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Wikipedia

"Universal Records" redirects here. For Universal Records 1988–1989, see Universal Records (1988). For Universal Records 1995–2005, see Universal Records (1995−2005). For other uses, see Universal Records (disambiguation). For the Chicago recording studio, see Universal Recording Corporation.

Universal Music Group N.V. (often abbreviated as UMG and referred to as just Universal Music) is a Dutch–American multinational music corporation. UMG's corporate headquarters are located in Hilversum, Netherlands and its operational headquarters are located in Santa Monica, California. The biggest music company in the world, it is one of the "Big Three" record labels, along with Sony Music and Warner Music Group. Tencent acquired ten percent of Universal Music Group in March 2020 for €3 billion and acquired an additional ten percent stake in January 2021. Pershing Square Holdings later acquired ten percent of UMG prior to its IPO on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange. The company went public on September 21, 2021 at a valuation of €46 billion.

Universal Music Group N.V.
UMG's operational headquarters in Santa Monica, California
Formerly
TypePublic (N.V.)
Euronext Amsterdam: UMG
ISINNL0015000IY2
Industry
FoundedSeptember 1934; 87 years ago (1934-09)
Headquarters
Hilversum, Netherlands (corporate)
Santa Monica, California
,
United States (operational)
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
ServicesMusic publishing
Revenue 5.984 billion (US$6.83 billion) (2021)
Owners
Number of employees
8,319 (2018)
DivisionsList of Universal Music Group labels
Websitewww.universalmusic.com

In 2019, Fast Company named Universal Music Group the most innovative music company and listed UMG among the Top 50 most innovative companies in the world and "amid the music industry's digital transformation, Universal is redefining what a modern label should look like." UMG has signed licensing agreements with more than 400 platforms worldwide.

Contents

For history prior to 1996, see MCA Records

Early history

The company's origins go back to the formation of the American branch of Decca Records in September 1934 and its name and company logo originates from Carl Laemmle's "Universal Pictures", with which the music business shares a common history but which is today as part of NBCUniversal an independent commercial entity. The Decca Record Co. Ltd. of England spun American Decca off in 1939. MCA Inc. merged with American Decca in 1962.

In November 1990, Japanese multinational conglomerate Matsushita Electric agreed to acquire MCA for $6.59 billion. In 1995, Seagram acquired 80 percent of MCA from Matsushita. On December 9, 1996, the company was renamed Universal Studios, Inc., and its music division was renamed Universal Music Group; MCA Records continued as a label within the Universal Music Group. In May 1998, Seagram purchased PolyGram and merged it with Universal Music Group in early 1999.

2004: Consolidating into a Vivendi subsidiary

In May 2004, Universal Music Group was cast under separate management from Universal Studios, when French media conglomerate Vivendi sold 80% of the latter to General Electric, who subsequently merged it with NBC to form NBCUniversal. This came two months after the separation of Warner Music Group from Time Warner. In February 2006, Vivendi (which own UMG since 2000) purchased the remaining 20 percent of UMG from Matsushita Electric.

On September 6, 2006, Vivendi announced its €1.63 billion ($2.4 billion) purchase of BMG Music Publishing; after receiving European Union regulatory approval, the acquisition was completed on June 25, 2007.

2007–2012 and EMI purchase

In June 2007, UMG acquired Sanctuary, which eventually became UMG's entertainment merchandising and brand management division, Bravado. The company represents artists such as Justin Bieber, Lady Gaga, and Kanye West, and has partnered with retailers including Barneys, Bloomingdale's and Selfridges.

In 2008, Universal Music Group agreed to make its catalog available to Spotify, then a new streaming service, for use outside the U.S. on a limited basis.

Doug Morris stepped down from his position as CEO on January 1, 2011. Former chairman/CEO of Universal Music International Lucian Grainge was promoted to CEO of the company. Grainge later replaced him as chairman on March 9, 2011. Morris became the next chairman of Sony Music Entertainment on July 1, 2011. With Grainge's appointment as CEO at UMG, Max Hole was promoted to COO of UMGI, effective July 1, 2010. Starting in 2011 UMG's Interscope Geffen A&M Records began signing contestants from American Idol. In January 2011, UMG announced it was donating 200,000 master recordings from the 1920s to 1940s to the Library of Congress for preservation.

In 2011, EMI agreed to sell its recorded music operations to Universal Music Group for £1.2 billion ($1.9 billion) and its music publishing operations to a Sony-led consortium for $2.2 billion. Among the other companies that had competed for the recorded music business was Warner Music Group which was reported to have made a $2 billion bid. IMPALA opposed the merger. In March 2012, the European Union opened an investigation into the acquisition The EU asked rivals and consumer groups whether the deal would result in higher prices and shut out competitors.

On September 21, 2012, the sale of EMI to UMG was approved in Europe and the United States by the European Commission and Federal Trade Commission respectively. However, the European Commission approved the deal only under the condition the merged company divest one third of its total operations to other companies with a proven track record in the music industry. UMG divested Mute Records, Parlophone, Roxy Recordings, MPS Records, Cooperative Music, Now That's What I Call Music!, Jazzland, Universal Greece, Sanctuary Records, Chrysalis Records, EMI Classics, Virgin Classics, and EMI's European regional labels to comply with this condition. UMG retained The Beatles (formerly of Parlophone) and Robbie Williams (formerly of Chrysalis). The Beatles catalogue was transferred to UMG's newly formed Calderstone Productions, while Williams' catalogue was transferred to Island Records.

2012–2017: EMI integration and divisions reorganization

Universal Music Group completed their acquisition of EMI on September 28, 2012. In November 2012, Steve Barnett was appointed chairman and CEO of Capitol Music Group. He formerly served as COO of Columbia Records. In compliance the conditions of the European Commission after purchase of EMI, Universal Music Group sold the Mute catalogue to the German-based BMG Rights Management on December 22, 2012. Two months later, BMG acquired Sanctuary Records for €50 million ($58 million).

