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Not to be confused with Southern Uplands.

The Upland South and Upper South are two overlapping cultural and geographic subregions in the inland part of the Southern and lower Midwestern United States. They differ from the Deep South and Atlantic coastal plain by terrain, history, economics, demographics, and settlement patterns.

The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. This map shows the approximate region known as the Upland South.

The term Upper South is a geographic term: the Southern states that are geographically north of the Lower or Deep South: primarily Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee, and to a lesser extent Delaware, the District of Columbia, and Maryland.

The Upland South is defined by elevation above sea level; it is west of the population centers on the east coast. It has its own history and culture. It includes most of West Virginia and Kentucky, and parts of Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Upland South outposts were settled along the shores of the Ohio River.

Contents

The United States map of Köppen climate classification.

There is a slight difference in usage between the two terms "Upland South" and "Upper South." The "Upland South" is usually defined based on landforms. This generally refers to the southern Appalachian Mountains or Appalachia region (although not the full region as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission), the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains. Also included in the Upland South are the plateaus, hills, and basins between the Appalachians and Ozarks, such as the Cumberland Plateau, part of the Allegheny Plateau, the Nashville Basin, the Shawnee Hills, and the Bluegrass Basin, among others. The southern Piedmont region is often considered part of the Upland South, while the Atlantic Coastal Plain (the Chesapeake region and South Carolina's Lowcountry) are not.

Status of the states, 1861.
States that seceded before April 15, 1861
States that seceded after April 15, 1861
Union states that permitted slavery
Union states that banned slavery
Territories

In contrast, the term "Upper South" tends to be defined politically by state boundaries. The term dates to the early 19th century and the rise of the Lower South, which became noted for its differences from the more northerly parts of the American South. In antebellum times, the term Upper South generally referred to the slave states north of the Lower or Deep South. During the American Civil War era, the term Upper South was often used to refer specifically to the Confederate states that did not secede until after the attack on Fort SumterVirginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. This can also include the border states of Kentucky, Missouri, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware as Upper South. Today, although many definitions are still based on Civil War-era politics, the term Upper South is often used for all of the American South north of the Deep South region.

The Encyclopædia Britannica defines the Upper South as the states of North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The Upper/Upland South is also described in the Encyclopædia Britannica as the "Yeoman South," in contrast to the "Plantation South."

The Upland South, being defined by landforms, also includes parts of Lower South states, such as northwestern South Carolina (the Upstate), North Georgia, North Alabama, and northeastern Mississippi. It also includes parts of some Northern states, such as Southern Illinois (generally the Shawnee Hills region), Southern Indiana, Southern Ohio, and extreme southwestern Pennsylvania. Eastern Oklahoma and western Maryland are generally included as well. In the same way, the Upland South usually does not include parts of some Upper South states. This includes areas such as eastern Arkansas, the Missouri Bootheel, the Purchase area of Kentucky, parts of West Tennessee, a Lower or Deep South region called the Mid-South, and the coastal lowlands of North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland, located in the Tidewater region.

Despite these differences, the two terms, Upland South and Upper South, refer to the same general region—the northern part of the American South—and are frequently used synonymously. The corresponding terms, Lower South and Deep South, similarly refer to the same general region that is south of and lower in elevation, than the Upland or Upper South. Likewise, the terms Lower South and Deep South are often used interchangeably.

The Upland South differs from the Lowland South in several significant ways. This includes terrain, histories, economics, demographics, and settlement patterns.

Origins

Daniel Boone escorts settlers through the Cumberland Gap

The Upland South emerged as a distinct region in the late 18th century and early 19th century. Migration and settlement patterns from colonial coastal regions into the interior had been established for many decades, but the scale grew dramatically toward the end of the 18th century. The general pattern was a westward migration from the Lowcountry and Piedmont regions of Virginia, North Carolina, and Maryland, as well as a southwestern migration from Pennsylvania. Large numbers of European immigrants arrived in Philadelphia and followed the Great Wagon Road west and south into the Appalachian Highlands, via the Great Appalachian Valley. These migration streams from Virginia and Pennsylvania resulted in the Shenandoah Valley becoming well-settled as early as 1750. The early settlers of the Ohio Valley were mainly Upland Southerners. Much of the culture of the Upland South originated in southeastern Pennsylvania and spread down the Shenandoah Valley.

