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Wikipedia

This article is about the university's St. George campus in Downtown Toronto. For other uses, see University of Toronto (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Toronto Metropolitan University, formerly known as Ryerson University.

The University of Toronto (UToronto or U of T) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada. Originally controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed its present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution. As a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs and significant differences in character and history. The St. George campus is the main campus of the University of Toronto tri-campus system, the other two being satellite campuses located in Scarborough and Mississauga.

University of Toronto
Latin: Universitas Torontonensis
Former name
King's College
(1827–1849)
MottoVelut arbor ævo(Latin)
Motto in English
As a tree through the ages
TypePublic university
EstablishedMarch 15, 1827
(195 years ago)
(1827-03-15)
Academic affiliation
AAU, ACU, AUCC, U15, URA
Endowment
  • c. $3.15 billion CAD (excl. colleges)
  • c. $3.4 billion CAD (incl. colleges)
ChancellorRose M. Patten
PresidentMeric Gertler
Academic staff
3,246
Administrative staff
7,462
Students64,218
Undergraduates44,763
Postgraduates19,455
Location,,
Canada

43°39′42″N79°23′42″W /43.66167°N 79.39500°W /43.66167; -79.39500Coordinates: 43°39′42″N79°23′42″W /43.66167°N 79.39500°W /43.66167; -79.39500
CampusUrban, 71 hectares (180 acres)
Colours
NicknameVarsity Blues
Sporting affiliations
U SportsOUA, CUFLA
MascotTrue Blue (the Beaver)
Websiteutoronto.ca

The University of Toronto offers over 700 undergraduate and 200 graduate programs. In all major rankings, the university consistently ranks in the top ten public universities in the world and as the top university in the country. It receives the most annual scientific research funding and endowment of any Canadian university and is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal.

Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School. The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, the first artificial cardiac pacemaker, and the site of the first successful lung transplant and nerve transplant. The university was also home to the first electron microscope, the development of deep learning, neural network, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, and the development of the theory of NP-completeness.

The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, primarily within U Sports, with ties to gridiron football, rowing and ice hockey. The earliest recorded instance of gridiron football occurred at University of Toronto's University College in November 1861. The university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre, simultaneously serving cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex.

The University of Toronto alumni include three Governors General of Canada, five Prime Ministers of Canada, nine foreign leaders, and seventeen justices of the Supreme Court of Canada. As of March 2019, twelve Nobel laureates, six Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.

Contents

Early history

The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada and founder of York, the colonial capital. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States. The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York.

Charter granted by King George IV in 1827, establishing King's College.

On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University ... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature ... to continue for ever, to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.

Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of the Province of Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866. The Corps was part of the Reserve Militia led by Professor Henry Croft.

Painting of University College, 1859.

Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was the precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887 when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees. The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888 when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884.

A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904. The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968; both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions. The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toronto Schools.

World wars and post-war years

A Sopwith Camel aircraft rests on the Front Campus lawn in 1918.

The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted. Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended, although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held. The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935, followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949. The university opened suburban campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967. The university's former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of University of Guelph in 1964 and York University in 1965, respectively. Beginning in the 1980s, reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts.

Since 2000

In 2000, geophysicist Kin-Yip Chun was reinstated as a professor of the university, after he launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the university alleging racial discrimination. In 2017, a human rights application was filed against the University by one of its students for allegedly delaying the investigation of sexual assault and being dismissive of their concerns. In 2018, the university cleared one of its professors of allegations of discrimination and antisemitism in an internal investigation, after a complaint was filed by one of its students.

The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than c. $1 billion in 2007. On September 24, 2020, the university announced a $250 million gift to the Faculty of Medicine from businessman and philanthropist James C. Temerty, the largest single philanthropic donation in Canadian history. This broke the previous record for the school set in 2019 when Gerry Schwartz and Heather Reisman jointly donated $100 million for the creation of a 750,000-square-foot (70,000 m2) innovation and artificial intelligence centre.

Soldiers' Tower, a memorial to alumni fallen in the World Wars, contains a 51-bell carillon.

The university grounds lie about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of the Financial District in Downtown Toronto, immediately north of Chinatown, and immediately south of the neighbourhoods of Yorkville and The Annex. The site encompasses 71 hectares (180 acres) bounded mostly by Bay Street to the east, Bloor Street to the north, Spadina Avenue to the west and College Street to the south. An enclave surrounded by university grounds, Queen's Park, contains the Ontario Legislative Building and several historic monuments. With its green spaces and many interlocking courtyards, the university forms a distinct region of urban parkland in the city's downtown core. The namesake University Avenue is a ceremonial boulevard and arterial thoroughfare that runs through downtown between Queen's Park and Front Street. The Spadina, St. George, Museum, Queen's Park, and St. Patrick stations of the Toronto subway system are nearby.

The architecture is epitomized by a combination of Romanesque and Gothic Revival buildings spread across the eastern and central portions of campus, most dating between 1858 and 1929. The traditional heart of the university, known as Front Campus, is near the campus centre in an oval lawn enclosed by King's College Circle. The centrepiece is the main building of University College, built in 1857 with an eclectic blend of Richardsonian Romanesque and Norman architectural elements. The dramatic effect of this blended design by architect Frederick William Cumberland drew praise from European visitors of the time: "Until I reached Toronto," remarked Lord Dufferin during his visit in 1872, "I confess I was not aware that so magnificent a specimen of architecture existed upon the American continent." The building was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1968. Built in 1907, Convocation Hall is recognizable for its domed roof and Ionic-pillared rotunda. Although its foremost function is hosting the annual convocation ceremonies, the building is a venue for academic and social events throughout the year. The sandstone buildings of Knox College epitomizes the North American collegiate Gothic design, with its characteristic cloisters surrounding a secluded courtyard.

The neoclassical Convocation Hall is characterized by its domed roof and Ionic-pillared rotunda.

A lawn at the northeast is anchored by Hart House, a Gothic-revival student centre complex. Among its many common rooms, the building's Great Hall is noted for large stained-glass windows and a long quotation from John Milton's Areopagitica inscribed around the walls. The adjacent Soldiers' Tower stands 143 feet (44 m) tall as the most prominent structure in the vicinity, its stone arches etched with the names of university members lost to the battlefields of the two World Wars. The tower houses a 51-bell carillon played on special occasions such as Remembrance Day and convocation. North of University College, the main building of Trinity College displays Jacobethan Tudor architecture, while its chapel was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style of Giles Gilbert Scott. The chapel features exterior walls of sandstone and interiors of Indiana Limestone and was built by Italian stonemasons using ancient building methods. Philosopher's Walk is a scenic footpath that follows a meandering, wooded ravine, the buried Taddle Creek, linking with Trinity College, Varsity Arena and the Faculty of Law. Victoria College is on the eastern side of Queen's Park, centred on a Romanesque main building made of contrasting red sandstone and grey limestone.

Developed after the Second World War, the western section of the campus consists mainly of modernist and internationalist structures that house laboratories and faculty offices. The most significant example of Brutalist architecture is the massive Robarts Library complex, built in 1972 and opened a year later in 1973. It features raised podia, extensive use of triangular geometric designs and a towering fourteen-storey concrete structure that cantilevers above a field of open space and mature trees. Sidney Smith Hall is the home to the Faculty of Arts and Science, as well as a few departments within the faculty. The Leslie L. Dan Pharmacy Building, completed in 2006, exhibits the high-tech architectural style of glass and steel by British architect Norman Foster.

Old Vic, the main building of Victoria College, typifies the Richardsonian Romanesque style.

The University of Toronto has traditionally been a decentralized institution, with governing authority shared among its central administration, academic faculties and colleges. The Governing Council is the unicameral legislative organ of the central administration, overseeing general academic, business and institutional affairs. Before 1971, the university was governed under a bicameral system composed of the board of governors and the university senate. The chancellor, usually a former governor general, lieutenant governor, premier or diplomat, is the ceremonial head of the university. The president is appointed by the council as the chief executive.

Unlike most North American institutions, the University of Toronto is a collegiate university with a model that resembles those of the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford in Britain. The colleges hold substantial autonomy over admissions, scholarships, programs and other academic and financial affairs, in addition to the housing and social duties of typical residential colleges. The system emerged in the 19th century, as ecclesiastical colleges considered various forms of union with the University of Toronto to ensure their viability. The desire to preserve religious traditions in a secular institution resulted in the federative collegiate model that came to characterize the university.

University College was the founding nondenominational college, created in 1853 after the university was secularized. Knox College, a Presbyterian institution, and Wycliffe College, a low church seminary, both encouraged their students to study for non-divinity degrees at University College. In 1885, they entered a formal affiliation with the University of Toronto, and became federated schools in 1890. The idea of federation initially met strong opposition at Victoria University, a Methodist school in Cobourg, but a financial incentive in 1890 convinced the school to join. Decades after the death of John Strachan, the Anglican seminary Trinity College entered federation in 1904, followed in 1910 by St. Michael's College, a Roman Catholic college founded by the Basilian Fathers. Among the institutions that had considered federation but ultimately remained independent were McMaster University, a Baptist school that later moved to Hamilton, and Queen's College, a Presbyterian school in Kingston that later became Queen's University.

The post-war era saw the creation of New College in 1962, Innis College in 1964 and Woodsworth College in 1974, all of them nondenominational. Along with University College, they comprise the university's constituent colleges, which are established and funded by the central administration and are therefore financially dependent. Massey College was established in 1963 by the Massey Foundation as a college exclusively for graduate students. Regis College, a Jesuit seminary, entered federation with the university in 1979.

In contrast with the constituent colleges, the colleges of Knox, Massey, Regis, St. Michael's, Trinity, Victoria and Wycliffe continue to exist as legally distinct entities, each possessing a separate financial endowment. While St. Michael's, Trinity and Victoria continue to recognize their religious affiliations and heritage, they have since adopted secular policies of enrolment and teaching in non-divinity subjects. Some colleges have, or once had, collegiate structures of their own: Emmanuel College is a college of Victoria and St. Hilda's College is part of Trinity; St. Joseph's College had existed as a college within St. Michael's until it was dissolved in 2006. Ewart College existed as an affiliated college until 1991, when it was merged into Knox College. Postgraduate theology degrees are conferred by the colleges of Knox, Regis and Wycliffe, along with the divinity faculties within Emmanuel, St. Michael's and Trinity, including joint degrees with the university through the Toronto School of Theology.

The Sandford Fleming Building contains offices of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering.

The Faculty of Arts and Science is the university's main undergraduate faculty, and administers most of the courses in the college system. While the colleges are not entirely responsible for teaching duties, most of them house specialized academic programs and lecture series. Among other subjects, Trinity College is associated with programs in international relations, as are University College with Canadian studies, Victoria College with Renaissance studies, Innis College with film studies and urban studies, New College with gender studies, Woodsworth College with industrial relations and St. Michael's College with Medievalism. The faculty teaches undergraduate commerce in collaboration with the Rotman School of Management. The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering is the other major direct-entry undergraduate faculty.