On February 8, 2013, Warner Music Group acquired the Parlophone Label Group (consisting of Parlophone Records, Chrysalis Records, EMI Classics, Virgin Classics and EMI Records' Belgian, Czech, Danish, French, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Slovak and Swedish divisions) for $765 million (£487 million). Later in February, Sony Music Entertainment acquired UMG's European share in Now That's What I Call Music for approximately $60 million. Play It Again Sam acquired Co-Operative Music for £500,000 in March 2013. With EMI's absorption into Universal Music complete, its British operations consist of five label units: Island, Polydor, Decca, Virgin EMI and Capitol. In the Greek market, as part of its divesture plans, Universal Music retained Minos EMI and sold Universal Music Greece to Greek investors who renamed it Cobalt Music. Edel AG acquired the MPS catalogue from Universal in January 2014.

On March 20, 2013, UMG announced the worldwide extension of their exclusive distribution deal with the Disney Music Group, excluding Japan. As a result of this deal DMG's labels and artists have access to UMG's roster of producers and songwriters on a worldwide basis. The exclusive deal also saw UMG granted unlimited access to all rights pertaining to Disney's 85-year back catalog of soundtracks and albums.

On April 2, 2013, the gospel music divisions of Motown Records and EMI merged to form a new label called Motown Gospel. In May 2013, Japanese company SoftBank offered $8.5 billion to Vivendi for the acquisition of UMG, but Vivendi rejected it. In July 2018, JPMorgan said that UMG could be worth as much as $40 billion and then increased the valuation to $50 billion in 2019.

In August 2013, UMG became the first company in the US to have nine of the Top 10 songs on the digital charts, according to SoundScan and weeks later, became the first company to hold all 10 of the Top 10 spots on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart.

In September 2013, UMG received a SAG-AFTRA American Scene Award for the company's commitment to diversity as exemplified by its "entire catalog and roster of artists."

On April 1, 2014, Universal Music announced the disbandment of Island Def Jam Music, one of four operational umbrella groups within Universal Music. Universal CEO Lucian Grainge said of the closure, "No matter how much we might work to build 'IDJ' as a brand, that brand could never be as powerful as each of IDJ's constituent parts." Island Records and Def Jam now operate as autonomous record labels. David Massey and Bartels, who worked respectively at Island and Def Jam Records, were named to the new record labels independently. Barry Weiss, who previously moved from Sony Music to lead Island Def Jam Music in 2012 when Motown Records was incorporated into Island Def Jam, stepped down from Universal Music. Additionally, as part of the changes to the labels, Motown Records transferred to Los Angeles to become part of the Capitol Music Group and previous Vice President Ethiopia Habtemariam was promoted to Label President for Motown Records.

Universal Music Group entered into film and TV production with the 2014 purchase of Eagle Rock Entertainment. UMG's first major film production was Amy, which won an Oscar for Best Documentary, while taking part in Kurt Cobain: Montage of Heck and The Beatles: Eight Days a Week documentaries. In January 2016, UMG hired David Blackman from Laurence Mark Production where he was president of production as head of film and television development and production, and theater producer Scott Landis as special advisor on theatrical development and production. UMG Executive Vice President Michele Anthony and Universal Music Publishing Group Chairman and CEO Jody Gerson have oversight of the pair. On February 11, 2017, PolyGram Entertainment was relaunched as a film and television unit of Universal Music Group under David Blackman.

In 2015, UMG's Capitol Records earned all the major Grammy Awards for the year, with Sam Smith receiving Best New Artist, Record of the Year and Song of the Year awards and Beck winning Album of the Year.

In March 2016, Universal Music Canada donated the archives of EMI Music Canada to the University of Calgary.

In May 2016, UMG acquired Famehouse, a digital marketing agency. That same year, Paul McCartney and the Bee Gees both signed to UMG's Capitol Records, including their catalog releases.

In April 2017, UMG signed a new multi-year licensing agreement with Spotify, the world's leading streaming service, and in May 2017, UMG signed a deal with Tencent, China's biggest gaming and social media firm.

In July 2017, "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi, Daddy Yankee and featuring Justin Bieber, became the most streamed track of all time. By 2018, the song had broken several Guinness World Records, including Most Weeks at Number 1 on Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart and most-viewed video online.

In August 2017, UMG and Grace/Beyond agreed to develop three new music-based television series, 27, Melody Island and Mixtape. 27 would focus on musicians at the age of 27, an age at which several iconic musicians died. Melody Island was an animated series based on tropical island music with live craft segments. Mixtape had twelve episodes, with each episode connected to a song.

In October 2017, UMG announced the launch of its Accelerator Engagement Network, an initiative aimed to help develop music-based startups around the world.

In November 2017, USC Annenberg announced UMG's partnership in the "Annenberg Inclusion Initiative", becoming the first music company to do so. The initiative is meant to create change for representation of women and underrepresented racial and ethnic groups in the media industry.

In December 2017, Universal Music Group acquired Stiff and ZTT labels, along with Perfect Songs Publishing, from Trevor Horn's SPZ Group; BMG Rights Management, through Union Square Music subsidiary, retained its back catalogues. That same month, UMG signed a global, multi-year agreement with Facebook becoming the first of The "Big Three" to license its recorded music and publishing catalogs for video and other social experiences across Facebook, Instagram and Oculus. Sony and Warner signed similar contracts with Facebook the following year. Furthermore, on December 19, 2017, UMG signed a multi-year licensing agreement with YouTube.

2018–present: Continued growth and public trading

In June 2018, Universal Music Japan announced an exclusive license agreement with Disney Music Group. With the addition of Japan, UMG distributes releases from Disney Music Group globally.

In July, The Rolling Stones signed a worldwide agreement with UMG covering the band's recorded music and audio-visual catalogues, archival support, global merchandising and brand management. That same month, Vivendi announced it would explore selling as much as half of Universal Music Group to one or more investors.

In Nielsen's 2018 US Music Mid-Year report, UMG made history with eight of the Top 10 artists, including all of the top five, as well as all of the top eight artists ranked by on-demand audio streams. In August 2018, UMG announced a strategic expansion in Africa, opening an office in Abidjan to oversee French-speaking Africa, and also unveiling a Universal Music Nigera office in Lagos to focus on signing local artists and taking them global. In September 2018, singer Elton John signed a global partnership agreement with UMG across recorded music, music publishing, brand management, and licensing rights.

On November 19, 2018, singer-songwriter Taylor Swift signed a new multi-album deal with UMG, in the United States, her future releases will be promoted under the Republic Records imprint. In addition to the promised ownership of her master recordings, UMG agreed to, in case it sells portions of its stake in Spotify, distribute proceeds among its artists and make them non-recoupable.

