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The Vascones were a pre-Roman tribe who, on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century, inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees, a region that coincides with present-day Navarre, western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja, in the Iberian Peninsula. The Vascones are often considered ancestors of the present-day Basques to whom they left their name.

Location of the tribe of the Vascones in black.
A coin with BARSCUNES in Iberian script. It has been proposed that the word is related to Vascones.
Coins of Arsaos, Navarre, 150-100 BC, showing Roman stylistic influence. British Museum.

Contents

Roman period

Portrait of Livy, the author of the first known document about the Vascones.

The description of the territory which the Vascones inhabited during ancient times appears in texts of classical authors, between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD, such as Livy, Strabo, Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy. Although these texts have been studied[full citation needed] as sources of reference, some authors have pointed out the apparent lack of uniformity and also the existence of contradictions within the texts, in particular with Strabo.

The oldest document[full citation needed] corresponds to Livy (59 BC - AD 17), who in a brief passage of his work about the 76 BC Sertorian War relates how after crossing the Ebro and the city of Calagurris Nasica, they crossed the flatlands of the Vascones, or Vasconum agrum until reaching the border of their immediate neighbors, the Berones. Comparing other sections of this same document, it is deduced that this border was located to the west, while the southern neighbors of the Vascones were the Celtiberians, with their city, Contrebia Leucade.

Pliny the Elder, on his work Natural History, mentioned a text prior to 50 BC that located the Vascones at the western end of the Pyrenees, neighbors of the Varduli and extended to the mountains of Oiarso and into the coasts of the Bay of Biscay, in an area he called Vasconum saltus. The Greek geographer Strabo, in the times of Augustus (63 BC - AD 14) refers to the Vascones (in Ancient Greek: Ούασκώνων) placing their main city, or polis, in Pompaelo and as well Callagurris.

Both cities, Kalágouris, one of the main cities of the ouáskones,... This same region is crossed by the road that comes from Terrakon and goes to the ouáskones, in the border of the Ocean, to Pompélon and Oiáson, city built above the very same Ocean.

Strabo
Ptolemy, who listed the main cities of the Vascones.

This information is found again in the works of Ptolemy, who lived during the 1st and 2nd Century AD. In his book, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, chapter 6, he relates the names of 15 cities inside the territory of the Vascones, besides Oiarso: Iturissa, Pompaelo, Bituris, Andelos, Nemanturissa, Curnonium, Iacca, Graccurris, Calagurris, Cascantum, Ercavica, Tarraga, Muscaria, Seguia and Alavona.

The territory of the Vascones during the Roman republic and Roman empire corresponded with present-day Navarre, the northeast extreme of Gipuzkoa, and parts of La Rioja, Zaragoza and Huesca, including the city of Calagurris.

3rd and 4th centuries

Late Basquisation

Main article: Late Basquisation

During this period, after the time of Ptolemy and contemporary to the times of instability caused by the Germanic invasions, the documents about the Vascones and other tribes of the northern Iberian Peninsula are scarce, and as a result there is little information about the Vascones during this time.

The Visigothic Kingdom circa 560. The Vascones and Varduli in the north.

The chronicler John of Biclaro (c. 540 – after 621) mentions the Vascones in a story about the foundation of the city of Victoriacum by the Visigoth king Liuvigild and Gregory of Tours (538–594) mentions the incursions of Wascones in Aquitaine during the year 587. From these extracts and being the neighboring tribes absent in the historiography, Adolf Schulten (1870–1960) proposed the theory according to which, at some point between the mid-2nd century and late 4th century, an enlargement of the territory of the Vascones took place, first in the west, occupying the lands of the Caristii, Varduli and Autrigones, and later in the north in Aquitaine.[full citation needed] Schulten considers this to be the reason for the adoption of the name Gascony, which derives from Gascon, which comes from Vascon, and used to denominate a region that includes the present-day Northern Basque Country.

