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This article is about the poem and song. For other uses, see Vande Mataram (disambiguation).
"Bande Mataram" redirects here. For other uses, see Bande Mataram (disambiguation).

Vande Maataram (IAST:Vande Mātaram, also pronounced Bande Maataram; বন্দে মাতরম্, Bônde Mātôrôm transl. Mother, I bow to thee) is a poem written in highly sanskritized Bengali by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s, which he included in his 1882 Bengali novel Anandamath. The poem was first sung by Rabindranath Tagore in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India in October 1937 by the Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947.

Vande Mataram
Vande Mataram written by Bankim Chandra Chattterjee set to Raag Desh as performed on All India Radio

National song of India
LyricsBankim Chandra Chatterjee, Anandamath (1882)
MusicHemanta Mukherjee, Jadunath Bhattacharya
Adopted24 January 1950

An ode to the Motherland, it was written in Bengali script in the novel Anandmath. The title 'Vande Mataram' means "I praise to motherland, Mother". The "mother goddess" in later verses of the song has been interpreted as the motherland of the people –– Banga Mata (Mother Bengal) and Bharat Mata (Mother India), though the text does not mention this explicitly.

It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. It became a popular marching song for political activism and Indian freedom movement in 1905. Spiritual Indian nationalist and philosopher Sri Aurobindo referred it as "National Anthem of Bengal". The song and the novel containing it was banned by the colonial government, but workers and the general public defied the ban (with many being imprisoned repeatedly for singing it in public); with the ban being overturned by the Indian government after the country gained independence from colonial rule in 1947.

On 24 January 1950, the Constituent Assembly of India has adopted "Vande Mataram" as national song. On the occasion, the first President of India, Rajendra Prasad stated that the song should be honoured equally with the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana". However the Constitution of India does not have any mention of "national song".

The first two verses of the song are an abstract reference to mother and motherland, they do not mention any Hindu deity by name, unlike later verses that do mention goddesses such as Durga. There are 65 seconds of circumstantial specification for the rendition of this song unlike the national anthem "Jana Gana Mana" that specifies 52 seconds.

Contents

The root of the Sanskrit word Vande is Vand, which appears in Rigveda and other Vedic texts. According to Monier Monier-Williams, depending on the context, vand means "to praise, celebrate, laud, extol, to show honour, do homage, salute respectfully", or "deferentially, venerate, worship, adore", or "to offer anything respectfully to". The word Mātaram has Indo-European roots in mātár- (Sanskrit), méter (Greek), mâter (Latin) which mean "mother".

The first two verses of Vande Mataram adopted as the "National Song" read as follows:

Bengali script Bengali phonemic transcription Devanagari script IAST transliteration

বন্দে মাতরম্৷
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মলয়জশীতলাম্
শস্যশ্যামলাং
মাতরম্!
বন্দে মাতরম্৷.

শুভ্র-জ্যোৎস্না
পুলকিত-যামিনীম্
ফুল্লকুসুমিত
দ্রুমদলশোভিনীম্,
সুহাসিনীং
সুমধুরভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং
মাতরম্৷৷
বন্দে মাতরম্৷

Bônde mātôrôm
sujôlāng suphôlāng
môlôyôjôshītôlām
shôsyô shyāmôlāng
mātôrôm
bônde mātôrôm

shubhrô jyotsnā
pulôkitô jāminīm
phullô kusumitô
drumôdôlôshobhinīm
suhāsinīng
sumôdhurôbhāshinī
sukhôdāng bôrôdāng
mātôrôm
bônde mātôrôm

वन्दे मातरम्।
सुजलाम् सुफलाम्
मलयजशीतलाम्
शस्यश्यामलाम् मातरम्।
वन्दे मातरम्।

शुभ्रज्योत्स्नाम्
पुलकितयामिनीम्
फुल्लकुसुमित
द्रुमदलशोभिनीम्
सुहासिनीम्
सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदाम् वरदाम्
मातरम्।।
वन्दे मातरम्।

vande mātaram
vande mātaram
sujalāṃ suphalāṃ
malayajaśītalām
śasyaśyāmalāṃ
mātaram
vande mātaram

śubhrajyotsnām
pulakitayāminīm
phullakusumita
drumadalaśobhinīm
suhāsinīṃ
sumadhura bhāṣiṇīm
sukhadāṃ varadāṃ
mātaram
vande mātaram

(Sanskrit)

Lyric

The complete original lyrics of the Vande Mataram are available at Vande Mataram – via Wikisource..

A rare painting of Indian national song, Vande Mataram, published in 1923
বন্দে মাতরম্ (Bengali Script) Latin transliteration (IAST) वन्दे मातरम् (Devanagari transliteration)

বন্দে মাতরম্ ৷
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মলয়জশীতলাম্
শস্যশ্যামলাং
মাতরম্ !

শুভ্র-জ্যোত্স্না-পুলকিত-যামিনীম্
ফুল্লকুসুমিত-দ্রুমদলশোভিনীম্,
সুহাসিনীং সুমধুরভাষিণীম্
সুখদাং বরদাং মাতরম্ ৷৷

সপ্তকোটীকন্ঠ-কল-কল-নিনাদকরালে,
দ্বিসপ্তকোটীভুজৈধৃতখরকরবালে,
অবলা কেন মা এত বলে !
বহুবলধারিণীং
নমামি তরিণীং
রিপুদলবারিণীং
মাতরম্ ৷

তুমি বিদ্যা তুমি ধর্ম্ম
তুমি হৃদি তুমি মর্ম্ম
ত্বং হি প্রাণাঃ শরীরে ৷
বাহুতে তুমি মা শক্তি,
হৃদয়ে তুমি মা ভক্তি,
তোমারই প্রতিমা গড়ি মন্দিরে মন্দিরে ৷

ত্বং হি দুর্গা দশপ্রহরণধারিণী
কমলা কমল-দলবিহারিণী
বাণী বিদ্যাদায়িণী
নমামি ত্বাং
নমামি কমলাম্
অমলাং অতুলাম্,
সুজলাং সুফলাং
মাতরম্

বন্দে মাতরম্
শ্যামলাং সরলাং
সুস্মিতাং ভূষিতাম্
ধরণীং ভরণীম্
মাতরম্ ৷

Bande Mātaram.
Sujalāṃ suphalām
Malayajaśītalām
Śasyaśyāmalām
Mātaram.

