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Not to be confused with the Pontifical University of Salamanca.

The University of Salamanca (Spanish: Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It was founded in 1218 by King Alfonso IX. It is the oldest university in the Hispanic world and one of the oldest in the world in continuous operation.

University of Salamanca

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Prior to the foundation of the university, Salamanca was home to a cathedral school, known to have been in existence by 1130. The university was founded as a studium generale by the Leonese King Alfonso IX in 1218 as the scholas Salamanticae, with the actual creation of the university (or the transformation of the existing school into the university) occurring between August 1218 and the following winter. A further royal charter from King Alfonso X, dated 8 May 1254, established rules for the organisation and financial endowment of the university, and referred to it for the first time by that name. A papal bull of Alexander IV in 1255 confirmed the Royal Charter of Alfonso X and granted universal recognition to the university's degrees.

The historical phrases Quod natura non dat, Salmantica non praestat (what nature does not give, Salamanca does not lend, in Latin) and Multos et doctissimos Salmantica habet (many and very versed Salamanca has) give an idea of the prestige the institution rapidly acquired.[failed verification]

In the reign of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, the Spanish government was revamped. Contemporary with the Spanish Inquisition, the expulsion of the Jews and Muslims, and the conquest of Granada, there was a certain professionalization of the apparatus of the state. This involved the massive employment of "letrados", i.e., bureaucrats and lawyers, who were "licenciados" (university graduates), particularly, of Salamanca, and the newly founded University of Alcalá. These men staffed the various councils of state, including, eventually, the Consejo de Indias and Casa de Contratacion, the two highest bodies in metropolitan Spain for the government of the Spanish Empire in the New World.[citation needed]

While Columbus was lobbying the King and Queen for a contract to seek out a western route to the Indies, he made his case to a council of geographers at the University of Salamanca. While the geographers were skeptical of Columbus and his voyage calculations, the University of Salamanca always defended the theory of unknown territories to the west, and supported Columbus' voyage, believing that new territories may be discovered. In the next century, the morality and laws of colonization in the Indies were debated by the School of Salamanca, along with the development of the study of science, geography and cartography of the Americas, and as well as the study of general subjects of economics, philosophy and theology.[citation needed]

Like Oxford and Cambridge, Salamanca had a number of colleges (Colegios Mayores). These were founded as charitable institutions to enable poor scholars to attend the university. By the eighteenth century they had become closed corporations controlled by the families of their founders, and dominated the university between them. Most were destroyed by Napoleon's troops. Today some have been turned into faculty buildings while others survive as halls of residence.[citation needed]

In the 19th century, the Spanish government dissolved the university's faculties of canon law and theology. They were later reestablished in the 1940s as part of the Pontifical University of Salamanca.[citation needed]

The faculty of this university discussed the feasibility of Christopher Columbus's project and the effects his claims brought. Once America was discovered, they discussed the rights of indigenous people as being recognized with full plenitude, which was revolutionary for that period, economic processes were analyzed for the first time and they developed the science of law as it became a classical scholarly focus. It was the period when some of the brightest minds attended the university and it was known as the School of Salamanca. The school's members renovated theology, laid the foundation for modern-day law, international law, modern economic science and actively participated in the Council of Trent. The school's mathematicians studied the calendar reform, commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII and proposed the solution that was later implemented. By 1580, 6,500 new students had arrived at Salamanca each year, amongst the graduates were state officials of the Spanish monarchy administration. It was also during this period when the first female university students were probably admitted, Beatriz Galindo and Lucía de Medrano, the latter being the first woman ever to give classes at a university.

Sorcery

In popular belief, the university was associated with sorcery. A certain cave in Salamanca [es] was considered the site of a school of black magic. In Spanishsalamanca may mean "cave", "an evil iguana" and "hand trick" and thesalamanquesa (Tarentola mauritanica, the Spanish name is also derived from "salamander") is a reptile with magical attributes in Spanish tradition. In Romanian folklore, the devil runs a school of black magic namedScholomance. The name is derived from "Salamanca" and the wise king "Solomon".

Salamanca draws undergraduate and graduate students from across Spain and the world; it is the top-ranked university in Spain based on the number of students coming from other regions. It is also known for its Spanish courses for non-native speakers, which attract more than two thousand foreign students each year.

Today, the University of Salamanca is an important center for the study of humanities and is particularly noted for its language studies, as well as in laws and economics. Scientific research is carried out in the university and research centers associated with it, such as at the Centro de Investigación del Cáncer [Cancer Research Centre], Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León or INCyL [Institute of Neuroscience of Castile and León], Centro de Láseres Pulsados Ultracortos Ultraintensos [Ultrashort Ultraintense Pulse Lasers Centre]. It is one of only two Hispanophone universities in the world that have a MoU with the United Nations to train language professionals for the organization. In conjunction with the University of Cambridge, the University of Salamanca co-founded the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE) in 1989.