Claudio Sánchez Albornoz, Spanish historian (1893–1984), on his work "Los vascones vasconizan la depresión vasca" (The Vascones "basquize" the Basque depression) published in 1972 expanded upon this hypothesis, relying on linguistic analysis: when invading the territories of what today is Biscay, Gipuzkoa and Álava displaced to Castile part of the Caristii, Varduli and Autrigones, who took refuge in the mountains; the ones who had not been displaced were "Basquized", while perhaps the Caristii, Varduli and Autrigones already spoke languages similar or related to the Basque language.

However, research during last decades has called into question the possibility of an expansion northwards (J.J. Larrea). The inroad of the Vascones onto the plains of Aquitaine in 587 seems to be short-lived—they make their way back to the mountains—and archaeological findings in Eauze or Auch do not reveal instability or destruction during the alleged expanding period up to the mid-7th century. Another theory suggests a contemporary identification made by the Goths and the Franks of the Vascones (the most dynamic tribe) with all Basque speaking, Basque-related, or non-Romanized tribes.

7th century

Starting on the 7th century, historians already differentiate between Spagnovasconia, located southwestern of the Pyrenees, inside the Iberian Peninsula and Guasconia, northwestern of the Pyrenees, in Aquitaine. Schulten interprets that by this time the Vascones had already retreated from their territories in Roman times and started occupying lands in the north, what in the future would make the Southern Basque Country and northern Navarre. Schulten also quotes the chronicle from Einhard, Vita Karoli Magni, dated in 810, where for the first time is used the term navarrese to define the people living in the former territories of the Vascones near the Ebro.

Roman period

Unlike the Aquitanians or Cantabrians, the Vascones seemed to have negotiated their status in the Roman Empire. In the Sertorian War, Pompey established his headquarters in their territory, founding Pompaelo. Romanization was rather intense in the area known as Ager Vasconum (the Ebro valley) but limited in the mountainous Saltus, where evidence of Roman civilization appears only in mining places, harbours, roads, and milestones, e.g. Oiasso. The territory was also important for Romans as a communication knot between northern Hispania and southwestern Gallia, who took good care to station detachments in different spots of the main communication lines.

The Vasconian area presents indications of upheaval (burnt villas, an abundance of mints to pay the garrisons) during the 4th and 5th centuries that have been linked by many historians to the Bagaudae rebellions against feudalization, but also to the depredations of migrating Germanic and Asian tribes—Vandals, Alans, Sueves, Visigoths, possibly Heruls—into Hispania.

Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

Further information: Duchy of Gascony and Kingdom of Navarre

In AD 407 Vascon troops fought on the orders of Roman commanders Didimus and Verinianus, repelling an attack by Vandals, Alans and Suebi. In 409, the passage of the Germanic peoples and Sarmatians toward Hispania went unhindered. The Roman reaction to this invasion and unrest related to the Bagaudae was to give Gallia Aquitania and Hispania Tarraconensis to the Visigoths in return for their services as allies by treaty (foederati). The Visigoths soon managed to expel the Vandals to Africa.

After chronicler Hydatius´s death in 469, no contemporary source exists reporting on the social and political situation in the Vasconias, as put by himself. At the beginning of the fourth century, Calagurris is still cited as a Vascon town. During the fifth and sixth centuries, the gap between town and the rural milieu widened, with the former falling much in decay. Between 581-7, chronicles start to mention the Vascones again, this time hailing from the wilderness, as opposed to the towns, which remained attached to Roman culture or were under Germanic influence. By the seventh to eighth centuries, Vascones were not confined to their ancient boundaries, but covered a much larger territory, from Álava in the west to the Loire in the north. The island of Oléron, along with the Île de Ré, formed the Vacetae Insulae "Vacetian Islands" according to the Cosmographia, where Vaceti are Vascones by another name. The concept underlying the medieval name points to a much wider reality than Strabo's former tribal definition, this time encompassing all Basque-speaking tribes.

