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"Folkist movement" redirects here. For other uses, see Folkism.

The Völkisch movement (German: Völkische Bewegung; alternative English:Folkist Movement) was a German ethno-nationalist movement active from the late 19th century through to the Nazi era, with remnants in the Federal Republic of Germany afterwards. Erected on the idea of "blood and soil", inspired by the one-body-metaphor (Volkskörper, "ethnic body"; literally "body of the people"), and by the idea of naturally grown communities in unity, it was characterized by organicism, racialism, populism, agrarianism, romantic nationalism and – as a consequence of a growing exclusive and ethnic connotation – by antisemitism from the 1900s onward. Völkisch nationalists generally considered the Jews to be an "alien people" who belonged to a different Volk ("race" or "folk") from the Germans.

The Völkisch movement was not a homogeneous set of beliefs, but rather a "variegated sub-culture" that rose in opposition to the socio-cultural changes of modernity. The "only denominator common" to all Völkisch theorists was the idea of a national rebirth, inspired by the traditions of the Ancient Germans which had been "reconstructed" on a romantic basis by the adherents of the philosophy. This rebirth would have been achieved by either "Germanizing" Christianity – an Abrahamic and "Semitic" religion that spread into Europe from the Near East – or by rejecting any Christian heritage that existed in Germany in order to revive pre-Christian Germanic paganism. In a narrow definition, the term is used to designate only groups that consider human beings essentially preformed by blood, or by inherited characteristics.

The Völkischen are often encompassed in a wider Conservative Revolution by scholars, a German national conservative movement that rose in prominence during the Weimar Republic (1918–1933).

During the period of the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis believed in and enforced a definition of the German Volk which excluded Jews, the Romani people, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and other "foreign elements" living in Germany. Their policies led to these "undesirables" being rounded up and murdered in large numbers, in what became known as The Holocaust.

Contents

The adjective Völkisch (pronounced ) is derived from the German word Volk (cognate with the English "folk"), which has overtones of "nation", "race" or "tribe". While Völkisch has no direct English equivalent, it could be loosely translated as "ethno-nationalist", "ethnic-chauvinist", "ethnic-popular", or, closer to its original meaning, as "bio-mystical racialist".

If Völkisch writers used terms like Nordische Rasse ("Nordic race") and Germanentum ("Germanic peoples"), their concept of Volk could, however, also be more flexible, and understood as a Gemeinsame Sprache ("common language"), or as an Ausdruck einer Landschaftsseele ("expression of a landscape's soul"), in the words of geographer Ewald Banse.

The defining idea which the Völkisch movement revolved around was that of a Volkstum, literally the "folkdom" or the "culture of the Volk". Other associated German words include Volksboden (the "Volk's essential substrate"), Volksgeist (the "spirit of the Volk"), Volksgemeinschaft (the "community of the Volk"), as well as Volkstümlich ("folksy" or "traditional") and Volkstümlichkeit (the "popular celebration of the Volkstum").

The Völkisch movement was not unified but rather "a cauldron of beliefs, fears and hopes that found expression in various movements and were often articulated in an emotional tone". According to historian Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, Völkisch denoted the "national collectivity inspired by a common creative energy, feelings and sense of individuality. These metaphysical qualities were supposed to define the unique cultural essence of the German people." Journalist Peter Ross Range writes that "Völkisch is very hard to define and almost untranslatable into English. The word has been rendered as popular, populist, people's, racial, racist, ethnic-chauvinist, nationalistic, communitarian (for Germans only), conservative, traditional, Nordic, romantic – and it means, in fact, all of those. The völkisch political ideology ranged from a sense of German superiority to a spiritual resistance to 'the evils of industrialization and the atomization of modern man,' wrote scholar David Jablonsky. But its central component, as Harold J. Gordon, Jr., noted, was always racism".

Völkisch thinkers tended to idealize the myth of an "original nation", that still could be found at that time in the rural regions of Germany, a form of "primitive democracy freely subjected to their natural elites." The notion of "people" (Volk) subsequently turned into the idea of a "racial essence", and Völkisch thinkers referred to the term as a birth-giving and quasi-eternal entity—in the same way as they would write on "the Nature"—rather than a sociological category.