In December 2018, Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody" became the most-streamed song from the pre-streaming era and the most-streamed classic rock song of all time. In February 2019, UMG fully acquired music distributor INgrooves.

UMG was named to Fast Company's annual list of the World's 50 Most Innovative Companies for 2019, the first major music company to be included on the list in a decade. UMG is also ranked number 1 in the music category. UMG was named by Forbes as one of America's Best Midsize Employers in 2019.

In June, YouTube and UMG announced that they were upgrading more than 1,000 popular music videos to high definition, releasing them through 2020.

In August 2019, Tencent and Vivendi started negotiation to sell 10% Vivendi's stake of Universal Music to Tencent. The deal is expected to be of $3.36 billion.

In February 2020, Vivendi announced it was planning to go public in an IPO within three years.

The company and Lego Group announced a music product partnership on April 26, 2020.

On June 16, 2020, Universal rebranded Virgin EMI Records as EMI Records and named Rebecca Allen (former president of UMG's Decca label) as the label's president, bringing back the EMI brand. The same day, UMG announced launch of its new affiliates in Morocco and Israel.

In July 2020, UMG signed a new multi-year licensing agreement with Spotify.

In June 2021, Pershing Square Tontine Holdings, a special-purpose acquisition company run by investor Bill Ackman, announced it would acquire 10 percent of UMG before it went public, in a $4 billion transaction. The deal collapsed in July 2021 due to regulatory concerns, and it was announced that Ackman's Pershing Square Holdings would complete the purchase instead.

In September 2021, IPO, Euronext Amsterdam announces an introduction price of €18,50[clarification needed] and Vivendi set an initial valuation for UMG at €33 billion ($38.3 billion). Vivendi distributed 60% of its UMG shares and retaining 10%.

The family of French businessman Vincent Bolloré is revealed as the majority shareholder with 28% of UMG shares, through its holding company Bolloré (18%) and its subsidiary Vivendi (10%), headed by his son Yannick Bolloré. Tencent emerged as UMG's biggest corporate shareholder with 20% of shares. Pershing Square Holdings held 10% of UMG shares. In its IPO, UMG hits €54 billion ($62.6 billion) valuation which is over a third bigger than initial valuation.

In January 2022, UMG acquired the Icelandic record label Alda Music, which owned the rights to nearly 80 percent of all music released in Iceland.

In February 2022, Universal Music Group announced a partnership with Curio, an NFT platform, to create NFT collections for its record labels and artists.

In May 31, 2022, Universal Music Group N.V. announces Baa1/BBB Long term credit ratings from Moody's and S&P.

Universal Music Group co-developed with Google Vevo, a site designed for music videos inspired by Hulu.com, which similarly allows free ad-supported streaming of videos and other music content.

On May 24, 2018, Vevo announced that it would no longer continue distributing videos to Vevo.com, instead opting to primarily focus on YouTube syndication.

Los Angeles metropolitan area

Santa Monica

Universal Music Publishing Headquarters in Santa Monica, California.

UMG's operational headquarters are located in Santa Monica. Interscope-Geffen-A&M and Universal Music Enterprises (UME), the company's catalog division, are headquartered in Santa Monica. Def Jam, Island and Republic Records also maintain offices there. UMG chairman & CEO Lucian Grainge is based at the company's Santa Monica offices. Universal Music Publishing is also headquartered in the city.

Hollywood

Capitol Music Group is headquartered at the Capitol Records Building in Hollywood. Universal Music Latin Entertainment is also headquartered in Hollywood.

Woodland Hills

Universal Music Group operates a secondary office in Woodland Hills that includes finance, royalty, and operations functions.

Miami

Universal Music Latin Entertainment is headquartered in Miami, Florida.

Nashville

Universal Music Group Nashville is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee.

New York City

UMG has offices in New York City where Island Records, Def Jam Recordings, Republic Records, Verve Label Group, and Spinefarm Records are headquartered.

Madrid

Universal Music Spain is based in Madrid, Spain.

London

Universal Music Group Global (formerly known as Universal Music Group International (UMGI)) operates offices in London.

Berlin

The headquarters of Universal Music GmbH is located in Berlin-Friedrichshain

Universal Music GmbH, the German subsidiary, is headquartered in Berlin. It moved in 2002 from Hamburg to the district Friedrichshain at the river Spree.

Warsaw

Universal Music Group's Universal Music Polska is located in Warsaw.

Toronto

Universal Music Group's Universal Music Canada is located in Toronto.

Japan

Universal Music Japan is headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo.

Other locations

UMG operates in more than 60 territories around the world including Australia, Central America, Brazil, France, India, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, New Zealand, Russia, Ukraine, South Korea and more. Company's legal headquarters are in the Netherlands. Universal Music Group's largest corporate shareholder, Tencent, is headquartered in Shenzhen, China. Tencent's ultimate largest controlling corporate shareholder, Naspers, is headquartered in Cape Town, South Africa.

On March 8, 2022, UMG suspended all its operations in Russia, following the country's invasion of the Ukraine.

Shareholders

In January 2022, the company's shareholding is:

CD price fixing

Main article: CD price fixing

In 2000, music companies including UMG entered into consent agreements with the Federal Trade Commission, with no admission of liability, whereby they agreed to discontinue the use of Minimum Advertised Price programs under which subsidized cooperative advertising was provided to retailers that agreed to adhere to minimum advertised pricing.

In 2002, a similar settlement was entered into with music publishers and distributors Sony Music, Warner Music, Bertelsmann Music Group, EMI Music and Universal Music Group and certain retailers, without admission of liability or wrongdoing, with various states. In settlement of the claim, the companies collectively agreed to pay a $67.4 million fine and distribute $75.7 million in CDs to public and non-profit groups. It was estimated that consumers were overcharged by $500 million and up to $5 per album.

Payola

In May 2006, an investigation led by then New York Attorney General, Eliot Spitzer, concluded with a determination that Universal Music Group bribed radio stations to play songs from Ashlee Simpson, Brian McKnight, Big Tymers, Nick Lachey, Lindsay Lohan and other performers under Universal labels. The company paid $12 million to the state in settlement.