The independent Vascones stabilised their first polity under the Merovingian Franks: the Duchy of Vasconia, whose borders to the south remained unclear. This duchy would eventually become Gascony. During the reincorporation of Vasconia into Francia after 769, Charlemagne destroyed the walls of Pamplona after a failed attempt to conquer Zaragoza, the Vascones annihilated his rearguard in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778—referred as "wasconicam perfidiam" by Frankish chroniclers. Pamplona was later captured by the Cordovan emir 'Abd al-Rahman I (781), but taken over by the Franks in 806, who assigned its government to a pro-Frankish local Belasko ("al-Galashki"), probably a Basque hailing from present-day Gascony. Some decades later, in 824, a second battle of Roncevaux took place that led to the establishment of the Kingdom of Pamplona, founded with Eneko Arista as head of the new polity, presented by Arab sources as leader of the Vascones (al-Baskunisi). However, the 824 Carolingian expedition itself included two different columns made up of Frankish and Vascones (Gascons).

After the 9th century, the Vascones (Wascones, Guascones) come to be more closely identified in the records with the current territory of Gascony, at the time still a Basque-speaking territory but progressively being replaced by the new rising Romance language, Gascon.

Language and writing

Several authors point out[full citation needed] that prior to the Roman arrival and alike other peoples that inhabited the near region, the Vascones spoke a language that linguists[citation needed] identify as the precursor of the modern Basque language, sometimes referred to as Proto-Basque language or Aquitanian language.

However, as pointed out by Henrike Knörr (1947-2008) the origin and kinship of the Basque language is still a mystery[full citation needed] and an object of research. There are several theories about its origin; the Basque linguistic Koldo Mitxelena argues that an "in-situ" origin is the most likely, and thus explains the current dialectical classification while other theories advocate for a proposed kinship between the Basque language and other language families, like the languages of the Caucasus or a relation between Basque and the extinct Iberian language. So far, possible connections between Basque and other languages have remained unproven.

Another problem that arises in the study of the language of the Vascones is the lack of direct classic records regarding the language spoken by this people, with the exception of a vague description by Strabo and Pomponius Mela, or the description made by Julius Caesar on the language of the Aquitanians in his work Commentarii de Bello Gallico.

The study of epigraphic documents has been of greater interest, as some of them date the introduction of writing among the Vascones in the 2nd century. Among them, the oldest are the numismatic evidence coming from both Vasconic mints and others located nearby. A great importance is given to a funerary stele found in the Hermitage of Santa Bárbara in Lerga, which is considered to be the oldest known written testimony of the Proto-Basque language. It is also believed that the Iberian language has left some traces on the Basque language, as with the Iberian term ili, adopted in Basque as hiri with the meaning of town or city, and present in the Vasconic name for the city of Pompaelo: "Iruña", as well as in other names of cities and towns.

Religion

The epigraphic and archaeological testimonies have allowed experts to determine some of the religious practices that were present among the Vascones since the Roman arrival and the introduction of writing. According to research done on this topic, religious syncretism lasted until the 1st Century; from that moment onwards and until the adoption of Christianity between the 4th and 5th centuries, Roman mythology was predominant.

Vasconic theonyms have been found on tombstones and altars, which further proves the syncretism between the pre-Christian Roman systems of beliefs and the Vasconic religions. Two altars have been found in Ujué, one dedicated to Lacubegi, identified as the God of the lower world and another one dedicated to Jupiter, although it has not been possible to date them. In Lerate and Barbarin two tombstones have been found, both dedicated to Stelaitse and dated in the 1st century.