The movement combined sentimental patriotic interest in German folklore, local history and a "back-to-the-land" anti-urban populism with many parallels in the writings of William Morris. "In part this ideology was a revolt against modernity", Nicholls remarked. As they sought to overcome what they felt was the malaise of a scientistic and rationalistic modernity, Völkisch authors imagined a spiritual solution in a Volk's essence perceived as authentic, intuitive, even "primitive", in the sense of an alignment with a primordial and cosmic order.

Origins in the 19th century

The Völkisch movement emerged in the late 19th century, drawing inspiration from German Romanticism and the history of the Holy Roman Empire, and what many saw as its harmonious hierarchical order. The delayed unification of the German-speaking peoples under a single German Reich in the 19th century is cited as conducive to the emergence of the Völkisch movement.

Despite the previous lower-class connotation associated to the word Volk, the Völkisch movement saw the term with a noble overtone suggesting a German ascendancy over other peoples. Thinkers led by Arthur de Gobineau (1816–1882), Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854–1936), Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855–1927), Ludwig Woltmann (1871–1907) and Alexis Carrel (1873–1944) were inspired by Charles Darwin's theory of evolution in advocating a "race struggle" and a hygienist vision of the world. They had conceptualized a racialist and hierarchical definition of the peoples of the world where Aryans (or Germans) had to be at the summit of the white race. The purity of the bio-mystical and primordial nation theorized by the Völkisch thinkers then began to be seen as having been corrupted by foreign elements, Jewish in particular.

Before World War I

The same word Volk was used as a flag for new forms of ethnic nationalism, as well as by international socialist parties as a synonym for the proletariat in the German lands. From the left, elements of the folk-culture spread to the parties of the middle classes.

Although the primary interest of the Germanic mystical movement was the revival of native pagan traditions and customs (often set in the context of a quasi-theosophical esotericism), a marked preoccupation with purity of race came to motivate its more politically oriented offshoots, such as the Germanenorden (the Germanic or Teutonic Order), a secret society founded at Berlin in 1912 which required its candidates to prove that they had no "non-Aryan" bloodlines and required from each a promise to maintain purity of his stock in marriage. Local groups of the sect met to celebrate the summer solstice, an important neopagan festivity in völkisch circles (and later in Nazi Germany), and more regularly to read the Eddas as well as some of the German mystics.[better source needed]

Not all folkloric societies with connections to Romantic nationalism were located in Germany. The Völkisch movement was a force as well in Austria. Meanwhile, the community of Monte Verità ('Mount Truth') which emerged in 1900 at Ascona, Switzerland is described by the Swiss art critic Harald Szeemann as "the southernmost outpost of a far-reaching Nordic lifestyle-reform, that is, alternative movement".

Weimar Republic

The political agitation and uncertainty that followed World War I nourished a fertile background for the renewed success of various Völkish sects that were abundant in Berlin at the time, but if the Völkisch movement became significant by the number of groups during the Weimar Republic, they were not so by the number of adherents. A few Völkische authors tried to revive what they believed to be a true German faith (Deutschglaube), by resurrecting the cult of the ancient Germanic gods. Various occult movements such as ariosophy were connected to Völkisch theories, and artistic circles were largely present among the Völkischen, like the painters Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867-1952) and Fidus (1868-1948). By May 1924, essayist Wilhelm Stapel perceived the movement as capable of embracing and reconciling the whole nation: in his view, Völkisch had an idea to spread instead of a party programme and were led by heroes — not by "calculating politicians". Scholar Petteri Pietikäinen also observed Völkisch influences on Carl Gustav Jung.

The völkisch ideologies were influential in the development of Nazism. Indeed, Joseph Goebbels publicly asserted in the 1927 Nuremberg rally that if the populist (völkisch) movement had understood power and how to bring thousands out in the streets, it would have gained political power on 9 November 1918 (the outbreak of the SPD-led German Revolution of 1918–1919, end of the German monarchy). Nazi racial understanding was couched in völkisch terms, as when Eugen Fischer delivered his inaugural address as Nazi rector, The Conception of the Völkisch state in the view of biology (29 July 1933). Karl Harrer, the Thule Society member most directly involved in the creation of the DAP in 1919, was sidelined at the end of the year when Hitler drafted regulations against conspiratorial circles, and the Thule Society was dissolved a few years later. The völkisch circles handed down one significant legacy to the Nazis: In 1919, Thule Society member Friedrich Krohn designed the original version of the Nazi swastika.

