 9780674020313 Preston Peter Wallace 1998 1998 Blackwell Publishing Pacific Asia in the Global System An Introduction ISBN 0 631 20238 2 I H Nish Japan Reverses the Unequal Treaties The Anglo Japanese Commercial Treaty of 1894 Journal of Oriental Studies 1975 13 2 pp 137 146 Auslin Michael R 2004 Negotiating with Imperialism The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy p 17 p 17 at Google Books Auslin p 30 p 30 at Google Books Auslin pp 1 7 p 1 at Google Books Auslin p 71 p 71 at Google Books Auslin Michael R 2004 Negotiating with Imperialism The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy p 154 p 154 at Google Books Howland Douglas 2016 International Law and Japanese Sovereignty The Emerging Global Order in the 19th Century Springer ISBN 9781137567772 Dreyer June Teufel 2016 Middle Kingdom and Empire of the Rising Sun Sino Japanese Relations Past and Present Oxford University Press p 49 ISBN 978 0 19 537566 4 Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament Washington D C 1921 1922 1922 Korea s Appeal to the Conference on Limitation of Armament p 33 p 33 at Google Books excerpt Treaty Between Japan and Korea dated February 26 1876 Korean Mission p 29 p 29 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Korea Treaty of Friendship Commerce and Navigation dated May 22 1882 Moon Myungki Korea China Treaty System in the 1880s and the Opening of Seoul Review of the Joseon Qing Communication and Commerce Rules Archived October 5 2011 at the Wayback Machine Journal of Northeast Asian History Vol 5 No 2 Dec 2008 pp 85 120 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Germany and Korea Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated November 23 1883 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Great Britain and Korea dated November 26 1883 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Russia Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated June 25 1884 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Italy Treaty of Friendship and Commerce dated June 26 1884 Yi Kwang gyu and Joseph P Linskey 2003 Korean Traditional Culture p 63 p 63 at Google Books excerpt The so calledHanseong Treatywas concluded between Korea and Japan Korea paid compensation for Japanese losses Japan and China worked out the Tien Tsin Treaty which ensured that both Japanese and Chinese troops withdraw from Korea Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and France Treaty of Friendship Commerce and Navigation dated June 4 1886 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Austria Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated July 23 1892 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Belgium Treaty of Amity and Commerce dated March 23 1901 Korean Mission p 32 p 32 at Google Books excerpt Treaty and Diplomatic Relations Between Korea and Denmark Treaty of Friendship Commerce and Navigation dated July 15 1902 Korean Mission p 34 p 34 at Google Books excerpt Treaty of Alliance Between Japan and Korea dated February 23 1904 Note that the Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament in Washington D C 1921 1922 identified this as Treaty of Alliance Between Japan and Korea dated February 23 1904 Korean Mission p 35 p 35 at Google Books excerpt Alleged Treaty dated August 22 1904 Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921 1922 identified this as Alleged Treaty dated August 22 1904 Korean Mission p 35 p 35 at Google Books excerpt Alleged Treaty dated April 1 1905 Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921 1922 identified this as Alleged Treaty dated April 1 1905 Korean Mission p 35 p 35 at Google Books excerpt Alleged Treaty dated August 13 1905 Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921 1922 identified this as Alleged Treaty dated August 13 1905 Korean Mission p 35 p 35 at Google Books excerpt Alleged Treaty dated November 17 1905 Note that the Korean diplomats in 1921 1922 identified this as Alleged Treaty dated November 17 1905 Korean Mission p 35 p 35 at Google Books excerpt Alleged Treaty dated July 24 1907 Korean Mission p 36 p 36 at Google Books excerpt Alleged Treaty dated August 20 1910 Bland Ben June 24 2018 Malaysian backlash tests China s Belt and Road ambitions Financial Times Retrieved March 22 2022 Analysis New Malaysian government steps back from spending Chinese projects Washington Post ISSN 0190 8286 Retrieved March 22 2022 Beech Hannah August 20 2018 We Cannot Afford This Malaysia Pushes Back Against China s Vision The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved March 22 2022 Bibliography Edit Auslin Michael R 2004 Negotiating with Imperialism The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy Cambridge Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 01521 0 OCLC 56493769 Hsu Immanuel Chung yueh 1970 The Rise of Modern China New York Oxford University Press OCLC 300287988 Nish I H 1975 Japan Reverses the Unequal Treaties The Anglo Japanese Commercial Treaty of 1894 Journal of Oriental Studies 13 2 137 146 Perez Louis G 1999 Japan Comes of Age Mutsu Munemitsu amp the Revision of the Unequal Treaties p 244 Ringmar Erik 2013 Liberal Barbarism The European Destruction of the Palace of the Emperor of China New York Palgrave Macmillan Wang Dong 2003 The Discourse of Unequal Treaties in Modern China Pacific Affairs 76 3 399 425 Wang Dong 2005 China s Unequal Treaties Narrating National History Lanham Maryland Lexington Books ISBN 9780739112083 Fravel M Taylor 2008 Strong Borders Secure Nation Cooperation and Conflict in China s Territorial Disputes Princeton University Press ISBN 978 1 4008 2887 6Primary sources Edit Halleck Henry Wager 1861 International law or Rules regulating the intercourse of states in peace and war New York D Van Nostrand OCLC 852699 Korean Mission to the Conference on the Limitation of Armament Washington D C 1921 1922 1922 Korea s Appeal to the Conference on Limitation of Armament Washington U S Government Printing Office OCLC 12923609 Fravel M Taylor 2005 Regime Insecurity and International Cooperation Explaining China s Compromises in Territorial Disputes International Security 30 2 46 83 doi 10 1162 016228805775124534 ISSN 0162 2889 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Unequal treaty amp oldid 1089190414, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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