  1. Classical authors, such as Livy, name cities as Calagurris, Cascantum and Graccurris as Vascon cities.
  2. "La Tierra del Toro. Ensayo de identificación de ciudades vasconas, article by Alicia M. Canto (1997), includes map with cities and archeological remains (see electronic edition and also "Ptolomeo y las ciudades vasconas. Ensayo de localización", and map of the territory "Ciudades vasconas_Propuestas de localización") (in Spanish).
  3. (Schulten 1927), (Blázquez 1966),(Canto 1997),(Gómez Fraile 2001).
  4. (Arce,1999),(Gómez Fraile 2001:28).
  5. (Schulten 1927:226),(Blázquez 1966:2).
  6. ...dimissis eis ipse profectus per Vasconum agrum ducto exercitu in confinio Beronum posuit castra,... ("...after taking his (Sertorius) army through the territory of the Vascones, he installed his camp on a border area of the Berones,..."). Text according to P. Jal, Tite-Live. Histoire Romaine XXXIII. Livre XLV et Fragments. Paris, 1990 (1979), page 214-218
  7. (Blázquez 1966:3)
  8. Natural History, 4,110-111: Proxima ora citerioris est eiusdemque Tarraconensis situus a Pyrenaeo per oceanum Vasconum saltus, Oiarso, Vardulorum oppida, Morogi, Menosca, Vesperies, Amanum portus, ubi nunc Flauiobrica colonia 8. Ciuitatium VIIII regio Cantabrorum, flumen Sauga, portus Victoriae Iuliobricensium. ac eo loco fontes Hiberi XM passuum portus Blendium, Orgonomesci e Cantabri. portus eorum Vereasueca, regio Asturum, Noega oppidum, in poeninsula Paesici, et deinde conuentus Lucensis, a flumine Nauialbione Gibarci, Egiuarri cognomine Namarini, Iadoui, Arroni, Arrotrebae, pronunturium Celticum, amnes Florius Nelo. Celtici cognomine Neri et super Tamarici 9 quorum in paeninsula tres arae Sestianae [-182→183-] Augusto dicatae, Copori, oppidum Noeta...
  9. Str. III, 4, 10:...Ύπέρκειται δε τής Ίακκητανιίας πρός άρκτον τό τών Ούασκώνων έθνος, έν ώ πόλις Πομπέλων, ώς άν Πομπηιόπολις. (...after, above the Lacetani, on north direction, is located the nation of the Vascones, who have for main city Pompelon, the "city of Pómpeios".). Text according to F. Lasserre, Strabon, Géographie II. Livres III et IV. Les Belles Lettres. Paris 1966.
  10. (Schulten 1927: 230-232)(Canto 1997)
  11. (Blázquez 1966:11)
  12. (Gómez Fraile 2001:58)
  13. John of Biclaro (Chron. Min. II, 216):Leovigildus rex partem Vasconiae occupat et civitatem quae Victoriacum... (Schulten 1927:234)
  14. Grégoire de Tours, Histoire des Francs: Les Gascons descendirent de leurs montagnes dans la plaine, dévastèrent les villes, les champs... le duc Austrovald marcha souvent contre eux, mais ne parvint guères à en tirer vengeance, editor J.-L.-L. Brière, Paris 1823. Volume II, Book IX, De l'année 587 à l'année 589. Gontran, Childebert II et Clotaire II, Rois page 8. Available on November 16h, 2006 in bnf.fr
  15. (Schulten 1927:234)
  16. (Schulten 1927:235)
  17. España un enigma histórico. Barcelona 1973. 451-452