In January 1919, the Thule Society was instrumental in the foundation of the German Workers' Party (DAP), which later became the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), commonly called the Nazi Party. Thule Society members or visiting guests of the Thule Society who would later join the Nazi Party included Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Gottfried Feder, Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer. Notably, Adolf Hitler was never a member of the Thule Society and Rudolf Hess and Alfred Rosenberg were only visiting guests of the Thule Society in the early years before they came to prominence in the Nazi movement. After being appointed Chairman of the NSDAP in 1921, Hitler moved to sever the party's link with the Thule Society, expelling Harrer in the process; the Society subsequently fell into decline and was dissolved in 1925.

The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new section, as appropriate.(December 2021) ()

"Völkisch" or "neo-völkisch", anglicized to "folkish", is used again after 1945 to refer to neopagan groups that follow a racist version of Heathenry and mix their beliefs with Neo-Nazism. Many of them were influenced by earlier völkisch movements or Norse mythology, as its members saw it as a "purer" version of European people. Because of their ties with Nazism and hostility against other peoples, they are opposed by universalist (supportive of minorities) and reconstructionist pagans.

In the United States, many neo-völkisch organizations have been designated as hate groups by the Southern Poverty Law Center.

Groups that are considered "völkisch" or "folkish" include:

Notes

  1. Camus & Lebourg 2017, pp. 16–18.
  2. Longerich, Peter (15 April 2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191613470.
  3. Joseph W. Bendersky (2000). A History of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8304-1567-0.
  4. Dohe 2016, p. 36.
  5. Koehne 2014, p. 760: "As Roger Griffin has argued, a "striking feature of the sub-culture ... was just how prolific and variegated it was ... [T]he only denominator common to all was the myth of national rebirth. A number of historians have suggested that the leaders of the NSDAP adhered either to paganism or to an 'Aryanized' Christian faith. Uwe Puschner has noted that two major “religious concepts and camps” existed in the völkisch movement beginning around 1900. One camp advocated an 'Aryanized' German-Christianity, the other a 'revival of the pre-Christian religion of the ancient Germans.' Yet Puschner argues, at the same time, that 'völkisch schemes of religion' formed a spectrum: from attempts 'to germanize Christianity, to a decisive rejection of Christianity and the creation of new Germanic religions.'"
  6. Hans Jürgen Lutzhöft (1971). Der Nordische Gedanke in Deutschland 1920–1940 (Stuttgart. Ernst Klett Verlag), p. 19.
  7. Dupeux, Louis (1992). La Révolution conservatrice allemande sous la République de Weimar (in French). Kimé. ISBN 9782908212181.
  8. François 2009.
  9. Christopher Hutton (2005). Race and the Third Reich: Linguistics, Racial Anthropology and Genetics in the Dialectic of Volk. Polity. pp. 93, 105, 150. ISBN 978-0-7456-3177-6.
  10. James Webb. 1976. The Occult Establishment. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-434-4. pp. 276–277
  11. Ullrich, Volker (2016). Hitler: Ascent, 1889-1939. Translated by Jefferson Chase. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9780385354394. passim
