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The United Malays National Organisation (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu; Jawi: ڤرتوبوهن‌ كبڠساءن ملايو برساتو), abbreviated UMNO (Jawi: امنو;) or lesser-known as PEKEMBAR (Jawi: ڤکمبر), is a political party in Malaysia. As the oldest continuous national political party within Malaysia (since its inception in 1946), UMNO has once been called Malaysia's "Grand Old Party". UMNO is a founding and the principal dominant member of the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition, which taken along with its predecessor Alliance, had been the main governing party of Malaysia from the independence of Malaya in 1957 until its defeat in the 2018 general election. From 1957 to 2018, every Prime Minister of Malaysia was also the President of UMNO. It has since returned to power twice as a result of the 2020-2022 Malaysian political crisis, firstly as a partner in a Perikatan Nasional-led government and subsequently as the leading party in a BN-led government with UMNO vice-president Ismail Sabri serving as Prime Minister.

United Malays National Organisation
Malay namePertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu
ڤرتوبوهن كبڠساءن ملايو برساتو
AbbreviationUMNO / PEKEMBAR
PresidentAhmad Zahid Hamidi
ChairpersonBadruddin Amiruldin
Secretary-GeneralAhmad Maslan
First Deputy PresidentMohamad Hasan
Second Deputy President (Women Chief)Noraini Ahmad
Vice-PresidentIsmail Sabri Yaakob
Mahdzir Khalid
Mohamed Khaled Nordin
Treasurer-GeneralTengku Adnan Tengku Mansor
Youth ChiefAsyraf Wajdi Dusuki (Pemuda)
Zahida Zarik Khan (Puteri)
Mohammad Farhan Mokhali (Putera)
FounderOnn Jaafar
Founded11 May 1946
Legalised11 May 1946
13 February 1988 (UMNO Baru)
Preceded byUnited Malays Organisation
USNO (in Sabah)
BERJAYA (in Sabah)
HeadquartersTingkat 38, Menara Dato’ Onn, Putra World Trade Centre, Jalan Tun Ismail, 50480 Kuala Lumpur
NewspaperNew Straits Times
Berita Harian
Harian Metro
Youth wingPergerakan Pemuda UMNO
Women's wingWanita UMNO
Women's youth wingPergerakan Puteri UMNO
Student wingKelab Mahasiswa UMNO
Membership(2021)3.39 Million
Ideology
Political positionRight-wing
ReligionSunni Islam
National affiliationAlliance (1952–1973)
Barisan Nasional (since 1973)
Muafakat Nasional (since 2019)
Perikatan Nasional (2020–2021, pro-Ahmad Zahid)
(Since 2020, pro-Ismail Sabri)
Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (since 2020)
Colours Red and white
SloganUnited, Loyal, In Service
Bersatu, Bersetia, Berkhidmat
AnthemBersatu, Bersetia, Berkhidmat
Dewan Negara:
17 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
38 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
167 / 607
Chief minister of states
5 / 13
Party flag
Website
umno.org.my
umno-online.my

1. Red and white have been used since before independence.

UMNO's goals are to uphold the aspirations of Malay nationalism and the concept of Ketuanan Melayu, as well as the dignity of race, religion and country. The party also aspires to protect the Malay culture as the national culture and to uphold, defend and expand Islam across Malaysia.

In the 2018 UMNO leadership election, which was considered by many as crucial to the party's progression, former Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi was elected UMNO president in a three-cornered contest, defeating former UMNO Youth Chief Khairy Jamaluddin, and UMNO veteran Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah.

Contents

After the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II, the Malayan Union was formed. However, the Union was met with much opposition due to its constitutional framework, which allegedly threatened Malay sovereignty over Malaya. A series of Malay congresses were held, culminating in the formation of the nationalist party, UMNO on 10 May 1946 at the Third Malay Congress in Johor Bahru, with Datuk Onn Jaafar as its leader. UMNO strongly opposed the Malayan Union, but originally did not seek political power. UMNO had no choice but continue playing a supporting role to the British colonial administration. The British cooperated with UMNO leaders and helped to defeat the communist insurgency.

In 1949, after the Malayan Union had been replaced by the semi-autonomous Federation of Malaya, UMNO shifted its focus to politics and governance. According to at least one official school textbook published during UMNO's time in government, the party fought for other races once they were at the helm of the country.

In 1951, Onn Jaafar left UMNO after failing to open its membership to non-Malay Malayans to form the Independence of Malaya Party. Tunku Abdul Rahman replaced Dato' Onn as UMNO President. In the following year, the Kuala Lumpur branch of UMNO formed an ad hoc and temporary electoral pact with the Selangor branch of Malayan Chinese Association to avoid contesting the same seats in the Kuala Lumpur municipal council elections. UMNO and MCA eventually carried nine out of the twelve seats, dealing a crushing blow to the IMP. After several other successes in local council elections, the coalition was formalised as an "Alliance" in 1954.

In 1954, state elections were held. In these elections, the Alliance won 226 of the 268 seats nationwide. In the same year, a Federal Legislative Council was formed, comprising 100 seats. 52 would be elected, and the rest would be appointed by the British High Commissioner. The Alliance demanded that 60 of the seats be elected, but despite the Tunku flying out to London to negotiate, the British held firm. Elections for the council were held in 1955, and the Alliance, which had now expanded to include the Malayan Indian Congress, issued a manifesto stating its goals of achieving independence by 1959, requiring a minimum of primary school education for all children, protecting the rights of the Malay rulers as constitutional monarchs, ending the Communist emergency, and reforming the civil service through the hiring of more Malayans as opposed to foreigners.

When the results were released, it emerged that the Alliance had won 51 of the 52 seats contested, with the other seat going to PAS (the Pan-Malayan Islamic Party, a group of Islamists that split from UMNO). The Tunku became the first Chief Minister of Malaya.

Throughout this period, the Malayan Emergency had been on-going. The Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the armed wing of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), committed sabotage campaigns against the British by disrupting transportation and communication networks, attacking police stations, burning down factories, with the goal of gaining independence for Malaya by making British rule in Malaya too expensive to maintain. The colonial government declared the MCP, along with several left-wing political groups, illegal in 1948. In 1955, the Alliance government together with the British High Commissioner declared an amnesty for the communist insurgents who surrendered. Representatives from the Alliance government also met with leaders of the MCP in an attempt to resolve the conflict peacefully, as their manifesto in the election stated. Chin Peng, the MCP Secretary-General, insisted that the MCP be allowed to contest elections and be declared a legal political party as a pre-condition to laying down arms. However, the Tunku rejected this, leading to an impasse.

In 1956, the Tunku led a group of negotiators, comprising Alliance politicians and representatives of the Malay rulers, to London. There, they brokered a deal with the British government for independence. The date of independence was set as 31 August 1957 on the condition that an independent commission is set up to draft a constitution for the country. The Alliance government was also required to avoid seizing British and other foreign assets in Malaya. A defence treaty would also be signed.

The Reid Commission, led by Lord William Reid, was formed to draft the constitution. Although enshrining concepts such as federalism and a constitutional monarchy, the proposed constitution also contained provisions protecting special rights for the Malays, such as quotas in admission to higher education and the civil service, and making Islam the official religion of the federation. It also made Malay the official language of the nation, although the right to vernacular education in Chinese and Tamil would be protected. Although the Tunku and the Malay rulers had asked the Reid Commission to ensure that "in an independent Malaya all nationals should be accorded equal rights, privileges and opportunities and there must not be discrimination on grounds of race and creed," the Malay privileges, which many in UMNO backed, were cited as necessary by the Reid Commission as a form of affirmative action that would eventually be phased out. These measures were included as Articles 3, 152 and 153 of the Constitution.

Independence was declared by the Tunku in Merdeka Stadium on 31 August 1957, marking a transition into a new era of Malayan and Malaysian politics.

Independence

Tunku Abdul Rahman, first Prime Minister of Malaya

In Malaya's first general elections in 1959, the Alliance coalition led by UMNO won 51.8% of the votes and captured 74 out of 104 seats, enough for a two-thirds majority in parliament, which would not only allow them to form the government again but amend the constitution at will. However, for the Alliance, the election was marred by internal strife when MCA leader Lim Chong Eu demanded his party be allowed to contest 40 of the 104 seats available. When the Tunku rejected this, many of Lim's supporters resigned, and ran in the election as independents, which cost the Alliance some seats.

In 1961, the Tunku mooted the idea of forming a federation named "Malaysia", which would consist of the British colonies of Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak, and also the British Protectorate of Brunei. The reasoning behind this was that this would allow the federal government to control and combat communist activities, especially in Singapore. It was also feared that if Singapore achieved independence, it would become a base for Chinese chauvinists to threaten Malayan sovereignty. To balance out the ethnic composition of the new nation, the other states, whose Malay and indigenous populations would balance out the Singaporean Chinese majority, were also included.

After much negotiation, a constitution was hammered out with some minor changes. For instance, the Malay privileges were now made available to all "Bumiputra", a group comprising the Malays and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia. However, the new states were also granted some autonomy unavailable to the original nine states of Malaya. After negotiations in July 1963, it was agreed that Malaysia would come into being on 31 August 1963, consisting of Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. Brunei ultimately decided to opt out of the federation due in part to an armed revolt by the People's Party (Parti Rakyat Brunei) which objected to the formation of Malaysia, and the Sultan of Brunei Omar Ali Saifuddien III's demand that he be recognised as the most senior Malay ruler—a demand that was rejected.

The Philippines and Indonesia strenuously objected to this development, with Indonesia claiming Malaysia represented a form of neocolonialism and the Philippines claiming Sabah as its territory. The United Nations sent a commission to the region which approved the merger after having delayed the date of Malaysia's formation to investigate. Despite further protests from the Indonesian President, Sukarno, the formation of Malaysia was proclaimed on 16 September 1963. Indonesia then declared a "confrontation" with Malaysia, sending commandos to perform guerilla attacks in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). The confrontation was ended when Suharto replaced Sukarno as president. The Philippines, which had withdrawn diplomatic recognition from Malaysia, also recognised Malaysia around the same time.

To reflect the change of name to Malaysia, UMNO's coalition partners promptly altered their names to the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Malaysian Indian Congress. Several political parties in East Malaysia, especially Sarawak, also joined the Alliance to allow it to contest elections there.

In the 1963 Singapore state elections, the Alliance decided to challenge Lee Kuan Yew's governing People's Action Party through the Singapore Alliance Party. UMNO politicians actively campaigned in Singapore for the Singapore Alliance, contending that the Singapore Malays were being treated as second-class citizens under the Chinese-dominated PAP government. All of the UMNO-backed Malay candidates lost to PAP candidates. UMNO Secretary-General Syed Jaafar Albar travelled to Singapore to address the Malay populace. At one rally, he called the PAP Malay politicians un-Islamic and traitors to the Malay race, greatly straining PAP-UMNO relations. The PAP politicians, who saw this as a betrayal of an earlier agreement with the Alliance not to contest elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively, decided on running on the mainland in the 1964 general election. Although the PAP contested nine Parliamentary seats and attracted large crowds at its rallies, it won only one seat. The strain in race relations caused by the communal lines along which the political factions had been drawn led to the 1964 Race Riots in Singapore.

Alliance leaders also were alarmed at Lee's behaviour, which they considered unseemly for the Chief Minister of a state. They thought he was acting as if he were the Prime Minister of a sovereign nation. Finance Minister Tan Siew Sin of the MCA labelled Lee as the "greatest, disruptive force in the entire history of Malaysia and Malaya." Lee now seemed determined to press forward politically and continue contesting elections nationwide, with the formation of the Malaysian Solidarity Council—a coalition of political parties which called for a "Malaysian Malaysia", duplicating the effort introduced earlier by Dato' Onn Ja'afar.

On 7 August 1965, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman, seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia. Despite last-ditch attempts by PAP leaders, including Lee Kuan Yew, to keep Singapore as a state in the union, the Parliament on 9 August 1965 voted 126–0 in favour of the expulsion of Singapore.

Tunku opened his speech in Parliament with the words, "In all the 10 years of my leadership of this House I have never had a duty so unpleasant as this to perform. The announcement which I am making concerns the separation of Singapore from the rest of the Federation." On that day, Lee Kuan Yew announced that Singapore was a sovereign independent nation and assumed the role of prime minister. After the separation and independence of Singapore in 1965, the Singapore branch of UMNO was renamed the Singapore Malay National Organisation (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura).

Post-separation

After the separation of Singapore from the Federation, the Alliance leaders focused on continuing its policies. One involved the Malay language, which was the official language of Malaysia. UMNO sought to reduce the reliance on English in government affairs. In this, it was aided by PAS, the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, which backed special rights for the Bumiputra, and the strengthening of Islam's position in public affairs. However, the PAP's Malaysian branch, which had now become Democratic Action Party (DAP), took a very strong stance against this, and continued the expelled PAP's call for a "Malaysian Malaysia". In 1968, the newly formed Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia or Gerakan, led by Lim Chong Eu, also adopted the DAP's stance.

Matters came to a head in the 1969 general election. When polling closed on the mainland peninsula (West Malaysia) on 10 May, it emerged the Alliance had won less than half of the popular vote, although it was assured of 66 out of 104 Parliamentary seats available. Much of the losses came from the MCA, thus straining relations between the two parties.[clarification needed] However, the Alliance was dealt an even larger blow on the state level, losing control of Kelantan, Perak, and Penang.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) declared a national emergency after being advised by the national government to do so. Parliament was suspended, with a National Operations Council (NOC) led by Deputy Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak of UMNO, taking over the government. Further polling in East Malaysia as a continuation of the general election was also postponed indefinitely. Although the Cabinet still met under the Tunku as Prime Minister, his role was largely symbolic, with Tun Razak taking over the role of chief executive.

UMNO backbencher Mahathir Mohamad, who had lost his Parliamentary seat in the election, wrote a letter to the Tunku criticising his leadership. Mahathir organised a campaign with University of Malaya lecturer Raja Muktaruddin Daim, circulating his letter among the student bodies of local universities. Mass demonstrations broke out calling for "Malay sovereignty" and the Tunku's ousting. After rioting broke out in June, Home Affairs Minister Ismail Abdul Rahman and Tun Razak agreed to expel Mahathir and former Executive Secretary of UMNO Musa Hitam from the party for breaching party discipline.

The suspended elections in East Malaysia were held in 1970, and restored the Alliance government's two-thirds majority in parliament. On 31 August that year, the Tunku announced the national ideology of Rukunegara and his planned retirement as Prime Minister in favour of Tun Razak. He also stated Parliament would be restored the following year.

The New Economic Policy

After Tun Razak succeeded the Tunku in 1970, he began asserting UMNO's leadership in the Alliance more strongly. When the Tunku led the coalition, he had always consulted Alliance leaders regarding policy—if an Alliance leader objected, the policy was not passed. Under Tun Razak, UMNO was the base of the Alliance and thus the government. The NOC which he led until Parliament reconvened consisted of 7 Malays, one Chinese and one Indian.