  18. (Schulten 1927:240)
  19. (Schulten 1927:238)
  20. Collins, Roger (1990). The Basques (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. pp. 53–56. ISBN 0631175652.
  21. Collins (1990), p. 51.
  22. Collins (1990), pp. 75–76.
  23. Caro Baroja, Julio (1985). Los vascones y sus vecinos. San Sebastian: Editorial Txertoa. p. 89. ISBN 84-7148-136-7.
  24. Collins (1992), p. 214. sfnp error: no target: CITEREFCollins1992 (help)
  25. Collins (1990), p. 124-126.
  26. "Iñigo Iñiguez Arista". Auñamendi Entziklopedia. EuskoMedia Fundazioa. Retrieved15 August 2013.
  27. Collins (1990), p. 139.
  28. Collins (1990), p. 179.
  29. (Gil Zubillaga 2006),(Fatás Cabeza 1972), (Knörr 2004), (Gorrochategui 1999), J. Caro Baroja sourced in (Blázquez 1966:10)
  30. Koldo Mitxelena, Koldo Zuazo
  31. (Knörr 2004)
  32. Nueva Síntesis de la Historia del País Vasco: Desde la Prehistoria hasta el gobierno de Garaikoetxea, Ed. TTartalo, San Sebastián, 2004. ISBN 84-8091-902-7.
  33. Koldo Zuazo and the Basque dialects on Hiru.com
  34. Towards a History of the Basque Language. p. 190. José Ignacio Hualde, Joseba Andoni Lakarra, Robert Lawrence Trask, Koldo Mitxelena, etc. John Benjamins publishing company. Amsterdam/Philadelphia. 1997
  35. Joaquín Gorrochategui, La romanización del País Vasco: Aspectos lingüísticos., Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea - Filología. Artículo en Guipuzkoakultura.net Ed. digital Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  36. (Gil Zubillaga 2006)
  37. The inscription in the funerary stele of Lerga has been studied since the 19th Century by Achille Luchaire, Koldo Mitxelena and Joaquín Gorrochategui as a part of different researches about the Aquitanian language, as it includes the Aquitanian anthroponym of Vmmesahar (from ume, young child, and zahar, old); "umme sahar" =ume zahar = oldest son: Um.me, Sa.har(i) fi(lius), / Nar.hun.ge.si Abi- / sun.ha.ri fi.lio, / ann(orum) XXV. T(itulum) p(osuit) s(umptu) s(uo)..
  38. Koldo Mitxelena,Los nombres indígenas de la inscripción hispanoromana de Lerga (Navarra), Príncipe de Viana magazine, XXII, 82-83, pp 65-74, (1961)
  39. Irun (Gipuzkoa), Iruña (Alava)
  40. Juan José Sayas Abengoechea, Algunas consideraciones sobre la cristianización de los Vascones, Príncipe de Viana magazine, XLVI, 174, pp 35-56, 1985
  41. Roldán Jimeno, Orígenes del Cristianismo en la tierra de los vascones, Ed. Pamiela, Pamplona, 2003.ISBN 84-7681-380-5
  42. Epigraphic catalog (in Basque)
  43. Lacubegis: Coelii Te- / sphoros / et Festa / et Telesi- / nus, Lacu- / begi. Ex voto. - Tesphoros, Festa and Tesesinus Coeli-
  44. "Peremustae" teonimoaren inguruan
  45. The altars read: Semprini- / us Betunus, Se- / latse. V(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito)
  • Vascones in the Auñamendi Encyclopedia, by Bernardo Estornés Lasa.