In 2018, the institution celebrated its eighth centennial.

The library holds about 906,000 volumes.

Notable staff

Notable students

Other notable students and academic teachers include:

  1. Álvarez Villar, Julián (1972). La Universidad de Salamanca: arte y tradiciones. p. 13. ISBN 847481751X.
  2. University of Salamanca. "Personal" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2009-03-25. Retrieved2008-09-15.
  3. University of Salamanca. "Estudiantes" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2009-03-25. Retrieved2008-09-15.
  4. "Academic Ranking of World Universities - University of Salamanca". Shanghai Ranking. Retrieved2020-02-01.
  5. "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2019". Retrieved2019-10-13.
  6. "QS World University Rankings - University of Salamanca". Top Universities. Retrieved2020-02-01.
  7. "World University Rankings - University of Salamanca". THE World University Rankings. Retrieved2020-02-01.
  8. "Best Global Universities - University of Salamanca". U.S. News Education (USNWR). Retrieved2020-02-01.
  9. Álvarez Villar, Julián (1972). La Universidad de Salamanca: arte y tradiciones. p. 15. ISBN 847481751X.
  10. "Historia" (in Spanish). University of Salamanca. Retrieved14 August 2021.
  11. VIII Centenario de la Universidad de Salamanca - Reseña Histórica de la Universidad de Salamanca:. Centenario.usal.es. Retrieved on 2013-09-05.
  12. "salamanca". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). RAE-ASALE. 2020. Retrieved14 November 2021.
  13. "salamanquesa". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). RAE-ASALE. 2020. Retrieved14 November 2021.
  14. Gaster, Moses (1884). "Scholomonar, d. i. er Grabancijaš dijak nach der Voksüberlieferung er Rumänen". Archiv für slavische Philologie (in German). VII: 288–289.
  15. Oișteanu, Andrei (1999). Cosmos Vs. Chaos: Myth and Magic in Romanian Traditional Culture : a Comparative Approach. Translated by Mirela Adăscăliţei; Alexander Drace-Francis. Romanian Cultural Foundation Publishing House. p. 221. ISBN 9-789-7357-7198-0.: "În 1884, Moses Gaster a acordat apelativului în discuţie o etimologie combinată: „Şolomonar este rezultatul dintre şolomanţă [de la Salamanca – n. A.O.] + solomonie [de la Solomon – n. A.O.]"
  16. "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-02-28. Retrieved2009-10-21.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. La USAL inaugura los cursos de verano con 2.000 estudiantes extranjeros. elmundo.es. Retrieved on 2013-09-05.
  18. http://www.cicancer.org/
  19. (in Spanish) INCyL. INCyL. Retrieved on 2013-09-05.
  20. "MoU Network". United Nations. Retrieved2020-12-28.
  21. VIII Centenario de la Universidad de Salamanca - VIII Centenario de la Universidad de Salamanca. Centenario.usal.es. Retrieved on 2013-09-05.
  22. Spain – Libraries and museums
  • Manuel Fernández Álvarez, Luis E. Rodríguez San Pedro & Julián Álvarez Villar, The University of Salamanca, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1992. ISBN 84-7481-701-3.
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University of Salamanca Article Talk Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with the Pontifical University of Salamanca The University of Salamanca Spanish Universidad de Salamanca is a Spanish higher education institution located in the city of Salamanca in the autonomous community of Castile and Leon It was founded in 1218 by King Alfonso IX It is the oldest university in the Hispanic world and one of the oldest in the world in continuous operation University of SalamancaUniversidad de SalamancaSeal of the University of SalamancaLatin Universitas Studii SalamanticensisMottoOmnium scientiarum princeps Salmantica docet Latin Motto in EnglishThe principles of all sciences are taught in SalamancaTypePublicEstablished1218 1 Academic affiliationsEUA Coimbra GroupRectorRicardo Rivero OrtegaAcademic staff2 453 2 Administrative staff1 252 2 Studentsca 28 000 3 Doctoral students2 240 3 LocationSalamanca Castile and Leon Spain 40 57 41 N 5 40 01 W 40 96133760 N 5 66692510 W 40 96133760 5 66692510 Coordinates 40 57 41 N 5 40 01 W 40 96133760 N 5 66692510 W 40 96133760 5 66692510CampusUrban College townColours CarmineWebsitewww wbr usal wbr esUniversity rankingsGlobal OverallARWU World 4 601 700 2019 CWTS World 5 699 2019 QS World 6 601 650 2020 THE World 7 601 800 2020 USNWR Global 8 651 2020 Close up of the plateresque facade of the University of Salamanca Plateresque facade of the University facing a statue of Fray Luis de Leon School Courtyard in the University The old library of the University of Salamanca Fray Luis de Leon s classroom Contents 1 History 2 Related affairs 2 1 Sorcery 3 Present day 4 Library 5 Notable people 5 1 Notable staff 5 2 Notable students 6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 Literature 9 External linksHistory EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources University of Salamanca news newspapers books scholar JSTOR August 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Prior to the foundation of the university Salamanca was home to a cathedral school known to have been in existence by 1130 The university was founded as a studium generale