In Tun Razak's cabinet, the two most powerful men other than him were Ismail Abdul Rahman and Ghazali Shafie, who had declared the Westminster-style Parliamentary system inappropriate for Malaysia. Tun Razak also readmitted to the party "ultras" who had been expelled, like Mahathir and Musa Hitam. Mahathir gained notoriety after his expulsion from UMNO by authoring The Malay Dilemma, a book promptly banned from Malaysia, which posited that the Malays are the definitive people of Malaysia, and thus deserved special rights as the sovereign people of the nation. It also controversially argued that the Malays needed affirmative action to overcome deficiencies in their genetic stock.

Hussein Onn, son of UMNO founder Dato' Onn Ja'afar, soon became a rising star in UMNO. After Ismail died suddenly of a heart attack in 1973, Hussein Onn succeeded him as Deputy Prime Minister. In the cabinet reshuffle that promoted Hussein Onn, Mahathir was given the key post of Minister for Education.

The Tun Razak government announced the New Economic Policy in 1971. Its stated goal was to "eventually eradicate poverty... irrespective of race" through a "rapidly expanding economy" which emphasised to increase the Malays' share in the national economy to a reasonable portion between all the races. The NEP targeted a 30 per cent Malay share of the economy by 1990. The government contended that this would lead to a "just society" ("Masyarakat Adil"), the latter slogan being used to promote acceptance of the policy. Quotas in education and the civil service that the Constitution had explicitly provided for were expanded by the NEP, which also mandated government interference in the private sector. For instance, 30% of all shares in initial public offerings would be disbursed by the government to selective Bumiputras. The old civil service hiring quota of 4 Malays for every non-Malay's was effectively disregarded in practice; between 1969 and 1973, 98% of all new government employees were Malay. Five new universities were opened under the NEP, two of which were targeted to focus on the poor Malays and Muslim citizens.

Tun Razak also began shoring up the government by bringing in several former opposition parties into the fold of the Alliance. Gerakan, PPP, PAS, and several former opposition parties in East Malaysia joined the coalition, which was renamed as Barisan Nasional. Barisan was formally registered as an organisation in 1974, the same year in which a general election was held.

There had been much internal conflict in the National Front regarding the election; in 1973, Lim Keng Yaik and several supporters of his aggressive pro-Chinese stance left the MCA for Gerakan. This contributed to internal strife, as the MCA was no longer the sole representative of Chinese interests in the National Front.

Discontent among student organisations in Malaysian universities soon posed a new problem for the UMNO-led government. However, Mahathir in his capacity as Minister for Education issued a stern warning to university students and faculty not to become involved in politics. However, after stories that children of rubber tappers had died after consuming poisonous wild yam due to poverty, university students reacted by staging the 1974 Baling demonstrations. The demonstrations resulted in the arrest of over 1,000 students, including Anwar Ibrahim who wasdetained under the Internal Security Act. In 1975, parliament passed amendments to the Universities and University Colleges Act which banned students from expressing support of or holding positions in any political party or trade union without written consent from the university's Vice-Chancellor. The act also banned political demonstrations from being held on university campuses. In 1976, however, mass demonstrations were held at the MARA Institute of Technology, protesting the UUCA. Mahathir then threatened to revoke the scholarships of the students, most of whom relied on public support to pay their way through university.

BN was also challenged in Sarawak after the 1974 election, which saw the Sarawak National Party led by James Wong become tied with the DAP as the largest opposition party in Parliament, both of them holding nine seats each. SNAP had campaigned against BN on a platform of opposing Chief Minister Abdul Rahman Ya'kub's pro-Malay policies, charging them with alienating the rural indigenous natives of Sarawak, such as the Iban. SNAP had been expelled from the Alliance in 1965 for supporting increased autonomy for Sarawak. In the aftermath of the election, Abdul Rahman ordered the detention of James Wong under the Sedition Act. SNAP elected a new leader, Leo Moggie, who secured the release of Wong and the entry of SNAP into BN in 1976.

In Sabah, BN controlled the state government through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO), which strongly backed UMNO's pro-Malay and pro-Islam policies. In 1973, Islam was made the official Sabah state religion (the official religion of Sabah was originally Christianity, as permitted by the agreement signed before the merger), and usage of indigenous languages such as those of the Kadazan people was discontinued in favour of the Malay language. The USNO Chief Minister, Mustapha Harun, was also known for favouring political patronage as a means of allocating valuable timber contracts, and living an extravagant lifestyle, being ferried to his A$1 million Queensland home by jets provided with Sabahan public funds.

UMNO Baru (New UMNO)

Mahathir Mohamad

On 24 April 1987, UMNO held its Annual General Assembly and triennial Party election. The then Prime Minister and party President, Mahathir Mohamad, faced his first party election in 12 years, having been elected unopposed since the 1975 UMNO election.

The politics of the Malays, particularly UMNO politics, had undergone a sea change in the first few years of the Mahathir stewardship, and the party presidency was challenged for the second time in 41 years. The first challenge was a dull affair in which Hussein Onn was opposed by a minor party official named Sulaiman Palestin. In fact, in the early 1950s, Tunku Abdul Rahman's presidency had also been challenged by C. M. Yusof, who later became the Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat, but Tunku was not properly considered an incumbent then, being only a care-taker president.

The 1987 contest was a vastly different matter. Mahathir was opposed by his very popular former Finance Minister, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. The press took to referring to Mahathir and his supporters as Team A, and Razaleigh's camp as Team B. Team B included then Deputy Prime Minister Tun Musa Hitam, who was also the incumbent Deputy President of UMNO seeking re-election, as well as Datuk Suhaimi Kamaruddin, the former head of UMNO Youth and president of the Belia 4B youth organisation.

Team B was critical of Mahathir's policies, arguing that the Malaysian New Economic Policy had failed to benefit the poor Malays. It also criticised Mahathir's leadership style, alleging he acted unilaterally without consulting other leaders in UMNO and the Barisan Nasional. Team B was also perceived as less Islamist than Mahathir's faction.

Mahathir claimed that the charges against him were groundless, and suggested that his opponents were fracturing Malay unity and were only motivated by greed.

Eventually, Mahathir was returned to office. However, he was elected with such a small majority of 43 (761 against 718 votes) that questions were immediately raised about his mandate. Team B supporters, many of whom had been anticipating a victory of similar margins, suspected that the election had been fixed. The Team B candidate for Deputy President, Musa Hitam, had also been defeated by Ghafar Baba of Team A, while two of the three vice-presidents were Team A candidates. The Supreme Council comprised 16 Team A candidates and 9 Team B candidates.

Allegations were made that several delegates who had voted were drawn from UMNO branches not properly registered. There were also several unproved allegations being bandied about that the balloting process had not been above board.

Nevertheless, Razaleigh pledged to support Mahathir, provided that a "witch hunt" was not launched. However, Mahathir promptly purged the government cabinet of all Team B members, and launched similar reshuffles in state and local governments.

On 25 June 1987, an appeal was filed by 12 of the UMNO delegates to have the assembly and the election of April 1987 declared null. After one of the delegates, Hussain bin Manap, withdrew unexpectedly in August from filing the appeal, the remaining litigants have since become famous as the "UMNO 11." Although Razaleigh and Musa Hitam were not among the plaintiffs, it was widely believed that Razaleigh was funding the appeal.

After a series of interlocutory hearings over the discovery of documents that took more than seven months, the matter finally came before Justice Harun Hashim in the Kuala Lumpur High Court on 4 February 1988. The judge ruled that under the existing law he had no option but to find the party, UMNO, to be an unlawful society due to the existence of several unregistered branches—an illegal act under the Societies Act of 1966. The question of the Assembly itself being illegal therefore became academic.

"'It is a very hard decision to declare UMNO unlawful,' said Justice Datuk Harun Hashim in his February 4 judgement. 'But the law was made by our Parliament and certainly UMNO was aware [of the Societies Act] because they were in the majority [in Parliament] at all times [when the law was made].' Under the 1966 Act, amended five times over the years, and most recently by Mahathir's government, each of the society's branches has to register separately with the Registrar...."

The Tunku and former UMNO President Hussein Onn set up a new party called UMNO Malaysia, which claimed to be the successor to the old UMNO. UMNO Malaysia was supported mainly by members of the Team B faction from UMNO, but Mahathir was also invited to join the party leadership. However, the party collapsed after the Registrar of Societies refused to register it as a society without providing an explanation.

Mahathir showed no interest in reviving UMNO, and instead he set in motion the machinery to form a new surrogate party, and in due course, registered a party formally called Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (Baru) or UMNO (New) a week after UMNO Malaysia's registration was rejected. Eventually the suffix "(New)" was dropped, and UMNO (Baru) became both the de facto and de jure successor of original UMNO, dropping the 'Baru' suffix with the old UMNO's assets handed over. Most of its leaders, however, were selected from Team A of the old UMNO, with Team B ignored.

In 10th general election in 1999, rocked by the arrest and trial of former UMNO deputy Anwar Ibrahim and the subsequent formation of the Barisan Alternatif opposition coalition, UMNO's share dipped to 54% of the vote and 102 out of 144 seats.

Post-Mahathir

Abdullah Ahmad Badawi served as the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2003 to 2009.
Najib Tun Razak served as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2009 to 2018.

After Mahathir stepped down as President of UMNO in 2003, he was replaced by his designated successor, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who by virtue of his new position also became Prime Minister of Malaysia. Najib Razak, the son of Tun Abdul Razak, took over as the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia.

In the 11th general election in 2004, Barisan Nasional, under Abdullah's leadership, enjoyed a landslide victory. However, in the 12th general election in 2008, the coalition for the first time fell short of a two-thirds majority in the Parliament. UMNO Chief Ministers were ousted in the states of Selangor, Perak, Penang and Kedah. As a result, Abdullah resigned as President of UMNO and Prime Minister in 2009. He was succeeded by Najib.

Under Najib's leadership, UMNO gained a total of 9 seats in the 13th general election and retook the state of Kedah.

On 9 May 2018, Mahathir and the Pakatan Harapan coalition won the 14th General Election ending UMNO's 61 year long rule as part of the Alliance and later Barisan Nasional coalition. UMNO experienced a mass exodus of rank-and-file members, state chiefs, as well as Members of Parliament in favour of Mahathir's Bersatu and regionalist parties such as Parti Warisan Sabah in the months after the election.

In September 2019, UMNO decided to form a pact with the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party called Muafakat Nasional. Its main purpose is to unite the Malay Muslim communities for electoral purposes. There is however no formal agreement with the other parties of Barisan Nasional, although there are calls for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional. Barisan Nasional continued to function as a coalition of four parties comprising UMNO, MCA, MIC and PBRS, but aligned themselves with Perikatan Nasional to form a new government in March 2020 after the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government.

On 23 February 2020, Muafakat Nasional pact of UMNO and Parti Islam Se-Malaysia held extraordinary meetings in Janda Baik, Pahang, UMNO's supreme council at Putra World Trade Centre.

UMNO President, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi went to the Istana Negara in the evening to seek an audience with the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. After the meeting, several opposition party leaders, including UMNO Vice President Ismail Sabri Yaakob joined Azmin's supporters at Sheraton Hotel.

On 25 February, Following the first round of interviews, UMNO and PAS revealed that they have withdrawn their supports given earlier for Mahathir to continue as prime minister, and had instead called for parliament dissolution. It was previously reported that as all political factions voiced their support for Mahathir, he was about to establish a "unity government" that the two parties could not agree with. Annuar Musa, UMNO's secretary-general, said the basis of negotiations with Mahathir was that UMNO and PAS would lend their support to form an alternative coalition without DAP. Therefore, both PAS and UMNO declared their support for a snap election instead.

On 28 February, All the Muafakat Nasional MPs signed the new SD proposing Muhyiddin Yassin to be the 8th Prime Minister.

BERSATU President Muhyiddin Yassin and his allies including party leaders from UMNO, PAS, Gabungan Parti Sarawak, Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah, and Homeland Solidarity Party had an audience with the Agong. He also announced that his coalition consisting of Bersatu, UMNO, PAS, PBRS, GPS, and STAR will be called Perikatan Nasional.

On 30 June, Salleh Said Keruak, former Sabah Minister Chief & former UMNO member canceled his application to join PKR after thinking deeply and taking into account today's political landscape including PKR's internal turmoil. He said, the decision was made last April and with the cancellation he remained non-partisan since leaving UMNO in 2018. Previously, Salleh applied to join PKR in October last year.

On 24 July Zakaria Arshad, former CEO of FGV announced his departure from AMANAH to join UMNO. He said, the decision was made after he saw that the vision and objectives of Amanah were getting lost and not in line with his current position.

In Muhyiddin cabinet, which formed on 10 March 2020, six UMNO MP's became Ministers & eight UMNO MP's became Deputy Ministers.

On 8 July 2021, the UMNO made an official announcement to withdrew its supports towards the Muhyiddin government, citing the mismanagement of the COVID-19, the misuse of Emergency Declaration, and so on.

On 21 August 2021, Ismail Sabri was formally appointed and sworn in as the ninth prime minister of Malaysia.

2012 UMNO General Assembly

UMNO overtly represents the Malays of Malaysia, although any Bumiputra (indigenous Malaysian, a category which includes people such as the non-Malay and usually non-Muslim Kadazan, Iban, Dayak, etc. of East Malaysia) may join the party. The party propagates Ketuanan Melayu, the concept that the Bumiputra, including ethnic Malays, enjoy a special status within the country by virtue of their earlier settlement of the lands that now form Malaysia and as a result of the recognition of Malays in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia.

Challenge to UMNO's right to exist

Every year, UMNO is obliged to hold the General Assembly to extend their rule according to the Clauses set by the Registry of Societies (RoS) Malaysia. And once every five years, UMNO is obliged to appoint their highest bodies. The last time UMNO held the election of the highest division and council level was on 19 October 2013. So the new election was supposed to be held on 19 April 2018. Their application for the postponement of the election until 19 October 2019 has to be approved by RoS in accordance with Clause 10.16. But critics have claimed that this is illegal and supposedly the existence of an UMNO organisation is banned.

Keris Incident

Umno Youth Leader Hishammuddin Hussein waded into controversy by brandishing the keris, a Malay sword's and symbol of Malay nationalism, at UMNO's 2005 annual general meeting. In response to concerns over the racial rhetoric, then Vice-President Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said that "Although some sides were a bit extreme [this year], it is quite normal to voice feelings during the assembly." The racially provocative act was criticized by opposition politicians as well as some Chinese politicians from the Barisan Nasional coalition. In 2008, Hishammuddin conceded that the act had caused the coalition to lose support among non-Malay voters in that year's general election.

1MDB

Media reports from June 2018 indicated that the MACC froze bank accounts associated with UMNO, purportedly in relation to investigations into the 1MDB controversy.