Śubhra-jyotsnā-pulakita-yāminī
Phullakusumita-drumadalaśobhinī,
Suhāsinīṃ sumadhurabhāṣinīm
Sukhadāṃ baradāṃ Mātaram.

Saptakoṭīkanṭha-kala-kala-ninādakarāle
Dbisaptakoṭībhujaidhṛtakharakarabāle,
Abalā kena mā eta bale!
Bahubaladhārinīṃ
Namāmi tarinīṃ
Ripudalabārinīṃ
Mātaram.

Tumi bidyā tumi dharma
Tumi hrṛdi tumi marma
Tbaṃ hi prānāḥ śarīre.
Bāhute tumi mā śakti,
Hṛdaye tumi mā bhakti,
Tomārai pratimā gaṛi mandire mandire.

Tbaṃ hi Durgā daśapraharanadhārinī
Kamalā kamala-dalabihārinī
Bānī bidyādāyinī
Namāmi tbaṃ
Namāmi kamalām
Amalāṃ atulām,
Sujalāṃ suphalām
Mātaram

Bande Mātaram
Śyāmalām saralām
Susmitām bhūṣitām
Dharanīṃ bharanīṃ
Mātaram.

वन्दे मातरम्
सुजलां सुफलाम्
मलयजशीतलाम्
शस्यश्यामलाम्
मातरम्।

शुभ्रज्योत्स्नापुलकितयामिनीम्
फुल्लकुसुमितद्रुमदलशोभिनीम्
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीम्
सुखदां वरदां मातरम्।।

सप्त-कोटि-कण्ठ-कल-कल-निनाद-कराले
द्विसप्त-कोटि-भुजैर्धृत-खरकरवाले,
अबला केन मा एत बॅले
बहुबलधारिणीं
नमामि तारिणीं
रिपुदलवारिणीं
मातरम्।।

तुमि विद्या, तुमि धर्म
तुमि हृदि, तुमि मर्म
त्वम् हि प्राणा: शरीरे
बाहुते तुमि मा शक्ति,
हृदये तुमि मा भक्ति,
तोमारई प्रतिमा गडी मन्दिरे-मन्दिरे।।

त्वम् हि दुर्गा दशप्रहरणधारिणी
कमला कमलदलविहारिणी
वाणी विद्यादायिनी,
नमामि त्वाम्
नमामि कमलाम्
अमलां अतुलाम्
सुजलां सुफलाम्
मातरम्।।

वन्दे मातरम्
श्यामलाम् सरलाम्
सुस्मिताम् भूषिताम्
धरणीं भरणीं
मातरम्।।

Cover of a 1909 issue of the Tamil magazine Vijaya showing "Mother India" (Bharat Mata) with her diverse progeny and the rallying cry "Vande Mataram".

The first translation of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel Anandamath, including the poem Vande Mataram, into English was by Nares Chandra Sen-Gupta, with the fifth edition published in 1906 titled "The Abbey of Bliss".

Here is the translation in prose of the above two stanzas rendered by Sri Aurobindo Ghosh. This has also been adopted by the Government of India's national portal. The original Vande Mataram consists of six stanzas and the translation in prose for the complete poem by Shri Aurobindo appeared in Karmayogin, 20 November 1909.

Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleams,
Cool with the winds of delight,
Dark fields waving, Mother of might,
Mother free.

Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease,
Laughing low and sweet,
Mother, I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low,
Mother, to thee I bow. [Verse 1]

Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands,
When the swords flash out in seventy million hands,
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and strong,
To thee I call, Mother and Lord!
Thou who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foemen drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free. [Verse 2]

Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Thou art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nerves the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image divine.
In our temples is but thine. [Verse 3]

Thou art Goddess Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her swords of sheen,
Thou art Goddess Kamala (Lakshmi), lotus-throned,
And Goddess Vani (Saraswati), bestower of wisdom known
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleams,
Dark of hue O candid-fair [Verse 4]

In thy soul, with jewelled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Loveliest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free! [Verse 5]

Apart from the above prose translation, Sri Aurobindo also translated Vande Mataram into a verse form known as Mother, I praise thee!. Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem that "It is difficult to translate the National Song of India into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force."

Translation into other languages

Vande Mataram has inspired many Indian poets and has been translated into numerous Indian languages, such as Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Odia, Malayalam, Assamese, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi Urdu and others.

Arif Mohammad Khan translated Vande Mataram in Urdu. It can be read in Urdu (Devanagari script) as:

तस्लीमात, माँ तस्लीमात
तू भरी है मीठे पानी से
फल फूलों की शादाबी से
दक्खिन की ठंडी हवाओं से
फसलों की सुहानी फ़िज़ाओं से
तस्लीमात, माँ तस्लीमात
तेरी रातें रौशन चांद से
तेरी रौनक सब्ज़-ए-फ़ाम से
तेरी प्यार भरी मुस्कान है
तेरी मीठी बहुत ज़ुबां है
तेरी बांहों में मेरी राहत है
तेरे क़दमों में मेरी जन्नत है
तस्लीमात, माँ तस्लीमात

Composition

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was one of the earliest graduates of the newly established Calcutta University. After his BA, he joined the colonial government as a civil servant, becoming a Deputy Collector and later a Deputy Magistrate. Chattopadhyay was very intereste in recent events in Indian and Bengali history, particularly the Revolt of 1857 and the previous century's Sanyasi Rebellion. Around the same time, the administration was trying to promote "God Save the Queen" as the anthem for Indian subjects, which Indian nationalists disliked. It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official, around 1876. He wrote Vande Mataram at Chinsura(Chuchura), there is a white colour house of Adhya Family near river Hooghly (near Mallik Ghat).[citation needed]

Chattopadhyay wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali. The poem was published in Chattopadhyay's book Anandamath (pronounced Anondomôţh in Bengali) in 1882, which is set in the events of the Sannyasi Rebellion. Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this poem just after it was written.