These migration streams eventually spread through Appalachia and westward through the Appalachian Plateau region into the Ozarks and Ouachitas, and ultimately contributed to the settlement of the Texas Hill Country. The main ethnicities of these early settlers included English, Scots-Irish, Scottish, and German. The early culture of the Upland South was influenced by other European ethnicities. For example, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden — relatively few in number but pioneers in Pennsylvania before the Germans and Irish arrived — contributed techniques of forest pioneering such as the log cabin, the "zig-zag" split-rail fence, and frontier methods of shifting cultivation, such as girdling trees and using slash and burn methods to convert forest into temporary crop and pasture land.

The pattern of settlement that had begun in the Appalachian foothills was continued and extended through the mountains and highlands to the west and across the Mississippi River into the Ozark highland region. Where there was the danger of Indian attacks, people settled at first in clustered "stations," but as danger lessened, settlement tended to be in a rural, dispersed, kin-structured pattern, with relatively few cities and towns. These early settlers of the Upland South tended to practice small-scale farming, stock raising, and hunting. This settlement pattern of the Upland South was markedly different from that of the Deep South and the Midwest.

A significant portion of 19th-century settlers of the Midwest was from the Upland South. The southern Midwest was most heavily settled by Upland Southerners, especially in Missouri, southern Indiana, and southern Illinois. This early migration to the southern Midwest included many African Americans. They were mainly freed slaves, but slavery was permitted in some places such as St. Louis, under the Missouri Compromise of 1820. In the mid-19th century, there were concentrations of African Americans in east-central Indiana, southwest Michigan, and elsewhere. Due to their early settlement of the Midwest, Upland Southerners initially controlled territorial and state governments, and played a major role in establishing the political and social culture, such as the Black Laws of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Throughout the 19th century, the population percentage of Upland Southerners fell, especially as large numbers of native-born Midwesterners joined the population.

Distinct from neighboring regions

Johnson County in Eastern Kentucky
Hardwood forest in Middle Tennessee
The Blue Ridge Parkway heading towards Grandfather Mountain in North Carolina

The Deep South is generally associated historically with cotton production. By 1850, the term "Cotton States" was in common use, and the differences between the Deep South (lower) and Upland South (upper) were recognized. A key difference was the Deep South's plantation-style cash crop agriculture (mainly cotton, rice and sugar), using African American slaves working large farms while plantation owners tended to live in towns and cities. This system of plantation farming was originally developed in the West Indies and introduced to the United States in South Carolina and Louisiana, from where it spread throughout the Deep South, although there were local exceptions wherever conditions did not support the system. The sharp division between town and country, the intensive use of a few cash crops, and the high proportion of slaves, all differed from the Upland South. Virginia and its surrounding region stand out as different from both the Upland South and the Deep South. Its history predates the West Indian plantation model, and while tobacco was a cash crop from the start, and African slaves were widely used, Virginia did not share many of the Deep South's characteristics, such as the early proliferation of towns and cities.

As a result of the difference in the use of slaves, the boundary between the Upland South and Deep South can still be seen today on maps showing the population percentage of African-Americans. The term Black Belt originally referred to a region of black soil in Alabama that was especially fertile for cotton farming and has a high percentage of African-Americans. In contrast, the Upland South was less involved with large-scale slavery.

In addition, the Cotton Belt of the Deep South was controlled by Indians (mainly the Five Civilized Tribes of the Cherokee, Creek (Muscogee), Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole) who were powerful enough to keep pioneering settlers from moving into the region. The Deep South's cotton boom did not occur until after the Indians were forced west in the early 19th century. In contrast, the Upland South, Kentucky, and Tennessee especially, were the scene of Indian resistance and pioneering settlement during the late 18th century. Thus the Upland South colonized earlier and had established its particular settlement patterns before most of the Deep South was opened to general colonization.