by the Leonese King Alfonso IX in 1218 as the scholas Salamanticae with the actual creation of the university or the transformation of the existing school into the university occurring between August 1218 and the following winter 1 A further royal charter from King Alfonso X dated 8 May 1254 established rules for the organisation and financial endowment of the university and referred to it for the first time by that name 9 A papal bull of Alexander IV in 1255 confirmed the Royal Charter of Alfonso X and granted universal recognition to the university s degrees 10 The historical phrases Quod natura non dat Salmantica non praestat what nature does not give Salamanca does not lend in Latin and Multos et doctissimos Salmantica habet many and very versed Salamanca has give an idea of the prestige the institution rapidly acquired 11 failed verification In the reign of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile the Spanish government was revamped Contemporary with the Spanish Inquisition the expulsion of the Jews and Muslims and the conquest of Granada there was a certain professionalization of the apparatus of the state This involved the massive employment of letrados i e bureaucrats and lawyers who were licenciados university graduates particularly of Salamanca and the newly founded University of Alcala These men staffed the various councils of state including eventually the Consejo de Indias and Casa de Contratacion the two highest bodies in metropolitan Spain for the government of the Spanish Empire in the New World citation needed While Columbus was lobbying the King and Queen for a contract to seek out a western route to the Indies he made his case to a council of geographers at the University of Salamanca While the geographers were skeptical of Columbus and his voyage calculations the University of Salamanca always defended the theory of unknown territories to the west and supported Columbus voyage believing that new territories may be discovered In the next century the morality and laws of colonization in the Indies were debated by the School of Salamanca along with the development of the study of science geography and cartography of the Americas and as well as the study of general subjects of economics philosophy and theology citation needed Like Oxford and Cambridge Salamanca had a number of colleges Colegios Mayores These were founded as charitable institutions to enable poor scholars to attend the university By the eighteenth century they had become closed corporations controlled by the families of their founders and dominated the university between them Most were destroyed by Napoleon s troops Today some have been turned into faculty buildings while others survive as halls of residence citation needed In the 19th century the Spanish government dissolved the university s faculties of canon law and theology They were later reestablished in the 1940s as part of the Pontifical University of Salamanca citation needed Related affairs EditThe faculty of this university discussed the feasibility of Christopher Columbus s project and the effects his claims brought Once America was discovered they discussed the rights of indigenous people as being recognized with full plenitude which was revolutionary for that period economic processes were analyzed for the first time and they developed the science of law as it became a classical scholarly focus It was the period when some of the brightest minds attended the university and it was known as the School of Salamanca The school s members renovated theology laid the foundation for modern day law international law modern economic science and actively participated in the Council of Trent The school s mathematicians studied the calendar reform commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII and proposed the solution that was later implemented By 1580 6 500 new students had arrived at Salamanca each year amongst the graduates were state officials of the Spanish monarchy administration It was also during this period when the first female university students were probably admitted Beatriz Galindo and Lucia de Medrano the latter being the first woman ever to give classes at a university Sorcery Edit In popular belief the university was associated with sorcery A certain cave in Salamanca es was considered the site of a school of black magic In Spanish salamanca may mean cave an evil iguana and hand trick 12 and the salamanquesa Tarentola mauritanica the Spanish name is also derived from salamander is a reptile with magical attributes in Spanish tradition 13 In Romanian folklore the devil runs a school of black magic named Scholomance The name is derived from Salamanca and the wise king Solomon 14 15 Present day EditSalamanca draws undergraduate and graduate students from across Spain and the world it is the top ranked university in Spain based on the number of students coming from other regions 16 It is also known for its Spanish courses for non native speakers which attract more than two thousand foreign students each year 17 Today the University of Salamanca is an important center for the study of humanities and is particularly noted for its language studies as well as in laws and