The University of Toronto is the birthplace of an influential school of thought on communication theory and literary criticism known as the Toronto School. Described as "the theory of the primacy of communication in the structuring of human cultures and the structuring of the human mind", the school is rooted in the works of Eric A. Havelock and Harold Innis and the subsequent contributions of Edmund Snow Carpenter, Northrop Frye and Marshall McLuhan. Since 1963, the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology of the Faculty of Information has carried the mandate for teaching and advancing the Toronto School.

Several notable works in arts and humanities are based at the university, including the Dictionary of Canadian Biography since 1959 and the Collected Works of Erasmus since 1969. The Records of Early English Drama collects and edits the surviving documentary evidence of dramatic arts in pre-Puritan England, while the Dictionary of Old English compiles the early vocabulary of the English language from the Anglo-Saxon period.

The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses programs and research institutes for international relations.

The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses the university's various programs and curricula in international affairs and foreign policy. As the Cold War heightened, Toronto's Slavic studies program evolved into an important institution on Soviet politics and economics, financed by the Rockefeller, Ford and Mellon foundations. The Munk School is also home to the G20 Research Group, which conducts independent monitoring and analysis on the Group of Twenty, and the Citizen Lab, which conducts research on Internet censorship as a joint founder of the OpenNet Initiative. The university operates international offices in Berlin, Hong Kong and Siena.

The Dalla Lana School of Public Health is a Faculty of the University of Toronto that began as one of the Schools of Hygiene begun by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1927. The School went through a dramatic renaissance after the 2003 SARS crisis, and it is now Canada's largest public health school, with more than 750 faculty, 800 students, and research and training partnerships with institutions throughout Toronto and the world. With more than $39 million in research funding per year, the School supports discovery in global health, tobacco impacts on health, occupational disease and disability, air pollution, inner city, circumpolar health, and many other pressing issues in population health.

The Naylor Building contains offices for the university's Department of Medicine.

The Temerty Faculty of Medicine is affiliated with a network of ten teaching hospitals, providing medical treatment, research and advisory services to patients and clients from Canada and abroad. A core member of the network is University Health Network, itself a specialized federation of Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute. Physicians in the medical institutes have cross-appointments to faculty and supervisory positions in university departments. The Rotman School of Management developed the discipline and methodology of integrative thinking, upon which the school bases its curriculum. Founded in 1887, the Faculty of Law's emphasis on formal teachings of liberal arts and legal theory was then considered unconventional, but gradually helped shift the country's legal education system away from the apprenticeship model that prevailed until the mid-20th century. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education is the teachers college of the university, affiliated with its two laboratory schools, the Institute of Child Study and the University of Toronto Schools (a private high school run by the university). Autonomous institutes at the university include the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and the Fields Institute.

Within the Faculty of Arts and Science, notable departments include the Department of Mathematics.

Library and collections

Robarts Library, a Brutalist structure, houses the university's main collection for humanities and social sciences.

The University of Toronto Libraries is the third-largest academic library system in North America, following those of Harvard and Yale, measured by number of volumes held. Its collections include more than 12 million print books, 1.9 million digital books, over 160,000 journal titles, and close to 30,000 metres of archival materials. The largest of the libraries, Robarts Library, holds about five million bound volumes that form the main collection for humanities and social sciences. The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library constitutes one of the largest repositories of publicly accessible rare books and manuscripts. Its collections range from ancient Egyptian papyri to incunabula and libretti; the subjects of focus include British, Western and Canadian literature, Aristotle, Darwin, the Spanish Civil War, the history of science and medicine, Canadiana and the history of books. The Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library has a rare 40,000-volume Chinese collection from the Song Dynasty (960–1279) to the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) that was originally held by scholar Mu Xuexun (1880–1929). The Richard Charles Lee Canada-Hong Kong Library has the largest research collection for Hong Kong and Canada–Hong Kong studies outside of Hong Kong. The rest of the library collections are dispersed at departmental and faculty libraries in addition to about 1.3 million bound volumes the colleges hold. The university has collaborated with the Internet Archive since 2005 to digitize some of its library holdings.

Housed within University College, the University of Toronto Art Centre contains three major art collections. The Malcove Collection is primarily represented by Early Christian and Byzantine sculptures, bronzeware, furniture, icons and liturgical items. It also includes glassware and stone reliefs from the Greco-Roman period, and the painting Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Elder, dated from 1538. The University of Toronto Collection features Canadian contemporary art, while the University College Art Collection holds significant works by the Group of Seven and 19th century landscape artists.

Reputation

University rankings
Global rankings
ARWU World22
QS World34
Times World18
U.S News & World Report Global16
Canadian rankings
ARWU National1
QS National2
Times National1
U.S News & World Report National1
Maclean's Medical/Doctoral2

In the 2021 Academic Ranking of World Universities (also known as the Shanghai Ranking), the university ranked 22nd in the world and first in Canada. The 2022 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 26th in the world, and first in Canada. In 2019, it ranked 11th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings. The 2022 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked the university 18th in the world, and first in Canada. In the Times' 2020 reputational ranking, the publication placed the university 19th in the world. In the 2022 U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Ranking, the university ranked 16th in the world, and first in Canada. The Canadian-based Maclean's magazine ranked the University of Toronto second in their 2022 Canadian Medical Doctoral university category. Maclean's 2021 university rankings also ranked the University of Toronto first in its reputation rankings, the sixth consecutive time the university placed there. The university was ranked in spite of having opted out — along with several other universities in Canada — of participating in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006.

The university's research performance has been noted in several bibliometric university rankings, which use citation analysis to evaluate the impact a university has on academic publications. In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked the university fourth in the world, and first in Canada. The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2019–2020 rankings placed the university second in the world, and first in Canada.

Along with academic and research-based rankings, the university has also been ranked by publications that evaluate the employment prospects of its graduates. In the Times Higher Education's 2020 global employability ranking, the university ranked eighth in the world, and first in Canada. In QS's 2020 graduate employability ranking, the university ranked 16th in the world, and first in Canada. In a 2013 employment survey conducted by the New York Times, the University of Toronto was ranked 14th in the world.

In 2018, the University of Toronto Entrepreneurship was ranked the fourth best university-based incubator in the world by UBI Global in the "World Top Business Incubator – Managed by a University" category.

Since 1926, the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities, a consortium of the leading North American research universities. The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada with sponsored direct-cost expenditures of $878 million in 2010. In 2018, the University of Toronto was named the top research university in Canada by Research Infosource, with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $1,147.584 million in 2017. In the same year, the university's faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $428,200, while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $63,700. The federal government was the largest source of funding, with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one-third of the research budget. About eight percent of research funding came from corporations, mostly in the healthcare industry.

The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938. During World War II, the university developed the G-suit, a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots, later adopted for use by astronauts. Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions. In 1963, the asteroid 2104 Toronto is discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill and is named after the university. In 1972, studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes. Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax, the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III, and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology, the university designed and built UTEC, one of the world's first operational computers, and later purchased Ferut, the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I. Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto, with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls. The AeroVelo Atlas, which won the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013, was developed by the university's team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan.

The discovery of stem cells by McCulloch and Till is the basis for all modern stem cell research.

The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine. The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963, forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells. This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells, including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells. The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers, who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia, brain tumors and colorectal cancer. Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index, the infant cereal Pablum, the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker. The first successful single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981, followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988, and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division, and discovered the T-cell receptor, which triggers responses of the immune system. The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases. Between 1914 and 1972, the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.

The Donnelly Centre is part of the Discovery District, one of the world's largest biotechnology research clusters.

The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world's largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the university grounds in Toronto's Discovery District, conducting $1 billion of medical research annually. MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university's technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.

Main article: Toronto Varsity Blues

The 44 sports teams of the Varsity Blues represent the university in intercollegiate competitions. The two main leagues in which the Blues participate are U Sports (formerly known as Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS)) for national competitions and the auxiliary Ontario University Athletics (OUA) conference at the provincial level. The athletic nickname of Varsity Blues was not consistently used until the 1930s; previously, references such as "Varsity", "The Big Blue", "The Blue and White", "The Varsity Blue" and simply "The Blues" also appeared interchangeably. The Blue and White is commonly played and sung in athletic games as a fight song.

North American (gridiron) football traces its very origin to the University of Toronto with the first documented football game played at University College on November 9, 1861. The Blues played their first intercollegiate football match in 1877 against the University of Michigan in a game that ended with a scoreless draw. Since intercollegiate seasons began in 1898, the Blues have won four Grey Cup, two Vanier Cup and 25 Yates Cup championships, including the inaugural championships for all three trophies. However, the football team has hit a rough patch following its last championship in 1993. From 2001 until 2008, the Blues suffered the longest losing streak in Canadian collegiate history, recording 49 consecutive winless games. This was preceded by a single victory in 2001 that ended a run of 18 straight losses. The site of Varsity Stadium has served as the primary playing grounds of the Varsity Blues football and soccer programs since 1898. It also served as the venue for archery during the 2015 Pan American Games.

The University of Toronto Rowing Club trains in Toronto Harbour for the 1924 Summer Olympics. The team won silver for Canada.

Formed in 1891, the storied Varsity Blues men's ice hockey team has left many legacies on the national, professional and international hockey scenes. Conn Smythe played for the Blues as a centre during his undergraduate years, and was a Blues coach from 1923 to 1926. When Smythe took over the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1927, his new team adopted the Varsity Blues' familiar blue-and-white sweater design. Blues hockey competed at the 1928 Winter Olympics and captured the gold medal for Canada. At the 1980 Winter Olympics, Blues coach Tom Watt served as co-coach of the Canadian hockey team in which six players were Varsity grads. In all, the Blues have won the U Sports University Cup national hockey title ten times, last in 1984. Varsity Arena has been the permanent home of the Blues ice hockey programs since it opened in 1926. In men's basketball, the Varsity Blues have won 14 conference titles, including the inaugural championship in 1909, but have not won a national title. In swimming, the men's team has claimed the national crown 16 times since 1964, while the women's team has claimed the crown 14 times since 1970. Established in 1897, the University of Toronto Rowing Club is Canada's oldest collegiate rowing club. It earned a silver medal for the country in the 1924 Summer Olympics, finishing second to Yale's crew.

The back campus of University College was used for field hockey during the 2015 Pan American Games and the field was renamed Pan Am / Parapan Am Fields for the duration of the Pan American Games.

Generations of students have attended speeches, debates and concerts at Hart House.