The differences between the Upland South and lowlands of the Southern Atlantic Seaboard and cotton belt, often resulted in regional tension and conflict within states. For example, during the late 18th century, the upland "backcountry" of North Carolina grew in population until the Upland Southerners there outnumbered the older, well-established, wealthier coastal populations. In some cases, the conflict between the two resulted in warfare, such as War of the Regulation in North Carolina. Later, similar processes resulted in divergent populations in states to the west. Northern Alabama, for example, was settled by Upland Southerners from Tennessee, while southern Alabama was one of the core regions of the Deep South cotton boom. During the American Civil War some areas of the Upland South were noted for their resistance to the Confederacy. The uplands of western Virginia became the state of West Virginia as a result, though half the counties of the new state were still secessionist, and partisan warfare continued throughout the war. Kentucky and Missouri remained in the Union but were torn by internal strife. The southern Appalachian regions of East Tennessee, parts of Western North Carolina, and some parts of Northern Alabama and Georgia, were widely noted for their pro-Union sentiments.

The two regions also differ physically. The Upland South is dominated by deciduous hardwood forest, in contrast to the Deep South's predominantly evergreen pine forests. The Upland South is often much hillier than the Deep South, due to the Deep South being part of the coastal plain.

Industrial history

Tennessee Centennial Exposition in Nashville (1897)

The Upland South contains its own sub-regions. The fertile lowlands of the Nashville Basin and the Bluegrass Basin gave rise to the cities of Nashville, Lexington, and Louisville, which grew into banking and mercantile centers during the late 19th century, home to an elite class of Upland Southerners, including bankers, lawyers, educators, and politicians. Most of the Upland South, however, remained rural in character.[citation needed]

Although historically very rural, the Upland South was one of the nation's early industrial regions and continues to be today. Mining of coal, iron, copper, and other minerals has been part of the region's economy since the 18th century. As early as 1750, lead and zinc were mined in Wythe County, Virginia, and copper was mined and smelted in Polk County, Tennessee. Two major Appalachian goldfields were developed, the first in western North Carolina beginning in 1799. By 1825, Rutherford County, North Carolina was the center of the nation's most extensive gold mining. In 1828, a much richer Gold Strike was made in North Georgia, mostly within what was then the territory of the Cherokee Nation. The mining camp of Dahlonega boomed during the ensuing Georgia Gold Rush. Iron foundries in Virginia and early coal mining operations in central Appalachia date to before 1850.

West Virginia coal mine (1908)

The abundance of iron ore, coal, and limestone in the mountains and hills of the Birmingham District transformed a gritty boom town, into the iron and steel city of Birmingham. Birmingham would soon be known as the Pittsburgh of the South, as it became the leading industrial and transportation hub of the south during the early 20th century. Some of these early furnaces and forges were fueled with nearby deposits of bituminous coal. This robust economy gave the city a tough blue collar culture of hardened iron workers, miners, and steel workers as well as a cosmopolitan class of bankers, lawyers, educators and politicians. Similar examples of early urban-industrial areas include Embree's Iron Works in East Tennessee (1808), the Red River iron region of Estill County, Kentucky (1806–1808), and the Jackson Iron Works near Morgantown, West Virginia (1830). Wheeling, West Virginia was known as "Nail City" in the 1840s and 1850s. By 1860, Tennessee was the third-largest iron-producing state in the nation, after Pennsylvania and New York. The scale of mining, especially coal mining, increased dramatically after 1870. The importance of mining and metallurgy can be seen in the many towns with names such as Pigeon Forge and Bloomery (a bloomery being a type of smelting furnace), scattered across the Upland South.

Logging has also been an important part of the Upland South's economy.[citation needed] The region became the United States' primary source of timber after railroads allowed large-scale industrial logging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, the historic importance of the Upland South's forests can be seen in its many national forests, such as Cherokee National Forest in Tennessee, Nantahala National Forest in North Carolina, and Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky, among many others.[citation needed] The Upland South's terrain and forests, as well as history and culture, occur in parts of states usually associated with the Midwest and Deep South. These areas are often associated with national forests. For example Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri, Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois, Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana, Wayne National Forest in southeast Ohio, William B. Bankhead National Forest in northern Alabama, Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forest in northern Georgia, Sumter National Forest in South Carolina, and Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas and Oklahoma.