Indian independence movement

Flag of India 1907

"Vande Mataram" was one of the most popular songs of protest during the Indian independence movement. The colonial government in response banned the book and made the recital of the song in public a crime. The colonial government imprisoned many independence activists for disobeying the order, but workers and general public repeatedly violated the ban many times by gathering together in the presence of colonial officials and singing it. Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square. Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta. Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905. Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore. Hiralal Sen made India's first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant. Matangini Hazra's last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram.

Mahatma Gandhi supported the first two verses of Vande Mataram as a national song.

In 1907, Bhikaiji Cama (1861–1936) created the first version of India's national flag (the Tiranga) in Stuttgart, Germany, in 1907. It had Vande Mataram written on it in the middle band.

A book titled Kranti Geetanjali published by Arya Printing Press (Lahore) and Bharatiya Press (Dehradun) in 1929 contains first two stanzas of this lyric on page 11 as Matra Vandana and a ghazal (Vande Mataram) composed by Bismil was also given on its back, i.e. page 12. The book written by the famous martyr of Kakori Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil was proscribed by the colonial government.[citation needed]

Mahatama Gandhi supported adoption and the singing of the Vande Mataram song. In January 1946, in a speech in Guwahati (Assam), he urged that "Jai Hind should not replace Vande-mataram". He reminded everyone present that Vande-mataram was being sung since the inception of the Congress. He supported the "Jai Hind" greeting, but remanded that this greeting should not be to the exclusion of Vande Mataram. Gandhi was concerned that those who discarded Vande Mataram given the tradition of sacrifice behind it, one day would discard "Jai Hind" also.

Debate on adoption as national song of India

Vandé–mātaram (Glory–to–motherland: her divine–rivers, fertile–fields, pleasant mountain-breeze, deep-grasslands) painted by Beohar Rammanohar Sinha on page 167 of Indian Constitution

Parts of the Vande Mataram was chosen as the national song in 1937 by the Indian National Congress as it pursued the independence of India from colonial rule, after a committee consisting of Maulana Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Bose, Acharya Deva and Rabrindanath Tagore recommended the adoption. The entire song was not selected by Hindu leaders in order to respect the sentiments of non-Hindus, and the gathering agreed that anyone should be free to sing an alternate "unobjectionable song" at a national gathering if they do not want to sing Vande Mataram because they find it "objectionable" for a personal reason. According to the gathered leaders, including the Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland, in later stanzas there are references to the Hindu goddess Durga. The Muslim League and Muhammad Ali Jinnah opposed the song. Thereafter, with the support of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Indian National Congress decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song to be sung at public gatherings, and other verses that included references to Durga and Lakshmi were expunged.

Rajendra Prasad, who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950, made the following statement which was also adopted as the final decision on the issue:

...The composition consisting of the words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it. (Applause). I hope this will satisfy the Members.

Constituent Assembly of India, Vol. XII, 24-1-1950

The poem has been set to a large number of tunes. The oldest surviving audio recordings date to 1907, and there have been more than a hundred different versions recorded throughout the 20th century. Many of these versions have employed traditional South Asian classical ragas. Versions of the song have been visualised on celluloid in a number of films, including Leader, Amar Asha, and Anand Math. It is widely believed that the tune set for All India Radio station version was composed by Ravi Shankar. Hemant Kumar composed music for the song in the movie Anand Math in 1952 Many singers like Lata Mangeshkar, K.S.Chithra sung made it cult classic. In 2002, BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose ten most famous songs of all time. Around 7000 songs were selected from all over the world. Vande Mataram, from the movie Anand Math, was ranked second. All India Radio's version and some other versions are in Desh raga.

In July 2017, the Madras High Court ruled that the Vande Mataram shall be sung or played at least once a week in all schools, universities and other educational institutions of Tamil Nadu. The Court also ruled that the song should be played or sung in government offices and industrial facilities at least once a month.