Participation of 2018 Anti-ICERD Rally

Main article: 2018 anti-ICERD rally

In 2018, following the then-Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's announcement of the Seventh Mahathir cabinet's decision for the government to "ratify all remaining core UN instruments related to the protection of human rights", including International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and other five previously unratified conventions at a United Nations General Assembly, UMNO, PAS along with various non-governmental organisations, staged an Anti-ICERD Rally that was held at the Dataran Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur, to protest against the ratifications of the relevant international conventions, due to their perception that these human rights instruments contravene with the special position of the Malays, Bumiputera and Islam within the country; all of which are enshrined within the Malaysian Constitution.

2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

In February 2020, UMNO leaders Ahmad Zahid Hamidi and Ismail Sabri Yaakob, along with Bersatu President Muhyiddin Yassin, PAS President Abdul Hadi Awang and PKR defector members led by Azmin Ali, collectively convened at the Sheraton Petaling Jaya hotel to initiate a change in government, thus causing political instability by depriving the elected Pakatan Harapan government of a majority within the 14th Malaysian Parliament. As a result, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad (along with the Seventh Mahathir cabinet) tendered their resignation. In March 2020, after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong consulted all members of the 14th Malaysian Parliament, Muhyiddin Yassin was deemed to have the greatest support within Parliament and was selected as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia (without an electoral mandate).

In July 2021, further political instability ensued when UMNO, at the direction of its President Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, withdrew support for the government led by Muhyiddin along with his cabinet. Zahid claimed that as Muhyiddin failed to spearhead economic recovery and effectively handle the Covid-19 pandemic, therefore Zahid claimed Muhyiddin failed to fulfil the conditions underlined by UMNO when it backed Muhyiddin to become prime minister in March 2020. In August 2021, after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong required all members of the 14th Malaysian Parliament to submit a statutory declaration (SD) indicating their preference of Prime Minister, Ismail Sabri Yaakob possessed the greatest support within Parliament (with 114 affirmative SDs out of a possible 222) and was selected as the 9th Prime Minister of Malaysia (without an electoral mandate).

President

Wanita Chief

# Name Term start Term end
1 Putih Mariah Ibrahim Rashid 1947 1949
2 Zainon Munshi Sulaiman 1950 1953
3 Khadijah Sidek 1954 1956
4 Fatimah Hashim 1957 1972
5 Aishah Ghani 1972 1986
6 Rafidah Aziz 1987 1996
7 Siti Zaharah Sulaiman 1996 2000
8 Rafidah Aziz 2000 2009
9 Shahrizat Abdul Jalil 26 March 2009 24 June 2018
10 Noraini Ahmad 25 June 2018 Incumbent

Pemuda Chief

# Name Term start Term end
1 Hussein Onn 1949 1951
2 Abdul Razak Hussein 1951 1951
3 Sardon Jubir 1951 1964
4 Senu Abdul Rahman 1964 1971
5 Harun Idris 1971 1976
6 Syed Jaafar Albar 1976 1977
7 Suhaimi Kamaruddin 1977 1982
8 Anwar Ibrahim 1982 1987
9 Mohd Najib Abdul Razak 1987 1993
10 Rahim Thamby Chik 1993 1994
11 Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 1996 1998
12 Hishammuddin Hussein 1999 2009
13 Khairy Jamaluddin 26 March 2009 24 June 2018
14 Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki 25 June 2018 Incumbent

Puteri Chief

# Name Term start Term end
1 Azalina Othman Said 2001 2004
2 Noraini Ahmad 2004 2009
3 Rosnah Shirlin 26 March 2009 12 October 2013
4 Mas Ermieyati Samsudin 12 October 2013 25 June 2018
5 Zahida Zarik Khan 25 June 2018 Incumbent

Putera Chief

# Name Term start Term end
1 Mohammad Farhan Mokhali 1 June 2022 Incumbent

Current office bearer

Official source

Dewan Negara (Senate)

Senators

  1. Tengku Zafrul Aziz – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  2. Ahmad Masrizal Muhammad – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  3. Bashir Alias – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  4. Zunairah Musa – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  5. Arman Azha Abu Hanifah – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  6. Jefridin Atan – elected by the Johor State Legislative Assembly
  7. Mohamad Ali Mohamad – elected by the Malacca State Legislative Assembly
  8. Othman Aziz – elected by the Kedah State Legislative Assembly
  9. Mohd Hisamudin Yahaya – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  10. Junahis Abdul Aziz – elected by the Pahang State Legislative Assembly
  11. Ajis Sitin – elected by the Pahang State Legislative Assembly
  12. Aziz Ariffin – elected by the Perlis State Legislative Assembly
  13. Seruandi Saad – elected by the Perlis State Legislative Assembly
  14. Noraini Idris – elected by the Sabah State Legislative Assembly
  15. Shamsuddin Abdul Ghafar – elected by the Perak State Legislative Assembly
  16. Azhar Ahmad – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
  17. Mohd Ridhwan Mohd Ali – appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament

UMNO has 38 MPs in the House of Representatives.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
Perlis P001 Padang Besar Zahidi Zainul Abidin UMNO
P003 Arau Dr. Shahidan Kassim UMNO
Kedah P007 Padang Terap Mahdzir Khalid UMNO
P016 Baling Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim UMNO
Kelantan P026 Ketereh Annuar Musa UMNO
P029 Machang Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub UMNO
P032 Gua Musang Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah UMNO
Terengganu P033 Besut Idris Jusoh UMNO
Penang P041 Kepala Batas Reezal Merican Naina Merican UMNO
Perak P055 Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah UMNO
P061 Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz UMNO
P067 Kuala Kangsar Mastura Mohd. Yazid UMNO
P069 Parit Mohd. Nizar Zakaria UMNO
P073 Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman UMNO
P075 Bagan Datuk Dr. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi UMNO
Pahang P078 Cameron Highlands Ramli Mohd. Nor UMNO
P079 Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad UMNO
P081 Jerantut Ahmad Nazlan Idris UMNO
P084 Paya Besar Mohd. Shahar Abdullah UMNO
P085 Pekan Mohd. Najib Abdul Razak UMNO
P086 Maran Ismail Abdul Muttalib UMNO
P087 Kuala Krau Ismail Mohamed Said UMNO
P090 Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob UMNO
P091 Rompin Hasan Arifin UMNO
Selangor P095 Tanjong Karang Noh Omar UMNO
Putrajaya P125 Putrajaya Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor UMNO
Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu Jalaluddin Alias UMNO
P127 Jempol Mohd. Salim Shariff UMNO
P131 Rembau Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar UMNO
Malacca P139 Jasin Ahmad Hamzah UMNO
Johor P147 Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad UMNO
P153 Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein UMNO
P155 Tenggara Adham Baba UMNO
P156 Kota Tinggi Halimah Mohamed Sadique UMNO
P157 Pengerang Azalina Othman Said UMNO
P164 Pontian Ahmad Maslan UMNO
Sabah P176 Kimanis Mohamad Alamin UMNO
P187 Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin UMNO
Total Perlis (2), Kedah (2), Kelantan (3), Terengganu (1), Penang (1), Perak (7), Pahang (9), Selangor (1), F.T. Putrajaya (1), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (1), Johor (6), Sabah (2)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)