Textile mills and industry served as an important factor in the Upland South's economy from the late through the mid-20th century.[citation needed] Today the Upland South contains a diversity of people and economies. Some parts, like the Shenandoah Valley, are famous for their rural qualities, while other parts, like the Tennessee Valley, are heavily industrialized. Knoxville and Huntsville both serve as centers of industry and scientific research.[citation needed]

As a cultural region

The Upper South today remains a distinct culture region, with distinct ancestry, dialect, cuisine, religion and other characteristics. The heavily rhotacized Upland Southern dialect, still predominates in much of West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and portions of North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and Missouri. Noticeable influence can even be found in parts of the Lower South, such as northern Georgia and northern Alabama. Cities as far north such as St. Louis and Cincinnati, carry noticeable dialect influence as well. Similar to the Deep South, the region is heavily evangelical Protestant with Baptists making up a plurality in the vast majority of counties. The cuisine of the Upper South is generally closely related to the south as a whole, excluding southern low-country coastal areas in which the cuisine tends to involve seafood and rice dishes, which are not common in the Upper South.

  1. The Upper South. tulane.edu. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  2. Peres, M. Tanya. (2008). Foodways, Economic Status, and the Antebellum Upland South in Central Kentucky. Historical Archaeology, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 88-104. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  3. Hudson, John C. (2002). Across this Land: A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada. JHU Press. pp. 101–116. ISBN 978-0-8018-6567-1.
  4. The origin and evolution of the Upland South is explored in Meinig (1986), pp. 158, 386, 449
  5. Meinig (1993), pg. 293.
  6. Davidson, James West. Nation of Nations: a History of the American Republic. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2008. Print. (according to the glossary of the textbook)
  7. "Britannica Library". Library.eb.com. Retrieved2015-08-11.
  8. Turner, Frederick Jackson (1921). The Frontier in American History. Holt. pp. 164–166.
  9. Sisson, Richard; Christian K. Zacher; Andrew Robert Lee Cayton (2007). The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia. Indiana University Press. pp. 196–198. ISBN 978-0-253-34886-9.
  10. Meinig (1998), pg. 224
  11. Drake (2001), pp. 36–38, describes these early pioneer ethnic groups and notes that the term "Scotch-Irish" (Scots-Irish), while predominantly Presbyterian northern Irish, also included a significant number of Catholic southern Irish; and that the term "English" was a general catch-all term including ancestries such as French Huguenot (John Sevier's family, for example). On the topic of colonial Catholic Irish immigration, see also Williams (2002), pp. 43–44.
  12. Williams (2002), pg. 104
  13. For Antebellum differences between the Upper South and Lower South, see Meinig (1998) pp. 222–224
  14. Turner, Frederick Jackson (1921). The Frontier in American History. Holt. pp. 116–117.
  15. Weigley, Russell F., A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865, Indiana Univ. Press, 2000, pg. 55
  16. Drake, Richard B. (2003). A History of Appalachia. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-8131-9060-0.
  17. Williams, John Alexander (2002). Appalachia: A History. University of North Carolina Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-8078-5368-9.
  18. "Readings – A Short History Of Kentucky/Central Appalachia | Country Boys | FRONTLINE". PBS. Retrieved2015-08-11.
  19. [1] Archived March 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  20. "Map 2"(GIF). Ling.upenn.edu. Retrieved2015-08-11.
  21. [2] Archived May 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  22. Linguists ID three different Ohio dialects. wlwt.com. Retrieved February 18, 2021.
  23. Moffitt, Kelly. (December 21, 2016). How do you say '40,' 'here,' and 'wash?' Dissecting the particularities of the St. Louis dialect. St. Louis Public Radio. Retrieved February 18, 2021.