  1. sometimes transcribed as ধর্ম
  2. sometimes transcribed as মর্ম
  3. Sanskrit transliteration "Vande"
  4. Sanskrit
    "varadāṃ"
  5. Sanskrit transliteration "Dvisaptakoṭībhujaidhṛtakharakaravāle"
  6. Sanskrit transliteration "Avalā"
  7. Sanskrit transliteration "vale"
  8. Sanskrit transliteration "Vahuvaladhārinīṃ"
  9. Sanskrit transliteration "Ripudalavārinī"
  10. Sanskrit transliteration "vidyā"
  11. Sanskrit transliteration "Tvaṃ"
  12. Sanskrit transliteration "Vāhute"
  13. Sanskrit transliteration "Tvaṃ"
  14. Sanskrit transliteration "Vānī"
  15. Sanskrit transliteration "vidyādāẏinī"
  16. Sanskrit transliteration "tvaṃ"
  17. Sanskrit transliteration "Vande"
  1. See, for example, Rigveda 1.27.1; Sanskrit: अश्वं न त्वा वारवन्तं वन्दध्या अग्निं नमोभिः । सम्राजन्तमध्वराणाम् ॥१॥ Wikisource
  2. The Assamese version, re-translated into English, reads:
    "O my own land,
    O my dear land,
    O my dear land,
    A land bedecked with gentle streams,
    A land that adorned with heavenly beauty,
    It is such a motherland." – Lakshminath Bezbarua, Translated into English by A Mazumdar
  3. This view of Gandhi was not isolated. In another interview, he said, "a song that carried such glorious associations of sacrifice as "Vandemataram" could never be given up. It would be like discarding one’s mother. But they could certainly add a new song or songs like the one mentioned to their repertoire of national songs after due thought and discrimination."
  1. "Vande Mataram". www.mustrad.org.uk. Retrieved3 September 2021.
  2. "National Identity Elements - National Song - Know India: National Portal of India". knowindia.gov.in. Retrieved24 July 2021.
  3. Staff Reporter (14 July 2017). "Vande Mataram was in Sanskrit, AG clarifies". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved24 July 2021.
  4. "National Song". knowindia.gov.in.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. Diana L. Eck (2012). India: A Sacred Geography. New York: Random House (Harmony Books). pp. 95–97. ISBN 978-0-385-53190-0.
  6. The National Flag Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Volume 76, 27 June 1939, pages 68–70 with footnote 1 on page 69
  7. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin Books. pp. 17–24. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.
  8. S. K. BOSE (2015). Bankim Chandra Chatterji. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. pp. 88–92. ISBN 978-81-230-2269-7.
  9. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 1–8, 73–76, 90–99. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.
  10. Ghose, Aurbindo. "National Song". Know India. Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved12 November 2016.
  11. "Bankim's Vande Mataram originally referred to Banga Mata not Bharat Mata: Netaji's grand nephew in new book".
  12. "The Mother in Bande Mataram is not Mother India". 8 April 2017.
  13. "History revisited: 'Bande Mataram' was written as a song about Bengal – not India".
  14. "Bharat Mata: From freedom struggle metaphor to patriotism's litmus test". 21 March 2016.
  15. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin. pp. 68–77, 26–29. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.
  16. Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 978-0-8223-9153-1.
  17. "National Song of India". Government of India. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved29 April 2008.
  18. Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem with "It is difficult to translate the National Anthem of Bengal into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness, simple directness and high poetic force." cited after Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  19. Bankimcandra Chatterji (2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. pp. 71–78. ISBN 978-0-19-803971-6.
  20. Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Bande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 18–22, 30–31. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5.
  21. "National Symbols | National Portal of India". Retrieved23 January 2020.
  22. "HC dismisses plea to declare 'Vande Mataram' as national anthem or song". The Indian Express. 27 July 2019. Retrieved1 November 2019.
  23. "No concept of National Song in Constitution, says SC". Hindustan Times. 17 February 2017. Retrieved1 November 2019.
  24. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya (2003). Bande Mataram, the Biography of a Song. Penguin Books. pp. 34–37, 81. ISBN 978-0-14-303055-3.
  25. Sumathi Ramaswamy (2009). The Goddess and the Nation: Mapping Mother India. Duke University Press. pp. 125–142. ISBN 978-0-8223-9153-1.
  26. "No rules on singing, playing of 'Bande Mataram': Government". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 12 February 2017. Retrieved12 February 2017.
  27. Monier Monier-Williams, English Sanskrit Dictionary with Etymology Archived 28 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford University Press, page 919
  28. Bankimcandra Chatterji (2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-19-534633-6.
  29. Edward Bispham (2010). Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome. Edinburgh University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7486-2714-1.
  30. J. P. Mallory; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 385–386. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5.
  31. "Vande Mataram in Bengali script". Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved1 August 2011.
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  33. Bankimcandra Chatterji (23 August 2005). Anandamath, or The Sacred Brotherhood. Oxford University Press. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-0-19-534633-6.
  34. Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5.
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  36. Bhabatosh Chatterjee (ed.), Bankim Chandra Chatterjee: Essays in Perspective, Sahitya Akademi, Delhi, 1994, p. 601.
  37. Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 23–34. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5.
  38. Aurobindo Mazumdar (2007). Vande Mataram and Islam. Mittal Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-81-8324-159-5.
  39. "Unnecessary And Irrelevant". Outlook India. Retrieved30 December 2019.
  40. "केरल के गवर्नर बने आरिफ मोहम्मद खान, पढ़ें वंदे मातरम का उर्दू में उनका अनुवाद". Navbharat Times (in Hindi). Retrieved30 December 2019.
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  42. Suresh Chandvankar, Vande Mataram Archived 29 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine (2003) at Musical Traditions (mustrad.org.uk)