In the heart of social, cultural and recreational life at the University of Toronto lies Hart House, the sprawling neo-Gothic student activity centre that was conceived by alumnus-benefactor Vincent Massey and named for his grandfather Hart. Opened in 1919, the complex established a communitarian spirit in the university and its students, who at the time kept largely within their own colleges under the decentralized collegiate system. At Hart House, a student can read in the library, dine casually or formally, have a haircut, visit the art gallery, watch a play in the theatre, listen to a concert, observe or join in debates, play billiards, or go for a swim and find a place to study, all under the same roof and within the span of a day. The confluence of assorted functions is the result of a deliberate effort to create a holistic educational experience, a goal summarized in the Founders' Prayer. The Hart House model was influential in the planning of student centres at other universities, notably Cornell University's Willard Straight Hall.

Hart House resembles some traditional aspects of student representation through its financial support of student clubs, and its standing committees and board of stewards that are composed mostly of undergraduate students. However, the main students' unions on administrative and policy issues are the University of Toronto Students' Union, Association of Part-time Undergraduate Students and the Graduate Students' Union. Student representative bodies also exist at the various colleges, academic faculties and departments.

The Hart House Debating Club employs a debating style that combines the American emphasis on analysis and the British use of wit. Smaller debating societies at Trinity, University and Victoria College have served as initial training grounds for debaters who later progress to Hart House. The club won the World Universities Debating Championship in 1981 and 2006. The North American Model United Nations (NAMUN) hosts an annual Model United Nations conference on campus, while the United Nations Society participates in various North American and international conferences. The Toronto chess team has captured the top title six times at the Pan American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship. The Formula SAE Racing Team won the Formula Student European Championships in 2003, 2005 and 2006.

Greek life

The University of Toronto is home to the first collegiate fraternity in Canada, Zeta Psi, whose Toronto chapter has been active since 1879. Other fraternity chapters at the University of Toronto include Alpha Delta Phi, Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Sigma Chi, Delta Upsilon, Phi Delta Theta, Phi Kappa Sigma, Phi Gamma Delta, Psi Upsilon, Beta Theta Pi, Phi Kappa Pi, Kappa Sigma, Lambda Phi Epsilon, Sigma Nu, Theta Delta Chi, Alpha Kappa Nu, Alpha Omicron Pi, Delta Delta Delta, Pi Beta Phi and Lambda Chi Alpha. Other Greek-letter societies include Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Phi, Alpha Sigma Nu, Delta Phi Nu, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Society, Delta Psi Delta, Gamma Delta Nu, Kappa Phi Xi, Delta Pi, Chi Sigma Xi, Zeta Beta Omega, Kappa Kappa Gamma, and alpha Kappa Delta Phi. A secret society known as Episkopon has operated from Trinity College since 1858.

Theatre and music

Sunlight fills Knox College Chapel during a Christmas concert of the engineering faculty's Skule Choir.

Hart House Theatre is the university's student amateur theatre, generally producing four major plays every season. As old as Hart House itself, the theatre is considered a pioneer in Canadian theatre for introducing the Little Theatre Movement from Europe. It has cultivated numerous performing-arts talents, including Donald Sutherland, Lorne Michaels, Wayne and Shuster and William Hutt. Three members of the Group of Seven painters (Harris, Lismer and MacDonald) have been set designers at the theatre, and composer Healey Willan was director of music for fourteen productions. The theatre also hosts annual variety shows run by several student theatrical companies at the colleges and academic faculties, the most prominent of which are U.C. Follies of University College, Skule Nite of the Faculty of Engineering, and Daffydil of the Faculty of Medicine, the latter in its hundredth year of production in 2010–2011.

The main musical ensembles at Hart House are the orchestra, the chamber strings, the chorus, the jazz choir, the jazz ensemble and the symphonic band. The Jazz at Oscar's concert series performs big band and vocal jazz on Friday nights at the period lounge and bar of the Hart House Arbor Room. Open Stage is the monthly open mic event featuring singers, comics, poets and storytellers. The Sunday Concert is the oldest musical series at Hart House; since 1922, the series has performed more than 600 classical music concerts in the Great Hall, freely attended by the university community and general audiences. The public may also screen midday events held at noon, when concerts are recited prior to formal debut.

Student media

21 Sussex Court holds office space for several student organizations, like The Varsity newspaper.

The Varsity is one of Canada's oldest student-run newspapers in publication since 1880. The paper was originally a daily broadsheet, but has since adopted a compact format and is now weekly during the Fall and Winter semesters. It publishes online in the summer. Hart House Review, a literary magazine, publishes prose, poetry, and visual art from emerging Canadian writers and artists. The Newspaper is an independent student-run community newspaper, published weekly since 1978. CIUT-FM is the university's campus radio station, while the University of Toronto Television broadcasts student-produced content. Students at each college and academic faculty also produce their own set of journals and news publications. University College's The Gargoyle was an early training ground for such notables as journalist Naomi Klein and musician/comedian Paul Shaffer. Victoria University's Acta Victoriana is the oldest active literary journal in Canada, and provided first publication credits to such literary figures as Margaret Atwood and Northrop Frye. Juxtaposition Global Health Magazine is another peer-reviewed student publication at the campus. The magazine focuses on global health and international development, and is published in association with the university's Centre for International Health.

Members of the student press have contributed to activist causes on several notable occasions. At the height of debate on coeducation in 1880, The Varsity published an article in its inaugural issue voicing in favour of admitting women. In 1895, the university suspended the editor of The Varsity for breach of collegiality, after he published a letter that harshly criticized the provincial government's dismissal of a professor and involvement in academic affairs. University College students then approved a motion by Varsity staff member and future Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and boycotted lectures for a week. After Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau decriminalized homosexuality throughout Canada in 1969, a medical research assistant placed an advertisement in The Varsity seeking volunteers to establish the first university homophile association in Canada.

Student social media

Several Facebook pages that posts memes about student life at the university were created in the 2010s, particularly True🅱lue, and has impacted the student culture of the institution.

Residences

Teefy House, a residence hall of St. Michael's College, is home to female first-year undergraduate students.

Each college at the University of Toronto operates its own set of residence halls and dining halls clustered in a different area of the campus. Innis, New, St. Michael's, Trinity, University, Victoria, and Woodsworth colleges reserve most of their dormitories for their undergraduate students within the Faculty of Arts and Science while setting a portion available to students from the professional and postgraduate faculties. Massey College is exclusively for graduate students, while Knox and Wycliffe Colleges mainly house graduate theology students. Annesley Hall of Victoria College, a National Historic Site, was the first university residence for women in Canada. After St. Hilda's College became coeducational in 2005, Annesley Hall and Loretto College of St. Michael's College are the last remaining women's halls at the university.

As campus residences accommodate just 6,400 students in all, the university guarantees housing only for undergraduates in their first year of study, while most upper-year and graduate students reside off-campus. Traditionally, the adjacent neighbourhoods of The Annex and Harbord Village are popular settling grounds for University of Toronto students, forming a distinct student quarter enclave, though Chinatown and Kensington Market are increasingly populated by students. In 2004, the university purchased and converted a nearby hotel in the district that would later become Little Japan to the south into the Chestnut Residence, which houses students from all colleges and faculties. There are also numerous fraternity houses and student housing cooperatives, where boarders pay reduced rent for assuming housekeeping duties.

Demographics

The University of Toronto is known for having a high enrolment of international students. In 2016–17, 19.7 percent of students were international. The University plans to grow its international enrolment to 20.1 percent by 2021–22. In 2017, the University of Toronto had more international students enrolled than all other Canadian post-secondary institutions.

Demographics of student body (2019–2020)
Undergraduate Graduate
Male 45.4% 42.6%
Female 54.6% 57.4%
Canadian student 63.9% 74.9%
International student 36.1% 25.1%

In 2011, 78 percent of incoming first-year students identified as a visible minority.

In 2001–02, the overall gender ratio was about 57.1 percent female to 42.9 percent male for enrolled students, or about 15 males for every 20 females. This gender gap has improved slightly in recent years to 55.8% female and 44.2% male, or about 16 males for every 20 females in 2014–15 (non-binary genders were not reported). This gap is more pronounced for graduation rates, with 59% of degrees conferred on females. Gender ratios also depend on undergraduate versus graduate enrolment, and department.

The overall average of high school grades for first-year students was about 86% for fall 2014. The retention rate was 92.1%.

In 2011–12, 40.3% of the students were enrolled in the Social Science and Humanities departments, 23.9% were enrolled in Biology, Engineering, and Mathematics & Physical Sciences. General education accounted for 14.7% enrolment (all undergraduates). Health Professions was 12.7%, Education 5.8%, and Fine Arts 2.6%.

Campus suicides

The University of Toronto has faced significant criticism of its handling of student suicides and students' mental health problems. From 2017 to 2019, four students committed suicide at the school, three of them in the Bahen Centre for Information Technology. Student advocacy groups have said that the university contributed to the suicides by failing to provide mental health resources, with computer science student Shahin Imtiaz saying in an interview that "the university has turned into a pressure-cooker of intense demands, without the resources to meet the student needs to back it up." While the university does not generally acknowledge student deaths as suicides, the university responded to the deaths by adding additional safety barriers to the Bahen Centre and by promising additional support, adding close to three million dollars in funding for student wellbeing.

In addition to Havelock, Innis, Frye, Carpenter and McLuhan, former professors of the 20th century include Frederick Banting, Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter, Robertson Davies, John Charles Fields, Leopold Infeld and C. B. Macpherson. Twelve Nobel laureates studied or taught at the University of Toronto. As of 2006, University of Toronto academics accounted for 15 of 23 Canadian members in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (65%) and 20 of 72 Canadian fellows in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (28%). Among honorees from Canada between 1980 and 2006, University of Toronto faculty made up 11 of 21 Canada Gairdner International Award recipients (52%), 44 of 101 Guggenheim Fellows (44%), 16 of 38 Royal Society fellows (42%), 10 of 28 members in the United States National Academies (36%) and 23 of 77 Sloan Research Fellows (30%).

Alumni of the University of Toronto's colleges, faculties and professional schools have assumed notable roles in a wide range of fields and specialties. In government, Governors General Vincent Massey, Adrienne Clarkson, and Julie Payette, Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King, Arthur Meighen, Lester B. Pearson, Paul Martin and Stephen Harper, and 17 Justices of the Supreme Court have all graduated from the university, while world leaders include President of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, Premier of the Republic of China Liu Chao-shiuan, President of Trinidad and Tobago Noor Hassanali, and First Lady of Iceland Eliza Reid. Economist John Kenneth Galbraith, political scientist David Easton, historian Margaret MacMillan, philosophers David Gauthier and Ted Honderich, anthropologist Davidson Black, social activist Ellen Pence, sociologist Erving Goffman, psychologists Endel Tulving, Daniel Schacter, and Lisa Feldman Barrett, physicians Norman Bethune and Charles Best, geologists Joseph Tyrrell and John Tuzo Wilson, mathematicians Irving Kaplansky and William Kahan, physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Bertram Brockhouse, religion scholar Amir Hussain, architect James Strutt, engineer Gerald Bull, computer scientists Alfred Aho and Brian Kernighan, and astronauts Roberta Bondar and Julie Payette are also some of the most well-known academic figures from the university.