YouTube

In 2007, with the help of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Stephanie Lenz sued UMG's publishing company for allegedly improperly requesting that, pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, YouTube remove a 29-second home video in which Lenz's child danced to a recording of Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy". After years of litigation, the suit settled in 2018, prior to the court holding a trial on whether UMG had a subjective belief that the video was infringing and not fair to use before sending its request to YouTube. In April 2016, UMG had the audio muted of a video clip showing Katherine Jenkins singing the British national anthem. They claimed that the recording of "God Save the Queen" was copyrighted, and YouTube initially complied with this request, but subsequently offered the video with the original audio track.

Imeem

In December 2007, UMG announced a deal with Imeem which allows users of the social network to listen to any track from Universal's catalogue for free with a portion of the advertising generated by the music being shared with the record label. All traffic was redirected to MySpace after that company acquired Imeem on December 8, 2009.

Universal archive fire (2008)

According to Jody Rosen of The New York Times, the fire which swept through Universal Studios Hollywood on June 1, 2008, caused "the biggest disaster in the history of the music business". In space rented from NBCUniversal, according to an official document marked "Confidential", the fire destroyed at least 118,230 "assets" (master recordings), or about 500,000 song titles, owned by UMG. "The vault housed tape masters for Decca, the pop, jazz and classical powerhouse; it housed master tapes for the storied blues label Chess; it housed masters for Impulse!, the groundbreaking jazz label. The vault held masters for the MCA, ABC, A&M, Geffen and Interscope labels; as well as some smaller subsidiary labels. Nearly all of these masters—in some cases, the complete discographies of entire record labels—were wiped out in the fire." In a statement issued on June 11, 2019, UMG said The New York Times article contained "numerous inaccuracies, misleading statements, contradictions and fundamental misunderstandings of the scope of the incident and affected assets." Following the publication of the New York Times story, Questlove of The Roots confirmed that the master tapes for two of the band's albums, including unused material and multi-track recordings, were lost in the fire. Similarly, Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic said he believed the masters for the band's 1991 album Nevermind were "gone forever" as a result of the fire. Representatives for R.E.M. announced they would investigate the effects the fire may have had on the band's archival materials, while Hole, Steely Dan, Rosanne Cash and Geoff Downes made statements on their possible losses from the fire.

A representative for Eminem confirmed that the rapper's master recordings were digitized months before the fire, but could not confirm whether the physical master reels of his recordings were affected. UMG archivist Patrick Kraus assured that the Impulse! Records, John Coltrane, Muddy Waters, Ahmad Jamal, Nashboro Records, and Chess Records masters survived the fire and were still in Universal's archive.

Howard King filed a lawsuit in Los Angeles on June 21, 2019, on behalf of Soundgarden, Hole, Steve Earle, the estate of Tupac Shakur and a former wife of Tom Petty that seeks class action status for artists whose master recordings were believed to have been destroyed in the Universal Studios fire.

Megaupload

On December 9, 2011, Megaupload published a music video titled: "The Mega Song", showing artists including Kanye West, Snoop Dogg, Alicia Keys and will.i.am endorsing the company. The music video was also uploaded to YouTube, but was removed following a takedown request by UMG. Megaupload said that the video contained no infringing content, commenting: "we have signed agreements with every featured artist for this campaign". Megaupload requested an apology from UMG, and filed a lawsuit against the company in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, on December 12, 2011. UMG denied that the takedown was ordered under the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and said that the takedown was "pursuant to the UMG-YouTube agreement," which gives UMG "the right to block or remove user-posted videos through YouTube's CMS (Content Management System) based on a number of contractually specified criteria." The video was subsequently returned to YouTube, with the reasons for the UMG takedown remaining unclear. Lawyers for will.i.am initially claimed that he had never agreed to the project, and on December 12, he denied any involvement in the takedown notice. Megaupload dismissed its case against UMG in January 2012.

Copyright termination lawsuit

On February 5, 2019, John Waite and Joe Ely filed a class-action lawsuit against UMG claiming the company is violating their right to terminate grants of copyright after 35 years in accordance with copyright law of the United States by ignoring Notices of Termination. On May 3, 2019, UMG filed a motion to dismiss the case, stating the Notices of Termination were not valid because the songs were not grants of copyright but works for hire.