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  47. Speech at Prayer Meeting (Guwahati, Assam) Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 10 January 1946, page 212
  48. Discussion with Political Workers Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 1945, page 89
  49. A. G. Noorani (1973), Vande Mataram: A Historical Lesson Archived 21 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, EPW, Vol. 8, No. 23 (9 Jun. 1973), pages 1039–1043
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Vande Mataram Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the poem and song For other uses see Vande Mataram disambiguation Bande Mataram redirects here For other uses see Bande Mataram disambiguation Vande Maataram IAST Vande Mataram also pronounced Bande Maataram বন দ ম তরম Bonde Matorom transl Mother I bow to thee is a poem written in highly sanskritized Bengali 1 by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s which he included in his 1882 Bengali novel Anandamath 2 3 The poem was first sung by Rabindranath Tagore in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress 4 5 The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India in October 1937 by the Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947 6 7 8 Vande MataramVande Mataram written by Bankim Chandra Chattterjee set to Raag Desh as performed on All India RadioNational song of IndiaLyricsBankim Chandra Chatterjee Anandamath 1882 MusicHemanta Mukherjee Jadunath BhattacharyaAdopted24 January 1950 An ode to the Motherland it was written in Bengali script in the novel Anandmath 9 The title Vande Mataram means I praise to motherland Mother 5 10 The mother goddess in later verses of the song has been interpreted as the motherland of the people Banga Mata Mother Bengal 11 12 13 14 and Bharat Mata Mother India 15 16 though the text does not mention this explicitly It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress 17 It became a popular marching song for political activism and Indian freedom movement in 1905 5 Spiritual Indian nationalist and philosopher Sri Aurobindo referred it as National Anthem of Bengal 18 The song and the novel containing it was banned by the colonial government but workers and the general public defied the ban with many being imprisoned repeatedly for singing it in public with the ban being overturned by the Indian government after the country gained independence from colonial rule in 1947 19 20 On 24 January 1950 the Constituent Assembly of India has adopted Vande Mataram as national song On the occasion the first President of India Rajendra Prasad stated that the song should be honoured equally with the national anthem of India Jana Gana Mana 21 However the Constitution of India does not have any mention of national song 22 23 The first two verses of the song are an abstract reference to mother and motherland they do not mention any Hindu deity by name unlike later verses that do mention goddesses such as Durga 24 25 There are 65 seconds of circumstantial specification for the rendition of this song unlike the national anthem Jana Gana Mana that specifies 52 seconds 26 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Lyrics of the song 2 1 Lyric 3 Translation 3 1 Translation into other languages 4 History and significance 4 1 Composition 4 2 Indian independence movement 4 3 Debate on adoption as national song of India 5 Performances and interpretations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEtymology EditThe root of the Sanskrit word Vande is Vand which appears in Rigveda and other Vedic texts 27 note 1 According to Monier Monier Williams depending on the context vand means to praise celebrate laud extol to show honour do homage salute respectfully or deferentially venerate worship adore or to offer anything respectfully to 27 28 The word Mataram has Indo European roots in matar Sanskrit meter Greek mater Latin which mean mother 29 30 Lyrics of the song EditThe first two verses of Vande Mataram adopted as the National Song read as follows Bengali script 31 Bengali phonemic transcription Devanagari script IAST transliteration 17 32 বন দ ম তরম স জল স ফল মলয জশ তল ম শস যশ য মল ম তরম বন দ ম তরম শ ভ র জ য ৎস ন প লক ত য ম ন ম ফ ল লক স ম ত দ র মদলশ ভ ন ম স হ স ন স মধ রভ ষ ণ ম স খদ বরদ ম তরম বন দ ম তরম Bonde matorom sujolang supholang moloyojoshitolam shosyo shyamolang matorom bonde matorom shubhro jyotsna pulokito jaminim phullo kusumito drumodoloshobhinim suhasining sumodhurobhashini sukhodang borodang matorom bonde matorom वन द म तरम स जल म स फल म मलयजश तल म शस यश य मल म म तरम वन द म तरम श भ रज य त स न म प लक तय म न म फ ल लक स म त द र मदलश भ न म स ह स न म स मध र भ ष ण म स खद म वरद म म तरम वन द म तरम vande mataram vande mataram sujalaṃ suphalaṃ malayajasitalam sasyasyamalaṃ mataram vande mataram subhrajyotsnam pulakitayaminim phullakusumita drumadalasobhinim suhasiniṃ sumadhura bhaṣiṇim sukhadaṃ varadaṃ mataram vande mataram Sanskrit Lyric Edit The complete original lyrics of the Vande Mataram are available at Vande Mataram via Wikisource A rare painting of Indian national song Vande Mataram published in 1923 বন দ ম তরম Bengali Script Latin transliteration IAST वन द म तरम Devanagari transliteration বন দ ম তরম স জল স ফল মলয জশ তল ম শস যশ য মল ম তরম শ ভ র জ য ত স ন প লক ত য ম ন ম ফ ল লক স ম ত দ র মদলশ ভ ন ম স হ স ন স মধ রভ ষ ণ ম স খদ বরদ ম তরম সপ তক ট কন ঠ কল কল ন ন দকর ল দ ব সপ তক ট ভ জ ধ তখরকরব ল অবল ক ন ম এত বল বহ বলধ র ণ নম ম তর ণ র প দলব র ণ ম তরম ত ম ব দ য ত ম ধর ম ম a ত ম হ দ ত ম মর ম ম b ত ব হ প র ণ শর র ব হ ত ত ম ম শক ত হ দয ত ম ম ভক ত ত ম রই প রত ম গড মন দ র মন দ র ত ব হ দ র গ দশপ রহরণধ র ণ কমল কমল দলব হ র ণ ব ণ ব দ য দ য ণ নম ম ত ব নম ম কমল ম অমল অত ল ম স জল স ফল ম তরম বন দ ম তরম শ য মল সরল স স ম ত ভ ষ ত ম ধরণ ভরণ ম ম তরম Bande c Mataram Sujalaṃ suphalam Malayajasitalam Sasyasyamalam Mataram Subhra jyotsna pulakita yamini Phullakusumita drumadalasobhini Suhasiniṃ sumadhurabhaṣinim Sukhadaṃ baradaṃ d Mataram Saptakoṭikanṭha kala kala ninadakarale Dbisaptakoṭibhujaidhṛtakharakarabale e Abala f kena ma eta bale g Bahubaladhariniṃ h Namami tariniṃ Ripudalabariniṃ i Mataram Tumi bidya j tumi dharma Tumi hrṛdi tumi marma Tbaṃ k hi pranaḥ sarire Bahute l tumi ma sakti Hṛdaye tumi ma bhakti Tomarai pratima gaṛi mandire mandire Tbaṃ m hi Durga dasapraharanadharini Kamala kamala dalabiharini Bani n bidyadayini o Namami tbaṃ p Namami kamalam Amalaṃ atulam Sujalaṃ suphalam Mataram Bande q Mataram Syamalam saralam Susmitam bhuṣitam