State No. Parliament Constituency No. State Constituency Member Party
Perlis P1 Padang Besar N2 Beseri Ruzaini Rais UMNO
N3 Chuping Asmaiza Ahmad UMNO
N4 Chuping (Mata Ayer) Siti Berenee Yahaya UMNO
N5 Santan Azizan Sulaiman UMNO
P2 Kangar N6 Bintong Azlan Man UMNO
N10 Kayang Hamizan Hassan UMNO
P3 Arau N11 Pauh Rozieana Ahmad UMNO
N12 Tambun Tulang Ismail Kassim UMNO
N14 Simpang Empat Nurulhisham Yaakob UMNO
Kedah P11 Pendang N19 Sungai Tiang Suraya Yaacob UMNO
P18 Kulim-Bandar Baharu N36 Bandar Baharu Norsabrina Mohd. Noor UMNO
Kelantan P26 Ketereh N25 Kok Lanas Md. Alwi Che Ahmad UMNO
P27 Tanah Merah N27 Gual Ipoh Bakri Mustapha UMNO
P30 Jeli N36 Bukit Bunga Mohd. Adhan Kechik UMNO
N38 Kuala Balah Abd Aziz Derashid UMNO
P32 Gua Musang N43 Nenggiri Ab. Aziz Yusoff UMNO
N44 Paloh Amran Ariffin UMNO
N45 Galas Mohd. Syahbuddin Hashim UMNO
Terengganu P33 Besut N1 Kuala Besut Tengku Zaihan Che Ku Abd. Raham UMNO
N3 Jertih Muhammad Pehimi Yusof UMNO
N4 Hulu Besut Nawi Mohamad UMNO
P34 Setiu N6 Permaisuri Abd Halim Jusoh UMNO
N7 Langkap Sabri Mohd. Noor UMNO
N8 Batu Rakit Bazlan Abd Rahman UMNO
P35 Kuala Nerus N11 Seberang Takir Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman UMNO
N12 Telemung Rozi Mamat UMNO
P39 Dungun N25 Bukit Besi Roslee Daud UMNO
P40 Kemaman N30 Kijal Ahmad Said UMNO
Penang P42 Tasek Gelugor N4 Permatang Berangan Nor Hafizah Othman UMNO
N5 Sungai Dua Muhamad Yusoff Mohd Noor UMNO
Perak P54 Gerik N1 Pengkalan Hulu Aznel Ibrahim UMNO
N2 Temenggor Salbiah Mohamed UMNO
P55 Lenggong N3 Kenering Mohd Tarmizi Idris UMNO
N4 Kota Tampan Saarani Mohammad UMNO
P56 Larut N7 Batu Kurau Muhammad Amin Zakaria UMNO
P58 Bagan Serai N10 Alor Pangsu Sham Mat Sahat UMNO
N12 Selinsing Mohamad Noor Dawoo UMNO
P59 Bukit Gantang N13 Kuala Sepetang Mohd Kamaruddin Abu Bakar UMNO
N14 Changkat Jering Ahmad Saidi Mohamad Daud UMNO
N15 Trong Jamilah Zakaria UMNO
P61 Padang Rengas N19 Chenderoh Zainun Mat Noor UMNO
N20 Lubok Merbau Jurij Jalaluddin UMNO
P62 Sungai Siput N21 Lintang Mohd Zolkafly Harun UMNO
P67 Kuala Kangsar N34 Bukit Chandan Maslin Sham Razman UMNO
N35 Manong Mohamed Zuraimi Razali UMNO
P68 Beruas N36 Pengkalan Baharu Abdul Manaf Hashim UMNO
P69 Parit N39 Belanja Khairudin Abu Hanipah UMNO
N40 Bota Khairul Shahril Mohamed UMNO
P72 Tapah N48 Ayer Kuning Samsudin Abu Hassan UMNO
P73 Pasir Salak N50 Kampong Gajah Wan Norashikin Wan Noordin UMNO
P74 Lumut N52 Pangkor Zambry Abdul Kadir UMNO
P75 Bagan Datuk N53 Rungkup Shahrul Zaman Yahya UMNO
N54 Hutan Melintang Khairuddin Tarmizi UMNO
P76 Teluk Intan N56 Changkat Jong Mohd Azhar Jamaluddin UMNO
P77 Tanjong Malim N58 Slim Mohd Zaidi Aziz UMNO
Pahang P78 Cameron Highlands N2 Jelai Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO
P79 Lipis N3 Padang Tengku Mustapa Long UMNO
N5 Benta Mohd. Soffi Abd. Razak UMNO
P80 Raub N6 Batu Talam Abd. Aziz Mat Kiram UMNO
N8 Dong Shahiruddin Ab Moin UMNO
P81 Jerantut N11 Pulau Tawar Nazri Ngah UMNO
P83 Kuantan N16 Inderapura Shafik Fauzan Sharif UMNO
P84 Paya Besar N17 Sungai Lembing Md. Sohaimi Mohamed Shah UMNO
N18 Lepar Abdul Rahim Muda UMNO
P85 Pekan N20 Pulau Manis Khairuddin Mahmud UMNO
N21 Peramu Jaya Sh. Mohamed Puzi Sh. Ali UMNO
N22 Bebar Mohd. Fakhruddin Mohd. Arif UMNO
N23 Chini Mohd Sharim Md Zain UMNO
P86 Maran N25 Kuala Sentul Shahaniza Shamsuddin UMNO
N27 Jenderak Mohamed Jaafar UMNO
P87 Kuala Krau N28 Kerdau Syed Ibrahim Syed Ahmad UMNO
P88 Temerloh N31 Lanchang Mohd Sharkar Shamsudin UMNO
N32 Kuala Semantan Nor Azmi Mat Ludin UMNO
P89 Bentong N36 Pelangai Adnan Yaakob UMNO
P90 Bera N37 Guai Norol Azali Sulaiman UMNO
N39 Kemayan Mohd. Fadil Osman UMNO
P91 Rompin N40 Bukit Ibam Samsiah Arshad UMNO
N41 Muadzam Shah Razali Kassim UMNO
N42 Tioman Mohd. Johari Hussain UMNO
Selangor P92 Sabak Bernam N1 Sungai Air Tawar Rizam Ismail UMNO
P93 Sungai Besar N3 Sungai Panjang Mohd Imran Tamrin UMNO
P94 Hulu Selangor N5 Hulu Bernam Rosni Sohar UMNO
P95 Tanjong Karang N8 Sungai Burong Mohd Shamsudin Lias UMNO
P101 Hulu Langat N24 Semenyih Zakaria Hanafi UMNO
Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N2 Pertang Noor Azmi Yusuf UMNO
N3 Sungai Lui Mohd Razi Mohd Ali UMNO
P127 Jempol N5 Serting Shamshulkahar Mohd. Deli UMNO
N6 Palong Mustafa Nagoor UMNO
P129 Kuala Pilah N15 Juasseh Ismail Lasim UMNO
N16 Seri Menanti Abdul Samad Ibrahim UMNO
N17 Senaling Adnan Abu Hasan UMNO
N19 Johol Saiful Yazan Sulaiman UMNO
P131 Rembau N26 Chembong Zaifulbahri Idris UMNO
N27 Rantau Mohamad Hasan UMNO
N28 Kota Awaludin Said UMNO
P132 Port Dickson N31 Bagan Pinang Tun Hairuddin Abu Bakar UMNO
N32 Linggi Abdul Rahman Mohd. Redza UMNO
P133 Tampin N34 Gemas Abdul Razak Said UMNO
N35 Gemencheh Mohd. Isam Mohd. Isa UMNO
Malacca P134 Masjid Tanah N1 Kuala Linggi Rosli Abdullah UMNO
N2 Tanjung Bidara Ab Rauf Yusoh UMNO
N3 Ayer Limau Hameed Basheer UMNO
N4 Lendu Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO
N5 Taboh Naning Zulkiflee Mohd Zin UMNO
P135 Alor Gajah N6 Rembia Muhammad Jailani Khamis UMNO
N9 Durian Tunggal Zahari Kalil UMNO
N10 Asahan Fairul Nizam Roslan UMNO
P136 Tangga Batu N12 Pantai Kundor Tuminah Kadi @ Mohd Hashim UMNO
N13 Paya Rumput Rais Yasin UMNO
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N15 Pengkalan Batu Kalsom Noordin UMNO
N18 Ayer Molek Rahmad Mariman UMNO
P138 Kota Melaka N21 Duyong Mohd Noor Helmy Abu Halen UMNO
N23 Telok Mas Abdul Razak Abdul Rahman UMNO
P139 Jasin N25 Rim Khaidhirah Abu Zahar UMNO
N26 Serkam Zaidi Attan UMNO
N27 Merlimau Muhamad Akmal Saleh UMNO
N28 Sungai Rambai Siti Faizah Abdul Azis UMNO
Johor P140 Segamat N01 Buloh Kasap Zahari Sarip UMNO
P141 Sekijang N03 Pemanis Anuar Abdul Manap UMNO
P142 Labis N05 Tenang Haslinda Salleh UMNO
P143 Pagoh N08 Bukit Pasir Mohamad Fazli Mohamad Salleh UMNO
P144 Ledang N9 Gambir Sahrihan Jani UMNO
N11 Serom Khairin Nisa Ismail UMNO
P145 Bakri N14 Bukit Naning Fuad Tukirin UMNO
P146 Muar N16 Sungai Balang Selamat Takim UMNO
P147 Parit Sulong N17 Semerah Mohd Fared Mohd Khalid UMNO
N18 Sri Medan Zulkurnain Kamisan UMNO
P148 Ayer Hitam N20 Semarang Samsol Bari Jamali UMNO
P149 Sri Gading N21 Parit Yaani Mohd Najib Samuri UMNO
N22 Pasir Raja Nor Rashidah Ramli UMNO
P150 Batu Pahat N24 Senggarang Mohd Yusla Ismail UMNO
N25 Rengit Mohd Puad Zarkashi UMNO
P151 Simpang Renggam N26 Machap Onn Hafiz Ghazi UMNO
N27 Layang-Layang Abd Mutalip Abd Rahim UMNO
P152 Kluang N29 Mahkota Sharifah Azizah Syed Zain UMNO
P155 Tenggara N34 Panti Hahasrin Hashim UMNO
N35 Pasir Raja Rashidah Ismail UMNO
P156 Kota Tinggi N36 Sedili Muszaidi Makmor UMNO
N37 Johor Lama Norlizah Noh UMNO
P157 Pengerang N38 Penawar Fauziah Misri UMNO
N39 Tanjung Suarat Aznan Tamin UMNO
P158 Tebrau N40 Tiram Azizul Bachok UMNO
P159 Pasir Gudang N43 Permas Baharudin Mohd Taib UMNO
P160 Johor Bahru N44 Larkin Mohd Hairi Mad Shah UMNO
P161 Pulai N47 Kempas Ramlee Bohani UMNO
P162 Iskandar Puteri N49 Kota Iskandar Pandak Ahmad UMNO
P163 Kulai N50 Bukit Permai Mohd Jafni Md Shukor UMNO
P164 Pontian N53 Benut Hasni Mohammad UMNO
N54 Pulai Sebatang Hasrunizah Hassan UMNO
P165 Tanjung Piai N56 Kukup Jefridin Atan UMNO
Sabah P167 Kudat N2 Bengkoka Harun Durabi UMNO
P169 Kota Belud N9 Tempasuk Mohd Arsad Bistari UMNO
N10 Usukan Salleh Said Keruak UMNO
P170 Tuaran N13 Pantai Dalit Jasnih Daya UMNO
P171 Sepanggar N16 Karambunai Yakubah Khan UMNO
P173 Putatan N24 Tanjung Keramat Shahelmey Yahya UMNO
P175 Papar N29 Pantai Manis Mohd Tamin @ Tamin Zainal UMNO
P178 Sipitang N35 Sinduim Yusof Yacob UMNO
P183 Beluran N48 Sugut James Ratib UMNO
P184 Libaran N51 Sungai Manila Mokran Ingkat UMNO
N52 Sungai Sibuga Mohamad Hamsan Awang Supain UMNO
P187 Kinabatangan N58 Lamag Bung Mokhtar Radin UMNO
N59 Sukau Jafry Ariffin UMNO
P190 Tawau N67 Balung Hamild @ Hamid Awang UMNO
P191 Kalabakan N71 Tanjong Batu Andi Muhammad Suryady Bandy UMNO
- Nominated Member Raime Unggi UMNO
Nominated Member Suhaimi Nasir UMNO
Total Perlis (9), Kedah (2), Kelantan (7), Terengganu (10), Penang (2), Perak (25), Pahang (24), Selangor (5), Negeri Sembilan (15), Malacca (18), Johor (33), Sabah (17)
Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1955
34 / 52
589,933 58.90% 34 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1959
52 / 104
553,160 35.75% 18 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1964
59 / 104
458,854 38.10% 7 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1969
52 / 144
7 seats; Governing coalition
(Alliance Party)
Tunku Abdul Rahman
1974
62 / 144
10 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Abdul Razak Hussein
1978
70 / 154
8 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Hussein Onn
1982
70 / 154
; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1986
83 / 177
1,474,063 31.06% 13 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1990
71 / 180
12 seat; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1995
89 / 192
18 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
1999
72 / 193
17 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Mahathir Mohamad
2004
109 / 219
2,483,249 35.9% 37 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2008
79 / 222
2,381,725 29.33% 30 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2013
88 / 222
3,252,484 29.45% 9 seats; Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Najib Razak
2018
54 / 222
2,548,251 21.10% 34 seats; Opposition coalition,
later Governing coalition
(Barisan Nasional)
Najib Razak
State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu Penang Perak Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Johor Sabah Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1959
10 / 12
18 / 24
1 / 30
5 / 24
10 / 24
21 / 40
17 / 24
14 / 28
11 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1964
9 / 12
18 / 24
8 / 30
20 / 24
10 / 24
22 / 40
17 / 24
13 / 28
14 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1969
9 / 12
12 / 24
10 / 30
12 / 24
4 / 24
18 / 40
16 / 24
12 / 28
11 / 24
11 / 20
19 / 32
54 / 68
1974
8 / 12
12 / 26
13 / 36
18 / 28
9 / 27
22 / 42
23 / 32
19 / 33
15 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1978
10 / 12
14 / 26
22 / 36
27 / 28
9 / 27
23 / 42
24 / 32
19 / 33
15 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1982
9 / 12
19 / 26
22 / 36
22 / 28
10 / 27
24 / 42
24 / 32
20 / 33
15 / 24
13 / 20
20 / 32
1986
12 / 14
20 / 28
28 / 39
29 / 32
12 / 33
26 / 46
25 / 33
26 / 42
18 / 28
12 / 20
22 / 36
1990
12 / 14
22 / 28
0 / 39
22 / 32
12 / 33
27 / 46
25 / 33
26 / 42
18 / 28
12 / 20
21 / 36
1994
19 / 48
19 / 31
1995
13 / 15
26 / 36
6 / 43
24 / 32
12 / 33
30 / 52
28 / 38
30 / 48
20 / 32
16 / 25
25 / 40
1999
10 / 15
16 / 36
2 / 43
4 / 32
10 / 33
26 / 52
21 / 38
26 / 48
20 / 32
16 / 25
25 / 40
24 / 48
2004
12 / 15
23 / 36
21 / 45
27 / 32
14 / 40
34 / 59
31 / 42
35 / 56
22 / 36
18 / 28
33 / 56
32 / 60
2008
12 / 15
12 / 36
6 / 45
23 / 32
11 / 40
27 / 59
29 / 42
18 / 56
19 / 36
18 / 28
32 / 56
32 / 60
2013
12 / 15
19 / 36
12 / 45
17 / 32
10 / 40
30 / 59
28 / 42
12 / 56
21 / 36
17 / 28
32 / 56
31 / 60
2018
9 / 15
3 / 36
8 / 45
10 / 32
2 / 40
25 / 59
24 / 42
4 / 56
15 / 36
13 / 28
14 / 56
17 / 60
145 / 587
2020
14 / 73
14 / 31
2021
18 / 28
18 / 20
2022
33 / 56
33 / 37
  1. In 1972, the investment arm of UMNO bought out the Malaysian operations of Straits Times Press, which included Berita Harian. The bought over publications were placed under the management of the New Straits Times Press, which is also the name of its main publication
  2. belongs to the same parent company as Berita Harian.
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United Malays National Organisation Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from United Malay National Organisation The United Malays National Organisation Malay Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu Jawi ڤرتوبوهن كبڠساء ن ملايو برساتو abbreviated UMNO Jawi امنو ˈ ʌ m n oʊ or lesser known as PEKEMBAR Jawi ڤکمبر is a political party in Malaysia As the oldest continuous national political party within Malaysia since its inception in 1946 UMNO has once been called Malaysia s Grand Old Party 6 UMNO is a founding and the principal dominant member of the Barisan Nasional BN coalition which taken along with its predecessor Alliance had been the main governing party of Malaysia from the independence of Malaya in 1957 until its defeat in the 2018 general election From 1957 to 2018 every Prime Minister of Malaysia was also the President of UMNO It has since returned to power twice as a result of the 2020 2022 Malaysian political crisis firstly as a partner in a Perikatan Nasional led government and subsequently as the leading party in a BN led government with UMNO vice president Ismail Sabri serving as Prime Minister United Malays National OrganisationMalay namePertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu ڤرتوبوهن كبڠساء ن ملايو برساتوAbbreviationUMNO PEKEMBARPresidentAhmad Zahid HamidiChairpersonBadruddin AmiruldinSecretary GeneralAhmad MaslanFirst Deputy PresidentMohamad HasanSecond Deputy President Women Chief Noraini AhmadVice PresidentIsmail Sabri Yaakob Mahdzir Khalid Mohamed Khaled NordinTreasurer GeneralTengku Adnan Tengku MansorYouth ChiefAsyraf Wajdi Dusuki Pemuda Zahida Zarik Khan Puteri Mohammad Farhan Mokhali Putera FounderOnn JaafarFounded11 May 1946Legalised11 May 1946 13 February 1988 UMNO Baru Preceded byUnited Malays Organisation USNO in Sabah BERJAYA in Sabah HeadquartersTingkat 38 Menara Dato Onn Putra World Trade Centre Jalan Tun Ismail 50480 Kuala LumpurNewspaperNew Straits Times Berita Harian nb 1 Harian Metro nb 2 Youth wingPergerakan Pemuda UMNOWomen s wingWanita UMNOWomen s youth wingPergerakan Puteri UMNOStudent wingKelab Mahasiswa UMNOMembership 2021 3 39 Million 2 IdeologyKetuanan Melayu 3 4 Malay nationalismNational conservatism 5 Social conservatismPolitical positionRight wingReligionSunni IslamNational affiliationAlliance 1952 1973 Barisan Nasional since 1973 Muafakat Nasional since 2019 Perikatan Nasional 2020 2021 pro Ahmad Zahid Since 2020 pro Ismail Sabri Gabungan Rakyat Sabah since 2020 Colours Red and whiteSloganUnited Loyal In Service Bersatu Bersetia BerkhidmatAnthemBersatu Bersetia BerkhidmatDewan Negara 17 70Dewan Rakyat 38 222Dewan Undangan Negeri 167 607Chief minister of states5 13Party flagWebsiteumno wbr org wbr my umno online wbr myPolitics of MalaysiaPolitical partiesElections1 Red and white have been used since before independence UMNO s goals are to uphold the aspirations of Malay nationalism and the concept of Ketuanan Melayu as well as the dignity of race religion and country 7 The party also aspires to protect the Malay culture as the national culture and to uphold defend and expand Islam across Malaysia 8 9 In the 2018 UMNO leadership election which was considered by many as crucial to the party s progression former Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad Zahid Hamidi was elected UMNO president in a three cornered contest defeating former UMNO Youth Chief Khairy Jamaluddin and UMNO veteran Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah 10 Contents 1 History 1 1 Independence 1 2 Post separation 1 3 The New Economic Policy 1 4 UMNO Baru New UMNO 1 5 Post Mahathir 2 Ideology 3 Controversies 3 1 Challenge to UMNO s right to exist 3 2 Keris Incident 3 3 1MDB 3 4 Participation of 2018 Anti ICERD Rally 3 5 2020 2022 Malaysian political crisis 4 List of leaders 4 1 President 4 2 Wanita Chief 4 3 Pemuda Chief 4 4 Puteri Chief 4 5 Putera Chief 5 Structure and membership 5 1 Current office bearer 6 Elected representatives 6 1 Dewan Negara Senate 6 1 1 Senators 6 2 Dewan Rakyat House of Representatives 6 2 1 Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament 6 3 Dewan Undangan Negeri State Legislative Assembly 7 UMNO state governments 8 General election results 9 State election results 10 Notes 11 References 12 Sources 13 External linksHistory EditAfter the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II the Malayan Union was formed However the Union was met with much opposition due to its constitutional framework which allegedly threatened Malay sovereignty over Malaya A series of Malay congresses were held culminating in the formation of the nationalist party UMNO on 10 May 1946 at the Third Malay Congress in Johor Bahru