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Universal Music Group Article Talk Language Watch Edit Universal Records redirects here For Universal Records 1988 1989 see Universal Records 1988 For Universal Records 1995 2005 see Universal Records 1995 2005 For other uses see Universal Records disambiguation For the Chicago recording studio see Universal Recording Corporation Universal Music Group N V 3 often abbreviated as UMG and referred to as just Universal Music is a Dutch American multinational music corporation UMG s corporate headquarters are located in Hilversum Netherlands and its operational headquarters are located in Santa Monica California 4 5 The biggest music company in the world 6 it is one of the Big Three record labels along with Sony Music and Warner Music Group Tencent acquired ten percent of Universal Music Group in March 2020 for 3 billion 7 8 9 and acquired an additional ten percent stake in January 2021 10 Pershing Square Holdings later acquired ten percent of UMG prior to its IPO on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange The company went public on September 21 2021 at a valuation of 46 billion 11 12 Universal Music Group N V UMG s operational headquarters in Santa Monica CaliforniaFormerlyDecca Records USA business 1934 1971 MCA Records 1971 1989 MCA Music Entertainment Group 1989 1996 TypePublic N V Traded asEuronext Amsterdam UMGISINNL0015000IY2IndustryEntertainmentMusicFoundedSeptember 1934 87 years ago 1934 09 HeadquartersHilversum Netherlands corporate Santa Monica California United States operational Area servedWorldwideKey peopleLucian Grainge Chairman amp CEO Boyd Muir CFO ServicesMusic publishingRevenue 5 984 billion US 6 83 billion 2021 1 OwnersVincent Bollore 28 Bollore 18 Vivendi 10 Tencent 20 Pershing Square Holdings 10 Number of employees8 319 2018 2 DivisionsList of Universal Music Group labelsWebsitewww wbr universalmusic wbr com In 2019 Fast Company named Universal Music Group the most innovative music company and listed UMG among the Top 50 most innovative companies in the world 13 and amid the music industry s digital transformation Universal is redefining what a modern label should look like 14 UMG has signed licensing agreements with more than 400 platforms worldwide 15 Contents 1 History 1 1 Early history 1 2 2004 Consolidating into a Vivendi subsidiary 1 3 2007 2012 and EMI purchase 1 4 2012 2017 EMI integration and divisions reorganization 1 5 2018 present Continued growth and public trading 2 Labels 3 Vevo 4 Locations 4 1 Los Angeles metropolitan area 4 1 1 Santa Monica 4 1 2 Hollywood 4 1 3 Woodland Hills 4 2 Miami 4 3 Nashville 4 4 New York City 4 5 Madrid 4 6 London 4 7 Berlin 4 8 Warsaw 4 9 Toronto 4 10 Japan 4 11 Other locations 5 Financial information 5 1 Shareholders 6 Legal issues 6 1 CD price fixing 6 2 Payola 6 3 YouTube 6 4 Imeem 6 5 Universal archive fire 2008 6 6 Megaupload 6 7 Copyright termination lawsuit 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistoryFor history prior to 1996 see MCA Records Early history The company s origins go back to the formation of the American branch of Decca Records in September 1934 and its name and company logo originates from Carl Laemmle s Universal Pictures with which the music business shares a common history but which is today as part of NBCUniversal an independent commercial entity 16 17 The Decca Record Co Ltd of England spun American Decca off in 1939 18 MCA Inc merged with American Decca in 1962 19 In November 1990 Japanese multinational conglomerate Matsushita Electric agreed to acquire MCA for 6 59 billion 20 21 In 1995 Seagram acquired 80 percent of MCA from Matsushita 22 23 On December 9 1996 the company was renamed Universal Studios Inc 24 and its music division was renamed Universal Music Group MCA Records continued as a label within the Universal Music Group In May 1998 Seagram purchased PolyGram 25 and merged it with Universal Music Group in early 1999 26 2004 Consolidating into a Vivendi subsidiary In May 2004 Universal Music Group was cast under separate management from Universal Studios when French media conglomerate Vivendi sold 80 of the latter to General Electric who subsequently merged it with NBC to form NBCUniversal This came two months after the separation of Warner Music Group from Time Warner In February 2006 Vivendi which own UMG since 2000 purchased the remaining 20 percent of UMG from Matsushita Electric On September 6 2006 Vivendi announced its 1 63 billion 2 4 billion purchase of BMG Music Publishing after receiving European Union regulatory approval the acquisition was completed on June 25 2007 27 28 2007 2012 and EMI purchase In June 2007 UMG acquired Sanctuary which eventually became UMG s entertainment merchandising and brand management division Bravado The company represents artists such as Justin Bieber Lady Gaga and Kanye West and has partnered with retailers including Barneys Bloomingdale s and Selfridges 29 30 31 32 In 2008 Universal Music Group agreed to make its catalog available to Spotify then a new streaming service for use outside the U S on a limited basis 33 Doug Morris stepped down from his position as CEO on January 1 2011 Former chairman CEO of Universal Music International Lucian Grainge was promoted to CEO of the company Grainge later replaced him as chairman on March 9 2011 34 Morris became the next chairman of Sony Music Entertainment on July 1 2011 35 With Grainge s appointment as CEO at UMG Max Hole was promoted to COO of UMGI effective July 1 2010 Starting in 2011 UMG s Interscope Geffen A amp M Records began signing contestants from American Idol In January 2011 UMG announced it was donating 200 000 master recordings from the 1920s to 1940s to the Library of Congress for preservation 36 In 2011 EMI agreed to sell its recorded music operations to Universal Music Group for 1 2 billion 1 9 billion and its music publishing operations to a Sony led consortium for 2 2 billion 37 Among the other companies that had competed for the recorded music business was Warner Music Group which was reported to have made a 2 billion bid 38 IMPALA opposed the merger 39 In March 2012 the European Union opened an investigation into the acquisition 40 The EU asked rivals and consumer groups whether the deal would result in higher prices and shut out competitors 41 On September 21 2012 the sale of EMI to UMG was approved in Europe and the United States by the European Commission and Federal Trade Commission respectively 42 However the European Commission approved the deal only under the condition the merged company divest one third of its total operations to other companies with a proven track record in the music industry UMG divested Mute Records Parlophone Roxy Recordings MPS Records Cooperative Music Now That s What I Call Music Jazzland Universal Greece Sanctuary Records Chrysalis Records EMI Classics Virgin Classics and EMI s European regional labels to comply with this condition UMG retained The Beatles formerly of Parlophone and Robbie Williams formerly of Chrysalis The Beatles catalogue was transferred to UMG s newly formed Calderstone Productions while Williams catalogue was transferred to Island Records 43 44 2012 2017 EMI integration and divisions reorganization Universal Music Group completed their acquisition of EMI on September 28 2012 45 In November 2012 Steve Barnett was appointed chairman and CEO of Capitol Music Group He formerly served as COO of Columbia Records 46 In compliance the conditions of the European Commission after purchase of EMI Universal Music Group sold the Mute catalogue to the German based BMG Rights Management on December 22 2012 47 Two months later BMG acquired Sanctuary Records for 50 million 58 million 48 On February 8 2013 Warner Music Group acquired the Parlophone Label Group consisting of Parlophone Records Chrysalis Records EMI Classics Virgin Classics and EMI Records Belgian Czech Danish French Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Slovak