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Vāsishka

Vāsishka (Bactrian: BAZHÞKO Bazēško; Middle Brahmi Vā-si-ṣka, Vāsiṣka; Kharosthi: 𐨬𐨗𐨿𐨱𐨅𐨮𐨿𐨐 Va-jhe-ṣka, Vajheṣka; ruled c. 247–265 CE) was a Kushan emperor, who seems to have had a short reign following Kanishka II.

Vāsishka
Kushan emperor
Coinage of Vashishka. Circa 240–250 CE.
Obverse: [ÞAONANOÞAO BAZH]ÞKO K[O]ÞA[NO] (Shaonanoshao Bazishko Koshano) in Greco-Bactrian script, Vasishka, nimbate, diademed, and crowned, standing facing, head left, sacrificing over an altar to left, and holding trident in left hand; filleted trident to left; "Vira" in Brahmi script to inner left at feet; "Va" in Brahmi between legs; "Chu" in Brahmi script in inner right field.
Reverse: ΔXOO in Greco-Bactrian script, nimbate and diademed Ardoxsho seated facing on throne, feet holding filleted investiture garland in right hand and cradling a cornucopia in left arm; above, tamgha to left.
Reign247–265 CE
PredecessorKanishka II
SuccessorKanishka III
Mathura
(Isapur)
Attock
(Ara)
Location of the epigraphic inscriptions of Vasishka.

Contents

The rule of Vāsishka in the area of Punjab is attested by inscriptions, as well as in the area of Mathura (Isapur inscription). His rule is recorded as far south as Sanchi, where one and possibly another inscription in his name have been found, dated to the year 22 (The Sanchi inscription of "Vaskushana"-i.e. Vasishka Kushana) and year 28 (The Sanchi inscription of Vasaska-i.e. Vasishka) of a Kushan era (widely thought to be the second century of the Kanishka era). This would place his reign c. 247–265.

Vasishka appears in four known inscriptions, including a Kharoshti inscription in the Indus region.

Sanchi Bodhisattava

Several statues or statue fragments from the art of Mathura with the name of Vasishka have been found on the site of Sanchi. One of them is a statue of a seated Bodhisattva, dated to "Year 28 of Vasishka". The inscription reads:

Sanchi Bodhisattva with inscription of Year 28 of Kushan King Vasishka.

L.1 ........ sya [rā] j[ā] t[i] r [ā] jasya Dēvaputrasya sh[ā]hi V[ā]s[ī]shkasya sa[ṁ] 20 8 he I di 5 as ya purv [āyāṁ] Bhaga[va]
L.2 sya jambuchhāyā-śailagṛi [ha]sya Dharmadēva vihārē pratishṭāpita Virasya dhitare Madhuriaka
L.3 [Anē]na deyadharma-pari [tyāgena]

A better preserved statue with similar jewellery.

"Success : In the year 28 of Mahārāja Rājatirāja Devaputra Shāhi Vāsishka, in the first month of winter, on the fifth day, on this date, Madhurika, daughter of Vīra, installed (an image) of Bhagavat (Bodhisattva) sitting on the hill under the shade of the Jambu (rose-apple) tree in the Dharmadāvavihāra.
By this gift.... "

Sanchi pedestal

Another Mathura fragment found in Sanchi is the pedestal of a statue of a standing Buddha. The inscription is inscribed with "Year 22 of Vaskushana", thought to be possibly "Vasishka Kushana". Worshippers in long tunics with belts typical of the Kushan style can be seen standing around a seated Boddhisattva. The inscription reads:

Sanchi Buddha piedestal inscribed Year 22 of Vaskushana.

L.1 ..... rājño Vaskushāṇasya sa 20 2 va 2 di 10 Bhagavato Sakkyam[un]eḥ pratimā pratishṭāpita Vidyamatiye pu
L.2 ......mātā-pitṛiṇa sarvva-satvanā ca hita-su

"In the (reign) of King Vaskushāṇa, the year 22, the 2nd month of the rainy season, on the 10th day, (this) image of the Bhagavat Sakyamuni was installed by Vidyamati for ...... and for the welfare and happiness of (her) parents and all creatures."

Ara inscription

Vāsishka appears in the "Ara inscription" of Kanishka III, found in the Indus region, not far south of Attock. In this inscription, he is presented as the father of Kanishka, thought to be Kanishka III,and his name appears in Kharoshthi as "Vajeshka".