with Datuk Onn Jaafar as its leader UMNO strongly opposed the Malayan Union but originally did not seek political power UMNO had no choice but continue playing a supporting role to the British colonial administration The British cooperated with UMNO leaders and helped to defeat the communist insurgency 11 In 1949 after the Malayan Union had been replaced by the semi autonomous Federation of Malaya UMNO shifted its focus to politics and governance According to at least one official school textbook published during UMNO s time in government the party fought for other races once they were at the helm of the country 12 In 1951 Onn Jaafar left UMNO after failing to open its membership to non Malay Malayans to form the Independence of Malaya Party 13 Tunku Abdul Rahman replaced Dato Onn as UMNO President In the following year the Kuala Lumpur branch of UMNO formed an ad hoc and temporary electoral pact with the Selangor branch of Malayan Chinese Association to avoid contesting the same seats in the Kuala Lumpur municipal council elections 14 UMNO and MCA eventually carried nine out of the twelve seats dealing a crushing blow to the IMP After several other successes in local council elections the coalition was formalised as an Alliance in 1954 15 In 1954 state elections were held In these elections the Alliance won 226 of the 268 seats nationwide In the same year a Federal Legislative Council was formed comprising 100 seats 52 would be elected and the rest would be appointed by the British High Commissioner The Alliance demanded that 60 of the seats be elected but despite the Tunku flying out to London to negotiate the British held firm Elections for the council were held in 1955 and the Alliance which had now expanded to include the Malayan Indian Congress issued a manifesto stating its goals of achieving independence by 1959 requiring a minimum of primary school education for all children protecting the rights of the Malay rulers as constitutional monarchs ending the Communist emergency and reforming the civil service through the hiring of more Malayans as opposed to foreigners 16 17 When the results were released it emerged that the Alliance had won 51 of the 52 seats contested with the other seat going to PAS the Pan Malayan Islamic Party a group of Islamists that split from UMNO The Tunku became the first Chief Minister of Malaya 18 Throughout this period the Malayan Emergency had been on going The Malayan National Liberation Army MNLA the armed wing of the Malayan Communist Party MCP committed sabotage campaigns against the British by disrupting transportation and communication networks attacking police stations burning down factories with the goal of gaining independence for Malaya by making British rule in Malaya too expensive to maintain The colonial government declared the MCP along with several left wing political groups illegal in 1948 In 1955 the Alliance government together with the British High Commissioner declared an amnesty for the communist insurgents who surrendered Representatives from the Alliance government also met with leaders of the MCP in an attempt to resolve the conflict peacefully as their manifesto in the election stated Chin Peng the MCP Secretary General insisted that the MCP be allowed to contest elections and be declared a legal political party as a pre condition to laying down arms However the Tunku rejected this leading to an impasse 19 In 1956 the Tunku led a group of negotiators comprising Alliance politicians and representatives of the Malay rulers to London There they brokered a deal with the British government for independence The date of independence was set as 31 August 1957 on the condition that an independent commission is set up to draft a constitution for the country The Alliance government was also required to avoid seizing British and other foreign assets in Malaya A defence treaty would also be signed 20 The Reid Commission led by Lord William Reid was formed to draft the constitution Although enshrining concepts such as federalism and a constitutional monarchy the proposed constitution also contained provisions protecting special rights for the Malays such as quotas in admission to higher education and the civil service and making Islam the official religion of the federation It also made Malay the official language of the nation although the right to vernacular education in Chinese and Tamil would be protected Although the Tunku and the Malay rulers had asked the Reid Commission to ensure that in an independent Malaya all nationals should be accorded equal rights privileges and opportunities and there must not be discrimination on grounds of race and creed the Malay privileges which many in UMNO backed were cited as necessary by the Reid Commission as a form of affirmative action that would eventually be phased out These measures were included as Articles 3 152 and 153 of the Constitution 21 22 Independence was declared by the Tunku in Merdeka Stadium on 31 August 1957 marking a transition into a new era of Malayan and Malaysian politics Independence Edit Tunku Abdul Rahman first Prime Minister of Malaya In Malaya s first general elections in 1959 the Alliance coalition led by UMNO won 51 8 of the votes and captured 74 out of 104 seats enough for a two thirds majority in parliament which would not only allow them to form the government again but amend the constitution at will However for the Alliance the election was marred by internal strife when MCA leader Lim Chong Eu demanded his party be allowed to contest 40 of the 104 seats available When the Tunku rejected this many of Lim s supporters resigned and ran in the election as independents which cost the Alliance some seats 23 In 1961 the Tunku mooted the idea of forming a federation named Malaysia which would consist of the British colonies of Singapore Sabah Sarawak and also the British Protectorate of Brunei The reasoning behind this was that this would allow the federal government to control and combat communist activities especially in Singapore It was also feared that if Singapore achieved independence it would become a base for Chinese chauvinists to threaten Malayan sovereignty To balance out the ethnic composition of the new nation the other states whose Malay and indigenous populations would balance out the Singaporean Chinese majority were also included 24 After much negotiation a constitution was hammered out with some minor changes For instance the Malay privileges were now made available to all Bumiputra a group comprising the Malays and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia However the new states were also granted some autonomy unavailable to the original nine states of Malaya After negotiations in July 1963 it was agreed that Malaysia would come into being on 31 August 1963 consisting of Malaya Singapore Sabah and Sarawak Brunei ultimately decided to opt out of the federation due in part to an armed revolt by the People s Party Parti Rakyat Brunei which objected to the formation of Malaysia 25 and the Sultan of Brunei Omar Ali Saifuddien III s demand that he be recognised as the most senior Malay ruler a demand that was rejected 26 The Philippines and Indonesia strenuously objected to this development with Indonesia claiming Malaysia represented a form of neocolonialism and the Philippines claiming Sabah as its territory The United Nations sent a commission to the region which approved the merger after having delayed the date of Malaysia s formation to investigate Despite further protests from the Indonesian President Sukarno the formation of Malaysia was proclaimed on 16 September 1963 Indonesia then declared a confrontation with Malaysia sending commandos to perform guerilla attacks in East Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak The confrontation was ended when Suharto replaced Sukarno as president The Philippines which had withdrawn diplomatic recognition from Malaysia also recognised Malaysia around the same time 27 To reflect the change of name to Malaysia UMNO s coalition partners promptly altered their names to the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Malaysian Indian Congress Several political parties in East Malaysia especially Sarawak also joined the Alliance to allow it to contest elections there In the 1963 Singapore state elections the Alliance decided to challenge Lee Kuan Yew s governing People s Action Party through the Singapore Alliance Party UMNO politicians actively campaigned in Singapore for the Singapore Alliance contending that the Singapore Malays were being treated as second class citizens under the Chinese dominated PAP government All of the UMNO backed Malay candidates lost to PAP candidates UMNO Secretary General Syed Jaafar Albar travelled to Singapore to address the Malay populace At one rally he called the PAP Malay politicians un Islamic and traitors to the Malay race greatly straining PAP UMNO relations The PAP politicians who saw this as a betrayal of an earlier agreement with the Alliance not to contest elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively decided on running on the mainland in the 1964 general election Although the PAP contested nine Parliamentary seats and attracted large crowds at its rallies it won only one seat The strain in race relations caused by the communal lines along which the political factions had been drawn led to the 1964 Race Riots in Singapore Alliance leaders also were alarmed at Lee s behaviour which they considered unseemly for the Chief Minister of a state They thought he was acting as if he were the Prime Minister of a sovereign nation Finance Minister Tan Siew Sin of the MCA labelled Lee as the greatest disruptive force in the entire history of Malaysia and Malaya Lee now seemed determined to press forward politically and continue contesting elections nationwide with the formation of the Malaysian Solidarity Council a coalition of political parties which called for a Malaysian Malaysia duplicating the effort introduced earlier by Dato Onn Ja afar On 7 August 1965 Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia Despite last ditch attempts by PAP leaders including Lee Kuan Yew to keep Singapore as a state in the union the Parliament on 9 August 1965 voted 126 0 in favour of the expulsion of Singapore Tunku opened his speech in Parliament with the words In all the 10 years of my leadership of this House I have never had a duty so unpleasant as this to perform The announcement which I am making concerns the separation of Singapore from the rest of the Federation 28 29 On that day Lee Kuan Yew announced that Singapore was a sovereign independent nation and assumed the role of prime minister After the separation and independence of Singapore in 1965 the Singapore branch of UMNO was renamed the Singapore Malay National Organisation Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura Post separation Edit After the separation of Singapore from the Federation the Alliance leaders focused on continuing its policies One involved the Malay language which was the official language of Malaysia UMNO sought to reduce the reliance on English in government affairs In this it was aided by PAS the Pan Malaysian Islamic Party which backed special rights for the Bumiputra and the strengthening of Islam s position in public affairs However the PAP s Malaysian branch which had now become Democratic Action Party DAP took a very strong stance against this and continued the expelled PAP s call for a Malaysian Malaysia In 1968 the newly formed Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia or Gerakan led by Lim Chong Eu also adopted the DAP s stance 30 Matters came to a head in the 1969 general election When polling closed on the mainland peninsula West Malaysia on 10 May it emerged the Alliance had won less than half of the popular vote although it was assured of 66 out of 104 Parliamentary seats available Much of the losses came from the MCA thus straining relations between the two parties clarification needed However the Alliance was dealt an even larger blow on the state level losing control of Kelantan Perak and Penang 31 The Yang di Pertuan Agong King declared a national emergency after being advised by the national government to do so Parliament was suspended with a National Operations Council NOC led by Deputy Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak of UMNO taking over the government Further polling in East Malaysia as a continuation of the general election was also postponed indefinitely Although the Cabinet still met under the Tunku as Prime Minister his role was largely symbolic with Tun Razak taking over the role of chief executive 32 UMNO backbencher Mahathir Mohamad who had lost his Parliamentary seat in the election wrote a letter to the Tunku criticising his leadership Mahathir organised a campaign with University of Malaya lecturer Raja Muktaruddin Daim circulating his letter among the student bodies of local universities Mass demonstrations broke out calling for Malay sovereignty and the Tunku s ousting After rioting broke out in June Home Affairs Minister Ismail Abdul Rahman and Tun Razak agreed to expel Mahathir and former Executive Secretary of UMNO Musa Hitam from the party for breaching party discipline The suspended elections in East Malaysia were held in 1970 and restored the Alliance government s two thirds majority in parliament On 31 August that year the Tunku announced the national ideology of Rukunegara and his planned retirement as Prime Minister in favour of Tun Razak He also stated Parliament would be restored the following year 33 The New Economic Policy Edit After Tun Razak succeeded the Tunku in 1970 he began asserting UMNO s leadership in the Alliance more strongly When the Tunku led the coalition he had always consulted Alliance leaders regarding policy if an Alliance leader objected the policy was not passed Under Tun Razak UMNO was the base of the Alliance and thus the government The NOC which he led until Parliament reconvened consisted of 7 Malays one Chinese and one Indian 34 In Tun Razak s cabinet the two most powerful men other than him were Ismail Abdul Rahman and Ghazali Shafie who had declared the Westminster style Parliamentary system inappropriate for Malaysia Tun Razak also readmitted to the party ultras who had been expelled like Mahathir and Musa Hitam Mahathir gained notoriety after his expulsion from UMNO by authoring The Malay Dilemma a book promptly banned from Malaysia which posited that the Malays are the definitive people of Malaysia and thus deserved special rights as the sovereign people of the nation It also controversially argued that the Malays needed affirmative action to overcome deficiencies in their genetic stock 35 Hussein Onn son of UMNO founder Dato Onn Ja afar soon became a rising star in UMNO After Ismail died suddenly of a heart attack in 1973 Hussein Onn succeeded him as Deputy Prime Minister In the cabinet reshuffle that promoted Hussein Onn Mahathir was given the key post of Minister for Education 36 The Tun Razak government announced the New Economic Policy in 1971 Its stated goal was to eventually eradicate poverty irrespective of race through a rapidly expanding economy which emphasised to increase the Malays share in the national economy to a reasonable portion between all the races The NEP targeted a 30 per cent Malay share of the economy by 1990 The government contended that this would lead to a just society Masyarakat Adil the latter slogan being used to promote acceptance of the policy Quotas in education and the civil service that the Constitution had explicitly provided for were expanded by the NEP which also mandated government interference in the private sector For instance 30 of all shares in initial public offerings would be disbursed by the government to selective Bumiputras The old civil service hiring quota of 4 Malays for every non Malay s was effectively disregarded in practice between 1969 and 1973 98 of all new government employees were Malay Five new universities were opened under the NEP two of which were targeted to focus on the poor Malays and Muslim citizens 37 Tun