and Swedish divisions for 765 million 487 million 49 50 Later in February Sony Music Entertainment acquired UMG s European share in Now That s What I Call Music for approximately 60 million 51 Play It Again Sam acquired Co Operative Music for 500 000 in March 2013 52 With EMI s absorption into Universal Music complete its British operations consist of five label units Island Polydor Decca Virgin EMI and Capitol 53 In the Greek market as part of its divesture plans Universal Music retained Minos EMI and sold Universal Music Greece to Greek investors who renamed it Cobalt Music 54 55 Edel AG acquired the MPS catalogue from Universal in January 2014 56 On March 20 2013 UMG announced the worldwide extension of their exclusive distribution deal with the Disney Music Group excluding Japan As a result of this deal DMG s labels and artists have access to UMG s roster of producers and songwriters on a worldwide basis 57 The exclusive deal also saw UMG granted unlimited access to all rights pertaining to Disney s 85 year back catalog of soundtracks and albums 58 On April 2 2013 the gospel music divisions of Motown Records and EMI merged to form a new label called Motown Gospel 59 In May 2013 Japanese company SoftBank offered 8 5 billion to Vivendi for the acquisition of UMG but Vivendi rejected it 60 In July 2018 JPMorgan said that UMG could be worth as much as 40 billion 61 and then increased the valuation to 50 billion in 2019 62 In August 2013 UMG became the first company in the US to have nine of the Top 10 songs on the digital charts according to SoundScan 63 and weeks later became the first company to hold all 10 of the Top 10 spots on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart 64 In September 2013 UMG received a SAG AFTRA American Scene Award for the company s commitment to diversity as exemplified by its entire catalog and roster of artists 65 66 On April 1 2014 Universal Music announced the disbandment of Island Def Jam Music one of four operational umbrella groups within Universal Music Universal CEO Lucian Grainge said of the closure No matter how much we might work to build IDJ as a brand that brand could never be as powerful as each of IDJ s constituent parts 67 Island Records and Def Jam now operate as autonomous record labels David Massey and Bartels who worked respectively at Island and Def Jam Records were named to the new record labels independently 67 Barry Weiss who previously moved from Sony Music to lead Island Def Jam Music in 2012 when Motown Records was incorporated into Island Def Jam stepped down from Universal Music Additionally as part of the changes to the labels Motown Records transferred to Los Angeles to become part of the Capitol Music Group and previous Vice President Ethiopia Habtemariam was promoted to Label President for Motown Records 67 Universal Music Group entered into film and TV production with the 2014 purchase of Eagle Rock Entertainment UMG s first major film production was Amy which won an Oscar for Best Documentary 68 while taking part in Kurt Cobain Montage of Heck and The Beatles Eight Days a Week documentaries In January 2016 UMG hired David Blackman from Laurence Mark Production where he was president of production as head of film and television development and production and theater producer Scott Landis as special advisor on theatrical development and production UMG Executive Vice President Michele Anthony and Universal Music Publishing Group Chairman and CEO Jody Gerson have oversight of the pair 69 On February 11 2017 PolyGram Entertainment was relaunched as a film and television unit of Universal Music Group under David Blackman 70 In 2015 UMG s Capitol Records earned all the major Grammy Awards for the year with Sam Smith receiving Best New Artist Record of the Year and Song of the Year awards and Beck winning Album of the Year 71 In March 2016 Universal Music Canada donated the archives of EMI Music Canada to the University of Calgary 72 In May 2016 UMG acquired Famehouse a digital marketing agency 73 That same year Paul McCartney and the Bee Gees both signed to UMG s Capitol Records including their catalog releases 74 75 In April 2017 UMG signed a new multi year licensing agreement with Spotify the world s leading streaming service and in May 2017 UMG signed a deal with Tencent China s biggest gaming and social media firm 76 77 78 In July 2017 Despacito by Luis Fonsi Daddy Yankee and featuring Justin Bieber became the most streamed track of all time By 2018 the song had broken several Guinness World Records including Most Weeks at Number 1 on Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart and most viewed video online 79 80 In August 2017 UMG and Grace Beyond agreed to develop three new music based television series 27 Melody Island and Mixtape 27 would focus on musicians at the age of 27 an age at which several iconic musicians died Melody Island was an animated series based on tropical island music with live craft segments Mixtape had twelve episodes with each episode connected to a song 81 In October 2017 UMG announced the launch of its Accelerator Engagement Network an initiative aimed to help develop music based startups around the world 82 In November 2017 USC Annenberg announced UMG s partnership in the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative becoming the first music company to do so The initiative is meant to create change for representation of women and underrepresented racial and ethnic groups in the media industry 83 84 In December 2017 Universal Music Group acquired Stiff and ZTT labels along with Perfect Songs Publishing from Trevor Horn s SPZ Group 85 BMG Rights Management through Union Square Music subsidiary retained its back catalogues That same month UMG signed a global multi year agreement with Facebook becoming the first of The Big Three to license its recorded music and publishing catalogs for video and other social experiences across Facebook Instagram and Oculus 86 Sony and Warner signed similar contracts with Facebook the following year Furthermore on December 19 2017 UMG signed a multi year licensing agreement with YouTube 87 2018 present Continued growth and public trading In June 2018 Universal Music Japan announced an exclusive license agreement with Disney Music Group 88 With the addition of Japan UMG distributes releases from Disney Music Group globally In July The Rolling Stones signed a worldwide agreement with UMG covering the band s recorded music and audio visual catalogues archival support global merchandising and brand management 89 That same month Vivendi announced it would explore selling as much as half of Universal Music Group to one or more investors 90 91 In Nielsen s 2018 US Music Mid Year report UMG made history with eight of the Top 10 artists including all of the top five as well as all of the top eight artists ranked by on demand audio streams 92 In August 2018 UMG announced a strategic expansion in Africa opening an office in Abidjan to oversee French speaking Africa and also unveiling a Universal Music Nigera office in Lagos to focus on signing local artists and taking them global 93 94 In September 2018 singer Elton John signed a global partnership agreement with UMG across recorded music music publishing brand management and licensing rights 95 On November 19 2018 singer songwriter Taylor Swift signed a new multi album deal with UMG in the United States her future releases will be promoted under the Republic Records imprint In addition to the promised ownership of her master recordings UMG agreed to in case it sells portions of its stake in Spotify distribute proceeds among its artists and make them non recoupable 96 97 98 In December 2018 Queen s Bohemian Rhapsody became the most streamed song from the pre streaming era and the most streamed classic rock song of all time 99 In February 2019 UMG fully acquired music distributor INgrooves 100 UMG was named to