Dharaniṃ bharaniṃ Mataram वन द म तरम स जल स फल म मलयजश तल म शस यश य मल म म तरम श भ रज य त स न प लक तय म न म फ ल लक स म तद र मदलश भ न म स ह स न स मध र भ ष ण म स खद वरद म तरम सप त क ट कण ठ कल कल न न द कर ल द व सप त क ट भ ज र ध त खरकरव ल अबल क न म एत ब ल बह बलध र ण नम म त र ण र प दलव र ण म तरम त म व द य त म धर म त म ह द त म मर म त वम ह प र ण शर र ब ह त त म म शक त ह दय त म म भक त त म रई प रत म गड मन द र मन द र त वम ह द र ग दशप रहरणध र ण कमल कमलदलव ह र ण व ण व द य द य न नम म त व म नम म कमल म अमल अत ल म स जल स फल म म तरम वन द म तरम श य मल म सरल म स स म त म भ ष त म धरण भरण म तरम Translation Edit Cover of a 1909 issue of the Tamil magazine Vijaya showing Mother India Bharat Mata with her diverse progeny and the rallying cry Vande Mataram The first translation of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay s novel Anandamath including the poem Vande Mataram into English was by Nares Chandra Sen Gupta with the fifth edition published in 1906 titled The Abbey of Bliss 33 Here is the translation in prose of the above two stanzas rendered by Sri Aurobindo Ghosh This has also been adopted by the Government of India s national portal 17 The original Vande Mataram consists of six stanzas and the translation in prose for the complete poem by Shri Aurobindo appeared in Karmayogin 20 November 1909 34 Mother I bow to thee Rich with thy hurrying streams Bright with thy orchard gleams Cool with the winds of delight Dark fields waving Mother of might Mother free Glory of moonlight dreams Over thy branches and lordly streams Clad in thy blossoming trees Mother giver of ease Laughing low and sweet Mother I kiss thy feet Speaker sweet and low Mother to thee I bow Verse 1 Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands When the swords flash out in seventy million hands And seventy million voices roar Thy dreadful name from shore to shore With many strengths who art mighty and strong To thee I call Mother and Lord Thou who savest arise and save To her I cry who ever her foemen drove Back from plain and Sea And shook herself free Verse 2 Thou art wisdom thou art law Thou art heart our soul our breath Thou art love divine the awe In our hearts that conquers death Thine the strength that nerves the arm Thine the beauty thine the charm Every image divine In our temples is but thine Verse 3 Thou art Goddess Durga Lady and Queen With her hands that strike and her swords of sheen Thou art Goddess Kamala Lakshmi lotus throned And Goddess Vani Saraswati bestower of wisdom known Pure and perfect without peer Mother lend thine ear Rich with thy hurrying streams Bright with thy orchard gleams Dark of hue O candid fair Verse 4 In thy soul with jewelled hair And thy glorious smile divine Loveliest of all earthly lands Showering wealth from well stored hands Mother mother mine Mother sweet I bow to thee Mother great and free Verse 5 Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Sri Aurobindo Ghose Apart from the above prose translation Sri Aurobindo also translated Vande Mataram into a verse form known as Mother I praise thee 35 Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem that It is difficult to translate the National Song of India into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness simple directness and high poetic force 36 Translation into other languages Edit Vande Mataram has inspired many Indian poets and has been translated into numerous Indian languages such as Tamil Telugu Kannada Odia Malayalam Assamese Hindi Marathi Gujarati Punjabi Urdu and others 37 note 2 Arif Mohammad Khan translated Vande Mataram in Urdu 39 It can be read in Urdu Devanagari script as तस ल म त म तस ल म त त भर ह म ठ प न स फल फ ल क श द ब स दक ख न क ठ ड हव ओ स फसल क स ह न फ ज ओ स तस ल म त म तस ल म त त र र त र शन च द स त र र नक सब ज ए फ म स त र प य र भर म स क न ह त र म ठ बह त ज ब ह त र ब ह म म र र हत ह त र क दम म म र जन नत ह तस ल म त म तस ल म त 40 History and significance EditComposition Edit Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was one of the earliest graduates of the newly established Calcutta University After his BA he joined the colonial government as a civil servant becoming a Deputy Collector and later a Deputy Magistrate Chattopadhyay was very intereste in recent events in Indian and Bengali history particularly the Revolt of 1857 and the previous century s Sanyasi Rebellion 41 Around the same time the administration was trying to promote God Save the Queen as the anthem for Indian subjects which Indian nationalists disliked It is generally believed that the concept of Vande Mataram came to Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay when he was still a government official around 1876 42 He wrote Vande Mataram at Chinsura Chuchura there is a white colour house of Adhya Family near river Hooghly near Mallik Ghat citation needed Chattopadhyay wrote the poem in a spontaneous session using words from Sanskrit and Bengali The poem was published in Chattopadhyay s book Anandamath pronounced Anondomoţh in Bengali in 1882 which is set in the events of the Sannyasi Rebellion 41 42 Jadunath Bhattacharya was asked to set a tune for this poem just after it was written 42 Indian independence movement Edit Flag of India 1907 Vande Mataram was one of the most popular songs of protest during the Indian independence movement The colonial government in response banned the book and made the recital of the song in public a crime 19 The colonial government imprisoned many independence activists for disobeying the order but workers and general public repeatedly violated the ban many times by gathering together in the presence of colonial officials and singing it 19 Rabindranath Tagore sang Vande Mataram in 1896 at the Calcutta Congress Session held at Beadon Square Dakhina Charan Sen sang it five years later in 1901 at another session of the Congress at Calcutta Poet Sarala Devi Chaudurani sang the song in the Benares Congress Session in 1905 Lala Lajpat Rai started a journal called Vande Mataram from Lahore 42 Hiralal Sen made India s first political film in 1905 which ended with the chant Matangini Hazra s last words as she was shot to death by the Crown police were Vande Mataram 43 Mahatma Gandhi supported the first two verses of Vande Mataram as a national song 6 In 1907 Bhikaiji Cama 1861 1936 created the first version of India s national flag the Tiranga in Stuttgart Germany in 1907 It had Vande Mataram written on it in the middle band 44 A book titled Kranti Geetanjali published by Arya Printing Press Lahore and Bharatiya Press Dehradun in 1929 contains first two