economics Scientific research is carried out in the university and research centers associated with it such as at the Centro de Investigacion del Cancer Cancer Research Centre 18 Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y Leon or INCyL Institute of Neuroscience of Castile and Leon 19 Centro de Laseres Pulsados Ultracortos Ultraintensos Ultrashort Ultraintense Pulse Lasers Centre It is one of only two Hispanophone universities in the world that have a MoU with the United Nations to train language professionals for the organization 20 In conjunction with the University of Cambridge the University of Salamanca co founded the Association of Language Testers in Europe ALTE in 1989 In 2018 the institution celebrated its eighth centennial 21 Library EditThe library holds about 906 000 volumes 22 Notable people EditNotable staff Edit Juan de Galavis professor of theology later became Archbishop of Santo Domingo and Archbishop of Bogota Francisco Elias de Tejada y Spinola professor of Philosophy of Law and Natural Law Enrique Gil Robles professor of Natural Law Paul Nunez Coronel d 1534 professor of Hebrew Miguel de Unamuno writer Beatriz Galindo d 1534 professor of Latin and rhetoricNotable students Edit Miguel de Cervantes author Luis de Gongora Fray Luis de Leon Francisco de Vitoria Pedro Calderon de la Barca Bartolome de Las Casas Beatriz Galindo Miguel de Unamuno Other notable students and academic teachers include Aristides Royo President of Panama Francisco J Ayala Susana Marcos Celestino Abraham Zacuto Ignacio Baleztena Ascarate Esteban de Bilbao Eguia Domingo de Soto Melchor Cano Francisco Suarez St John of the Cross Antonio de Nebrija Gaspar de Guzman Count Duke of Olivares Gaspar Sanz Pedro Gomez Labrador Marquis of Labrador Cardinal Mazarin Mateo Aleman Diego de Torres Villarroel Pedro Salinas Adolfo Suarez Juan Zarate Manuel Belgrano Luis de Onis Pedro Nunes Simon de Rojas Antonio Tovar Gaspar Cervantes de Gaeta Xavier BecerraSee also Edit Spain portal School of Salamanca Pontifical University of Salamanca List of medieval universitiesNotes and references Edit a b Alvarez Villar Julian 1972 La Universidad de Salamanca arte y tradiciones p 13 ISBN 847481751X a b University of Salamanca Personal in Spanish Archived from the original on 2009 03 25 Retrieved 2008 09 15 a b University of Salamanca Estudiantes in Spanish Archived from the original on 2009 03 25 Retrieved 2008 09 15 Academic Ranking of World Universities University of Salamanca Shanghai Ranking Retrieved 2020 02 01 CWTS Leiden Ranking 2019 Retrieved 2019 10 13 QS World University Rankings University of Salamanca Top Universities Retrieved 2020 02 01 World University Rankings University of Salamanca THE World University Rankings Retrieved 2020 02 01 Best Global Universities University of Salamanca U S News Education USNWR Retrieved 2020 02 01 Alvarez Villar Julian 1972 La Universidad de Salamanca arte y tradiciones p 15 ISBN 847481751X Historia in Spanish University of Salamanca Retrieved 14 August 2021 VIII Centenario de la Universidad de Salamanca Resena Historica de la Universidad de Salamanca Centenario usal es Retrieved on 2013 09 05 salamanca Diccionario de la lengua espanola in Spanish RAE ASALE 2020 Retrieved 14 November 2021 salamanquesa Diccionario de la lengua espanola in Spanish RAE ASALE 2020 Retrieved 14 November 2021 Gaster Moses 1884 Scholomonar d i er Grabancijas dijak nach der Voksuberlieferung er Rumanen Archiv fur slavische Philologie in German VII 288 289 Oișteanu Andrei 1999 Cosmos Vs Chaos Myth and Magic in Romanian Traditional Culture a Comparative Approach Translated by Mirela Adăscăliţei Alexander Drace Francis Romanian Cultural Foundation Publishing House p 221 ISBN 9 789 7357 7198 0 In 1884 Moses Gaster a acordat apelativului in discuţie o etimologie combinată Solomonar este rezultatul dintre solomanţă de la Salamanca n A O solomonie de la Solomon n A O Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2012 02 28 Retrieved 2009 10 21 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link La USAL inaugura los cursos de verano con 2 000 estudiantes extranjeros elmundo es Retrieved on 2013 09 05 http www cicancer org in Spanish INCyL INCyL Retrieved on 2013 09 05 MoU Network United Nations Retrieved 2020 12 28 VIII Centenario de la Universidad de Salamanca VIII Centenario de la Universidad de Salamanca Centenario usal es Retrieved on 2013 09 05 Spain Libraries and museumsLiterature EditManuel Fernandez Alvarez Luis E Rodriguez San Pedro amp Julian Alvarez Villar The University of Salamanca Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca 1992 ISBN 84 7481 701 3 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to University of Salamanca Official website VIII Centenario website University of Salamanca language courses Official spanish courses website Language courses in Salamanca University marketed by a private company Accom Consulting Spain S L an authorized University agent Herbermann Charles ed 1913 University of Salamanca Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title University of Salamanca amp oldid 1087605649, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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