In business, University of Toronto alumni include Rogers Communications' Ted Rogers, Toronto-Dominion Bank's W. Edmund Clark, Bank of Montreal's Bill Downe, Scotiabank's Peter Godsoe, Barrick Gold's Peter Munk, BlackBerry's Jim Balsillie, eBay's Jeffrey Skoll, Fiat S.p.A.'s Sergio Marchionne, and Apotex's Bernard Sherman. In literature and media, the university has produced writers Stephen Leacock, John McCrae, Rohinton Mistry, Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje, film directors Arthur Hiller, Norman Jewison, David Cronenberg and Atom Egoyan, actor Donald Sutherland, screenwriter David Shore, television producer and writer Hart Hanson, musician Paul Shaffer, and journalists Malcolm Gladwell, Naomi Klein and Barbara Amiel.

The University of Toronto alumni-founded companies generate roughly equivalent to one quarter of the Canadian GDP according to a survey published in 2021.

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University of Toronto Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the university s St George campus in Downtown Toronto For other uses see University of Toronto disambiguation Not to be confused with Toronto Metropolitan University formerly known as Ryerson University The University of Toronto UToronto or U of T is a public research university in Toronto Ontario Canada located on the grounds that surround Queen s Park It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King s College the first institution of higher learning in Upper Canada Originally controlled by the Church of England the university assumed its present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution As a collegiate university it comprises eleven colleges each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs and significant differences in character and history The St George campus is the main campus of the University of Toronto tri campus system the other two being satellite campuses located in Scarborough and Mississauga University of TorontoCoat of arms of the University of TorontoLatin Universitas TorontonensisFormer nameKing s College 1827 1849 MottoVelut arbor aevo Latin Motto in EnglishAs a tree through the ages 1 TypePublic universityEstablishedMarch 15 1827 195 years ago 1827 03 15 Academic affiliationAAU ACU AUCC U15 URAEndowmentc 3 15 billion CAD excl colleges 2 c 3 4 billion CAD incl colleges 2 ChancellorRose M Patten 3 PresidentMeric Gertler 3 Academic staff3 246 4 Administrative staff7 462 4 Students64 218 a 5 Undergraduates44 763 a 5 Postgraduates19 455 a 5 LocationToronto Ontario Canada 43 39 42 N 79 23 42 W 43 66167 N 79 39500 W 43 66167 79 39500 Coordinates 43 39 42 N 79 23 42 W 43 66167 N 79 39500 W 43 66167 79 39500CampusUrban 71 hectares 180 acres a 6 Colours NicknameVarsity BluesSporting affiliationsU Sports OUA CUFLAMascotTrue Blue the Beaver Websiteutoronto ca The University of Toronto offers over 700 undergraduate and 200 graduate programs In all major rankings the university consistently ranks in the top ten public universities in the world and as the top university in the country 7 8 9 10 It receives the most annual scientific research funding and endowment of any Canadian university and is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States the other being McGill University in Montreal 11 Academically the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory known collectively as the Toronto School The university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research the first artificial cardiac pacemaker 12 and the site of the first successful lung transplant and nerve transplant The university was also home to the first electron microscope the development of deep learning 13 neural network multi touch technology the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X 1 and the development of the theory of NP completeness The Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches primarily within U Sports with ties to gridiron football rowing and ice hockey The earliest recorded instance of gridiron football occurred at University of Toronto s University College in November 1861 14 The university s Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre simultaneously serving cultural intellectual and recreational interests within its large Gothic revival complex The University of Toronto alumni include three Governors General of Canada five Prime Ministers of Canada nine foreign leaders and seventeen justices of the Supreme Court of Canada As of March 2019 twelve Nobel laureates six Turing Award winners 94 Rhodes Scholars and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university Contents 1 History 1 1 Early history 1 2 World wars and post war years 1 3 Since 2000 2 Grounds 3 Governance and colleges 4 Academics 4 1 Library and collections 4 2 Reputation 5 Research 6 Athletics 7 Culture and student life 7 1 Greek life 7 2 Theatre and music 7 3 Student media 7 3 1 Student social media 7 4 Residences 7 5 Demographics 7 6 Campus suicides 8 Notable people 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksHistoryEarly history The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe the first Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada and founder of York the colonial capital 15 16 As an Oxford educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States 16 The Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York 16 Charter granted by King George IV in 1827 establishing King s College On March 15 1827 a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV proclaiming from this time one College with the style and privileges of a University for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion and for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature to continue for ever to be called King s College 17 The granting of the charter was largely the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college s first president 17 18 The original three storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen s Park 19 20 21 Under Strachan s stewardship King s College was a religious institution closely aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite known as the Family Compact 22 Reformist politicians opposed the clergy s control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized 23 In 1849 after a lengthy and heated debate the newly elected responsible government of the Province of Canada voted to rename King s College as the University of Toronto and severed the school s ties with the church 18 Having anticipated this decision the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary 24 University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto During the American Civil War the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866 25 The Corps was part of the Reserve Militia led by Professor Henry Croft 25 Painting of University College 1859 Established in 1878 the School of Practical Science was the precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering which has been nicknamed Skule since its earliest days 26 While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843 medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887 when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine 27 Meanwhile the university continued to set examinations and confer medical degrees 27 The university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887 followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888 when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate 18 Women were first admitted to the university in 1884 28 A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33 000 volumes from the library 29 but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years 29 Over the next two decades a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges including Strachan s Trinity College in 1904 The university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968 both still retain close ties with the university as independent institutions 30 31 The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada s first academic publishing house 32 The Faculty of Forestry founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean was Canada s first university faculty devoted to forest science In 1910 the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school the University of Toronto Schools World wars and post war years A Sopwith Camel aircraft rests on the Front Campus lawn in 1918 The First and Second World Wars curtailed some university activities as undergraduate and graduate men eagerly enlisted 33 34 Intercollegiate athletic competitions and the Hart House Debates were suspended although exhibition and interfaculty games were still held 34 The David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill opened in 1935 followed by the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies in 1949 18 35 The university opened suburban campuses in Scarborough in 1964 and in Mississauga in 1967 The university s former affiliated schools at the Ontario Agricultural College and Glendon Hall became fully independent of the University of Toronto and became part of University of Guelph in 1964 and York University in 1965 respectively Beginning in the 1980s reductions in government funding prompted more rigorous fundraising efforts 18 Since 2000 In 2000 geophysicist Kin Yip Chun was reinstated as a professor of the university after he launched an unsuccessful lawsuit against the university alleging racial discrimination 36 In 2017 a human rights application was filed against the University by one of its students for allegedly delaying the investigation of sexual assault and being dismissive of their concerns 37 In 2018 the university cleared one of its professors of allegations of discrimination and antisemitism in an internal investigation after a complaint was filed by one of its students 38 39 The University of Toronto was the first Canadian university to amass a financial endowment greater than c 1 billion in 2007 40 On September 24 2020 the university announced a 250 million gift to the Faculty of Medicine from businessman and philanthropist James C Temerty the largest single philanthropic donation in Canadian history 41 This broke the previous record for the school set in 2019 when Gerry Schwartz and Heather Reisman jointly donated 100 million for the creation of a 750 000 square foot 70 000 m2 innovation and artificial intelligence centre 42 Grounds Soldiers Tower a memorial to alumni fallen in the World Wars contains a 51 bell carillon The university grounds lie about 2 kilometres 1 2 mi north of the Financial District in Downtown Toronto immediately north of Chinatown and immediately south of the neighbourhoods of Yorkville and The Annex The site encompasses 71 hectares 180 acres bounded mostly by Bay Street to the east Bloor Street to the north Spadina Avenue to the west and College Street to the south 6 An enclave surrounded by university grounds Queen s Park contains the Ontario Legislative Building and several historic monuments With its green spaces and many interlocking courtyards the university forms a distinct region of urban parkland in the city s downtown core 43 The namesake University Avenue is a ceremonial boulevard and arterial thoroughfare that runs through downtown between Queen s Park and Front Street The Spadina St George Museum Queen s Park and St Patrick stations of the Toronto subway system are nearby The architecture is epitomized by a combination of Romanesque and Gothic Revival buildings spread across the eastern and central portions of campus most dating between 1858 and 1929 The traditional heart of the university known as Front Campus is near the campus centre in an oval lawn enclosed by King s College Circle 43 The centrepiece is the main building of University College built in 1857 with an eclectic blend of Richardsonian Romanesque and Norman architectural elements 44 The dramatic effect of this blended design by architect Frederick William Cumberland drew praise from European visitors of the time Until I reached Toronto remarked Lord Dufferin during his visit in 1872 I confess I was not aware that so magnificent a specimen of architecture existed upon the American continent 45 The building was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1968 46 Built in 1907 Convocation Hall is recognizable for its domed roof and Ionic pillared rotunda Although its foremost function is hosting the annual convocation ceremonies the building is a venue for academic and social events throughout the year 47 The sandstone buildings of Knox College epitomizes the North American collegiate Gothic design with its characteristic cloisters surrounding a secluded courtyard 48 The neoclassical Convocation Hall is characterized by its domed roof and Ionic pillared rotunda A lawn at the northeast is anchored by Hart House a Gothic revival student centre complex Among its many common rooms the building s Great Hall is noted for large stained glass windows and a long quotation from John Milton s Areopagitica inscribed around the walls 49 50 The adjacent Soldiers Tower stands 143 feet 44 m tall as the most prominent structure in the vicinity its stone arches etched with the names of university members lost to the battlefields of the two World Wars 51 The tower houses a 51 bell carillon played on special occasions such as Remembrance Day and convocation 52 North of University College the main building of Trinity College displays Jacobethan Tudor architecture while its chapel was built in the Perpendicular Gothic style of Giles Gilbert Scott 53 The chapel features exterior walls of sandstone and interiors of Indiana Limestone and was built by Italian stonemasons using ancient building methods 54 Philosopher s Walk is a scenic footpath that follows a meandering wooded ravine the buried Taddle Creek linking with Trinity College Varsity Arena and the Faculty of Law Victoria College is on the eastern side of Queen s Park centred on a Romanesque main building made of contrasting red sandstone and grey limestone 55 Developed after the Second World War the western section of the campus consists mainly of modernist and internationalist structures that house laboratories and faculty offices 43 The most significant example of Brutalist architecture is the massive Robarts