stanzas of this lyric on page 11 45 as Matra Vandana and a ghazal Vande Mataram composed by Bismil was also given on its back i e page 12 46 The book written by the famous martyr of Kakori Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil was proscribed by the colonial government citation needed Mahatama Gandhi supported adoption and the singing of the Vande Mataram song In January 1946 in a speech in Guwahati Assam he urged that Jai Hind should not replace Vande mataram He reminded everyone present that Vande mataram was being sung since the inception of the Congress He supported the Jai Hind greeting but remanded that this greeting should not be to the exclusion of Vande Mataram Gandhi was concerned that those who discarded Vande Mataram given the tradition of sacrifice behind it one day would discard Jai Hind also 47 note 3 Debate on adoption as national song of India Edit Vande mataram Glory to motherland her divine rivers fertile fields pleasant mountain breeze deep grasslands painted by Beohar Rammanohar Sinha on page 167 of Indian Constitution Parts of the Vande Mataram was chosen as the national song in 1937 by the Indian National Congress as it pursued the independence of India from colonial rule after a committee consisting of Maulana Azad Jawaharlal Nehru Subhash Bose Acharya Deva and Rabrindanath Tagore recommended the adoption 49 The entire song was not selected by Hindu leaders in order to respect the sentiments of non Hindus and the gathering agreed that anyone should be free to sing an alternate unobjectionable song at a national gathering if they do not want to sing Vande Mataram because they find it objectionable for a personal reason 49 According to the gathered leaders including the Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore though the first two stanzas began with an unexceptionable evocation of the beauty of the motherland in later stanzas there are references to the Hindu goddess Durga The Muslim League and Muhammad Ali Jinnah opposed the song Thereafter with the support of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru the Indian National Congress decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song to be sung at public gatherings and other verses that included references to Durga and Lakshmi were expunged 6 50 Rajendra Prasad who was presiding the Constituent Assembly on 24 January 1950 made the following statement which was also adopted as the final decision on the issue The composition consisting of the words and music known as Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises and the song Vande Mataram which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it Applause I hope this will satisfy the Members Constituent Assembly of India Vol XII 24 1 1950 51 Performances and interpretations EditThe poem has been set to a large number of tunes The oldest surviving audio recordings date to 1907 and there have been more than a hundred different versions recorded throughout the 20th century Many of these versions have employed traditional South Asian classical ragas Versions of the song have been visualised on celluloid in a number of films including Leader Amar Asha and Anand Math It is widely believed that the tune set for All India Radio station version was composed by Ravi Shankar 42 Hemant Kumar composed music for the song in the movie Anand Math in 1952 Many singers like Lata Mangeshkar K S Chithra sung made it cult classic 52 In 2002 BBC World Service conducted an international poll to choose ten most famous songs of all time Around 7000 songs were selected from all over the world Vande Mataram from the movie Anand Math was ranked second 53 All India Radio s version and some other versions are in Desh raga 54 In July 2017 the Madras High Court ruled that the Vande Mataram shall be sung or played at least once a week in all schools universities and other educational institutions of Tamil Nadu The Court also ruled that the song should be played or sung in government offices and industrial facilities at least once a month 55 See also Edit India portal Anandmath The novel from which Vande Mataram gained popularity Jana Gana Mana The Indian national anthem Saare Jahan Se Achcha Subh Sukh Chain Banga Mata Bharat Mata Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate Tamil Thai Telugu Thalli Telangana Thalli Bharat Mata Ki Jai Vande Mataram album National Pledge List of Indian state anthemsNotes Edit sometimes transcribed as ধর ম sometimes transcribed as মর ম Sanskrit transliteration Vande Sanskrit varadaṃ Sanskrit transliteration Dvisaptakoṭibhujaidhṛtakharakaravale Sanskrit transliteration Avala Sanskrit transliteration vale Sanskrit transliteration Vahuvaladhariniṃ Sanskrit transliteration Ripudalavarini Sanskrit transliteration vidya Sanskrit transliteration Tvaṃ Sanskrit transliteration Vahute Sanskrit transliteration Tvaṃ Sanskrit transliteration Vani Sanskrit transliteration vidyadaẏini Sanskrit transliteration tvaṃ Sanskrit transliteration Vande See for example Rigveda 1 27 1 Sanskrit अश व न त व व रवन त वन दध य अग न नम भ सम र जन तमध वर ण म १ Wikisource The Assamese version re translated into English reads 38 O my own land O my dear land O my dear land A land bedecked with gentle streams A land that adorned with heavenly beauty It is such a motherland Lakshminath Bezbarua Translated into English by A Mazumdar This view of Gandhi was not isolated In another interview he said a song that carried such glorious associations of sacrifice as Vandemataram could never be given up It would be like discarding one s mother But they could certainly add a new song or songs like the one mentioned to their repertoire of national songs after due thought and discrimination 48 References Edit Vande Mataram www mustrad org uk Retrieved 3 September 2021 National Identity Elements National Song Know India National Portal of India knowindia gov in Retrieved 24 July 2021 Staff Reporter 14 July 2017 Vande Mataram was in Sanskrit AG clarifies The Hindu ISSN 0971 751X Retrieved 24 July 2021 National Song knowindia gov in a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint url status link a b c Diana L Eck 2012 India A Sacred Geography New York Random House Harmony Books pp 95 97 ISBN 978 0 385 53190 0 a b c The National Flag Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi Volume 76 27 June 1939 pages 68 70 with footnote 1 on page 69 Sabyasachi Bhattacharya 2003 Bande Mataram the Biography of a Song Penguin Books pp 17 24 ISBN 978 0 14 303055 3 S K BOSE 2015 Bankim Chandra Chatterji Publications Division Ministry