  12. Georg Schmidt-Rohr: Die Sprache als Bildnerin. 1932.
  13. Ewald Banse. Landschaft und Seele. München 1928, p. 469.
  14. Brüggemeier, Franz-Josef; Cioc, Mark; Zeller, Thomas (2005). How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich. Ohio University Press. p. 259. ISBN 9780821416471.
  15. Poewe, Karla; Hexham, Irving (2009). "The Völkisch Modernist Beginnings of National Socialism: Its Intrusion into the Church and Its Antisemitic Consequence". Religion Compass. 3 (4): 676–696. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00156.x. ISSN 1749-8171.
  16. "volkstümlich | translate German to English: Cambridge Dictionary". dictionary.cambridge.org. Retrieved1 November 2019.
  17. Petteri Pietikäinen, "The Volk and Its Unconscious: Jung, Hauer and the 'German Revolution'". Journal of Contemporary History 35.4 (October 2000: 523–539), p. 524
  18. Goodrick-Clarke 1985, p. 3.
  19. Peter Ross Range (2016), 1924: The Year That Made Hitler, New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 27.
  20. Dupeux, Louis (1992). La Révolution conservatrice allemande sous la République de Weimar (in French). Kimé. pp. 115–125. ISBN 978-2908212181.
  21. A. J. Nicholls, reviewing George L. Mosse, The Crisis in German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich, in The English Historical Review 82 No. 325 (October 1967), p. 860. Mosse was characterised as "the foremost historian of völkisch ideology" by Petteri Pietikäinen 2000:524 note 6.
  22. George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson 1966) sees this in the context of a broader revolt against modernity, contrasting healthy rural life with the debased materialism of city culture.
  23. "The Swastika and the Nazis". Intelinet.org. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010.
  24. Austrian manifestations were surveyed by Rudolf G. Ardelt, Zwischen Demoktratie und Faschismus: Deutschnationales Gedankengut in Österreich, 1919-1930 (Vienna and Salzburg) 1972, not translated into English.
  25. Heidi Paris and Peter Gente (1982). Monte Verita: A Mountain for Minorities. Translated by Hedwig Pachter, Semiotext, the German Issue IV(2):1.
  26. Lutzhöft, Hans-Jürgen (1971). Der Nordische Gedanke in Deutschland 1920-1940 (in German). Klett. p. 19. ISBN 9783129054703.
  27. Boutin, Christophe (1992). Politique et tradition: Julius Evola dans le siècle, 1898–1974 (in French). Editions Kimé. pp. 264–265. ISBN 9782908212150.
  28. Goodrick-Clarke 1985, p. 15.
  29. Wilhelm Stapel, "Das Elementare in der völkischen Bewegung", Deutsches Volkstum, 5 May 1924, pp. 213–15.
  30. Dietrich Orlow (23 June 2010). The Nazi Party 1919-1945: A Complete History. Enigma Books. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-9824911-9-5.
  31. Calvin.edu
  32. Franz Weidenreich in Science, New Series, 104, No. 2704 (October 1946:399).
  33. Goodrick-Clarke 1985, pp. 150, 221.
  34. Hitler, Adolf (1943). Mein Kampf. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 496.
  35. Goodrick-Clarke 1985, pp. 149, 201.
  36. Goodrick-Clarke 1985, p. 221.
  37. "Neo-Volkisch". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved28 October 2021.
  38. Lyons, Sarah. "Racists Are Threatening to Take Over Paganism". Vice News. Retrieved28 October 2021.
  39. "WHAT IT MEANS TO BE FOLKISH". Odinic Rite. 21 April 2011. Retrieved17 November 2021.
  40. "IS ODINISM A MISSIONARY RELIGION?". The Odinist Fellowship. Retrieved17 November 2021.