Upland South Article Talk Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Southern Uplands The Upland South and Upper South are two overlapping cultural and geographic subregions in the inland part of the Southern and lower Midwestern United States They differ from the Deep South and Atlantic coastal plain by terrain history economics demographics and settlement patterns The Upland South is defined by landform history and culture and does not correspond well to state lines This map shows the approximate region known as the Upland South The term Upper South is a geographic term the Southern states that are geographically north of the Lower or Deep South primarily Virginia West Virginia Kentucky North Carolina and Tennessee and to a lesser extent Delaware the District of Columbia and Maryland 1 The Upland South is defined by elevation above sea level it is west of the population centers on the east coast It has its own history and culture 2 It includes most of West Virginia and Kentucky and parts of Virginia Tennessee North Carolina Arkansas Missouri and Oklahoma Upland South outposts were settled along the shores of the Ohio River Contents 1 Geography 2 History and culture 2 1 Origins 2 2 Distinct from neighboring regions 2 3 Industrial history 2 4 As a cultural region 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyGeography Edit The United States map of Koppen climate classification There is a slight difference in usage between the two terms Upland South and Upper South 3 The Upland South is usually defined based on landforms This generally refers to the southern Appalachian Mountains or Appalachia region although not the full region as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains Also included in the Upland South are the plateaus hills and basins between the Appalachians and Ozarks such as the Cumberland Plateau part of the Allegheny Plateau the Nashville Basin the Shawnee Hills and the Bluegrass Basin among others The southern Piedmont region is often considered part of the Upland South while the Atlantic Coastal Plain the Chesapeake region and South Carolina s Lowcountry are not 4 Status of the states 1861 States that seceded before April 15 1861 States that seceded after April 15 1861 Union states that permitted slavery Union states that banned slavery Territories In contrast the term Upper South tends to be defined politically by state boundaries The term dates to the early 19th century and the rise of the Lower South which became noted for its differences from the more northerly parts of the American South In antebellum times the term Upper South generally referred to the slave states north of the Lower or Deep South 5 During the American Civil War era the term Upper South was often used to refer specifically to the Confederate states that did not secede until after the attack on Fort Sumter Virginia North Carolina Tennessee and Arkansas This can also include the border states of Kentucky Missouri West Virginia Maryland and Delaware as Upper South 6 Today although many definitions are still based on Civil War era politics the term Upper South is often used for all of the American South north of the Deep South region The Encyclopaedia Britannica defines the Upper South as the states of North Carolina Tennessee Virginia Kentucky and West Virginia The Upper Upland South is also described in the Encyclopaedia Britannica as the Yeoman South in contrast to the Plantation South 7 The Upland South being defined by landforms also includes parts of Lower South states such as northwestern South Carolina the Upstate North Georgia North Alabama and northeastern Mississippi It also includes parts of some Northern states such as Southern Illinois generally the Shawnee Hills region Southern Indiana Southern Ohio and extreme southwestern Pennsylvania Eastern Oklahoma and western Maryland are generally included as well In the same way the Upland South usually does not include parts of some Upper South states This includes areas such as eastern Arkansas the Missouri Bootheel the Purchase area of Kentucky parts of West Tennessee a Lower or Deep South region called the Mid South and the coastal lowlands of North Carolina Virginia and Maryland located in the Tidewater region Despite these differences the two terms Upland South and Upper South refer to the same general region the northern part of the American South and are frequently used synonymously The corresponding terms Lower South and Deep South similarly refer to the same general region that is south of and lower in elevation than the Upland or Upper South Likewise the terms Lower South and Deep South are often used interchangeably History and culture EditThe Upland South differs from the Lowland South in several significant ways This includes terrain histories economics demographics and settlement patterns Origins Edit Further information Trans Appalachia Overmountain Men and Old Southwest Daniel Boone escorts settlers through the Cumberland Gap The Upland South emerged as a distinct region in the late 18th century and early 19th century Migration and settlement patterns from colonial coastal regions into the interior had been established for many decades but the scale grew dramatically toward the end of the 18th century The general pattern was a westward migration from the Lowcountry and Piedmont regions of Virginia North Carolina and Maryland as well as a