Vascones Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Vascones news newspapers books scholar JSTOR July 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Vascones were a pre Roman tribe who on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees a region that coincides with present day Navarre western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja in the Iberian Peninsula 1 The Vascones are often considered ancestors of the present day Basques to whom they left their name Location of the tribe of the Vascones in black A coin with BARSCUNES in Iberian script It has been proposed that the word is related to Vascones Coins of Arsaos Navarre 150 100 BC showing Roman stylistic influence British Museum Contents 1 Territory 1 1 Roman period 1 2 3rd and 4th centuries 1 2 1 Late Basquisation 1 2 2 7th century 2 History 2 1 Roman period 2 2 Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages 3 Culture 3 1 Language and writing 3 2 Religion 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksTerritory EditRoman period Edit Portrait of Livy the author of the first known document about the Vascones The description of the territory which the Vascones 2 inhabited during ancient times appears in texts of classical authors between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century AD such as Livy Strabo Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy Although these texts have been studied 3 full citation needed as sources of reference some authors have pointed out the apparent lack of uniformity and also the existence of contradictions within the texts in particular with Strabo 4 The oldest document 5 full citation needed corresponds to Livy 59 BC AD 17 who in a brief passage of his work about the 76 BC Sertorian War relates how after crossing the Ebro and the city of Calagurris Nasica they crossed the flatlands of the Vascones or Vasconum agrum until reaching the border of their immediate neighbors the Berones 6 Comparing other sections of this same document it is deduced that this border was located to the west while the southern neighbors of the Vascones were the Celtiberians with their city Contrebia Leucade 7 Pliny the Elder on his work Natural History mentioned a text prior to 50 BC that located the Vascones at the western end of the Pyrenees neighbors of the Varduli and extended to the mountains of Oiarso and into the coasts of the Bay of Biscay in an area he called Vasconum saltus 8 The Greek geographer Strabo in the times of Augustus 63 BC AD 14 refers to the Vascones in Ancient Greek Oyaskwnwn placing their main city or polis in Pompaelo 9 and as well Callagurris Both cities Kalagouris one of the main cities of the ouaskones This same region is crossed by the road that comes from Terrakon and goes to the ouaskones in the border of the Ocean to Pompelon and Oiason city built above the very same Ocean Strabo Ptolemy who listed the main cities of the Vascones This information is found again in the works of Ptolemy who lived during the 1st and 2nd Century AD In his book Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgesis chapter 6 he relates the names of 15 cities inside the territory of the Vascones besides Oiarso 10 Iturissa Pompaelo Bituris Andelos Nemanturissa Curnonium Iacca Graccurris Calagurris Cascantum Ercavica Tarraga Muscaria Seguia and Alavona The territory of the Vascones during the Roman republic and Roman empire corresponded with present day Navarre the northeast extreme of Gipuzkoa and parts of La Rioja Zaragoza and Huesca 11 including the city of Calagurris 12 3rd and 4th centuries Edit Late Basquisation Edit Main article Late Basquisation During this period after the time of Ptolemy and contemporary to the times of instability caused by the Germanic invasions the documents about the Vascones and other tribes of the northern Iberian Peninsula are scarce and as a result there is little information about the Vascones during this time The Visigothic Kingdom circa 560 The Vascones and Varduli in the north The chronicler John of Biclaro c 540 after 621 mentions the Vascones in a story about the foundation of the city of Victoriacum by the Visigoth king Liuvigild 13 and Gregory of Tours 538 594 mentions the incursions of Wascones in Aquitaine during the year 587 14 From these extracts and being the neighboring tribes absent in the historiography Adolf Schulten 1870 1960 proposed the theory according to which at some point between the mid 2nd century and late 4th century an enlargement of the territory of the Vascones took place first in the west occupying the lands of the Caristii Varduli and Autrigones 15 and later in the north in Aquitaine 16 full citation needed Schulten considers this to be the reason for the adoption of the name Gascony which derives from Gascon which comes from Vascon and used to denominate a region that includes the present day Northern Basque Country Claudio Sanchez Albornoz Spanish historian 1893 1984 on his work Los vascones vasconizan la depresion vasca The Vascones basquize the Basque depression published in 1972 expanded upon this hypothesis relying on linguistic analysis when invading the territories of what today is Biscay Gipuzkoa and Alava displaced to Castile part of the Caristii Varduli and Autrigones who took refuge in the mountains the ones who had not been displaced were Basquized 17 while perhaps the Caristii Varduli and Autrigones already spoke languages similar or related to the Basque language