Bibliography

Volkisch movement Article Talk Language Watch Edit Folkist movement redirects here For other uses see Folkism The Volkisch movement German Volkische Bewegung alternative English Folkist Movement was a German ethno nationalist movement active from the late 19th century through to the Nazi era with remnants in the Federal Republic of Germany afterwards Erected on the idea of blood and soil inspired by the one body metaphor Volkskorper ethnic body literally body of the people and by the idea of naturally grown communities in unity it was characterized by organicism racialism populism agrarianism romantic nationalism and as a consequence of a growing exclusive and ethnic connotation by antisemitism from the 1900s onward 1 2 Volkisch nationalists generally considered the Jews to be an alien people who belonged to a different Volk race or folk from the Germans 3 The Volkisch movement was not a homogeneous set of beliefs but rather a variegated sub culture that rose in opposition to the socio cultural changes of modernity 4 The only denominator common to all Volkisch theorists was the idea of a national rebirth inspired by the traditions of the Ancient Germans which had been reconstructed on a romantic basis by the adherents of the philosophy This rebirth would have been achieved by either Germanizing Christianity an Abrahamic and Semitic religion that spread into Europe from the Near East or by rejecting any Christian heritage that existed in Germany in order to revive pre Christian Germanic paganism 5 In a narrow definition the term is used to designate only groups that consider human beings essentially preformed by blood or by inherited characteristics 6 The Volkischen are often encompassed in a wider Conservative Revolution by scholars a German national conservative movement that rose in prominence during the Weimar Republic 1918 1933 7 8 During the period of the Third Reich Adolf Hitler and the Nazis believed in and enforced a definition of the German Volk which excluded Jews the Romani people Jehovah s Witnesses homosexuals and other foreign elements living in Germany 9 Their policies led to these undesirables being rounded up and murdered in large numbers in what became known as The Holocaust Contents 1 Translation 2 Definition 3 History 3 1 Origins in the 19th century 3 2 Before World War I 3 3 Weimar Republic 4 Influence on Nazism 5 Modern usage 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTranslation EditThe adjective Volkisch pronounced ˈfœlkɪʃ is derived from the German word Volk cognate with the English folk which has overtones of nation race or tribe 10 While Volkisch has no direct English equivalent it could be loosely translated as ethno nationalist ethnic chauvinist ethnic popular 11 or closer to its original meaning as bio mystical racialist 1 If Volkisch writers used terms like Nordische Rasse Nordic race and Germanentum Germanic peoples their concept of Volk could however also be more flexible and understood as a Gemeinsame Sprache common language 12 or as an Ausdruck einer Landschaftsseele expression of a landscape s soul in the words of geographer Ewald Banse 13 The defining idea which the Volkisch movement revolved around was that of a Volkstum literally the folkdom or the culture of the Volk 14 Other associated German words include Volksboden the Volk s essential substrate Volksgeist the spirit of the Volk 4 Volksgemeinschaft the community of the Volk 15 as well as Volkstumlich folksy or traditional 16 and Volkstumlichkeit the popular celebration of the Volkstum 14 Definition EditThe Volkisch movement was not unified but rather a cauldron of beliefs fears and hopes that found expression in various movements and were often articulated in an emotional tone 17 According to historian Nicholas Goodrick Clarke Volkisch denoted the national collectivity inspired by a common creative energy feelings and sense of individuality These metaphysical qualities were supposed to define the unique cultural essence of the German people 18 Journalist Peter Ross Range writes that Volkisch is very hard to define and almost untranslatable into English The word has been rendered as popular populist people s racial racist ethnic chauvinist nationalistic communitarian for Germans only conservative traditional Nordic romantic and it means in fact all of those The volkisch political ideology ranged from a sense of German superiority to a spiritual resistance to the evils of industrialization and the atomization of modern man wrote scholar David Jablonsky But its central component as Harold J Gordon Jr noted was always racism 19 Volkisch thinkers tended to idealize the myth of an original nation that still could be found at that time in the rural regions of Germany a form of primitive democracy freely subjected to their natural elites 8 The notion of people Volk subsequently turned into the idea of a racial essence 4 and Volkisch thinkers referred to the term as a birth giving and quasi eternal entity in the same way as they