Fast Company s annual list of the World s 50 Most Innovative Companies for 2019 the first major music company to be included on the list in a decade UMG is also ranked number 1 in the music category 13 14 UMG was named by Forbes as one of America s Best Midsize Employers in 2019 101 In June YouTube and UMG announced that they were upgrading more than 1 000 popular music videos to high definition releasing them through 2020 102 In August 2019 Tencent and Vivendi started negotiation to sell 10 Vivendi s stake of Universal Music to Tencent 103 The deal is expected to be of 3 36 billion 104 In February 2020 Vivendi announced it was planning to go public in an IPO within three years 105 The company and Lego Group announced a music product partnership on April 26 2020 106 On June 16 2020 Universal rebranded Virgin EMI Records as EMI Records and named Rebecca Allen former president of UMG s Decca label as the label s president 107 bringing back the EMI brand The same day UMG announced launch of its new affiliates in Morocco and Israel 108 In July 2020 UMG signed a new multi year licensing agreement with Spotify 109 In June 2021 Pershing Square Tontine Holdings a special purpose acquisition company run by investor Bill Ackman announced it would acquire 10 percent of UMG before it went public in a 4 billion transaction The deal collapsed in July 2021 due to regulatory concerns and it was announced that Ackman s Pershing Square Holdings would complete the purchase instead 110 In September 2021 IPO Euronext Amsterdam announces an introduction price of 18 50 clarification needed and Vivendi set an initial valuation for UMG at 33 billion 38 3 billion Vivendi distributed 60 of its UMG shares and retaining 10 The family of French businessman Vincent Bollore is revealed as the majority shareholder with 28 of UMG shares through its holding company Bollore 18 and its subsidiary Vivendi 10 headed by his son Yannick Bollore Tencent emerged as UMG s biggest corporate shareholder with 20 of shares Pershing Square Holdings held 10 of UMG shares In its IPO UMG hits 54 billion 62 6 billion valuation which is over a third bigger than initial valuation 11 In January 2022 UMG acquired the Icelandic record label Alda Music which owned the rights to nearly 80 percent of all music released in Iceland 111 In February 2022 Universal Music Group announced a partnership with Curio an NFT platform to create NFT collections for its record labels and artists 112 In May 31 2022 Universal Music Group N V announces Baa1 BBB Long term credit ratings from Moody s and S amp P 113 LabelsMain article List of Universal Music Group labelsVevoUniversal Music Group co developed with Google 114 115 Vevo a site designed for music videos inspired by Hulu com which similarly allows free ad supported streaming of videos and other music content 116 On May 24 2018 Vevo announced that it would no longer continue distributing videos to Vevo com instead opting to primarily focus on YouTube syndication 117 LocationsLos Angeles metropolitan area Santa Monica Universal Music Publishing Headquarters in Santa Monica California UMG s operational headquarters are located in Santa Monica Interscope Geffen A amp M and Universal Music Enterprises UME the company s catalog division are headquartered in Santa Monica Def Jam Island and Republic Records also maintain offices there UMG chairman amp CEO Lucian Grainge is based at the company s Santa Monica offices Universal Music Publishing is also headquartered in the city Hollywood Capitol Music Group is headquartered at the Capitol Records Building in Hollywood 118 Universal Music Latin Entertainment is also headquartered in Hollywood Woodland Hills Universal Music Group operates a secondary office in Woodland Hills that includes finance royalty and operations functions 119 Miami Universal Music Latin Entertainment is headquartered in Miami Florida Nashville Universal Music Group Nashville is headquartered in Nashville Tennessee 120 New York City UMG has offices in New York City where Island Records Def Jam Recordings Republic Records Verve Label Group and Spinefarm Records are headquartered Madrid Universal Music Spain is based in Madrid Spain 121 London Universal Music Group Global formerly known as Universal Music Group International UMGI operates offices in London 122 Berlin The headquarters of Universal Music GmbH is located in Berlin Friedrichshain Universal Music GmbH the German subsidiary is headquartered in Berlin It moved in 2002 from Hamburg to the district Friedrichshain at the river Spree Warsaw Universal Music Group s Universal Music Polska is located in Warsaw 123 Toronto Universal Music Group s Universal Music Canada is located in Toronto 124 Japan Universal Music Japan is headquartered in Shibuya Tokyo Other locations UMG operates in more than 60 territories around the world including Australia Central America Brazil France India China Hong Kong Taiwan Sub Saharan Africa Central and Eastern Europe New Zealand Russia Ukraine South Korea and more 121 Company s legal headquarters are in the Netherlands Universal Music Group s largest corporate shareholder Tencent is headquartered in Shenzhen China Tencent s ultimate largest controlling corporate shareholder Naspers is headquartered in Cape Town South Africa On March 8 2022 UMG suspended all its operations in Russia following the country s invasion of the Ukraine 125 Financial informationShareholders In January 2022 the company s shareholding is 3 Vincent Bollore 28 Bollore SE 18 Vivendi SE 10 Tencent 20 Concerto Investment BV 10 Scherzo Investment BV 10 Pershing Square Holdings 10 Legal issuesCD price fixing Main article CD price fixing In 2000 music companies including UMG entered into consent agreements with the Federal Trade Commission 126 with no admission of liability 127 whereby they agreed to discontinue the use of Minimum Advertised Price programs under which subsidized cooperative advertising was provided to retailers that agreed to adhere to minimum advertised pricing 126 In 2002 a similar settlement was entered into with music publishers and distributors Sony Music Warner Music Bertelsmann Music Group EMI Music and Universal Music Group and certain retailers without admission of liability or wrongdoing with various states In settlement of the claim the companies collectively agreed to pay a 67 4 million fine and distribute 75 7 million in CDs to public and non profit groups 127 It was estimated that consumers were overcharged by 500 million and up to 5 per album 128 Payola In May 2006 an investigation led by then New York Attorney General Eliot Spitzer concluded with a determination that Universal Music Group bribed radio stations to play songs from Ashlee Simpson Brian McKnight Big Tymers Nick Lachey Lindsay Lohan and other performers under Universal labels The company paid 12 million to the state in settlement 129 YouTube In 2007 with the help of the Electronic Frontier Foundation Stephanie Lenz sued UMG s publishing company for allegedly improperly requesting that pursuant to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act YouTube remove a 29 second home video in which Lenz s child danced to a recording of Prince s song Let s Go Crazy 130 After years of litigation the suit settled in 2018 prior to the court holding a trial on whether UMG had a subjective belief that the video was infringing and not fair to use before sending its request to YouTube 131 132 133 In April 2016 UMG had the audio muted of a video clip showing Katherine Jenkins singing the British national anthem They claimed that the recording of God Save the Queen was copyrighted and YouTube initially complied with this request but subsequently offered the video with the original audio track 134 Imeem In December 2007 UMG announced a deal with Imeem which allows users of the social network to listen to any track from Universal s catalogue for free with a portion of the advertising generated by the music