Library complex built in 1972 and opened a year later in 1973 It features raised podia extensive use of triangular geometric designs and a towering fourteen storey concrete structure that cantilevers above a field of open space and mature trees 56 Sidney Smith Hall is the home to the Faculty of Arts and Science as well as a few departments within the faculty The Leslie L Dan Pharmacy Building completed in 2006 exhibits the high tech architectural style of glass and steel by British architect Norman Foster 57 Governance and colleges Old Vic the main building of Victoria College typifies the Richardsonian Romanesque style The University of Toronto has traditionally been a decentralized institution with governing authority shared among its central administration academic faculties and colleges 58 The Governing Council is the unicameral legislative organ of the central administration overseeing general academic business and institutional affairs 59 Before 1971 the university was governed under a bicameral system composed of the board of governors and the university senate 58 The chancellor usually a former governor general lieutenant governor premier or diplomat is the ceremonial head of the university The president is appointed by the council as the chief executive 59 Unlike most North American institutions the University of Toronto is a collegiate university with a model that resembles those of the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford in Britain 60 The colleges hold substantial autonomy over admissions scholarships programs and other academic and financial affairs in addition to the housing and social duties of typical residential colleges 59 60 The system emerged in the 19th century as ecclesiastical colleges considered various forms of union with the University of Toronto to ensure their viability The desire to preserve religious traditions in a secular institution resulted in the federative collegiate model that came to characterize the university 60 University College was the founding nondenominational college created in 1853 after the university was secularized Knox College a Presbyterian institution and Wycliffe College a low church seminary both encouraged their students to study for non divinity degrees at University College 61 In 1885 they entered a formal affiliation with the University of Toronto and became federated schools in 1890 48 62 The idea of federation initially met strong opposition at Victoria University a Methodist school in Cobourg but a financial incentive in 1890 convinced the school to join 63 Decades after the death of John Strachan the Anglican seminary Trinity College entered federation in 1904 64 followed in 1910 by St Michael s College a Roman Catholic college founded by the Basilian Fathers 65 Among the institutions that had considered federation but ultimately remained independent were McMaster University a Baptist school that later moved to Hamilton 61 and Queen s College a Presbyterian school in Kingston that later became Queen s University 66 Colleges of the University of Toronto Constituent colleges Innis College New College University College Woodsworth College Theological colleges Knox College Regis College Wycliffe College Federated colleges St Michael s College Loretto College Trinity College St Hilda s College Victoria University Emmanuel College Postgraduate college Massey College The post war era saw the creation of New College in 1962 Innis College in 1964 and Woodsworth College in 1974 all of them nondenominational 67 Along with University College they comprise the university s constituent colleges which are established and funded by the central administration and are therefore financially dependent 68 69 Massey College was established in 1963 by the Massey Foundation as a college exclusively for graduate students 70 Regis College a Jesuit seminary entered federation with the university in 1979 71 In contrast with the constituent colleges the colleges of Knox Massey Regis St Michael s Trinity Victoria and Wycliffe continue to exist as legally distinct entities each possessing a separate financial endowment While St Michael s Trinity and Victoria continue to recognize their religious affiliations and heritage they have since adopted secular policies of enrolment and teaching in non divinity subjects 69 Some colleges have or once had collegiate structures of their own Emmanuel College is a college of Victoria and St Hilda s College is part of Trinity 64 72 St Joseph s College had existed as a college within St Michael s until it was dissolved in 2006 65 Ewart College existed as an affiliated college until 1991 when it was merged into Knox College 73 Postgraduate theology degrees are conferred by the colleges of Knox Regis and Wycliffe along with the divinity faculties within Emmanuel St Michael s and Trinity including joint degrees with the university through the Toronto School of Theology 74 Academics The Sandford Fleming Building contains offices of the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering The Faculty of Arts and Science is the university s main undergraduate faculty and administers most of the courses in the college system 75 While the colleges are not entirely responsible for teaching duties most of them house specialized academic programs and lecture series Among other subjects Trinity College is associated with programs in international relations as are University College with Canadian studies Victoria College with Renaissance studies Innis College with film studies and urban studies New College with gender studies Woodsworth College with industrial relations and St Michael s College with Medievalism 76 The faculty teaches undergraduate commerce in collaboration with the Rotman School of Management The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering is the other major direct entry undergraduate faculty 77 The University of Toronto is the birthplace of an influential school of thought on communication theory and literary criticism known as the Toronto School 78 79 80 Described as the theory of the primacy of communication in the structuring of human cultures and the structuring of the human mind 80 the school is rooted in the works of Eric A Havelock and Harold Innis and the subsequent contributions of Edmund Snow Carpenter Northrop Frye and Marshall McLuhan Since 1963 the McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology of the Faculty of Information has carried the mandate for teaching and advancing the Toronto School 81 Several notable works in arts and humanities are based at the university including the Dictionary of Canadian Biography since 1959 and the Collected Works of Erasmus since 1969 82 83 The Records of Early English Drama collects and edits the surviving documentary evidence of dramatic arts in pre Puritan England 84 while the Dictionary of Old English compiles the early vocabulary of the English language from the Anglo Saxon period 85 The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses programs and research institutes for international relations The Munk School of Global Affairs encompasses the university s various programs and curricula in international affairs and foreign policy As the Cold War heightened Toronto s Slavic studies program evolved into an important institution on Soviet politics and economics financed by the Rockefeller Ford and Mellon foundations 86 The Munk School is also home to the G20 Research Group which conducts independent monitoring and analysis on the Group of Twenty and the Citizen Lab which conducts research on Internet censorship as a joint founder of the OpenNet Initiative 87 88 The university operates international offices in Berlin Hong Kong and Siena 89 The Dalla Lana School of Public Health is a Faculty of the University of Toronto that began as one of the Schools of Hygiene begun by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1927 The School went through a dramatic renaissance after the 2003 SARS crisis and it is now Canada s largest public health school with more than 750 faculty 800 students and research and training partnerships with institutions throughout Toronto and the world With more than 39 million in research funding per year the School supports discovery in global health tobacco impacts on health occupational disease and disability air pollution inner city circumpolar health and many other pressing issues in population health The Naylor Building contains offices for the university s Department of Medicine The Temerty Faculty of Medicine is affiliated with a network of ten teaching hospitals providing medical treatment research and advisory services to patients and clients from Canada and abroad 90 A core member of the network is University Health Network itself a specialized federation of Toronto General Hospital Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Toronto Western Hospital and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute 91 Physicians in the medical institutes have cross appointments to faculty and supervisory positions in university departments The Rotman School of Management developed the discipline and methodology of integrative thinking upon which the school bases its curriculum 92 Founded in 1887 the Faculty of Law s emphasis on formal teachings of liberal arts and legal theory was then considered unconventional but gradually helped shift the country s legal education system away from the apprenticeship model that prevailed until the mid 20th century 93 The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education is the teachers college of the university affiliated with its two laboratory schools the Institute of Child Study and the University of Toronto Schools a private high school run by the university 94 Autonomous institutes at the university include the Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and the Fields Institute Within the Faculty of Arts and Science notable departments include the Department of Mathematics Faculties of the University of Toronto Faculty of Arts and Science Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering John H Daniels Faculty of Architecture Landscape and Design Faculty of Music Faculty of Information Temerty Faculty of Medicine Lawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Dentistry Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education Dalla Lana School of Public Health Faculty of Law Rotman School of Management Ontario Institute for Studies in Education Factor Inwentash Faculty of Social Work Toronto School of TheologyLibrary and collections Robarts Library a Brutalist structure houses the university s main collection for humanities and social sciences The University of Toronto Libraries is the third largest academic library system in North America following those of Harvard and Yale measured by number of volumes held 95 Its collections include more than 12 million print books 1 9 million digital books over 160 000 journal titles and close to 30 000 metres of archival materials 96 The largest of the libraries Robarts Library holds about five million bound volumes that form the main collection for humanities and social sciences The Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library constitutes one of the largest repositories of publicly accessible rare books and manuscripts Its collections range from ancient Egyptian papyri to incunabula and libretti 97 the subjects of focus include British Western and Canadian literature Aristotle Darwin the Spanish Civil War the history of science and medicine Canadiana and the history of books 98 The Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library has a rare 40 000 volume Chinese collection from the Song Dynasty 960 1279 to the Qing Dynasty 1644 1911 that was originally held by scholar Mu Xuexun 1880 1929 99 100 The Richard Charles Lee Canada Hong Kong Library has the largest research collection for Hong Kong and Canada Hong Kong studies outside of Hong Kong 101 The rest of the library collections are dispersed at departmental and faculty libraries in addition to about 1 3 million bound volumes the colleges hold 102 The university has collaborated with the Internet Archive since 2005 to digitize some of its library holdings 103 Housed within University College the University of Toronto Art Centre contains three major art collections The Malcove Collection is primarily represented by Early Christian and Byzantine sculptures bronzeware furniture icons and liturgical items 104 It also includes glassware and stone reliefs from the Greco Roman period and the painting Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Elder dated from 1538 104 The University of Toronto Collection features Canadian contemporary art 105 while the University College Art Collection holds significant works by the Group of Seven and 19th century landscape artists 105 Reputation University rankingsGlobal rankingsARWU World 7 22QS World 10 34Times World 8 18U S News amp World Report Global 9 16Canadian rankingsARWU National 7 1QS National 10 2Times National 8 1U S News amp World Report National 9 1Maclean s Medical Doctoral 106 2 In the 2021 Academic Ranking of World Universities also known as the Shanghai Ranking the university ranked 22nd in the world and first in Canada 7 The 2022 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 26th in the world and first in Canada 10 In 2019 it ranked 11th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings 107 The 2022 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked the university 18th in the world and first in Canada 8 In the Times 2020 reputational ranking the publication placed the university 19th in the world 108 In the 2022 U S News amp World Report Best Global University Ranking the university ranked 16th in the world and first in Canada 9 The Canadian based Maclean s magazine ranked the University of Toronto second in their 2022 Canadian Medical Doctoral university category 106 Maclean s 2021 university rankings also ranked the University of Toronto first in its reputation rankings the sixth consecutive time the university placed there 109 The university was ranked in spite of having opted out along with several other universities in Canada of participating in Maclean s graduate survey since 2006 110 The university s research performance has been