would write on the Nature rather than a sociological category 20 The movement combined sentimental patriotic interest in German folklore local history and a back to the land anti urban populism with many parallels in the writings of William Morris In part this ideology was a revolt against modernity Nicholls remarked 21 As they sought to overcome what they felt was the malaise of a scientistic and rationalistic modernity Volkisch authors imagined a spiritual solution in a Volk s essence perceived as authentic intuitive even primitive in the sense of an alignment with a primordial and cosmic order 4 History EditOrigins in the 19th century Edit The Volkisch movement emerged in the late 19th century drawing inspiration from German Romanticism and the history of the Holy Roman Empire and what many saw as its harmonious hierarchical order 1 The delayed unification of the German speaking peoples under a single German Reich in the 19th century is cited as conducive to the emergence of the Volkisch movement 18 Despite the previous lower class connotation associated to the word Volk the Volkisch movement saw the term with a noble overtone suggesting a German ascendancy over other peoples 4 Thinkers led by Arthur de Gobineau 1816 1882 Georges Vacher de Lapouge 1854 1936 Houston Stewart Chamberlain 1855 1927 Ludwig Woltmann 1871 1907 and Alexis Carrel 1873 1944 were inspired by Charles Darwin s theory of evolution in advocating a race struggle and a hygienist vision of the world They had conceptualized a racialist and hierarchical definition of the peoples of the world where Aryans or Germans had to be at the summit of the white race The purity of the bio mystical and primordial nation theorized by the Volkisch thinkers then began to be seen as having been corrupted by foreign elements Jewish in particular 1 Before World War I Edit The same word Volk was used as a flag for new forms of ethnic nationalism as well as by international socialist parties as a synonym for the proletariat in the German lands From the left elements of the folk culture spread to the parties of the middle classes 22 Although the primary interest of the Germanic mystical movement was the revival of native pagan traditions and customs often set in the context of a quasi theosophical esotericism a marked preoccupation with purity of race came to motivate its more politically oriented offshoots such as the Germanenorden the Germanic or Teutonic Order a secret society founded at Berlin in 1912 which required its candidates to prove that they had no non Aryan bloodlines and required from each a promise to maintain purity of his stock in marriage Local groups of the sect met to celebrate the summer solstice an important neopagan festivity in volkisch circles and later in Nazi Germany and more regularly to read the Eddas as well as some of the German mystics 23 better source needed Not all folkloric societies with connections to Romantic nationalism were located in Germany The Volkisch movement was a force as well in Austria 24 Meanwhile the community of Monte Verita Mount Truth which emerged in 1900 at Ascona Switzerland is described by the Swiss art critic Harald Szeemann as the southernmost outpost of a far reaching Nordic lifestyle reform that is alternative movement 25 Weimar Republic Edit The political agitation and uncertainty that followed World War I nourished a fertile background for the renewed success of various Volkish sects that were abundant in Berlin at the time 8 but if the Volkisch movement became significant by the number of groups during the Weimar Republic 26 they were not so by the number of adherents 8 A few Volkische authors tried to revive what they believed to be a true German faith Deutschglaube by resurrecting the cult of the ancient Germanic gods 27 Various occult movements such as ariosophy were connected to Volkisch theories 28 and artistic circles were largely present among the Volkischen like the painters Ludwig Fahrenkrog 1867 1952 and Fidus 1868 1948 8 By May 1924 essayist Wilhelm Stapel perceived the movement as capable of embracing and reconciling the whole nation in his view Volkisch had an idea to spread instead of a party programme and were led by heroes not by calculating politicians 29 Scholar Petteri Pietikainen also observed Volkisch influences on Carl Gustav Jung 17 Influence on Nazism EditThe volkisch ideologies were influential in the development of Nazism 30 Indeed Joseph Goebbels publicly asserted in the 1927 Nuremberg rally that if the populist volkisch movement had understood power and how to bring thousands out in the streets it would have gained political power on 9 November 1918 the outbreak of the SPD led German Revolution of 1918 1919 end of the German monarchy 31 Nazi racial understanding was couched in volkisch terms as when Eugen Fischer delivered his inaugural address as Nazi rector The Conception of the Volkisch state in the view of biology 29 July 1933 32 Karl Harrer the Thule Society member most directly involved in