being shared with the record label 135 All traffic was redirected to MySpace after that company acquired Imeem on December 8 2009 136 Universal archive fire 2008 Main article 2008 Universal Studios fire According to Jody Rosen of The New York Times the fire which swept through Universal Studios Hollywood on June 1 2008 caused the biggest disaster in the history of the music business 137 In space rented from NBCUniversal according to an official document marked Confidential the fire destroyed at least 118 230 assets master recordings or about 500 000 song titles owned by UMG The vault housed tape masters for Decca the pop jazz and classical powerhouse it housed master tapes for the storied blues label Chess it housed masters for Impulse the groundbreaking jazz label The vault held masters for the MCA ABC A amp M Geffen and Interscope labels as well as some smaller subsidiary labels Nearly all of these masters in some cases the complete discographies of entire record labels were wiped out in the fire 137 138 In a statement issued on June 11 2019 UMG said The New York Times article contained numerous inaccuracies misleading statements contradictions and fundamental misunderstandings of the scope of the incident and affected assets 139 Following the publication of the New York Times story Questlove of The Roots confirmed that the master tapes for two of the band s albums including unused material and multi track recordings were lost in the fire 140 Similarly Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic said he believed the masters for the band s 1991 album Nevermind were gone forever as a result of the fire 141 Representatives for R E M announced they would investigate the effects the fire may have had on the band s archival materials while Hole Steely Dan Rosanne Cash and Geoff Downes made statements on their possible losses from the fire 141 142 A representative for Eminem confirmed that the rapper s master recordings were digitized months before the fire but could not confirm whether the physical master reels of his recordings were affected 143 UMG archivist Patrick Kraus assured that the Impulse Records John Coltrane Muddy Waters Ahmad Jamal Nashboro Records and Chess Records masters survived the fire and were still in Universal s archive 144 Howard King filed a lawsuit in Los Angeles on June 21 2019 on behalf of Soundgarden Hole Steve Earle the estate of Tupac Shakur and a former wife of Tom Petty that seeks class action status for artists whose master recordings were believed to have been destroyed in the Universal Studios fire 145 146 Megaupload On December 9 2011 Megaupload published a music video titled The Mega Song showing artists including Kanye West Snoop Dogg Alicia Keys and will i am endorsing the company 147 The music video was also uploaded to YouTube but was removed following a takedown request by UMG Megaupload said that the video contained no infringing content commenting we have signed agreements with every featured artist for this campaign 148 Megaupload requested an apology from UMG and filed a lawsuit against the company in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on December 12 2011 149 150 UMG denied that the takedown was ordered under the terms of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and said that the takedown was pursuant to the UMG YouTube agreement which gives UMG the right to block or remove user posted videos through YouTube s CMS Content Management System based on a number of contractually specified criteria 151 The video was subsequently returned to YouTube with the reasons for the UMG takedown remaining unclear 152 Lawyers for will i am initially claimed that he had never agreed to the project and on December 12 he denied any involvement in the takedown notice 153 Megaupload dismissed its case against UMG in January 2012 154 Copyright termination lawsuit On February 5 2019 John Waite and Joe Ely filed a class action lawsuit against UMG claiming the company is violating their right to terminate grants of copyright after 35 years in accordance with copyright law of the United States by ignoring Notices of Termination On May 3 2019 UMG filed a motion to dismiss the case stating the Notices of Termination were not valid because the songs were not grants of copyright but works for hire 155 156 See also Companies portal United States portal List of record labels List of RIAA member labels List of Universal Music Group artists List of Universal Music Group labelsReferences UNIVERSAL MUSIC GROUP N V REPORTS FINANCIAL RESULTS FOR THE THIRD QUARTER ENDED SEPTEMBER 30 2021 Universal Music Group Official Blog Universal Music Group Official Website October 27 2021 Retrieved November 15 2021 Vivendi Annual Report 2018 PDF Vivendi Archived PDF from the original on May 30 2019 Retrieved May 30 2019 a b Universal Music Group Prospectus 14 September 2021 PDF Vivendi SE September 14 2021 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link Vivendi UMG BV Secures Financing finance yahoo com Archived from the original on March 26 2021 Retrieved March 29 2021 Vivendi UMG BV Secures Financing www businesswire com 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Music Burned The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Archived from the original on June 11 2019 Retrieved June 11 2019 Chokshi Niraj June 11 2019 Recordings by Elton John Nirvana and Thousands More Lost in Fire The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Archived from the original on June 11 2019 Retrieved June 11 2019 Aswad Jem June 11 2019 Universal Music Disputes Severity of 2008 Fire Cited in New York Times Article Variety Archived from the original on June 11 2019 Retrieved June 11 2019 Hole Say They Were Never Told About Lost Recordings in Warehouse Fire Pitchfork June 11 2019 Archived from the original on June 11 2019 Retrieved June 12 2019 a b Holson Laura M June 12 2019 Musicians Mourn the Fiery Destruction of Their Recordings I Think They Are Gone Forever The New York Times Archived from the original on June 12 2019 Retrieved June 12 2019 Colburn Randall Nirvana s Krist Novoselic believes Nevermind masters lost in Universal fire News Archived from the original on June 12 2019 Retrieved June 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December 13 2011 Megaupload threatens to sue Universal over YouTube video Archived August 1 2012 at archive today The Guardian London December 13 2011 Retrieved December 13 2011 Megaupload to Sue Universal Joins Fight Against SOPA Archived July 17 2012 at archive today December 12 2011 Retrieved December 13 2011 UMG claims right to block or remove YouTube videos it doesn t own Archived July 7 2012 at archive today Ars Technica December 16 2011 Retrieved December 16 2011 File Sharing Company Sues Record Label for a Change Archived July 11 2012 at archive today New York Times December 13 2011 Retrieved December 16 2011 UMG MegaUpload Case Gets Even Stranger Will i am Says He Didn t Authorize A Takedown Archived September 11 2012 at archive today Techdirt December 15 2011 Retrieved December 17 2011 Megaupload Drops Lawsuit Against Universal Music Over Viral Video Exclusive The Hollywood Reporter January 21 2012 Archived from the original on August 1 2019 Retrieved August 1 2019 French Leonard May 18 2018 Music Industry Opposes Copyright Termination What is it Lawful Masses with Leonard French YouTube Archived from the original on September 17 2019 Retrieved May 18 2018 Sanchez Daniel May 7 2018 Universal Music Is Battling to Nullify the 35 Year Copyright Termination Right digitalmusicnews com Archived from the original on August 23 2020 Retrieved May 18 2018 External links Media related to Universal Music Group at Wikimedia Commons Official website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Universal Music Group amp oldid 1093799322, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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