However research during last decades has called into question the possibility of an expansion northwards J J Larrea The inroad of the Vascones onto the plains of Aquitaine in 587 seems to be short lived they make their way back to the mountains and archaeological findings in Eauze or Auch do not reveal instability or destruction during the alleged expanding period up to the mid 7th century Another theory suggests a contemporary identification made by the Goths and the Franks of the Vascones the most dynamic tribe with all Basque speaking Basque related or non Romanized tribes 7th century Edit Starting on the 7th century historians already differentiate between Spagnovasconia located southwestern of the Pyrenees inside the Iberian Peninsula and Guasconia northwestern of the Pyrenees in Aquitaine Schulten interprets that by this time the Vascones had already retreated from their territories in Roman times and started occupying lands in the north what in the future would make the Southern Basque Country and northern Navarre 18 Schulten also quotes the chronicle from Einhard Vita Karoli Magni dated in 810 where for the first time is used the term navarrese to define the people living in the former territories of the Vascones near the Ebro 19 History EditRoman period Edit Further information History of the Basque people Gallia Aquitania and Novempopulania Unlike the Aquitanians or Cantabrians the Vascones seemed to have negotiated their status in the Roman Empire 20 In the Sertorian War Pompey established his headquarters in their territory founding Pompaelo Romanization was rather intense in the area known as Ager Vasconum the Ebro valley but limited in the mountainous Saltus where evidence of Roman civilization appears only in mining places harbours roads and milestones e g Oiasso The territory was also important for Romans as a communication knot between northern Hispania and southwestern Gallia who took good care to station detachments in different spots of the main communication lines 21 The Vasconian area presents indications of upheaval burnt villas an abundance of mints to pay the garrisons during the 4th and 5th centuries that have been linked by many historians to the Bagaudae rebellions against feudalization but also to the depredations of migrating Germanic and Asian tribes Vandals Alans Sueves Visigoths possibly Heruls into Hispania 22 Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages Edit Further information Duchy of Gascony and Kingdom of Navarre In AD 407 Vascon troops fought on the orders of Roman commanders Didimus and Verinianus repelling an attack by Vandals Alans and Suebi In 409 the passage of the Germanic peoples and Sarmatians toward Hispania went unhindered The Roman reaction to this invasion and unrest related to the Bagaudae was to give Gallia Aquitania and Hispania Tarraconensis to the Visigoths in return for their services as allies by treaty foederati The Visigoths soon managed to expel the Vandals to Africa After chronicler Hydatius s death in 469 no contemporary source exists reporting on the social and political situation in the Vasconias as put by himself At the beginning of the fourth century Calagurris is still cited as a Vascon town During the fifth and sixth centuries the gap between town and the rural milieu widened with the former falling much in decay Between 581 7 chronicles start to mention the Vascones again this time hailing from the wilderness as opposed to the towns which remained attached to Roman culture or were under Germanic influence 23 By the seventh to eighth centuries Vascones were not confined to their ancient boundaries but covered a much larger territory from Alava in the west to the Loire in the north The island of Oleron along with the Ile de Re formed the Vacetae Insulae Vacetian Islands according to the Cosmographia 24 where Vaceti are Vascones by another name The concept underlying the medieval name points to a much wider reality than Strabo s former tribal definition this time encompassing all Basque speaking tribes The independent Vascones stabilised their first polity under the Merovingian Franks the Duchy of Vasconia whose borders to the south remained unclear This duchy would eventually become Gascony During the reincorporation of Vasconia into Francia after 769 Charlemagne destroyed the walls of Pamplona after a failed attempt to conquer Zaragoza the Vascones annihilated his rearguard in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778 referred as wasconicam perfidiam by Frankish chroniclers Pamplona was later captured by the Cordovan emir Abd al Rahman I 781 but taken over by the Franks in 806 who assigned its government to a pro Frankish local Belasko al Galashki probably a Basque hailing from present day Gascony 25 Some decades later in 824 a second battle of Roncevaux took place that led to the establishment of the Kingdom of Pamplona founded with Eneko Arista as head of the new polity presented by Arab sources as leader of the Vascones al Baskunisi 26 However the 824 Carolingian expedition itself included two different columns made up of Frankish and Vascones Gascons 27 After the 9th century the Vascones Wascones Guascones come to be more closely identified in the records with the current territory of Gascony at the time still a Basque speaking territory but progressively being replaced by the new rising Romance language Gascon 28 Culture EditLanguage and writing Edit Several authors point out 