Razak also began shoring up the government by bringing in several former opposition parties into the fold of the Alliance Gerakan PPP PAS and several former opposition parties in East Malaysia joined the coalition which was renamed as Barisan Nasional Barisan was formally registered as an organisation in 1974 the same year in which a general election was held 38 There had been much internal conflict in the National Front regarding the election in 1973 Lim Keng Yaik and several supporters of his aggressive pro Chinese stance left the MCA for Gerakan This contributed to internal strife as the MCA was no longer the sole representative of Chinese interests in the National Front 39 Discontent among student organisations in Malaysian universities soon posed a new problem for the UMNO led government However Mahathir in his capacity as Minister for Education issued a stern warning to university students and faculty not to become involved in politics However after stories that children of rubber tappers had died after consuming poisonous wild yam due to poverty university students reacted by staging the 1974 Baling demonstrations The demonstrations resulted in the arrest of over 1 000 students including Anwar Ibrahim who wasdetained under the Internal Security Act In 1975 parliament passed amendments to the Universities and University Colleges Act which banned students from expressing support of or holding positions in any political party or trade union without written consent from the university s Vice Chancellor 40 The act also banned political demonstrations from being held on university campuses In 1976 however mass demonstrations were held at the MARA Institute of Technology protesting the UUCA Mahathir then threatened to revoke the scholarships of the students most of whom relied on public support to pay their way through university 41 BN was also challenged in Sarawak after the 1974 election which saw the Sarawak National Party led by James Wong become tied with the DAP as the largest opposition party in Parliament both of them holding nine seats each SNAP had campaigned against BN on a platform of opposing Chief Minister Abdul Rahman Ya kub s pro Malay policies charging them with alienating the rural indigenous natives of Sarawak such as the Iban SNAP had been expelled from the Alliance in 1965 for supporting increased autonomy for Sarawak In the aftermath of the election Abdul Rahman ordered the detention of James Wong under the Sedition Act SNAP elected a new leader Leo Moggie who secured the release of Wong and the entry of SNAP into BN in 1976 42 In Sabah BN controlled the state government through the United Sabah National Organisation USNO which strongly backed UMNO s pro Malay and pro Islam policies In 1973 Islam was made the official Sabah state religion the official religion of Sabah was originally Christianity as permitted by the agreement signed before the merger and usage of indigenous languages such as those of the Kadazan people was discontinued in favour of the Malay language The USNO Chief Minister Mustapha Harun was also known for favouring political patronage as a means of allocating valuable timber contracts and living an extravagant lifestyle being ferried to his A 1 million Queensland home by jets provided with Sabahan public funds 43 UMNO Baru New UMNO Edit Mahathir Mohamad Further information 1987 United Malays National Organisation leadership election and 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis On 24 April 1987 UMNO held its Annual General Assembly and triennial Party election The then Prime Minister and party President Mahathir Mohamad faced his first party election in 12 years having been elected unopposed since the 1975 UMNO election The politics of the Malays particularly UMNO politics had undergone a sea change in the first few years of the Mahathir stewardship and the party presidency was challenged for the second time in 41 years The first challenge was a dull affair in which Hussein Onn was opposed by a minor party official named Sulaiman Palestin In fact in the early 1950s Tunku Abdul Rahman s presidency had also been challenged by C M Yusof who later became the Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat but Tunku was not properly considered an incumbent then being only a care taker president The 1987 contest was a vastly different matter Mahathir was opposed by his very popular former Finance Minister Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah The press took to referring to Mahathir and his supporters as Team A and Razaleigh s camp as Team B Team B included then Deputy Prime Minister Tun Musa Hitam who was also the incumbent Deputy President of UMNO seeking re election as well as Datuk Suhaimi Kamaruddin the former head of UMNO Youth and president of the Belia 4B youth organisation 44 Team B was critical of Mahathir s policies arguing that the Malaysian New Economic Policy had failed to benefit the poor Malays It also criticised Mahathir s leadership style alleging he acted unilaterally without consulting other leaders in UMNO and the Barisan Nasional Team B was also perceived as less Islamist than Mahathir s faction 45 Mahathir claimed that the charges against him were groundless and suggested that his opponents were fracturing Malay unity and were only motivated by greed 45 Eventually Mahathir was returned to office However he was elected with such a small majority of 43 761 against 718 votes that questions were immediately raised about his mandate Team B supporters many of whom had been anticipating a victory of similar margins suspected that the election had been fixed The Team B candidate for Deputy President Musa Hitam had also been defeated by Ghafar Baba of Team A while two of the three vice presidents were Team A candidates The Supreme Council comprised 16 Team A candidates and 9 Team B candidates 46 Allegations were made that several delegates who had voted were drawn from UMNO branches not properly registered There were also several unproved allegations being bandied about that the balloting process had not been above board 47 Nevertheless Razaleigh pledged to support Mahathir provided that a witch hunt was not launched However Mahathir promptly purged the government cabinet of all Team B members and launched similar reshuffles in state and local governments 48 On 25 June 1987 an appeal was filed by 12 of the UMNO delegates to have the assembly and the election of April 1987 declared null After one of the delegates Hussain bin Manap withdrew unexpectedly in August from filing the appeal the remaining litigants have since become famous as the UMNO 11 Although Razaleigh and Musa Hitam were not among the plaintiffs it was widely believed that Razaleigh was funding the appeal 47 After a series of interlocutory hearings over the discovery of documents that took more than seven months the matter finally came before Justice Harun Hashim in the Kuala Lumpur High Court on 4 February 1988 The judge ruled that under the existing law he had no option but to find the party UMNO to be an unlawful society due to the existence of several unregistered branches an illegal act under the Societies Act of 1966 The question of the Assembly itself being illegal therefore became academic 49 It is a very hard decision to declare UMNO unlawful said Justice Datuk Harun Hashim in his February 4 judgement But the law was made by our Parliament and certainly UMNO was aware of the Societies Act because they were in the majority in Parliament at all times when the law was made Under the 1966 Act amended five times over the years and most recently by Mahathir s government each of the society s branches has to register separately with the Registrar 49 The Tunku and former UMNO President Hussein Onn set up a new party called UMNO Malaysia which claimed to be the successor to the old UMNO UMNO Malaysia was supported mainly by members of the Team B faction from UMNO but Mahathir was also invited to join the party leadership However the party collapsed after the Registrar of Societies refused to register it as a society without providing an explanation 50 Mahathir showed no interest in reviving UMNO and instead he set in motion the machinery to form a new surrogate party and in due course registered a party formally called Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu Baru or UMNO New a week after UMNO Malaysia s registration was rejected Eventually the suffix New was dropped and UMNO Baru became both the de facto and de jure successor of original UMNO dropping the Baru suffix with the old UMNO s assets handed over 51 Most of its leaders however were selected from Team A of the old UMNO with Team B ignored 52 In 10th general election in 1999 rocked by the arrest and trial of former UMNO deputy Anwar Ibrahim and the subsequent formation of the Barisan Alternatif opposition coalition UMNO s share dipped to 54 of the vote and 102 out of 144 seats Post Mahathir Edit Abdullah Ahmad Badawi served as the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2003 to 2009 Najib Tun Razak served as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2009 to 2018 After Mahathir stepped down as President of UMNO in 2003 he was replaced by his designated successor Abdullah Ahmad Badawi who by virtue of his new position also became Prime Minister of Malaysia Najib Razak the son of Tun Abdul Razak took over as the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia In the 11th general election in 2004 Barisan Nasional under Abdullah s leadership enjoyed a landslide victory However in the 12th general election in 2008 the coalition for the first time fell short of a two thirds majority in the Parliament UMNO Chief Ministers were ousted in the states of Selangor Perak Penang and Kedah As a result Abdullah resigned as President of UMNO and Prime Minister in 2009 He was succeeded by Najib Under Najib s leadership UMNO gained a total of 9 seats in the 13th general election and retook the state of Kedah On 9 May 2018 Mahathir and the Pakatan Harapan coalition won the 14th General Election ending UMNO s 61 year long rule as part of the Alliance and later Barisan Nasional coalition 53 UMNO experienced a mass exodus of rank and file members state chiefs as well as Members of Parliament in favour of Mahathir s Bersatu and regionalist parties such as Parti Warisan Sabah in the months after the election 54 55 56 In September 2019 UMNO decided to form a pact with the Pan Malaysian Islamic Party called Muafakat Nasional Its main purpose is to unite the Malay Muslim communities for electoral purposes 57 There is however no formal agreement with the other parties of Barisan Nasional although there are calls for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional 58 59 Barisan Nasional continued to function as a coalition of four parties comprising UMNO MCA MIC and PBRS but aligned themselves with Perikatan Nasional to form a new government in March 2020 after the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government 60 On 23 February 2020 Muafakat Nasional pact of UMNO and Parti Islam Se Malaysia held extraordinary meetings in Janda Baik Pahang UMNO s supreme council at Putra World Trade Centre 61 UMNO President Ahmad Zahid Hamidi went to the Istana Negara in the evening to seek an audience with the Yang di Pertuan Agong After the meeting several opposition party leaders including UMNO Vice President Ismail Sabri Yaakob joined Azmin s supporters at Sheraton Hotel 62 On 25 February Following the first round of interviews UMNO and PAS revealed that they have withdrawn their supports given earlier for Mahathir to continue as prime minister and had instead called for parliament dissolution 63 It was previously reported that as all political factions voiced their support for Mahathir he was about to establish a unity government that the two parties could not agree with 64 65 Annuar Musa UMNO s secretary general said the basis of negotiations with Mahathir was that UMNO and PAS would lend their support to form an alternative coalition without DAP Therefore both PAS and UMNO declared their support for a snap election instead 66 On 28 February All the Muafakat Nasional MPs signed the new SD proposing Muhyiddin Yassin to be the 8th Prime Minister 67 BERSATU President Muhyiddin Yassin and his allies including party leaders from UMNO PAS Gabungan Parti Sarawak Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah and Homeland Solidarity Party had an audience with the Agong 68 69 He also announced that his coalition consisting of Bersatu UMNO PAS PBRS GPS and STAR will be called Perikatan Nasional On 30 June Salleh Said Keruak former Sabah Minister Chief amp former UMNO member canceled his application to join PKR after thinking deeply and taking into account today s political landscape including PKR s internal turmoil He said the decision was made last April and with the cancellation he remained non partisan since leaving UMNO in 2018 Previously Salleh applied to join PKR in October last year 70 On 24 July Zakaria Arshad former CEO of FGV announced his departure from AMANAH to join UMNO He said the decision was made after he saw that the vision and objectives of Amanah were getting lost and not in line with his current position 71 In Muhyiddin cabinet which formed on 10 March 2020 six UMNO MP s became Ministers amp eight UMNO MP s became Deputy Ministers On 8 July 2021 the UMNO made an official announcement to withdrew its supports towards the Muhyiddin government 72 citing the mismanagement of the COVID 19 the misuse of Emergency Declaration and so on 73 On 21 August 2021 Ismail Sabri was formally appointed and sworn in as the ninth prime minister of Malaysia 74 Ideology EditSee also Malay Islamic identity 2012 UMNO General Assembly UMNO overtly represents the Malays of Malaysia although any Bumiputra indigenous Malaysian a category which includes people such as the non Malay and usually non Muslim Kadazan Iban Dayak etc of East Malaysia may join the party The party propagates Ketuanan Melayu the concept that the Bumiputra including ethnic Malays enjoy a special status within the country by virtue of their earlier settlement of the lands that now form Malaysia and as a result of the recognition of Malays in Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia 75 Controversies EditChallenge to UMNO s right to exist Edit Every year UMNO is obliged to hold the General Assembly to extend their rule according to the Clauses set by the Registry of Societies RoS Malaysia And once every five years UMNO is obliged to appoint their highest bodies The last time UMNO held the election of the highest division and council level was on 19 October 2013 So the new election was supposed to be held on 19 April 2018 Their application for the postponement of the election until 19 October 2019 has to be approved by RoS in accordance with Clause 10 16 But critics have claimed that this is illegal and supposedly the existence of an UMNO organisation is banned 76 77 Keris Incident Edit Umno Youth Leader Hishammuddin Hussein waded into controversy by brandishing the keris a Malay sword s and symbol of Malay nationalism at UMNO s 2005 annual general meeting In response to concerns over the racial rhetoric then Vice President Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said that Although some sides were a bit extreme this year it is quite normal to voice feelings during the assembly 78 The racially provocative act was criticized by opposition politicians as well as some Chinese politicians from the Barisan Nasional coalition 79 In 2008 Hishammuddin conceded that the act had caused the coalition to lose support among non Malay voters in that year s general election 80 1MDB Edit Main article 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal Media reports from June 2018 indicated that the MACC froze bank accounts associated with UMNO purportedly in relation to investigations into the 1MDB controversy 81 Participation of 2018 Anti ICERD Rally Edit Main article 2018 anti ICERD rally In 2018 following the then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad s announcement of the Seventh Mahathir