Isapur inscription of Vasishka, Year 24
Inscription of Vasishka of the Year 24, on a Yupa Brahmanical sacrifical pillar from Isapur, near Mathura. Mathura Museum. The regnal title (bottom) reads clearly in Middle Brahmi script:

Mahārājasya rājātirājāsya devaputrasya Shāhe Vvāsishkasya
"Of the Great King, the King of kings, His Majesty, Shahi Vasishka"
Ara inscription of the Year 41
The Ara inscription of Kanishka III, in Kharoshthi, using the title Maharaja Rajatiraja Devaputra Kaisara Kanishka ("Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, Caesar, Kanishka)

Isapur inscription of Vasishka, Year 24

An inscription in the name of Vasishka in pure Sanskrit in Middle Brahmi script, with his full imperial titles Mahārājasya rājātirājāsya devaputrasya Shāhe Vvāsishkasya ("Of the Great King, the King of kings, His Majesty, Shahi Vasishka") was found in Isapur (27°30′41″N77°41′21″E /27.5115°N 77.6893°E /27.5115; 77.6893), near the city of Mathura, on the shaft of a "Yupa", a sacrificial Brahmanical pillar, now in the Mathura Museum.

Gold Dinar of Vasishka (as Vaskushana). Oesho, probably Shiva, appears on the reverse. Circa CE 240-250

The coinage of Vasishka became smaller than his predecessors, being minted on increasingly small flans, and the metal quality becoming debased. The deities appearing on the reverse of his coinage are similar to those in the coins of Huvishka and Vasudeva I.

Several of Vāsishka's coins have been found together with those of the Kushano-Sasanian ruler Ardashir I Kushanshah, suggesting a level of rivalry and interaction between the two rulers.

The coins of Vasishka usually have the legend in Greco-Bactrian script þAONANOþAO BAZIþKO KOþANO "King of King Bazeshko Kushano".

Some coins with a slightly different name (Obverse legend þAONANOþAO BAZOΔΗO/BOZOΗO KOþANO "King of King Bazodeo the Kushan") have been attributed to "Vaskushana", generally equaled with Vasishka himself.

  • "Ancient Indian Inscriptions", S. R. Goyal, 2005
  • "From Persepolis to the Punjab: Exploring Ancient Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan", Elizabeth Errington and Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, 2007.
  • The Crossroads of Asia: Transformation in Image and Symbol", Elizabeth Errington and Joe Cribb, 1992.
  1. CNG Coins notice
  2. Rosenfield, John M. (1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. University of California Press. p. 57.
  3. Konow, Sten, Kharoshṭhī Inscriptions with the Exception of Those of Aśoka, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Calcutta: Government of India Central Publication Branch, p. 163
  4. Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). From the Kushans to the Western Turks. p. 203.
  5. Rosenfield, John M. (1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. University of California Press. p. 57.
  6. Mitra, Debala (2001). Sanchi. Archeological Survey of India. p. 7 Note 1.
  7. Kuraishi, Mohammad Hamid; Kak, Ram Chandra; Chanda, Ramaprasad; Marshall, John Hubert (1922). Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Sanchi, Bhopal State. Calcutta, Superintendent Government Printing, India. pp. 29–32.
  8. Dani, A. H.; Staff, UNESCO; Asimov, M. S.; Litvinsky, B. A.; Zhang, Guang-da; Samghabadi, R. Shabani; Bosworth, C. E. (1994). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations, 700 B. C. to A. UNESCO. p. 253. ISBN 9789231028465.
  9. "He might have begun to rule even two years earlier if he can be identified with king Vaskushana(=Vasishka Kushana?) of a Sanchi record of the year22" Shashi, Shyam Singh (1999). Encyclopaedia Indica: The Kushana Empire: government, society, and culture. Anmol Publications. p. 23. ISBN 9788170418597.
  10. Marshall, Sir John (1902). Monuments Of Sanchi Vol.1. p. 386.
  11. Konow, Sten (1929). Kharoshthi Inscriptions With The Exception Of Those Of Asoka. p. 163.
  12. Catalogue Of The Archaeological Museum At Mathura. 1910. p. 189.
  13. Rosenfield, John M. (1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. University of California Press. p. 57.
  14. Rezakhani, Khodadad (2017). ReOrienting the Sasanians: East Iran in Late Antiquity. Edinburgh University Press. p. 134. ISBN 9781474400312.
  15. Singh, Arvind Kumar (1996). Coins of the Great Kushanas. Parimal Publications. p. 23.
  16. Friedberg, Arthur L.; Friedberg, Ira S.; Friedberg, Robert (2017). Gold Coins of the World - 9th edition: From Ancient Times to the Present. An Illustrated Standard Catlaog with Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute. p. 474, coin 38-39. ISBN 9780871840097.
  17. "The coins bearing the legend 'ShaonanoShao Ba-Zodeo/Bozoeo Koshano', ('PAONANOPAO BA-ZOAHO / BOZOHO KOPANO') starts at 1 o'clock have 46 been attributed to Vaskushana (Vasishka) by Gobl." in Bhavan, Bharat Kala; Sharma, Savita (1999). Gold Coins of Imperial Kushāṇas and Their Successors in Bharat Kala Bhavan. Bharat Kala Bhavan, Banaras Hindu University. p. 51.
Preceded by Kushan Ruler Succeeded by