noted in several bibliometric university rankings which use citation analysis to evaluate the impact a university has on academic publications In 2019 the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked the university fourth in the world and first in Canada 111 The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2019 2020 rankings placed the university second in the world and first in Canada 112 Along with academic and research based rankings the university has also been ranked by publications that evaluate the employment prospects of its graduates In the Times Higher Education s 2020 global employability ranking the university ranked eighth in the world and first in Canada 113 In QS s 2020 graduate employability ranking the university ranked 16th in the world and first in Canada 114 In a 2013 employment survey conducted by the New York Times the University of Toronto was ranked 14th in the world 115 In 2018 the University of Toronto Entrepreneurship was ranked the fourth best university based incubator 116 in the world by UBI Global 117 in the World Top Business Incubator Managed by a University category Research The AeroVelo Atlas won the Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013 Since 1926 the University of Toronto has been a member of the Association of American Universities a consortium of the leading North American research universities The university manages by far the largest annual research budget of any university in Canada with sponsored direct cost expenditures of 878 million in 2010 118 119 120 In 2018 the University of Toronto was named the top research university in Canada by Research Infosource with a sponsored research income external sources of funding of 1 147 584 million in 2017 121 In the same year the university s faculty averaged a sponsored research income of 428 200 while graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of 63 700 121 The federal government was the largest source of funding with grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council amounting to about one third of the research budget About eight percent of research funding came from corporations mostly in the healthcare industry 120 The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938 122 123 During World War II the university developed the G suit a life saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots later adopted for use by astronauts 124 Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions 125 In 1963 the asteroid 2104 Toronto is discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill and is named after the university 126 In 1972 studies on Cygnus X 1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes 127 Toronto astronomers have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax 128 the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I II and III and the supernova SN 1987A A pioneer in computing technology the university designed and built UTEC one of the world s first operational computers and later purchased Ferut the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I 129 Multi touch technology was developed at Toronto with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls 130 131 The AeroVelo Atlas which won the Igor I Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013 was developed by the university s team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan The discovery of stem cells by McCulloch and Till is the basis for all modern stem cell research The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine 132 133 The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963 forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells 134 This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells 135 136 The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers 137 who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia brain tumors and colorectal cancer 138 139 Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index 140 the infant cereal Pablum 141 the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery 12 and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker 12 The first successful single lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981 followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988 142 and the first double lung transplant in 1989 Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division and discovered the T cell receptor which triggers responses of the immune system 143 The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia cystic fibrosis and early onset Alzheimer s disease among numerous other diseases 144 Between 1914 and 1972 the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi Aventis Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis 145 The Donnelly Centre is part of the Discovery District one of the world s largest biotechnology research clusters The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world s largest concentrations of biotechnology firms 146 More than 5 000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometres 1 2 mi from the university grounds in Toronto s Discovery District conducting 1 billion of medical research annually 146 MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university s technology transfer ventures In 2008 the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start up companies 6 Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada 147 AthleticsMain article Toronto Varsity Blues The 44 sports teams of the Varsity Blues represent the university in intercollegiate competitions The two main leagues in which the Blues participate are U Sports formerly known as Canadian Interuniversity Sport CIS for national competitions and the auxiliary Ontario University Athletics OUA conference at the provincial level The athletic nickname of Varsity Blues was not consistently used until the 1930s previously references such as Varsity The Big Blue The Blue and White The Varsity Blue and simply The Blues also appeared interchangeably 148 The Blue and White is commonly played and sung in athletic games as a fight song 149 Varsity Stadium North American gridiron football traces its very origin to the University of Toronto with the first documented football game played at University College on November 9 1861 150 151 152 The Blues played their first intercollegiate football match in 1877 against the University of Michigan in a game that ended with a scoreless draw 148 Since intercollegiate seasons began in 1898 the Blues have won four Grey Cup two Vanier Cup and 25 Yates Cup championships including the inaugural championships for all three trophies 148 However the football team has hit a rough patch following its last championship in 1993 153 From 2001 until 2008 the Blues suffered the longest losing streak in Canadian collegiate history recording 49 consecutive winless games 154 This was preceded by a single victory in 2001 that ended a run of 18 straight losses 155 The site of Varsity Stadium has served as the primary playing grounds of the Varsity Blues football and soccer programs since 1898 18 It also served as the venue for archery during the 2015 Pan American Games The University of Toronto Rowing Club trains in Toronto Harbour for the 1924 Summer Olympics The team won silver for Canada Formed in 1891 the storied Varsity Blues men s ice hockey team has left many legacies on the national professional and international hockey scenes Conn Smythe played for the Blues as a centre during his undergraduate years and was a Blues coach from 1923 to 1926 156 When Smythe took over the Toronto Maple Leafs in 1927 his new team adopted the Varsity Blues familiar blue and white sweater design 156 Blues hockey competed at the 1928 Winter Olympics and captured the gold medal for Canada 157 At the 1980 Winter Olympics Blues coach Tom Watt served as co coach of the Canadian hockey team in which six players were Varsity grads 156 In all the Blues have won the U Sports University Cup national hockey title ten times last in 1984 Varsity Arena has been the permanent home of the Blues ice hockey programs since it opened in 1926 18 In men s basketball the Varsity Blues have won 14 conference titles including the inaugural championship in 1909 but have not won a national title 158 In swimming the men s team has claimed the national crown 16 times since 1964 while the women s team has claimed the crown 14 times since 1970 159 Established in 1897 the University of Toronto Rowing Club is Canada s oldest collegiate rowing club 160 It earned a silver medal for the country in the 1924 Summer Olympics finishing second to Yale s crew 160 The back campus of University College was used for field hockey during the 2015 Pan American Games and the field was renamed Pan Am Parapan Am Fields for the duration of the Pan American Games Culture and student life Generations of students have attended speeches debates and concerts at Hart House In the heart of social cultural and recreational life at the University of Toronto lies Hart House the sprawling neo Gothic student activity centre that was conceived by alumnus benefactor Vincent Massey and named for his grandfather Hart 161 Opened in 1919 the complex established a communitarian spirit in the university and its students who at the time kept largely within their own colleges under the decentralized collegiate system 162 At Hart House a student can read in the library dine casually or formally have a haircut 163 visit the art gallery watch a play in the theatre listen to a concert observe or join in debates play billiards or go for a swim and find a place to study all under the same roof and within the span of a day The confluence of assorted functions is the result of a deliberate effort to create a holistic educational experience a goal summarized in the Founders Prayer 162 164 The Hart House model was influential in the planning of student centres at other universities notably Cornell University s Willard Straight Hall 165 166 Hart House resembles some traditional aspects of student representation through its financial support of student clubs and its standing committees and board of stewards that are composed mostly of undergraduate students However the main students unions on administrative and policy issues are the University of Toronto Students Union Association of Part time Undergraduate Students and the Graduate Students Union Student representative bodies also exist at the various colleges academic faculties and departments The Hart House Debating Club employs a debating style that combines the American emphasis on analysis and the British use of wit 167 Smaller debating societies at Trinity University and Victoria College have served as initial training grounds for debaters who later progress to Hart House 167 The club won the World Universities Debating Championship in 1981 and 2006 168 The North American Model United Nations NAMUN hosts an annual Model United Nations conference on campus while the United Nations Society participates in various North American and international conferences 169 170 The Toronto chess team has captured the top title six times at the Pan American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship The Formula SAE Racing Team won the Formula Student European Championships in 2003 2005 and 2006 171 Greek life The University of Toronto is home to the first collegiate fraternity in Canada Zeta Psi whose Toronto chapter has been active since 1879 172 Other fraternity chapters at the University of Toronto include Alpha Delta Phi Alpha Epsilon Pi Delta Kappa Epsilon Sigma Chi Delta Upsilon Phi Delta Theta Phi Kappa Sigma Phi Gamma Delta Psi Upsilon Beta Theta Pi Phi Kappa Pi Kappa Sigma Lambda Phi Epsilon Sigma Nu Theta Delta Chi Alpha Kappa Nu Alpha Omicron Pi Delta Delta Delta Pi Beta Phi and Lambda Chi Alpha 173 Other Greek letter societies include Alpha Gamma Delta Alpha Phi Alpha Sigma Nu Delta Phi Nu 174 Gamma Phi Beta Kappa Alpha Society Delta Psi Delta Gamma Delta Nu Kappa Phi Xi Delta Pi Chi Sigma Xi Zeta Beta Omega Kappa Kappa Gamma and alpha Kappa Delta Phi A secret society known as Episkopon has operated from Trinity College since 1858 Theatre and music Sunlight fills Knox College Chapel during a Christmas concert of the engineering faculty s Skule Choir Hart House Theatre is the university s student amateur theatre generally producing four major plays every season As old as Hart House itself the theatre is considered a pioneer in Canadian theatre for introducing the Little Theatre Movement from Europe 175 176 It has cultivated numerous performing arts talents including Donald Sutherland Lorne Michaels Wayne and Shuster and William Hutt Three members of the Group of Seven painters Harris Lismer and MacDonald have been set designers at the theatre 177 and composer Healey Willan was director of music for fourteen productions 177 The theatre also hosts annual variety shows run by several student theatrical companies at the colleges and academic faculties the most prominent of which are U C Follies of University College Skule Nite of the Faculty of Engineering and Daffydil of the Faculty of Medicine the latter in its hundredth year of production in 2010 2011 178 The main musical ensembles at Hart House are the orchestra the chamber strings the chorus the jazz choir the jazz ensemble and the symphonic band The Jazz at Oscar s concert series performs big band and vocal jazz on Friday nights at the period lounge and bar of the Hart House Arbor Room 179 Open Stage is the monthly open mic event featuring singers comics poets and storytellers The Sunday Concert is the oldest musical series at Hart House since 1922 the series has performed more than 600 classical music concerts in the Great Hall freely attended by the university community and general audiences 180 181 The public may also screen midday events held at noon when concerts are recited prior to formal debut Student media 21 Sussex Court holds office space for several student organizations like The Varsity newspaper The Varsity is one of Canada s oldest student run newspapers in publication since 1880 28 The paper was originally a daily broadsheet but has since adopted a compact format and is now weekly during the Fall and Winter semesters It publishes online in the summer Hart House Review a literary magazine