the creation of the DAP in 1919 was sidelined at the end of the year when Hitler drafted regulations against conspiratorial circles and the Thule Society was dissolved a few years later 33 The volkisch circles handed down one significant legacy to the Nazis In 1919 Thule Society member Friedrich Krohn designed the original version of the Nazi swastika 34 In January 1919 the Thule Society was instrumental in the foundation of the German Workers Party DAP which later became the National Socialist German Workers Party NSDAP commonly called the Nazi Party Thule Society members or visiting guests of the Thule Society who would later join the Nazi Party included Rudolf Hess Alfred Rosenberg Hans Frank Gottfried Feder Dietrich Eckart and Karl Harrer Notably Adolf Hitler was never a member of the Thule Society and Rudolf Hess and Alfred Rosenberg were only visiting guests of the Thule Society in the early years before they came to prominence in the Nazi movement 35 After being appointed Chairman of the NSDAP in 1921 Hitler moved to sever the party s link with the Thule Society expelling Harrer in the process the Society subsequently fell into decline and was dissolved in 1925 36 Modern usage EditThe examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject You may improve this section discuss the issue on the talk page or create a new section as appropriate December 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message See also Heathenry new religious movement Racial issues and Slavic Native Faith Nationalism Volkisch or neo volkisch anglicized to folkish is used again after 1945 to refer to neopagan groups that follow a racist version of Heathenry and mix their beliefs with Neo Nazism Many of them were influenced by earlier volkisch movements or Norse mythology as its members saw it as a purer version of European people Because of their ties with Nazism and hostility against other peoples they are opposed by universalist supportive of minorities and reconstructionist pagans In the United States many neo volkisch organizations have been designated as hate groups by the Southern Poverty Law Center 37 38 Groups that are considered volkisch or folkish include Artgemeinschaft Germany Asatru Folk Assembly United States Heathen Front Norway National Socialist Kindred United States Odinia International United States Odinic Rite United Kingdom United States Canada 39 Odinist Fellowship United Kingdom 40 Odinist Fellowship United States Vigrid Norway Woden s Folk United Kingdom Wolves of Vinland United States Wotansvolk United States See also EditAriosophy Aryanism Aryan race Blood and soil Der Wehrwolf Ethnic groups in Europe German nationalism Guido von List Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels Hungarian nationalism Ideology of the Committee of Union and Progress Master race Mathilde Ludendorff Nazism and occultism Neo Nazism Neo volkisch movements Nordic race Pan German League Alldeutscher Verband Pan Germanism Pan Turkism Turanism Hungarian Turanism Turkish nationalism Racial theory Religion in Nazi Germany Religious aspects of Nazism Religious views of Adolf Hitler Rodnovery Sociology of immigration Thule Society Volksdeutsche VolkshalleReferences EditNotes a b c d Camus amp Lebourg 2017 pp 16 18 Longerich Peter 15 April 2010 Holocaust The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews OUP Oxford ISBN 9780191613470 Joseph W Bendersky 2000 A History of Nazi Germany 1919 1945 Rowman amp Littlefield p 34 ISBN 978 0 8304 1567 0 a b c d e Dohe 2016 p 36 Koehne 2014 p 760 As Roger Griffin has argued a striking feature of the sub culture was just how prolific and variegated it was T he only denominator common to all was the myth of national rebirth A number of historians have suggested that the leaders of the NSDAP adhered either to paganism or to an Aryanized Christian faith Uwe Puschner has noted that two major religious concepts and camps existed in the volkisch movement beginning around 1900 One camp advocated an Aryanized German Christianity the other a revival of the pre Christian religion of the ancient Germans Yet Puschner argues at the same time that volkisch schemes of religion formed a spectrum from attempts to germanize Christianity to a decisive rejection of Christianity and the creation of new Germanic religions Hans Jurgen Lutzhoft 1971 Der Nordische Gedanke in Deutschland 1920 1940 Stuttgart Ernst Klett Verlag p 19 Dupeux Louis 1992 La Revolution conservatrice allemande sous la Republique de Weimar in French Kime ISBN 9782908212181 a b c d e Francois 2009 Christopher Hutton 2005 Race and the Third Reich Linguistics Racial Anthropology and Genetics in the Dialectic of Volk Polity pp 93 105 150 ISBN 978 0 7456 3177 6 James Webb 1976 The Occult Establishment La Salle Illinois Open Court ISBN 0 87548 434 4 pp 276 277 Ullrich Volker 2016 Hitler Ascent 1889 1939 Translated by Jefferson Chase Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group ISBN 9780385354394 passim Georg Schmidt Rohr Die Sprache