Vāsishka
Vasishka Language Watch Edit Vasishka Bactrian BAZHTHKO Bazesko Middle Brahmi Va si ṣka Vasiṣka Kharosthi 𐨬𐨗 𐨱 𐨮 𐨐 Va jhe ṣka Vajheṣka 3 ruled c 247 265 CE was a Kushan emperor who seems to have had a short reign following Kanishka II VasishkaKushan emperorCoinage of Vashishka Circa 240 250 CE Obverse THAONANOTHAO BAZH THKO K O THA NO Shaonanoshao Bazishko Koshano in Greco Bactrian script Vasishka nimbate diademed and crowned standing facing head left sacrificing over an altar to left and holding trident in left hand filleted trident to left Vira in Brahmi script to inner left at feet Va in Brahmi between legs Chu in Brahmi script in inner right field Reverse DXOO in Greco Bactrian script nimbate and diademed Ardoxsho seated facing on throne feet holding filleted investiture garland in right hand and cradling a cornucopia in left arm above tamgha to left 1 Reign247 265 CEPredecessorKanishka IISuccessorKanishka IIIMathura Isapur SanchiAttock Ara Location of the epigraphic inscriptions of Vasishka 2 Contents 1 Rule 2 Inscriptions and statuary 2 1 Sanchi Bodhisattava 2 2 Sanchi pedestal 2 3 Ara inscription 2 4 Isapur inscription of Vasishka Year 24 3 Coinage 4 References 5 References 6 External linksRule EditThe rule of Vasishka in the area of Punjab is attested by inscriptions 4 as well as in the area of Mathura Isapur inscription 5 His rule is recorded as far south as Sanchi where one and possibly another inscription in his name have been found dated to the year 22 The Sanchi inscription of Vaskushana i e Vasishka Kushana and year 28 The Sanchi inscription of Vasaska i e Vasishka of a Kushan era widely thought to be the second century of the Kanishka era This would place his reign c 247 265 Inscriptions and statuary EditVasishka appears in four known inscriptions including a Kharoshti inscription in the Indus region 4 Sanchi Bodhisattava Edit Several statues or statue fragments from the art of Mathura with the name of Vasishka have been found on the site of Sanchi 6 One of them is a statue of a seated Bodhisattva dated to Year 28 of Vasishka The inscription reads 7 Sanchi Bodhisattva with inscription of Year 28 of Kushan King Vasishka L 1 sya ra j a t i r a jasya Devaputrasya sh a hi V a s i shkasya sa ṁ 20 8 he I di 5 as ya purv ayaṁ Bhaga va L 2 sya jambuchhaya sailagṛi ha sya Dharmadeva vihare pratishṭapita Virasya dhitare Madhuriaka L 3 Ane na deyadharma pari tyagena A better preserved statue with similar jewellery Success In the year 28 of Maharaja Rajatiraja Devaputra Shahi Vasishka in the first month of winter on the fifth day on this date Madhurika daughter of Vira installed an image of Bhagavat Bodhisattva sitting on the hill under the shade of the Jambu rose apple tree in the Dharmadavavihara By this gift 7 Sanchi pedestal Edit Another Mathura fragment found in Sanchi is the pedestal of a statue of a standing Buddha 6 The inscription is inscribed with Year 22 of Vaskushana thought to be possibly Vasishka Kushana 8 9 Worshippers in long tunics with belts typical of the Kushan style can be seen standing around a seated Boddhisattva 7 The inscription reads Sanchi Buddha piedestal inscribed Year 22 of Vaskushana L 1 rajno Vaskushaṇasya sa 20 2 va 2 di 10 Bhagavato Sakkyam un eḥ pratima pratishṭapita Vidyamatiye pu L 2 mata pitṛiṇa sarvva satvana ca hita su In the reign of King Vaskushaṇa the year 22 the 2nd month of the rainy season on the 10th day this image of the Bhagavat Sakyamuni was installed by Vidyamati for and for the welfare and happiness of her parents and all creatures 10 Ara inscription Edit Vasishka appears in the Ara inscription of Kanishka III found in the Indus region not far south of Attock In this inscription he is presented as the father of Kanishka thought to be Kanishka III and his name appears in Kharoshthi as Vajeshka 2 Isapur inscription of Vasishka Year 24 Inscription of Vasishka of the Year 24 on a Yupa Brahmanical sacrifical pillar from Isapur near Mathura Mathura Museum The regnal title bottom reads clearly in Middle Brahmi script Maharajasya rajatirajasya devaputrasya Shahe Vvasishkasya Of the Great King the King of kings His Majesty Shahi Vasishka Ara inscription of the Year 41 The Ara inscription of Kanishka III in Kharoshthi using the title Maharaja Rajatiraja Devaputra Kaisara Kanishka Great King King of Kings Son of God Caesar Kanishka 11 Isapur inscription of Vasishka Year 24 Edit An