cabinet s decision for the government to ratify all remaining core UN instruments related to the protection of human rights including International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ICERD and other five previously unratified conventions at a United Nations General Assembly UMNO PAS along with various non governmental organisations staged an Anti ICERD Rally that was held at the Dataran Merdeka Kuala Lumpur to protest against the ratifications of the relevant international conventions due to their perception that these human rights instruments contravene with the special position of the Malays Bumiputera and Islam within the country all of which are enshrined within the Malaysian Constitution 82 83 84 2020 2022 Malaysian political crisis Edit Main article 2020 2022 Malaysian political crisis In February 2020 UMNO leaders Ahmad Zahid Hamidi and Ismail Sabri Yaakob along with Bersatu President Muhyiddin Yassin PAS President Abdul Hadi Awang and PKR defector members led by Azmin Ali collectively convened at the Sheraton Petaling Jaya hotel to initiate a change in government thus causing political instability by depriving the elected Pakatan Harapan government of a majority within the 14th Malaysian Parliament As a result Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad along with the Seventh Mahathir cabinet tendered their resignation 85 86 87 In March 2020 after the Yang di Pertuan Agong consulted all members of the 14th Malaysian Parliament Muhyiddin Yassin was deemed to have the greatest support within Parliament and was selected as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia without an electoral mandate 88 89 In July 2021 further political instability ensued when UMNO at the direction of its President Ahmad Zahid Hamidi withdrew support for the government led by Muhyiddin along with his cabinet Zahid claimed that as Muhyiddin failed to spearhead economic recovery and effectively handle the Covid 19 pandemic therefore Zahid claimed Muhyiddin failed to fulfil the conditions underlined by UMNO when it backed Muhyiddin to become prime minister in March 2020 90 91 92 In August 2021 after the Yang di Pertuan Agong required all members of the 14th Malaysian Parliament to submit a statutory declaration SD indicating their preference of Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob possessed the greatest support within Parliament with 114 affirmative SDs out of a possible 222 and was selected as the 9th Prime Minister of Malaysia without an electoral mandate 93 List of leaders EditPresident Edit Further information President of the United Malays National Organisation Wanita Chief Edit 94 Name Term start Term end1 Putih Mariah Ibrahim Rashid 1947 19492 Zainon Munshi Sulaiman 1950 19533 Khadijah Sidek 1954 19564 Fatimah Hashim 1957 19725 Aishah Ghani 1972 19866 Rafidah Aziz 1987 19967 Siti Zaharah Sulaiman 1996 20008 Rafidah Aziz 2000 20099 Shahrizat Abdul Jalil 26 March 2009 24 June 201810 Noraini Ahmad 25 June 2018 IncumbentPemuda Chief Edit 95 Name Term start Term end1 Hussein Onn 1949 19512 Abdul Razak Hussein 1951 19513 Sardon Jubir 1951 19644 Senu Abdul Rahman 1964 19715 Harun Idris 1971 19766 Syed Jaafar Albar 1976 19777 Suhaimi Kamaruddin 1977 19828 Anwar Ibrahim 1982 19879 Mohd Najib Abdul Razak 1987 199310 Rahim Thamby Chik 1993 199411 Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 1996 199812 Hishammuddin Hussein 1999 200913 Khairy Jamaluddin 26 March 2009 24 June 201814 Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki 25 June 2018 IncumbentPuteri Chief Edit 96 Name Term start Term end1 Azalina Othman Said 2001 20042 Noraini Ahmad 2004 20093 Rosnah Shirlin 26 March 2009 12 October 20134 Mas Ermieyati Samsudin 12 October 2013 25 June 20185 Zahida Zarik Khan 25 June 2018 IncumbentPutera Chief Edit Name Term start Term end1 Mohammad Farhan Mokhali 1 June 2022 IncumbentStructure and membership EditCurrent office bearer Edit Official source Chairman of Advisory Council Vacant Permanent Chairman Badruddin Amiruldin Deputy Permanent Chairman Saripah Aminah Syed Mohamad President Ahmad Zahid Hamidi Deputy President Mohamad Hasan Noraini Ahmad Vice president Ismail Sabri Yaakob Mohamed Khaled Nordin Mahdzir Khalid Women Chief Noraini Ahmad Youth Chief Asyraf Wajdi Dusuki Women s Youth Chief Zahida Zarik Khan Men s Youth Chief Mohammad Farhan Mohkali Secretary General Ahmad Maslan Treasurer General Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor Information Chief Shahril Sufian Hamdan Executive Secretary Mohd Sumali Reduan Election Director Mohamad Hasan State Chairman Perlis Azlan Man Kedah Jamil Khir Baharom Kelantan Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub Terengganu Ahmad Said Penang Musa Sheikh Fadzir Perak Saarani Mohamad Pahang Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail Selangor Noh Omar Federal Territory Johari Abdul Ghani Negeri Sembilan Mohamad Hasan Malacca Ab Rauf Yusoh Johor Hasni Mohammad Sabah Bung Moktar Radin Supreme Council Members elected Zambry Abdul Kadir Shamsul Anuar Nasarah Reezal Merican Naina Merican Mohd Sharkar Shamsudin Razali Ibrahim Abdul Rahman Dahlan Azalina Othman Said Md Alwi Che Ahmad Bung Moktar Radin Rosnah Abdul Rashid Shirlin Noh Omar Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim Ahmad Shabery Cheek Jamil Khir Baharom Fathul Bari Mat Jahya Azian Osman Khaidiriah Abu Zahar Ahmad Maslan Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub Jalaluddin Alias Hasni Mohammad Zahidi Zainul Abidin Suraya Yaacob Supreme Council Members appointed Norliza Abdul Rahim Rais Mohd Yassin Nurul Amal Mohd Fauzi Tajuddin Abdul Rahman Johan Abdul Aziz Abdul Rahman Mohamad Arman Azha Abu Hanifah Rosni Sohar Mohd Puad Zarkashi Shaik Hussein Mydin Yakubah Khan Mohd Razlan Muhammad Rafii Annuar Musa Ismail Lasim Rizam Ismail Supreme Council Members in attending Musa Sheikh Fadzir Saarani Mohamad Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail Johari Abdul Ghani Ab Rauf Yusoh Azlan ManElected representatives EditDewan Negara Senate Edit Senators Edit Main article Members of the Dewan Negara 14th Malaysian Parliament Tengku Zafrul Aziz appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Ahmad Masrizal Muhammad appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Bashir Alias appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Zunairah Musa appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Arman Azha Abu Hanifah appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Jefridin Atan elected by the Johor State Legislative Assembly Mohamad Ali Mohamad elected by the Malacca State Legislative Assembly Othman Aziz elected by the Kedah State Legislative Assembly Mohd Hisamudin Yahaya appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Junahis Abdul Aziz elected by the Pahang State Legislative Assembly Ajis Sitin elected by the Pahang State Legislative Assembly Aziz Ariffin elected by the Perlis State Legislative Assembly Seruandi Saad elected by the Perlis State Legislative Assembly Noraini Idris elected by the Sabah State Legislative Assembly Shamsuddin Abdul Ghafar elected by the Perak State Legislative Assembly Azhar Ahmad appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Mohd Ridhwan Mohd Ali appointed by the Yang di Pertuan Agong Dewan Rakyat House of Representatives Edit Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament Edit Main article Members of the Dewan Rakyat 14th Malaysian Parliament UMNO has 38 MPs in the House of Representatives State No Parliament Constituency Member Party Perlis P001 Padang Besar Zahidi Zainul Abidin UMNOP003 Arau Dr Shahidan Kassim UMNO Kedah P007 Padang Terap Mahdzir Khalid UMNOP016 Baling Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim UMNO Kelantan P026 Ketereh Annuar Musa UMNOP029 Machang Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub UMNOP032 Gua Musang Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah UMNO Terengganu P033 Besut Idris Jusoh UMNO Penang P041 Kepala Batas Reezal Merican Naina Merican UMNO Perak P055 Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah UMNOP061 Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz UMNOP067 Kuala Kangsar Mastura Mohd Yazid UMNOP069 Parit Mohd Nizar Zakaria UMNOP073 Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman UMNOP075 Bagan Datuk Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi UMNO Pahang P078 Cameron Highlands Ramli Mohd Nor UMNOP079 Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad UMNOP081 Jerantut Ahmad Nazlan Idris UMNOP084 Paya Besar Mohd Shahar Abdullah UMNOP085 Pekan Mohd Najib Abdul Razak UMNOP086 Maran Ismail Abdul Muttalib UMNOP087 Kuala Krau Ismail Mohamed Said UMNOP090 Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob UMNOP091 Rompin Hasan Arifin UMNO Selangor P095 Tanjong Karang Noh Omar UMNO Putrajaya P125 Putrajaya Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor UMNO Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu Jalaluddin Alias UMNOP127 Jempol Mohd Salim Shariff UMNOP131 Rembau Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar UMNO Malacca P139 Jasin Ahmad Hamzah UMNO Johor P147 Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad UMNOP153 Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein UMNOP155 Tenggara Adham Baba UMNOP156 Kota Tinggi Halimah Mohamed Sadique UMNOP157 Pengerang Azalina Othman Said UMNOP164 Pontian Ahmad Maslan UMNO Sabah P176 Kimanis Mohamad Alamin UMNOP187 Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin UMNOTotal Perlis 2 Kedah 2 Kelantan 3 Terengganu 1 Penang 1 Perak 7 Pahang 9 Selangor 1 F T Putrajaya 1 Negeri Sembilan 3 Malacca 1 Johor 6 Sabah 2 Dewan Undangan Negeri State Legislative Assembly Edit Main article List of Malaysian State Assembly Representatives 2018 Malacca State Legislative Assembly18 28 Pahang State Legislative Assembly24 42 Perlis State Legislative Assembly9 15 Perak State Legislative Assembly25 59 Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly14 36 Terengganu State Legislative Assembly10 33 Johor State Legislative Assembly33 56 Kelantan State Legislative Assembly7 45 Selangor State Legislative Assembly5 56 Kedah State Legislative Assembly2 36 Penang State Legislative Assembly2 40 Sabah State Legislative Assembly17 79 Sarawak State Legislative Assembly0 82 State No Parliament Constituency No State Constituency Member Party Perlis P1 Padang Besar N2 Beseri Ruzaini Rais UMNON3 Chuping Asmaiza Ahmad UMNON4 Chuping Mata Ayer Siti Berenee Yahaya UMNON5 Santan Azizan Sulaiman UMNOP2 Kangar N6 Bintong Azlan Man UMNON10 Kayang Hamizan Hassan UMNOP3 Arau N11 Pauh Rozieana Ahmad UMNON12 Tambun Tulang Ismail Kassim UMNON14 Simpang Empat Nurulhisham Yaakob UMNO Kedah P11 Pendang N19 Sungai Tiang Suraya Yaacob UMNOP18 Kulim Bandar Baharu N36 Bandar Baharu Norsabrina Mohd Noor UMNO Kelantan P26 Ketereh N25 Kok Lanas Md Alwi Che Ahmad UMNOP27 Tanah Merah N27 Gual Ipoh Bakri Mustapha UMNOP30 Jeli N36 Bukit Bunga Mohd Adhan Kechik UMNON38 Kuala Balah Abd Aziz Derashid UMNOP32 Gua Musang N43 Nenggiri Ab Aziz Yusoff UMNON44 Paloh Amran Ariffin UMNON45 Galas Mohd Syahbuddin Hashim UMNO Terengganu P33 Besut N1 Kuala Besut Tengku Zaihan Che Ku Abd Raham UMNON3 Jertih Muhammad Pehimi Yusof UMNON4 Hulu Besut Nawi Mohamad UMNOP34 Setiu N6 Permaisuri Abd Halim Jusoh UMNON7 Langkap Sabri Mohd Noor UMNON8 Batu Rakit Bazlan Abd Rahman UMNOP35 Kuala Nerus N11 Seberang Takir Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman UMNON12 Telemung Rozi Mamat UMNOP39 Dungun N25 Bukit Besi Roslee Daud UMNOP40 Kemaman N30 Kijal Ahmad Said UMNO Penang P42 Tasek Gelugor N4 Permatang Berangan Nor Hafizah Othman UMNON5 Sungai Dua Muhamad Yusoff Mohd Noor UMNO Perak P54 Gerik N1 Pengkalan Hulu Aznel Ibrahim UMNON2 Temenggor Salbiah Mohamed UMNOP55 Lenggong N3 Kenering Mohd Tarmizi Idris UMNON4 Kota Tampan Saarani Mohammad UMNOP56 Larut N7 Batu Kurau Muhammad Amin Zakaria UMNOP58 Bagan Serai N10 Alor Pangsu Sham Mat Sahat UMNON12 Selinsing Mohamad Noor Dawoo UMNOP59 Bukit Gantang N13 Kuala Sepetang Mohd Kamaruddin Abu Bakar UMNON14 Changkat Jering Ahmad Saidi Mohamad Daud UMNON15 Trong Jamilah Zakaria UMNOP61 Padang Rengas N19 Chenderoh Zainun Mat Noor UMNON20 Lubok Merbau Jurij Jalaluddin UMNOP62 Sungai Siput N21 Lintang Mohd Zolkafly Harun UMNOP67 Kuala Kangsar N34 Bukit Chandan Maslin Sham Razman UMNON35 Manong Mohamed Zuraimi Razali UMNOP68 Beruas N36 Pengkalan Baharu Abdul Manaf Hashim UMNOP69 Parit N39 Belanja Khairudin Abu Hanipah UMNON40 Bota Khairul Shahril Mohamed UMNOP72 Tapah N48 Ayer Kuning Samsudin Abu Hassan UMNOP73 Pasir Salak N50 Kampong Gajah Wan Norashikin Wan Noordin UMNOP74 Lumut N52 Pangkor Zambry Abdul Kadir UMNOP75 Bagan Datuk N53 Rungkup Shahrul Zaman Yahya UMNON54 Hutan Melintang Khairuddin Tarmizi UMNOP76 Teluk Intan N56 Changkat Jong Mohd Azhar Jamaluddin UMNOP77 Tanjong Malim N58 Slim Mohd Zaidi Aziz UMNO Pahang P78 Cameron Highlands N2 Jelai Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNOP79 Lipis N3 Padang Tengku Mustapa Long UMNON5 Benta Mohd Soffi Abd Razak UMNOP80 Raub N6 Batu Talam Abd Aziz Mat Kiram UMNON8 Dong Shahiruddin Ab Moin UMNOP81 Jerantut N11 Pulau Tawar Nazri Ngah UMNOP83 Kuantan N16 Inderapura Shafik Fauzan Sharif UMNOP84 Paya Besar N17 Sungai Lembing Md Sohaimi Mohamed Shah UMNON18 Lepar Abdul Rahim Muda UMNOP85 Pekan N20 Pulau Manis Khairuddin Mahmud UMNON21 Peramu Jaya Sh Mohamed Puzi Sh Ali UMNON22 Bebar Mohd Fakhruddin Mohd Arif UMNON23 Chini Mohd Sharim Md Zain UMNOP86 Maran N25 Kuala Sentul Shahaniza Shamsuddin UMNON27 Jenderak Mohamed Jaafar UMNOP87 Kuala Krau N28 Kerdau Syed Ibrahim Syed Ahmad UMNOP88 Temerloh N31 Lanchang Mohd Sharkar Shamsudin UMNON32 Kuala Semantan Nor Azmi Mat Ludin UMNOP89 Bentong N36 Pelangai Adnan Yaakob UMNOP90 Bera N37 Guai Norol Azali Sulaiman UMNON39 Kemayan Mohd Fadil Osman UMNOP91 Rompin N40 Bukit Ibam Samsiah Arshad UMNON41 Muadzam Shah Razali Kassim UMNON42 Tioman Mohd Johari Hussain UMNO Selangor P92 Sabak Bernam N1 Sungai Air Tawar Rizam Ismail UMNOP93 Sungai Besar N3 Sungai Panjang Mohd Imran Tamrin UMNOP94 Hulu Selangor N5 Hulu Bernam Rosni Sohar UMNOP95 Tanjong Karang N8 Sungai Burong Mohd Shamsudin Lias UMNOP101 Hulu Langat N24 Semenyih Zakaria Hanafi UMNO Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N2 Pertang Noor Azmi Yusuf UMNON3 Sungai Lui Mohd Razi Mohd Ali UMNOP127 Jempol N5 Serting Shamshulkahar Mohd Deli UMNON6 Palong Mustafa Nagoor UMNOP129 Kuala Pilah N15 Juasseh Ismail Lasim UMNON16 Seri Menanti Abdul Samad Ibrahim UMNON17 Senaling Adnan Abu Hasan UMNON19 Johol Saiful Yazan Sulaiman UMNOP131 Rembau N26 Chembong Zaifulbahri Idris UMNON27 Rantau Mohamad Hasan UMNON28 Kota Awaludin Said UMNOP132 Port Dickson N31 Bagan Pinang Tun Hairuddin Abu Bakar UMNON32 Linggi Abdul Rahman Mohd Redza UMNOP133 Tampin N34 Gemas Abdul Razak Said UMNON35 Gemencheh Mohd Isam Mohd Isa UMNO Malacca P134 Masjid Tanah N1 Kuala Linggi Rosli Abdullah UMNON2 Tanjung Bidara Ab Rauf Yusoh UMNON3 Ayer Limau Hameed Basheer UMNON4 Lendu Sulaiman Md Ali UMNON5 Taboh Naning Zulkiflee Mohd Zin UMNOP135 Alor Gajah N6 Rembia Muhammad Jailani Khamis UMNON9 Durian Tunggal Zahari Kalil UMNON10 Asahan Fairul Nizam Roslan UMNOP136 Tangga Batu N12 Pantai Kundor Tuminah Kadi Mohd Hashim UMNON13 Paya Rumput Rais Yasin UMNOP137 Hang Tuah Jaya N15 Pengkalan Batu Kalsom Noordin UMNON18 Ayer Molek Rahmad Mariman UMNOP138 Kota Melaka N21 Duyong Mohd Noor Helmy Abu Halen UMNON23 Telok Mas Abdul Razak Abdul Rahman UMNOP139 Jasin N25 Rim Khaidhirah Abu Zahar UMNON26 Serkam Zaidi Attan UMNON27 Merlimau Muhamad Akmal Saleh UMNON28 Sungai Rambai Siti Faizah Abdul Azis UMNO Johor P140 Segamat N01 Buloh Kasap Zahari Sarip UMNOP141 Sekijang N03 Pemanis Anuar Abdul Manap UMNOP142 Labis N05 Tenang Haslinda Salleh UMNOP143 Pagoh N08 Bukit Pasir Mohamad Fazli Mohamad Salleh UMNOP144 Ledang N9 Gambir Sahrihan Jani UMNON11 Serom Khairin Nisa Ismail UMNOP145 Bakri N14 Bukit Naning Fuad Tukirin UMNOP146 Muar N16 Sungai Balang Selamat Takim UMNOP147 Parit Sulong N17 Semerah Mohd Fared Mohd Khalid UMNON18 Sri Medan Zulkurnain Kamisan UMNOP148 Ayer Hitam N20 Semarang Samsol Bari Jamali UMNOP149 Sri Gading N21 Parit Yaani Mohd Najib