als Bildnerin 1932 Ewald Banse Landschaft und Seele Munchen 1928 p 469 a b Bruggemeier Franz Josef Cioc Mark Zeller Thomas 2005 How Green Were the Nazis Nature Environment and Nation in the Third Reich Ohio University Press p 259 ISBN 9780821416471 Poewe Karla Hexham Irving 2009 The Volkisch Modernist Beginnings of National Socialism Its Intrusion into the Church and Its Antisemitic Consequence Religion Compass 3 4 676 696 doi 10 1111 j 1749 8171 2009 00156 x ISSN 1749 8171 volkstumlich translate German to English Cambridge Dictionary dictionary cambridge org Retrieved 1 November 2019 a b Petteri Pietikainen The Volk and Its Unconscious Jung Hauer and the German Revolution Journal of Contemporary History 35 4 October 2000 523 539 p 524 a b Goodrick Clarke 1985 p 3 Peter Ross Range 2016 1924 The Year That Made Hitler New York Little Brown and Company p 27 Dupeux Louis 1992 La Revolution conservatrice allemande sous la Republique de Weimar in French Kime pp 115 125 ISBN 978 2908212181 A J Nicholls reviewing George L Mosse The Crisis in German Ideology Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich in The English Historical Review 82 No 325 October 1967 p 860 Mosse was characterised as the foremost historian of volkisch ideology by Petteri Pietikainen 2000 524 note 6 George L Mosse The Crisis of German Ideology Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich London Weidenfeld amp Nicolson 1966 sees this in the context of a broader revolt against modernity contrasting healthy rural life with the debased materialism of city culture The Swastika and the Nazis Intelinet org Archived from the original on 23 April 2010 Austrian manifestations were surveyed by Rudolf G Ardelt Zwischen Demoktratie und Faschismus Deutschnationales Gedankengut in Osterreich 1919 1930 Vienna and Salzburg 1972 not translated into English Heidi Paris and Peter Gente 1982 Monte Verita A Mountain for Minorities Translated by Hedwig Pachter Semiotext the German Issue IV 2 1 Lutzhoft Hans Jurgen 1971 Der Nordische Gedanke in Deutschland 1920 1940 in German Klett p 19 ISBN 9783129054703 Boutin Christophe 1992 Politique et tradition Julius Evola dans le siecle 1898 1974 in French Editions Kime pp 264 265 ISBN 9782908212150 Goodrick Clarke 1985 p 15 Wilhelm Stapel Das Elementare in der volkischen Bewegung Deutsches Volkstum 5 May 1924 pp 213 15 Dietrich Orlow 23 June 2010 The Nazi Party 1919 1945 A Complete History Enigma Books p 135 ISBN 978 0 9824911 9 5 Calvin edu Franz Weidenreich in Science New Series 104 No 2704 October 1946 399 Goodrick Clarke 1985 pp 150 221 Hitler Adolf 1943 Mein Kampf Houghton Mifflin Company p 496 Goodrick Clarke 1985 pp 149 201 Goodrick Clarke 1985 p 221 Neo Volkisch Southern Poverty Law Center Retrieved 28 October 2021 Lyons Sarah Racists Are Threatening to Take Over Paganism Vice News Retrieved 28 October 2021 WHAT IT MEANS TO BE FOLKISH Odinic Rite 21 April 2011 Retrieved 17 November 2021 IS ODINISM A MISSIONARY RELIGION The Odinist Fellowship Retrieved 17 November 2021 Bibliography Camus Jean Yves Lebourg Nicolas 2017 Far Right Politics in Europe Harvard University Press ISBN 9780674971530 Dohe Carrie B 2016 Jung s Wandering Archetype Race and religion in analytical psychology Routledge ISBN 978 1 317 49807 0 Francois Stephane 2009 Qu est ce que la Revolution Conservatrice Fragments sur les Temps Presents in French Retrieved 23 July 2019 Goodrick Clarke Nicholas 1985 The Occult Roots of Nazism Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology 1992 ed New York University Press ISBN 978 0 8147 3060 7 Koehne Samuel 2014 Were the National Socialists a Volkisch Party Paganism Christianity and the Nazi Christmas Central European History 47 4 760 790 doi 10 1017 S0008938914001897 hdl 11343 51140 ISSN 0008 9389 S2CID 146472475 Kurlander Eric 2002 The Rise of Volkisch Nationalism and the Decline of German Liberalism A Comparison of Liberal Political Cultures in Schleswig Holstein and Silesia 1912 1924 European Review of History Revue europeenne d histoire 9 1 23 36 doi 10 1080 13507480120116182 ISSN 1350 7486 S2CID 145167949 Mosse George L 1964 The Crisis of German Ideology Intellectual Origins Of The Third Reich New York Grosset amp Dunlap Obermair Hannes 2020 Grossdeutschland ruft Sudtiroler NS Optionspropaganda und volkische Sozialisation La Grande Germania chiamaǃ La propaganda nazionalsocialista sulle Opzioni in Alto Adige e la socializzazione volkisch in German and Italian Tyrol Castle South Tyrolean Museum of History ISBN 978 88 95523 35 4 Stern Fritz 1961 The Politics of Cultural Despair A Study in the Rise of the Germanic Ideology 1974 ed University of California Press ISBN 978 0520026261 External links EditJohn Rosenthal 22 April 2005 The Ummah and das Volk on the Islamist and Volkisch Ideologies Transatlantic Intelligencer Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Volkisch movement amp oldid 1092829470, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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