southwestern migration from Pennsylvania Large numbers of European immigrants arrived in Philadelphia and followed the Great Wagon Road west and south into the Appalachian Highlands via the Great Appalachian Valley These migration streams from Virginia and Pennsylvania resulted in the Shenandoah Valley becoming well settled as early as 1750 The early settlers of the Ohio Valley were mainly Upland Southerners 8 Much of the culture of the Upland South originated in southeastern Pennsylvania and spread down the Shenandoah Valley 9 These migration streams eventually spread through Appalachia and westward through the Appalachian Plateau region into the Ozarks and Ouachitas and ultimately contributed to the settlement of the Texas Hill Country 10 The main ethnicities of these early settlers included English Scots Irish Scottish and German 11 The early culture of the Upland South was influenced by other European ethnicities For example the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden relatively few in number but pioneers in Pennsylvania before the Germans and Irish arrived contributed techniques of forest pioneering such as the log cabin the zig zag split rail fence and frontier methods of shifting cultivation such as girdling trees and using slash and burn methods to convert forest into temporary crop and pasture land 12 The pattern of settlement that had begun in the Appalachian foothills was continued and extended through the mountains and highlands to the west and across the Mississippi River into the Ozark highland region Where there was the danger of Indian attacks people settled at first in clustered stations but as danger lessened settlement tended to be in a rural dispersed kin structured pattern with relatively few cities and towns These early settlers of the Upland South tended to practice small scale farming stock raising and hunting This settlement pattern of the Upland South was markedly different from that of the Deep South and the Midwest A significant portion of 19th century settlers of the Midwest was from the Upland South The southern Midwest was most heavily settled by Upland Southerners especially in Missouri southern Indiana and southern Illinois 9 This early migration to the southern Midwest included many African Americans They were mainly freed slaves but slavery was permitted in some places such as St Louis under the Missouri Compromise of 1820 In the mid 19th century there were concentrations of African Americans in east central Indiana southwest Michigan and elsewhere 9 Due to their early settlement of the Midwest Upland Southerners initially controlled territorial and state governments and played a major role in establishing the political and social culture such as the Black Laws of Ohio Indiana and Illinois 9 Throughout the 19th century the population percentage of Upland Southerners fell especially as large numbers of native born Midwesterners joined the population 9 Distinct from neighboring regions Edit Johnson County in Eastern Kentucky Hardwood forest in Middle Tennessee The Blue Ridge Parkway heading towards Grandfather Mountain in North Carolina The Deep South is generally associated historically with cotton production By 1850 the term Cotton States was in common use and the differences between the Deep South lower and Upland South upper were recognized A key difference was the Deep South s plantation style cash crop agriculture mainly cotton rice and sugar using African American slaves working large farms while plantation owners tended to live in towns and cities This system of plantation farming was originally developed in the West Indies and introduced to the United States in South Carolina and Louisiana from where it spread throughout the Deep South although there were local exceptions wherever conditions did not support the system The sharp division between town and country the intensive use of a few cash crops and the high proportion of slaves all differed from the Upland South Virginia and its surrounding region stand out as different from both the Upland South and the Deep South Its history predates the West Indian plantation model and while tobacco was a cash crop from the start and African slaves were widely used Virginia did not share many of the Deep South s characteristics such as the early proliferation of towns and cities 13 As a result of the difference in the use of slaves the boundary between the Upland South and Deep South can still be seen today on maps showing the population percentage of African Americans The term Black Belt originally referred to a region of black soil in Alabama that was especially fertile for cotton farming and has a high percentage of African Americans In contrast the Upland South was less involved with large scale slavery In addition the Cotton Belt of the Deep South was controlled by Indians mainly the Five Civilized Tribes of the Cherokee Creek Muscogee Chickasaw Choctaw and Seminole who were powerful enough to keep pioneering settlers from moving into the region The Deep South s cotton boom did not occur until after the Indians were forced west in the early 19th century In contrast the Upland South Kentucky and Tennessee especially were the scene of Indian resistance and pioneering settlement during the late 18th century Thus the Upland South colonized earlier and had established its particular settlement patterns before most of the Deep South was