of Information amp Broadcasting pp 88 92 ISBN 978 81 230 2269 7 Sabyasachi Bhattacharya 2003 Bande Mataram the Biography of a Song Penguin pp 1 8 73 76 90 99 ISBN 978 0 14 303055 3 Ghose Aurbindo National Song Know India Government of India Archived from the original on 15 January 2013 Retrieved 12 November 2016 Bankim s Vande Mataram originally referred to Banga Mata not Bharat Mata Netaji s grand nephew in new book The Mother in Bande Mataram is not Mother India 8 April 2017 History revisited Bande Mataram was written as a song about Bengal not India Bharat Mata From freedom struggle metaphor to patriotism s litmus test 21 March 2016 Sabyasachi Bhattacharya 2003 Bande Mataram the Biography of a Song Penguin pp 68 77 26 29 ISBN 978 0 14 303055 3 Sumathi Ramaswamy 2009 The Goddess and the Nation Mapping Mother India Duke University Press pp 106 108 ISBN 978 0 8223 9153 1 a b c National Song of India Government of India Archived from the original on 15 January 2013 Retrieved 29 April 2008 Sri Aurobindo commented on his English translation of the poem with It is difficult to translate the National Anthem of Bengal into verse in another language owing to its unique union of sweetness simple directness and high poetic force cited after Bhabatosh Chatterjee ed Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Essays in Perspective Sahitya Akademi Delhi 1994 p 601 a b c Bankimcandra Chatterji 2005 Anandamath or The Sacred Brotherhood Oxford University Press pp 71 78 ISBN 978 0 19 803971 6 Aurobindo Mazumdar 2007 Bande Mataram and Islam Mittal Publications pp 18 22 30 31 ISBN 978 81 8324 159 5 National Symbols National Portal of India Retrieved 23 January 2020 HC dismisses plea to declare Vande Mataram as national anthem or song The Indian Express 27 July 2019 Retrieved 1 November 2019 No concept of National Song in Constitution says SC Hindustan Times 17 February 2017 Retrieved 1 November 2019 Sabyasachi Bhattacharya 2003 Bande Mataram the Biography of a Song Penguin Books pp 34 37 81 ISBN 978 0 14 303055 3 Sumathi Ramaswamy 2009 The Goddess and the Nation Mapping Mother India Duke University Press pp 125 142 ISBN 978 0 8223 9153 1 No rules on singing playing of Bande Mataram Government The Times of India Archived from the original on 12 February 2017 Retrieved 12 February 2017 a b Monier Monier Williams English Sanskrit Dictionary with Etymology Archived 28 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine Oxford University Press page 919 Bankimcandra Chatterji 2005 Anandamath or The Sacred Brotherhood Oxford University Press p 244 ISBN 978 0 19 534633 6 Edward Bispham 2010 Edinburgh Companion to Ancient Greece and Rome Edinburgh University Press p 32 ISBN 978 0 7486 2714 1 J P Mallory Douglas Q Adams 1997 Encyclopedia of Indo European Culture Taylor amp Francis pp 385 386 ISBN 978 1 884964 98 5 Vande Mataram in Bengali script Archived from the original on 2 October 2011 Retrieved 1 August 2011 Vande Mataram in Romanized Sanskrit Archived from the original on 2 October 2011 Retrieved 31 July 2011 Bankimcandra Chatterji 23 August 2005 Anandamath or The Sacred Brotherhood Oxford University Press pp 44 ISBN 978 0 19 534633 6 Aurobindo Mazumdar 2007 Vande Mataram and Islam Mittal Publications pp 4 6 ISBN 978 81 8324 159 5 Sri Aurobindo s VERSE translation of Vande Mataram Archived from the original on 27 September 2011 Retrieved 31 July 2011 Bhabatosh Chatterjee ed Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Essays in Perspective Sahitya Akademi Delhi 1994 p 601 Aurobindo Mazumdar 2007 Vande Mataram and Islam Mittal Publications pp 23 34 ISBN 978 81 8324 159 5 Aurobindo Mazumdar 2007 Vande Mataram and Islam Mittal Publications pp 26 27 ISBN 978 81 8324 159 5 Unnecessary And Irrelevant Outlook India Retrieved 30 December 2019 क रल क गवर नर बन आर फ म हम मद ख न पढ व द म तरम क उर द म उनक अन व द Navbharat Times in Hindi Retrieved 30 December 2019 a b Lipner Julius 2005 Anandamath Oxford UK Oxford University Press pp 27 59 ISBN 978 0 19 517858 6 a b c d e Suresh Chandvankar Vande Mataram Archived 29 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine 2003 at Musical Traditions mustrad org uk Chakrabarty Bidyut 1997 Local Politics and Indian Nationalism Midnapur 1919 1944 New Delhi Manohar p 167 p2 Archived from the original on 6 March 2016 Retrieved 8 February 2016 Kranti Geetanjali Poems of Pt Ram Prasad Bismil ISBN 81 7783 128 3 Kranti Geetanjali ISBN 81 7783 128 3 Speech at Prayer Meeting Guwahati Assam Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi 10 January 1946 page 212 Discussion with Political Workers Archived 16 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi 1945 page 89 a b A G Noorani 1973 Vande Mataram A Historical Lesson Archived 21 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine EPW Vol 8 No 23 9 Jun 1973 pages 1039 1043 Marie Cruz Gabriel 1996 A Silence in the City and Other Stories Orient Blackswan pp 238 240 ISBN 978 81 250 0828 6 Constituent Assembly of India Debates Pradeep Kumar Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Rediff com The Worlds Top Ten Archived 21 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine BBC World Service Des Tunes from the Countryside Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 31 May 2011 Madras High Court makes Vande Mataram mandatory in schools and colleges Archived 28 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine India Today 25 July 2017 Sabyasachi Bhattacharya Vande Mataram The Biography of a Song Penguin Books 2003 ISBN 978 0 14 303055 3 Further reading EditTagore Sir Rabindranath 1919 1916 The Home and the World Trans from Bengali by Surendranath Tagore London MacMillan amp Co OCLC 228705970 Bande with a B rather than a V Mataram plays a great part in this novel about a Bengali family Vande Mataram Biography of a Song by Sabyasachi Bhattacharya Publisher Penguin ISBN 9780143030553External links EditWikisource has original text related to this article Vande Mataram Vocals Vande Mataram Lata Mangeshkar in Anand Math 4 57 minutes Vande Mataram Amruta Suresh and Abhirami Suresh 4 36 minutes Vande Mataram Group song 1 09 minutes Debate National Song section Official Portal of the Indian Government How Secular is Vande Mataram AG Noorani Frontline Boycott threat over Indian song BBC 1937 Congress Resolution on validity of Muslim objection to this song Outlook India Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vande Mataram amp oldid 1094072250, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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