publishes prose poetry and visual art from emerging Canadian writers and artists The Newspaper is an independent student run community newspaper published weekly since 1978 CIUT FM is the university s campus radio station while the University of Toronto Television broadcasts student produced content Students at each college and academic faculty also produce their own set of journals and news publications University College s The Gargoyle was an early training ground for such notables as journalist Naomi Klein and musician comedian Paul Shaffer Victoria University s Acta Victoriana is the oldest active literary journal in Canada and provided first publication credits to such literary figures as Margaret Atwood and Northrop Frye Juxtaposition Global Health Magazine is another peer reviewed student publication at the campus 182 The magazine focuses on global health and international development and is published in association with the university s Centre for International Health Members of the student press have contributed to activist causes on several notable occasions At the height of debate on coeducation in 1880 The Varsity published an article in its inaugural issue voicing in favour of admitting women 28 In 1895 the university suspended the editor of The Varsity for breach of collegiality after he published a letter that harshly criticized the provincial government s dismissal of a professor and involvement in academic affairs University College students then approved a motion by Varsity staff member and future Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and boycotted lectures for a week 183 184 After Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau decriminalized homosexuality throughout Canada in 1969 a medical research assistant placed an advertisement in The Varsity seeking volunteers to establish the first university homophile association in Canada 185 Student social media Several Facebook pages that posts memes about student life at the university were created in the 2010s particularly True lue and has impacted the student culture of the institution 186 Residences Teefy House a residence hall of St Michael s College is home to female first year undergraduate students Each college at the University of Toronto operates its own set of residence halls and dining halls clustered in a different area of the campus Innis New St Michael s Trinity University Victoria and Woodsworth colleges reserve most of their dormitories for their undergraduate students within the Faculty of Arts and Science while setting a portion available to students from the professional and postgraduate faculties 187 Massey College is exclusively for graduate students while Knox and Wycliffe Colleges mainly house graduate theology students Annesley Hall of Victoria College a National Historic Site was the first university residence for women in Canada After St Hilda s College became coeducational in 2005 Annesley Hall and Loretto College of St Michael s College are the last remaining women s halls at the university As campus residences accommodate just 6 400 students in all the university guarantees housing only for undergraduates in their first year of study while most upper year and graduate students reside off campus 6 188 Traditionally the adjacent neighbourhoods of The Annex and Harbord Village are popular settling grounds for University of Toronto students forming a distinct student quarter enclave 189 190 though Chinatown and Kensington Market are increasingly populated by students In 2004 the university purchased and converted a nearby hotel in the district that would later become Little Japan to the south into the Chestnut Residence which houses students from all colleges and faculties There are also numerous fraternity houses and student housing cooperatives where boarders pay reduced rent for assuming housekeeping duties Demographics The University of Toronto is known for having a high enrolment of international students In 2016 17 19 7 percent of students were international 191 The University plans to grow its international enrolment to 20 1 percent by 2021 22 In 2017 the University of Toronto had more international students enrolled than all other Canadian post secondary institutions 192 193 Demographics of student body 2019 2020 194 Undergraduate GraduateMale 45 4 42 6 Female 54 6 57 4 Canadian student 63 9 74 9 International student 36 1 25 1 In 2011 78 percent of incoming first year students identified as a visible minority In 2001 02 the overall gender ratio was about 57 1 percent female to 42 9 percent male for enrolled students or about 15 males for every 20 females 195 This gender gap has improved slightly in recent years to 55 8 female and 44 2 male or about 16 males for every 20 females in 2014 15 non binary genders were not reported 196 This gap is more pronounced for graduation rates with 59 of degrees conferred on females 195 Gender ratios also depend on undergraduate versus graduate enrolment and department The overall average of high school grades for first year students was about 86 for fall 2014 196 The retention rate was 92 1 In 2011 12 40 3 of the students were enrolled in the Social Science and Humanities departments 23 9 were enrolled in Biology Engineering and Mathematics amp Physical Sciences General education accounted for 14 7 enrolment all undergraduates Health Professions was 12 7 Education 5 8 and Fine Arts 2 6 195 Campus suicides The University of Toronto has faced significant criticism of its handling of student suicides and students mental health problems 197 198 199 From 2017 to 2019 four students committed suicide at the school three of them in the Bahen Centre for Information Technology 199 Student advocacy groups have said that the university contributed to the suicides by failing to provide mental health resources with computer science student Shahin Imtiaz saying in an interview that the university has turned into a pressure cooker of intense demands without the resources to meet the student needs to back it up 199 While the university does not generally acknowledge student deaths as suicides 200 201 the university responded to the deaths by adding additional safety barriers to the Bahen Centre 202 and by promising additional support adding close to three million dollars in funding for student wellbeing 198 Notable peopleMain article List of University of Toronto alumni See also List of Presidents of the University of Toronto List of Chancellors of the University of Toronto and List of University of Toronto faculty William Lyon Mackenzie King the longest serving Prime Minister in Canadian history with over 21 years in office BA MA Lester B Pearson Canadian Prime Minister and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 BA Paul Martin 21st Canadian Prime Minister LLB John Kenneth Galbraith noted economist and a leading proponent of 20th century American liberalism B Sc Agr John Charles Fields mathematician and the founder of the prestigious Fields Medal Harold Innis professor of political economy helped develop the staples thesis and the Toronto School of communication theory Frederick Banting Nobel Laureate in Medicine and the first person to use insulin on humans MD Roberta Bondar CSA astronaut and the first Canadian female in space PhD Julie Payette CSA astronaut and the 29th Governor General of Canada MASc Jennie Smillie Robertson First female surgeon in Canada MD In addition to Havelock Innis Frye Carpenter and McLuhan former professors of the 20th century include Frederick Banting Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter Robertson Davies John Charles Fields Leopold Infeld and C B Macpherson Twelve Nobel laureates studied or taught at the University of Toronto As of 2006 University of Toronto academics accounted for 15 of 23 Canadian members in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 65 and 20 of 72 Canadian fellows in the American Association for the Advancement of Science 28 119 Among honorees from Canada between 1980 and 2006 University of Toronto faculty made up 11 of 21 Canada Gairdner International Award recipients 52 44 of 101 Guggenheim Fellows 44 16 of 38 Royal Society fellows 42 10 of 28 members in the United States National Academies 36 and 23 of 77 Sloan Research Fellows 30 119 Alumni of the University of Toronto s colleges faculties and professional schools have assumed notable roles in a wide range of fields and specialties In government Governors General Vincent Massey Adrienne Clarkson and Julie Payette Prime Ministers William Lyon Mackenzie King Arthur Meighen Lester B Pearson Paul Martin and Stephen Harper and 17 Justices of the Supreme Court have all graduated from the university while world leaders include President of Latvia Vaira Vike Freiberga Premier of the Republic of China Liu Chao shiuan President of Trinidad and Tobago Noor Hassanali and First Lady of Iceland Eliza Reid 203 Economist John Kenneth Galbraith political scientist David Easton historian Margaret MacMillan philosophers David Gauthier and Ted Honderich anthropologist Davidson Black social activist Ellen Pence sociologist Erving Goffman psychologists Endel Tulving Daniel Schacter and Lisa Feldman Barrett physicians Norman Bethune and Charles Best geologists Joseph Tyrrell and John Tuzo Wilson mathematicians Irving Kaplansky and William Kahan physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Bertram Brockhouse religion scholar Amir Hussain architect James Strutt engineer Gerald Bull computer scientists Alfred Aho and Brian Kernighan and astronauts Roberta Bondar and Julie Payette are also some of the most well known academic figures from the university In business University of Toronto alumni include Rogers Communications Ted Rogers Toronto Dominion Bank s W Edmund Clark Bank of Montreal s Bill Downe Scotiabank s Peter Godsoe Barrick Gold s Peter Munk BlackBerry s Jim Balsillie eBay s Jeffrey Skoll Fiat S p A s Sergio Marchionne and Apotex s Bernard Sherman In literature and media the university has produced writers Stephen Leacock John McCrae Rohinton Mistry Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje film directors Arthur Hiller Norman Jewison David Cronenberg and Atom Egoyan actor Donald Sutherland screenwriter David Shore television producer and writer Hart Hanson musician Paul Shaffer and journalists Malcolm Gladwell Naomi Klein and Barbara Amiel The University of Toronto alumni founded companies generate roughly equivalent to one quarter of the Canadian GDP according to a survey published in 2021 204 Notes a b c d The following figure is for the St George campus the university s largest campus in downtown Toronto For data on the two other University of Toronto campuses the Scarborough and Mississauga refer to the respective articles References Originates from Horace Odes book I ode 12 line 45 crescit occulto velut arbor aevo fama Marcelli The fame of Marcellus grows like a tree over time unseen a b Endowment figure does not include separate endowment funds maintained by individual colleges Financial Report 2021 PDF Financial Services Department University of Toronto 2021 Retrieved August 3 2021 a b About The Chancellor Archived from the original on August 17 2018 Retrieved August 17 2018 a b Financial Report 2021 PDF Financial Services Department University of Toronto 2021 Retrieved August 3 2021 a b c Quick Facts University of Toronto Archived from the original on October 10 2017 Retrieved February 29 2020 a b c d Pask Aube Corinne 2012 University of Toronto Facts and Figures Office of Government Institutional and Community Relations Archived from the original on April 30 2016 Retrieved February 23 2016 a b c d 2021 Academic Ranking of World Universities ShanghaiRanking Consultancy 2021 Retrieved August 17 2021 a b c d World University Rankings 2022 Times Higher Education TES Global 2022 Retrieved September 2 2021 a b c d Best Global Universities in Canada U S News amp World Report U S News amp World Report L P October 26 2021 Retrieved October 26 2021 a b c d QS World University Rankings 2022 QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited 2021 Retrieved June 8 2021 Association of American Universities Aau edu Archived from the original on January 14 2013 Retrieved November 5 2012 a b c Pearce Jeremy March 31 2005 Dr Wilfred G Bigelow 91 A Pioneer in Heart Surgery The New York Times Archived from the original on March 13 2012 Retrieved March 21 2009 Werbos Paul J Paul John Beyond regression new tools for prediction and analysis in the behavioral sciences OCLC 77001455 Bernstein Mark F September 19 2001 Football The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 978 0 8122 3627 9 Simcoe John Graves Volume V Dictionary of Canadian Biography 2000 Archived from the original on October 17 2012 Retrieved November 2 2008 a b c Who was an early advocate for higher education in Upper Canada History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b The story of the University of Toronto s original charter University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services Archived from the original on February 10 2012 Retrieved November 2 2008 a b c d e f g Friedland Martin L 2002 The University of Toronto A History University of Toronto Press pp 4 31 143 156 313 376 593 6 ISBN 978 0 8020 4429 7 What university was founded 175 years ago History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Bissell Claude T ed 1953 University College A Portrait 1853 1953 University of Toronto Press Peppiatt Liam Chapter 17 Universities Old and New Robertson s Landmarks of Toronto Revisited Archived from the original on June 30 2017 Retrieved July 9 2015 Strachan John Volume IX Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 2000 Archived from the original on May 26 2011 Retrieved November 2 2008 How does history remember the 1849 conversion of King s College to the University of Toronto History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Faught Brad 2000 The Cast of Presidents University of Toronto Magazine No Summer 2000 Archived from the original on February 18 2007 Retrieved November 30 2008 a b In what battle did the University Rifle Corps first see action History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 10 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 In 1878 what disciplines were launched in the University