opened to general colonization The differences between the Upland South and lowlands of the Southern Atlantic Seaboard and cotton belt often resulted in regional tension and conflict within states 14 For example during the late 18th century the upland backcountry of North Carolina grew in population until the Upland Southerners there outnumbered the older well established wealthier coastal populations In some cases the conflict between the two resulted in warfare such as War of the Regulation in North Carolina 14 Later similar processes resulted in divergent populations in states to the west Northern Alabama for example was settled by Upland Southerners from Tennessee while southern Alabama was one of the core regions of the Deep South cotton boom During the American Civil War some areas of the Upland South were noted for their resistance to the Confederacy The uplands of western Virginia became the state of West Virginia as a result though half the counties of the new state were still secessionist and partisan warfare continued throughout the war 15 Kentucky and Missouri remained in the Union but were torn by internal strife The southern Appalachian regions of East Tennessee parts of Western North Carolina and some parts of Northern Alabama and Georgia were widely noted for their pro Union sentiments The two regions also differ physically The Upland South is dominated by deciduous hardwood forest in contrast to the Deep South s predominantly evergreen pine forests The Upland South is often much hillier than the Deep South due to the Deep South being part of the coastal plain Industrial history Edit Tennessee Centennial Exposition in Nashville 1897 The Upland South contains its own sub regions The fertile lowlands of the Nashville Basin and the Bluegrass Basin gave rise to the cities of Nashville Lexington and Louisville which grew into banking and mercantile centers during the late 19th century home to an elite class of Upland Southerners including bankers lawyers educators and politicians Most of the Upland South however remained rural in character citation needed Although historically very rural the Upland South was one of the nation s early industrial regions and continues to be today Mining of coal iron copper and other minerals has been part of the region s economy since the 18th century As early as 1750 lead and zinc were mined in Wythe County Virginia and copper was mined and smelted in Polk County Tennessee Two major Appalachian goldfields were developed the first in western North Carolina beginning in 1799 By 1825 Rutherford County North Carolina was the center of the nation s most extensive gold mining In 1828 a much richer Gold Strike was made in North Georgia mostly within what was then the territory of the Cherokee Nation The mining camp of Dahlonega boomed during the ensuing Georgia Gold Rush Iron foundries in Virginia and early coal mining operations in central Appalachia date to before 1850 16 West Virginia coal mine 1908 The abundance of iron ore coal and limestone in the mountains and hills of the Birmingham District transformed a gritty boom town into the iron and steel city of Birmingham Birmingham would soon be known as the Pittsburgh of the South as it became the leading industrial and transportation hub of the south during the early 20th century Some of these early furnaces and forges were fueled with nearby deposits of bituminous coal This robust economy gave the city a tough blue collar culture of hardened iron workers miners and steel workers as well as a cosmopolitan class of bankers lawyers educators and politicians Similar examples of early urban industrial areas include Embree s Iron Works in East Tennessee 1808 the Red River iron region of Estill County Kentucky 1806 1808 and the Jackson Iron Works near Morgantown West Virginia 1830 Wheeling West Virginia was known as Nail City in the 1840s and 1850s By 1860 Tennessee was the third largest iron producing state in the nation after Pennsylvania and New York 17 The scale of mining especially coal mining increased dramatically after 1870 18 The importance of mining and metallurgy can be seen in the many towns with names such as Pigeon Forge and Bloomery a bloomery being a type of smelting furnace scattered across the Upland South Logging has also been an important part of the Upland South s economy citation needed The region became the United States primary source of timber after railroads allowed large scale industrial logging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Today the historic importance of the Upland South s forests can be seen in its many national forests such as Cherokee National Forest in Tennessee Nantahala National Forest in North Carolina and Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky among many others citation needed The Upland South s terrain and forests as well as history and culture occur in parts of states usually associated with the Midwest and Deep South These areas are often associated with national forests For example Mark Twain National Forest in southern Missouri Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana Wayne National Forest in southeast Ohio William B Bankhead National Forest in northern Alabama Chattahoochee Oconee National Forest in northern Georgia Sumter National Forest in South Carolina and Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas and Oklahoma Textile mills and industry