inscription in the name of Vasishka in pure Sanskrit in Middle Brahmi script with his full imperial titles Maharajasya rajatirajasya devaputrasya Shahe Vvasishkasya Of the Great King the King of kings His Majesty Shahi Vasishka was found in Isapur 27 30 41 N 77 41 21 E 27 5115 N 77 6893 E 27 5115 77 6893 near the city of Mathura on the shaft of a Yupa a sacrificial Brahmanical pillar now in the Mathura Museum 12 13 Coinage Edit Gold Dinar of Vasishka as Vaskushana Oesho probably Shiva appears on the reverse Circa CE 240 250 The coinage of Vasishka became smaller than his predecessors being minted on increasingly small flans and the metal quality becoming debased 4 The deities appearing on the reverse of his coinage are similar to those in the coins of Huvishka and Vasudeva I 4 Several of Vasishka s coins have been found together with those of the Kushano Sasanian ruler Ardashir I Kushanshah suggesting a level of rivalry and interaction between the two rulers 14 The coins of Vasishka usually have the legend in Greco Bactrian script thAONANOthAO BAZIthKO KOthANO King of King Bazeshko Kushano 15 Some coins with a slightly different name Obverse legend thAONANOthAO BAZODHO BOZOHO KOthANO King of King Bazodeo the Kushan have been attributed to Vaskushana generally equaled with Vasishka himself 16 17 References Edit Ancient Indian Inscriptions S R Goyal 2005 From Persepolis to the Punjab Exploring Ancient Iran Afghanistan and Pakistan Elizabeth Errington and Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis 2007 The Crossroads of Asia Transformation in Image and Symbol Elizabeth Errington and Joe Cribb 1992 References Edit CNG Coins notice a b Rosenfield John M 1967 The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans University of California Press p 57 Konow Sten Kharoshṭhi Inscriptions with the Exception of Those of Asoka Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol II Part I Calcutta Government of India Central Publication Branch p 163 a b c d Rezakhani Khodadad 2017 From the Kushans to the Western Turks p 203 Rosenfield John M 1967 The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans University of California Press p 57 a b Mitra Debala 2001 Sanchi Archeological Survey of India p 7 Note 1 a b c Kuraishi Mohammad Hamid Kak Ram Chandra Chanda Ramaprasad Marshall John Hubert 1922 Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Sanchi Bhopal State Calcutta Superintendent Government Printing India pp 29 32 Dani A H Staff UNESCO Asimov M S Litvinsky B A Zhang Guang da Samghabadi R Shabani Bosworth C E 1994 History of Civilizations of Central Asia The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations 700 B C to A UNESCO p 253 ISBN 9789231028465 He might have begun to rule even two years earlier if he can be identified with king Vaskushana Vasishka Kushana of a Sanchi record of the year22 Shashi Shyam Singh 1999 Encyclopaedia Indica The Kushana Empire government society and culture Anmol Publications p 23 ISBN 9788170418597 Marshall Sir John 1902 Monuments Of Sanchi Vol 1 p 386 Konow Sten 1929 Kharoshthi Inscriptions With The Exception Of Those Of Asoka p 163 Catalogue Of The Archaeological Museum At Mathura 1910 p 189 Rosenfield John M 1967 The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans University of California Press p 57 Rezakhani Khodadad 2017 ReOrienting the Sasanians East Iran in Late Antiquity Edinburgh University Press p 134 ISBN 9781474400312 Singh Arvind Kumar 1996 Coins of the Great Kushanas Parimal Publications p 23 Friedberg Arthur L Friedberg Ira S Friedberg Robert 2017 Gold Coins of the World 9th edition From Ancient Times to the Present An Illustrated Standard Catlaog with Valuations Coin amp Currency Institute p 474 coin 38 39 ISBN 9780871840097 The coins bearing the legend ShaonanoShao Ba Zodeo Bozoeo Koshano PAONANOPAO BA ZOAHO BOZOHO KOPANO starts at 1 o clock have 46 been attributed to Vaskushana Vasishka by Gobl in Bhavan Bharat Kala Sharma Savita 1999 Gold Coins of Imperial Kushaṇas and Their Successors in Bharat Kala Bhavan Bharat Kala Bhavan Banaras Hindu University p 51 External links EditOnline catalogue of coins of VasishkaPreceded byKanishka II Kushan Ruler Succeeded by Kanishka III Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vasishka amp oldid 1045340237, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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