of Toronto s Little Red Skulehouse History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b What medical school was recognized as among the best on the continent within 20 years of its opening History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b c What was front page news in the inaugural issue of the student paper The Varsity in 1880 History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b What was so heartbreaking about Valentine s Day 1890 History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Dickson Lovat 1986 The Museum Makers the Story of the Royal Ontario Museum University of Toronto Press ISBN 978 0 8020 7441 6 Schabas Ezra 2005 There s Music in These Walls A History of the Royal Conservatory of Music Dundurn Press Ltd ISBN 978 1 55002 540 8 Parker George L 2009 University Presses The Canadian Encyclopedia Historica Canada Archived from the original on August 18 2019 Retrieved August 20 2019 In 1914 why were students marching in the University of Toronto s Hart House under the command of a chemistry professor History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b How many University of Toronto students and alumni served in the Canadian Armed Forces during the Second World War History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 19 2019 Russel C H February 1999 The Legacy Continues C A Chant and the David Dunlap Observatory Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 93 1 11 Bibcode 1999JRASC 93 11R U of T reinstates researcher The Globe and Mail The Globe and Mail Inc September 9 2000 Retrieved September 7 2019 Siekierska Alicja April 5 2017 Student alleges University of Toronto mishandled sex assault complaint The Toronto Star Torstar Corporation Archived from the original on September 22 2019 Retrieved September 7 2019 Csillag Ron September 13 2018 University of Toronto clears professor following dispute with Jewish student CJN News Canadian Jewish News Archived from the original on September 22 2019 Retrieved September 7 2019 Levy Prof didn t discriminate against Jewish student U of T Archived from the original on December 9 2019 Retrieved December 9 2019 Canadian university endowment funds skyrocket Ottawa Citizen CanWest Global October 26 2007 Archived from the original on October 27 2007 Retrieved March 13 2009 University of Toronto receives single largest gift in Canadian history from James and Louise Temerty to support advances in human health and health care University of Toronto News Retrieved September 25 2020 Landmark 100 million gift to the University of Toronto from Gerald Schwartz and Heather Reisman will power Canadian innovation and help researchers explore the intersection of technology and society University of Toronto News Retrieved September 25 2020 a b c Allsop Robert et al 1999 Investing in the Landscape The Open Space Steering Committee University of Toronto Archived from the original on July 28 2009 Retrieved January 11 2009 a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal requires journal help Timperlake J 1877 Illustrated Toronto Past and Present Toronto Peter A Gross p 209 Simmins Geoffrey 1997 Fred Cumberland Building the Victorian Dream University of Toronto Press p 92 ISBN 978 0 8020 0679 0 Minutes of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada National Historic Sites Directorate 1968 Fed Prov Terr identifier 558 Archived from the original on February 24 2012 Retrieved January 11 2009 Duffy Dennis 2002 As Canadian as a Snowflake University of 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University of Toronto and Its Colleges 1827 1906 Toronto H H Langton The University Library a b What theological college bucked the federation trend with the University of Toronto in 1888 History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 History amp Mission Wycliffe College 2008 Archived from the original on December 28 2008 Retrieved December 27 2008 What small town fought to keep its college from moving to Toronto and federating with U of T History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b Historical Background University of Trinity College 2008 Archived from the original on January 29 2009 Retrieved December 27 2008 a b About St Mike s Our History St Michael s College 2008 Archived from the original on February 26 2009 Retrieved December 27 2008 History Campus amp People Queen s University 2007 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Mark F September 19 2001 Football The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 978 0 8122 3627 9 Cheney Peter September 13 2008 Varsity Blues can t get no respect Globe and Mail Canada Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Varsity Blues topple Waterloo for first win since 2001 Globe and Mail Canada September 2 2008 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Ralph Dan October 13 2007 Varsity Blues set futility mark Globe and Mail Canada Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 a b c Varsity Blues Men s Hockey 2008 2009 PDF University of Toronto Faculty of Physical Education and Health 2008 Archived PDF from the original on February 3 2013 Retrieved December 21 2008 a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal requires journal help Smythe Conn biography Legends of Hockey Hockey Hall of Fame 2008 Archived from the original on February 6 2005 Retrieved December 21 2008 Varsity Blues Men s Basketball 2008 2009 PDF University of Toronto Faculty of Physical Education and Health 2008 Archived PDF from the original on September 15 2011 Retrieved December 21 2008 a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal requires journal help CIS Swimming Championship History Canadian Interuniversity Sport 2008 Archived from the original on February 26 2009 Retrieved December 21 2008 a b Okens Patrick 1999 Blues Before Sunrise Rowing at the University of Toronto University of Toronto Graduate Department of History a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal requires journal help McGregor Nancy Wardrop Patricia Winters Kenneth Hart House Encyclopedia of Music in Canada Historica Canada Archived from the original on June 9 2019 Retrieved August 20 2019 a b Faught Brad 1999 The House Is Where the Heart Is University of Toronto Magazine Autumn 1999 Archived from the original on August 13 2007 Retrieved February 28 2009 Brown Gord November 12 2009 Hart House Hair clips along for 90 years the newspaper Archived from the original on January 15 2013 Retrieved November 15 2012 The Founders Prayer Hart House Archived from the original on November 22 2007 Retrieved February 28 2009 discover within its walls true education that is to be found within good fellowship in friendly disputation and debate in the conversation of wise and earnest men in music pictures and the play in the casual book in sports and games and the mastery of the body Willard Straight Hall Student Union Office of the Dean of Students Cornell University 2009 Archived from the original on September 8 2008 Retrieved February 28 2009 As one of the United States first college unions this Gothic structure was modeled after Hart House at the University of Toronto Question 9 Dear Uncle Ezra Cornell University Archived from the original on June 23 2010 Retrieved February 28 2009 The room itself is modeled after the University of Toronto s Hart House the student union at U of T The Memorial Room is a smaller version of the Great Hall in Hart House which is about 3 times the size of the Straight and includes a large wing devoted to athletics a b Webb Margaret 2003 Fighting Words University of Toronto Magazine Summer 2003 Archived from the original on January 1 2013 Retrieved February 28 2009 Flynn Colm 2006 Dublin Worlds 2006 World Debate Website Archived from the original on September 27 2007 Retrieved September 24 2007 UTMUN University of Toronto Model United Nations Archived from the original on July 28 2011 Retrieved April 28 2011 United Nations Society United Nations Society Archived from the original on January 21 2010 Retrieved March 11 2010 Weinstock Ruth July 16 2006 U of T Formula SAE team races to international victory University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs Archived from the original on September 22 2007 Retrieved September 24 2007 Breaking New Ground The History of Zeta Psi Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America 2007 Archived from the original on September 30 2008 Retrieved February 28 2009 Directory of Fraternities and Sororities Canadians Go Greek Archived from the original on February 20 2009 Retrieved February 28 2009 Delta Phi Nu Toronto Archived from the original on December 13 2014 Banham Martin 1995 The Cambridge Guide to Theatre Cambridge University Press p 161 ISBN 978 0 521 43437 9 Archived from the original on January 11 2020 Retrieved August 7 2019 Londre Felicia Hardison Watermeier Daniel J 1998 The History of North American Theater Continuum International Publishing Group p 353 ISBN 978 0 8264 1079 5 a b What university theatre was the centre of the cultural universe okay in Toronto History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on May 2 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Internuts Daffydil 2009 University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine 2009 Archived from the original on October 15 2011 Retrieved February 25 2009 Kicks for free bargain activities Toronto Life Toronto St Joseph Communications March 2003 ISSN 0049 4194 Rupert M K Schieder 1915 2008 Globe and Mail Canada September 5 2008 Sunday Concert Hart House Music Committee 2008 Archived from the original on January 8 2009 Retrieved February 25 2009 Student Journal Publishing utoronto ca University of Toronto May 1 2019 Archived from the original on September 21 2019 Retrieved September 21 2019 What made the blood fairly boil in U of T student and future prime minister William Lyon Mackenzie King in 1895 History Q amp A University of Toronto Department of Public Affairs 2002 Archived from the original on April 20 2019 Retrieved April 20 2019 Marshall David B 2000 Dale William Dictionary of Canadian Biography Archived from the original on September 14 2011 Retrieved February 28 2009 Bebout Rick January 2000 Conception amp birth On the Origins of the Body Politic Archived from the original on November 18 2008 Retrieved February 28 2009 Burton Smith Archie March 17 2019 The Boundless Value of U of T Memes thevarsity ca Varsity Publications Retrieved March 29 2020 Engineering Music and Phys Ed students Student Housing Service University of Toronto 2008 Archived from the original on March 6 2009 Retrieved March 29 2009 The Residence Guarantee Student Housing Service University of Toronto 2008 Archived from the original on August 5 2009 Retrieved March 29 2009 Ley David 1996 The New Middle Class and the Remaking of the Central City Oxford University Press p 182 ISBN 978 0 19 823292 6 Schackner Bill July 8 2007 For collegians in Canada drinking is no big thing Pittsburgh Post Gazette Archived from the original on April 3 2009 Retrieved March 29 2009 Enrolment Report 2016 17 PDF University of Toronto Planning and Budget Office February 8 2017 Archived from the original PDF on May 5 2017 Retrieved October 29 2017 Harris Kathleen September 3 2017 Foreign students flock to Canada as government struggles to get grads to stay CBCNews Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Archived from the original on March 1 2018 Retrieved March 4 2018 Xu Xiao September 27 2017 Climbing number of foreign students puts B C university s cap system to the test The Globe and Mail The Woodbridge Company Archived from the original on January 11 2020 Retrieved March 4 2018 2019 Fact amp figure from University of Toronto PDF a b c Xuelun Liang 2012 Facts amp Figures 2012 PDF University of Toronto Archived PDF from the original on December 11 2019 Retrieved October 29 2017 a b Common University Data Ontario 2015 University of Toronto 2015 Archived from the original on November 8 2017 Retrieved October 29 2017 Buckley Charlie Fiaoni Giulia March 17 2021 Anatomy of a campus mental health crisis Canada s National Observer Retrieved November 11 2021 a b Lorinc Jacob September 25 2019 In wake of campus suicides U of T students push for easier access to mental health help Toronto Star Retrieved November 11 2021 a b c Mancini Melissa Roumeliotis Ioanna November 20 2019 It s literally life or death Students say University of Toronto dragging feet on mental health services Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Retrieved November 11 2021 Nasser Shanifa March 18 2019 It doesn t feel human Students angry U of T not acknowledging campus suicides Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Retrieved November 11 2021 U of T open to ideas for better student supports after suicide president says Canadian Broadcasting Corporation March 20 2019 Retrieved November 11 2021 Thompson Nicole September 30 2019 U of T installs barriers in building where student died by suicide CP24 The Canadian Press Retrieved November 11 2021 Iceland elects new president and gets a Canadian first lady The Star thestar com Archived from the original on May 3 2019 Retrieved September 9 2019 Alumni Impact Survey University of Toronto Alumni Archived from the original on February 5 2021 Retrieved April 13 2021 Further readingBissell Claude T 1974 Halfway up Parnassus A Personal Account of the University of Toronto University of Toronto Press ISBN 0 8020 2172 7 Ford Ann Rochon 1985 A Path Not Strewn with Roses University of Toronto Press ISBN 0 8020 3999 5 Friedland Martin L 2002 The University of Toronto A History University of Toronto Press ISBN 0 8020 4429 8 Levi Charles Morden 2003 Comings and Goings McGill Queen s University Press ISBN 0 7735 2442 8 McKillop A Brian 1994 Matters of Mind University of Toronto Press ISBN 0 8020 7216 X Slater John G 2005 Minerva s Aviary Philosophy at Toronto University of Toronto Press ISBN 0 8020 3870 0 Wallace W Stewart A History of the University of Toronto 1827 1927 University of Toronto Press 1927 External linksWikimedia Commons has media related to University of Toronto Official website Heritage University of Toronto U of T s ongoing history in images text and rich media Portals Canada Ontario Retrieved from https en wikipedia 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