Samuri UMNON22 Pasir Raja Nor Rashidah Ramli UMNOP150 Batu Pahat N24 Senggarang Mohd Yusla Ismail UMNON25 Rengit Mohd Puad Zarkashi UMNOP151 Simpang Renggam N26 Machap Onn Hafiz Ghazi UMNON27 Layang Layang Abd Mutalip Abd Rahim UMNOP152 Kluang N29 Mahkota Sharifah Azizah Syed Zain UMNOP155 Tenggara N34 Panti Hahasrin Hashim UMNON35 Pasir Raja Rashidah Ismail UMNOP156 Kota Tinggi N36 Sedili Muszaidi Makmor UMNON37 Johor Lama Norlizah Noh UMNOP157 Pengerang N38 Penawar Fauziah Misri UMNON39 Tanjung Suarat Aznan Tamin UMNOP158 Tebrau N40 Tiram Azizul Bachok UMNOP159 Pasir Gudang N43 Permas Baharudin Mohd Taib UMNOP160 Johor Bahru N44 Larkin Mohd Hairi Mad Shah UMNOP161 Pulai N47 Kempas Ramlee Bohani UMNOP162 Iskandar Puteri N49 Kota Iskandar Pandak Ahmad UMNOP163 Kulai N50 Bukit Permai Mohd Jafni Md Shukor UMNOP164 Pontian N53 Benut Hasni Mohammad UMNON54 Pulai Sebatang Hasrunizah Hassan UMNOP165 Tanjung Piai N56 Kukup Jefridin Atan UMNO Sabah P167 Kudat N2 Bengkoka Harun Durabi UMNOP169 Kota Belud N9 Tempasuk Mohd Arsad Bistari UMNON10 Usukan Salleh Said Keruak UMNOP170 Tuaran N13 Pantai Dalit Jasnih Daya UMNOP171 Sepanggar N16 Karambunai Yakubah Khan UMNOP173 Putatan N24 Tanjung Keramat Shahelmey Yahya UMNOP175 Papar N29 Pantai Manis Mohd Tamin Tamin Zainal UMNOP178 Sipitang N35 Sinduim Yusof Yacob UMNOP183 Beluran N48 Sugut James Ratib UMNOP184 Libaran N51 Sungai Manila Mokran Ingkat UMNON52 Sungai Sibuga Mohamad Hamsan Awang Supain UMNOP187 Kinabatangan N58 Lamag Bung Mokhtar Radin UMNON59 Sukau Jafry Ariffin UMNOP190 Tawau N67 Balung Hamild Hamid Awang UMNOP191 Kalabakan N71 Tanjong Batu Andi Muhammad Suryady Bandy UMNO Nominated Member Raime Unggi UMNONominated Member Suhaimi Nasir UMNOTotal Perlis 9 Kedah 2 Kelantan 7 Terengganu 10 Penang 2 Perak 25 Pahang 24 Selangor 5 Negeri Sembilan 15 Malacca 18 Johor 33 Sabah 17 UMNO state governments EditState Leader type Member Party State Constituency Johor Menteri Besar Onn Hafiz Ghazi UMNO Machap Malacca Chief Minister Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO Lendu Perlis Menteri Besar Azlan Man UMNO Bintong Pahang Menteri Besar Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO Jelai Perak Menteri Besar Saarani Mohamad UMNO Kota TampanGeneral election results EditElection Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader1955 34 52 589 933 58 90 34 seats Governing coalition Alliance Party Tunku Abdul Rahman1959 52 104 553 160 35 75 18 seats Governing coalition Alliance Party Tunku Abdul Rahman1964 59 104 458 854 38 10 7 seats Governing coalition Alliance Party Tunku Abdul Rahman1969 52 144 7 seats Governing coalition Alliance Party Tunku Abdul Rahman1974 62 144 10 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Abdul Razak Hussein1978 70 154 8 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Hussein Onn1982 70 154 Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Mahathir Mohamad1986 83 177 1 474 063 31 06 13 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Mahathir Mohamad1990 71 180 12 seat Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Mahathir Mohamad1995 89 192 18 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Mahathir Mohamad1999 72 193 17 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Mahathir Mohamad2004 109 219 2 483 249 35 9 37 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Abdullah Ahmad Badawi2008 79 222 2 381 725 29 33 30 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Abdullah Ahmad Badawi2013 88 222 3 252 484 29 45 9 seats Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Najib Razak2018 54 222 2 548 251 21 10 34 seats Opposition coalition later Governing coalition Barisan Nasional Najib RazakState election results EditState election State Legislative AssemblyPerlis Kedah Kelantan Terengganu Penang Perak Pahang Selangor Negeri Sembilan Malacca Johor Sabah Total won Total contested2 3 majority 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 31959 10 12 18 24 1 30 5 24 10 24 21 40 17 24 14 28 11 24 13 20 20 321964 9 12 18 24 8 30 20 24 10 24 22 40 17 24 13 28 14 24 13 20 20 321969 9 12 12 24 10 30 12 24 4 24 18 40 16 24 12 28 11 24 11 20 19 32 54 681974 8 12 12 26 13 36 18 28 9 27 22 42 23 32 19 33 15 24 13 20 20 321978 10 12 14 26 22 36 27 28 9 27 23 42 24 32 19 33 15 24 13 20 20 321982 9 12 19 26 22 36 22 28 10 27 24 42 24 32 20 33 15 24 13 20 20 321986 12 14 20 28 28 39 29 32 12 33 26 46 25 33 26 42 18 28 12 20 22 361990 12 14 22 28 0 39 22 32 12 33 27 46 25 33 26 42 18 28 12 20 21 361994 19 48 19 311995 13 15 26 36 6 43 24 32 12 33 30 52 28 38 30 48 20 32 16 25 25 401999 10 15 16 36 2 43 4 32 10 33 26 52 21 38 26 48 20 32 16 25 25 40 24 482004 12 15 23 36 21 45 27 32 14 40 34 59 31 42 35 56 22 36 18 28 33 56 32 602008 12 15 12 36 6 45 23 32 11 40 27 59 29 42 18 56 19 36 18 28 32 56 32 602013 12 15 19 36 12 45 17 32 10 40 30 59 28 42 12 56 21 36 17 28 32 56 31 602018 9 15 3 36 8 45 10 32 2 40 25 59 24 42 4 56 15 36 13 28 14 56 17 60 145 5872020 14 73 14 312021 18 28 18 202022 33 56 33 37Notes Edit In 1972 the investment arm of UMNO bought out the Malaysian operations of Straits Times Press which included Berita Harian The bought over publications were placed under the management of the New Straits Times Press which is also the name of its main publication 1 belongs to the same parent company as Berita Harian References Edit Edge 2004 p 185 sfn error no target CITEREFEdge2004 help Umno has over three million members says secretary general New Straits Times Retrieved 18 March 2022 Helen Ting The Politics of National Identity in West Malaysia Continued Mutation or Critical Transition The Politics of Ambiguity PDF Southeast Asian Studies Kyoto University J Stage p 3 21 33 and 5 21 35 UMNO came into being in 1946 under the impetus of the Anti Malayan Union Movement based on this ideological understanding of ketuanan Melayu Its founding president Dato Onn Jaafar once said that the UMNO movement did not adhere to any ideology other than Melayuisme defined by scholar Ariffin Omar as the belief that the interests of the bangsa Melayu must be upheld over all else Malay political dominance is a fundamental reality of Malaysian politics notwithstanding the fact that the governing coalition since independence the Alliance subsequently expanded to form the Barisan Nasional or literally the National Front is multiethnic in its composition Jinna Tay Graeme Turner 24 July 2015 Television Histories in Asia Issues and Contexts Routledge pp 127 ISBN 978 1 135 00807 9 Jan Senkyr 2013 Political Awakening in Malaysia KAS International Reports 7 73 74 the UMNO can be described as a national conservative Islamic party Umno assembly grand old party dominant in all ways The Straits Times Retrieved 8 May 2021 UMNO Online UMNO s Constitution Foundation and Goals From Archived copy Archived from the original on 29 February 2012 Retrieved 5 January 2013 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link UMNO Online UMNO s Constitution Goal 3 5 From Archived copy Archived from the original on 29 February 2012 Retrieved 5 January 2013 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link UMNO Online UMNO s Constitution Goal 3 3 From Archived copy Archived from the original on 29 February 2012 Retrieved 5 January 2013 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link Umno elections historic ensure party remains relevant says Zahid Nation The Star Online www thestar com my Retrieved 1 July 2018 Malaysia History The Commonwealth Adam Ramlah binti Samuri Abdul Hakim bin amp Fadzil Muslimin bin 2004 Sejarah Tingkatan 3 pp 60 65 75 Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka ISBN 983 62 8285 8 Joseph M Fernando 18 June 2007 The rebel in Onn Jaafar The Star The Malaysian Bar Retrieved 19 June 2007 Keat Gin Ooi ed 2004 Southeast Asia A Historical Encyclopedia from Angkor Wat to East Timor Volume 1 ABC CLIO p 138 ISBN 9781576077702 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil p 124 135 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil pp 137 140 About MIC History Archived 20 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 28 January 2006 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil p 140 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil p 103 107 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil pp 148 151 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil p 153 155 Ooi Jeff 2005 Social Contract Utusan got the context wrong Archived 30 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 11 November 2005 Goh Cheng Teik 1994 Malaysia Beyond Communal Politics p 18 Pelanduk Publications ISBN 967 978 475 4 Shuid Mahdi amp Yunus Mohd Fauzi 2001 Malaysian Studies p 29 Longman ISBN 983 74 2024 3 Shuid amp Yunus p 31 Mathews Philip February 2014 Chronicle of Malaysia Fifty Years of Headline News 1963 2013 Editions Didier Millet p 29 ISBN 978 967 10617 4 9 Adam Samuri amp Fadzil pp 214 217 220 222 223 Rahman Tunku Abdul 1965 A dream shattered Archived 8 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 5 February 2006 Ooi Jeff 2005 Perils of the sitting duck Archived 28 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 11 November 2005 Means Gordon P 1991 Malaysian Politics The Second Generation pp 3 5 29 Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 588988 6 Means p 6 7 Means p 8 Means pp 11 12 Means pp 20 21 Means pp 20 22 Means pp 22 23 Means pp 23 27 Means pp 29 30 Means p 31 The story behind some of Malaysia s biggest street rallies 27 August 2015 Retrieved 25 March 2020 Means pp 36 37 Means pp 39 40 Means pp 41 42 Means p 201 a b Means p 202 Means p 204 a b Means p 206 Means p 205 a b Means pp 218 219 Means pp 224 225 Terus fokus menyatukan Melayu Utusan Online 1 December 2012 Archived from the original on 6 February 2017 Retrieved 23 June 2016 Means pp 224 225 230 Malaysia election Opposition scores historic victory BBC News 10 May 2018 Retrieved 11 May 2018 Three Johor Umno reps jump to Pribumi The Star 12 May 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2019 Kelantan Wanita Umno info chief 50 others jump to Pribumi The Star 13 May 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2019 Sabah Umno exodus sees nine of 10 Aduns five of six MPs leave The Star 12 December 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2019 What s next for Piagam Muafakat Nasional The Malaysian Reserve 18 September 2019 MCA s future in Muafakat Nasional remains unclear New Straits Times 30 November 2019 Reme Ahmad 5 December 2019 Calls in Umno for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional The Straits Times Adib Povera 4 March 202 Perikatan Nasional coalition to set up joint secretariat New Straits Times Apa maksud 5 mesyuarat politik diadakan serentak hari ini What is the meaning behind the 5 political meetings being held at the same time today Astro Awani in Malay 23 February 2020 Retrieved 26 February 2020 Yiswaree Palansamy 23 February 2020 Azmin arrives at Sheraton Hotel first sighting since rumoured new coalition Malay Mail Retrieved 24 February 2020 Muafakat Nasional cadang bubar Parlimen tarik balik SD sokong Dr M Muafakat Nasional propose the dissolution of Parliament retract SDs supporting Dr M Bernama in Malay 25 February 2020 Retrieved 27 February 2020 Dr Mahathir proposes to lead unity government sources The Edge Markets 25 February 2020 Retrieved 27 February 2020 Justin Ong 26 February 2020 Malaysia still in limbo as Agong continues search for new PM Yahoo News Retrieved 17 May 2020 via Malay Mail Umno and PAS withdraw support for Dr M MalaysiaKini 25 February 2020 Retrieved 27 February 2020 Tuan Ibrahim All PAS Umno MPs signed SD for Muhyiddin to be PM Bernama 27 February 2020 Retrieved 28 February 2020 Wakil pemimpin parti tiba di Istana Negara pagi ini Party leaders representatives arrived at the National Palace this morning Astro Awani in Malay 29 February 2020 Retrieved 29 February 2020 Muhyiddin ketuai Perikatan Nasional jumpa Agong Muhyiddin lead Perikatan Nasional to have audience with the Agong Berita Harian in Malay 29 February 2020 Retrieved 29 February 2020 Salleh batalkan permohonan sertai PKR 30 June 2020 Bekas CEO FGV sertai UMNO 24 July 2020 UMNO Tarik Balik Sokongan Serta Merta 8 July 2021 Retrieved 8 July 2021 Gagal Penuhi Aspirasi Rakyat UMNO Tarik Balik Sokongan Kepada PM Serta Merta 8 July 2021 Retrieved 8 July 2021 Malaysia s Ismail Sabri Yaakob sworn in as new PM www aljazeera com Retrieved 21 August 2021 Singh Daljit Smith Anthony 2002 Southeast Asian Affairs 2002 ISBN 9789812301628 Hanipa Maidin 19 April 2018 Umno apa selepas hari ini 19 Apr 2018 in Malay Malaysiakini Retrieved 11 May 2018 Bede Hong 1 March 2018 RoS patut isytihar Umno haram 19 April kata peguam Dr Mahathir in Malay The Malaysian Insight Retrieved 11 May 2018 Gatsiounis Ioannis 26 November 2006 The racial divide widens in Malaysia Archived 14 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Malaysia Today MCA Youth head to meet Hishammuddin over kris issue Malaysian Chinese Association 27 November 2006 Archived from the original on 31 October 2014 Retrieved 13 March 2013 Hamdan Raja Abdullah 27 April 2008 Hishammuddin urged to quit over keris issue The Star Archived from the original on 31 October 2014 Retrieved 1 November 2014 MACC has frozen SUPP s account www nst com my 29 June 2018 Retrieved 26 May 2019 Anti ICERD rally So what s the estimate New Straits Times Retrieved 8 December 2018 PAS and Umno to hold anti Icerd rally in KL on Dec 8 Malaysiakini Malaysiakini Retrieved 17 November 2018 Govt not ratifying ICERD The Star Online The Star Online Retrieved 24 November 2018 Yiswaree Palansamy 23 February 2020 Azmin arrives at Sheraton Hotel first sighting since rumoured new coalition Malay Mail Retrieved 24 February 2020 Sadho Ram 23 February 2020 PAS UMNO Bersatu Amanah And 10 PKR MPs Said To Be Forming A New Coalition Govt SAYS Retrieved 24 February 2020 Ratcliffe Rebecca 24 February 2020 Malaysia s PM Mahathir Mohamad resigns amid political turmoil The Guardian Retrieved 24 February 2020 Muhyiddin Yassin is Malaysia s next prime minister Palace statement CNA TV network 29 February 2020 Retrieved 28 April 2022 Muhyiddin Yassin sworn in as Malaysian PM CNA TV network 1 March 2020 Retrieved 28 April 2022 Tan Vincent 8 July 2021 UMNO withdraws support for Muhyiddin Yassin s government urges the Malaysian PM to step down CNA TV network Retrieved 29 April 2022 Tan Vincent Tho Xin Yi 3 August 2021 Ahmad Zahid claims sufficient UMNO MPs have withdrawn support for PM Muhyiddin energy minister quits Cabinet CNA TV network Retrieved 29 April 2022 Anand Ram 8 July 2021 Umno withdraws support for Malaysia PM Muhyiddin calls for his resignation The Straits Times The Straits Times Retrieved 29 April 2022 Ismail Sabri sworn in as Malaysia s ninth Prime Minister The Star Malaysia 21 August 2021 Retrieved 28 April 2022 History of Wanita UMNO UMNO Malaysia 19 June 2019 Retrieved 17 June 2021 History of UMNO Youth UMNO Malaysia 19 June 2019 Retrieved 17 June 2021 History of Puteri UMNO UMNO Malaysia 19 June 2019 Retrieved 17 June 2021 Sources EditWelsh B ed The End of UMNO Essays on Malaysia s dominant party SIRD 2016 Chin James Going East UMNO s entry into Sabah Politics Asian Journal of Political Science Vol 7 No 1 June 1999 pp 20 40 Goh Jenny 23 July 1997 Small spark can create big mess Straits Times Kamarudin Raja Petra 7 November 2005 The stuff politicians are made of Malaysia Today Pillai M G G 3 November 2005 National Front parties were not formed to fight for Malaysian independence Malaysia Today Ibrahim Mahmood 1981 Sejarah Perjuangan UMNO Penerbitan Antara Kuala Lumpur Pro government Malaysian rally raises worry about ethnic tension SWI swissinfo ch Archived from the original on 5 March 2016 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to UMNO Library resources in your library and in other libraries about United Malays National Organisation Official website Portals Malaysia Politics Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title United Malays National Organisation amp oldid 1093522597, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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