served as an important factor in the Upland South s economy from the late through the mid 20th century citation needed Today the Upland South contains a diversity of people and economies Some parts like the Shenandoah Valley are famous for their rural qualities while other parts like the Tennessee Valley are heavily industrialized Knoxville and Huntsville both serve as centers of industry and scientific research citation needed As a cultural region Edit The Upper South today remains a distinct culture region with distinct ancestry 19 dialect 20 cuisine religion 21 and other characteristics The heavily rhotacized Upland Southern dialect still predominates in much of West Virginia Kentucky Tennessee and portions of North Carolina Virginia Maryland and Missouri Noticeable influence can even be found in parts of the Lower South such as northern Georgia and northern Alabama Cities as far north such as St Louis and Cincinnati carry noticeable dialect influence as well 22 23 Similar to the Deep South the region is heavily evangelical Protestant with Baptists making up a plurality in the vast majority of counties The cuisine of the Upper South is generally closely related to the south as a whole excluding southern low country coastal areas in which the cuisine tends to involve seafood and rice dishes which are not common in the Upper South See also EditAlbion s Seed Appalachia Appalachian English Appalachian music Bluegrass music Moonshine Mountain whites Rum running bootlegging Southern American English Southwest Territory Wilderness RoadReferences Edit The Upper South tulane edu Retrieved February 15 2021 Peres M Tanya 2008 Foodways Economic Status and the Antebellum Upland South in Central Kentucky Historical Archaeology Vol 42 No 4 pp 88 104 Retrieved February 15 2021 Hudson John C 2002 Across this Land A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada JHU Press pp 101 116 ISBN 978 0 8018 6567 1 The origin and evolution of the Upland South is explored in Meinig 1986 pp 158 386 449 Meinig 1993 pg 293 Davidson James West Nation of Nations a History of the American Republic New York McGraw Hill Higher Education 2008 Print according to the glossary of the textbook Britannica Library Library eb com Retrieved 2015 08 11 Turner Frederick Jackson 1921 The Frontier in American History Holt pp 164 166 a b c d e Sisson Richard Christian K Zacher Andrew Robert Lee Cayton 2007 The American Midwest An Interpretive Encyclopedia Indiana University Press pp 196 198 ISBN 978 0 253 34886 9 Meinig 1998 pg 224 Drake 2001 pp 36 38 describes these early pioneer ethnic groups and notes that the term Scotch Irish Scots Irish while predominantly Presbyterian northern Irish also included a significant number of Catholic southern Irish and that the term English was a general catch all term including ancestries such as French Huguenot John Sevier s family for example On the topic of colonial Catholic Irish immigration see also Williams 2002 pp 43 44 Williams 2002 pg 104 For Antebellum differences between the Upper South and Lower South see Meinig 1998 pp 222 224 a b Turner Frederick Jackson 1921 The Frontier in American History Holt pp 116 117 Weigley Russell F A Great Civil War A Military and Political History 1861 1865 Indiana Univ Press 2000 pg 55 Drake Richard B 2003 A History of Appalachia University Press of Kentucky pp 70 71 ISBN 978 0 8131 9060 0 Williams John Alexander 2002 Appalachia A History University of North Carolina Press p 128 ISBN 978 0 8078 5368 9 Readings A Short History Of Kentucky Central Appalachia Country Boys FRONTLINE PBS Retrieved 2015 08 11 1 Archived March 5 2010 at the Wayback Machine Map 2 GIF Ling upenn edu Retrieved 2015 08 11 2 Archived May 22 2010 at the Wayback Machine Linguists ID three different Ohio dialects wlwt com Retrieved February 18 2021 Moffitt Kelly December 21 2016 How do you say 40 here and wash Dissecting the particularities of the St Louis dialect St Louis Public Radio Retrieved February 18 2021 Bibliography EditDrake Richard B A History of Appalachia Lexington University of Kentucky Press 2001 ISBN 0 8131 2169 8 Jordan Bychkov Terry G The Upland South The Making of an American Folk Region and Landscape Harrisonburg U of Virginia P 2003 ISBN 1 930066 08 2 Meinig D W The Shaping of America A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History Volume 1 Atlantic America 1492 1800 New Haven Yale University Press 1986 ISBN 0 300 03882 8 Meinig D W The Shaping of America A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History Volume 2 Continental America 1800 1867 New Haven Yale University Press 1993 ISBN 0 300 05658 3 Meinig D W The Shaping of America A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History Volume 3 Transcontinental America 1850 1915 New Haven Yale University Press 1998 ISBN 0 300 08290 8 Meinig D W The Shaping of America A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History Volume 4 Global America 1915 2000 New Haven Yale University Press 2004 ISBN 0 300 10432 4 Williams John Alexander Appalachia A History Charlotte University of North Carolina Press 2002 ISBN 0 8078 5368 2 Zelinsky Wilbur The Cultural Geography of the United States Upper Saddle River Prentice Hall 1973 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Upland South amp oldid 1087853163, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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