29 full citation needed that prior to the Roman arrival and alike other peoples that inhabited the near region the Vascones spoke a language that linguists 30 citation needed identify as the precursor of the modern Basque language sometimes referred to as Proto Basque language or Aquitanian language However as pointed out by Henrike Knorr 1947 2008 the origin and kinship of the Basque language is still a mystery 31 full citation needed and an object of research There are several theories about its origin the Basque linguistic Koldo Mitxelena argues that an in situ origin is the most likely 32 and thus explains the current dialectical classification 33 while other theories advocate for a proposed kinship between the Basque language and other language families like the languages of the Caucasus or a relation between Basque and the extinct Iberian language So far possible connections between Basque and other languages have remained unproven 34 Another problem that arises in the study of the language of the Vascones is the lack of direct classic records regarding the language spoken by this people 35 with the exception of a vague description by Strabo and Pomponius Mela or the description made by Julius Caesar on the language of the Aquitanians in his work Commentarii de Bello Gallico The study of epigraphic documents has been of greater interest as some of them date the introduction of writing among the Vascones in the 2nd century 36 Among them the oldest are the numismatic evidence coming from both Vasconic mints and others located nearby A great importance is given to a funerary stele found in the Hermitage of Santa Barbara in Lerga 37 which is considered to be the oldest known written testimony of the Proto Basque language 38 It is also believed that the Iberian language has left some traces on the Basque language as with the Iberian term ili adopted in Basque as hiri with the meaning of town or city and present in the Vasconic name for the city of Pompaelo Iruna as well as in other names of cities and towns 39 Religion Edit See also Basque mythology The epigraphic and archaeological testimonies have allowed experts to determine some of the religious practices that were present among the Vascones since the Roman arrival and the introduction of writing According to research done on this topic 40 religious syncretism lasted until the 1st Century from that moment onwards and until the adoption of Christianity between the 4th and 5th centuries Roman mythology was predominant 41 Vasconic theonyms have been found on tombstones and altars which further proves the syncretism between the pre Christian Roman systems of beliefs and the Vasconic religions 42 Two altars have been found in Ujue one dedicated to Lacubegi 43 identified as the God of the lower world 44 and another one dedicated to Jupiter although it has not been possible to date them In Lerate and Barbarin two tombstones have been found both dedicated to Stelaitse and dated in the 1st century 45 See also EditPre Roman peoples of the Iberian PeninsulaNotes Edit Classical authors such as Livy name cities as Calagurris Cascantum and Graccurris as Vascon cities La Tierra del Toro Ensayo de identificacion de ciudades vasconas article by Alicia M Canto 1997 includes map with cities and archeological remains see electronic edition and also Ptolomeo y las ciudades vasconas Ensayo de localizacion and map of the territory Ciudades vasconas Propuestas de localizacion in Spanish Schulten 1927 Blazquez 1966 Canto 1997 Gomez Fraile 2001 Arce 1999 Gomez Fraile 2001 28 Schulten 1927 226 Blazquez 1966 2 dimissis eis ipse profectus per Vasconum agrum ducto exercitu in confinio Beronum posuit castra after taking his Sertorius army through the territory of the Vascones he installed his camp on a border area of the Berones Text according to P Jal Tite Live Histoire Romaine XXXIII Livre XLV et Fragments Paris 1990 1979 page 214 218 Blazquez 1966 3 Natural History 4 110 111 Proxima ora citerioris est eiusdemque Tarraconensis situus a Pyrenaeo per oceanum Vasconum saltus Oiarso Vardulorum oppida Morogi Menosca Vesperies Amanum portus ubi nunc Flauiobrica colonia 8 Ciuitatium VIIII regio Cantabrorum flumen Sauga portus Victoriae Iuliobricensium ac eo loco fontes Hiberi XM passuum portus Blendium Orgonomesci e Cantabri portus eorum Vereasueca regio Asturum Noega oppidum in poeninsula Paesici et deinde conuentus Lucensis a flumine Nauialbione Gibarci Egiuarri cognomine Namarini Iadoui Arroni Arrotrebae pronunturium Celticum amnes Florius Nelo Celtici cognomine Neri et super Tamarici 9 quorum in paeninsula tres arae Sestianae 182 183 Augusto dicatae Copori oppidum Noeta Str III 4 10 Yperkeitai de ths Iakkhtaniias pros arkton to twn Oyaskwnwn e8nos en w polis Pompelwn ws an Pomphiopolis after above the Lacetani on north direction is located the nation of the Vascones who have for main city Pompelon the city of Pompeios Text according to F Lasserre Strabon Geographie II Livres III et IV Les Belles Lettres Paris 1966 Schulten 1927 230 232 Canto 1997 Blazquez 1966 11 Gomez Fraile 2001 58 John of Biclaro Chron Min II 216 Leovigildus rex partem Vasconiae occupat et civitatem quae Victoriacum Schulten 1927 234 Gregoire de Tours Histoire des Francs Les Gascons descendirent de leurs montagnes dans la plaine devasterent les villes les champs le duc Austrovald marcha souvent contre eux mais ne parvint gueres a en tirer vengeance editor J L L Briere Paris 1823 Volume II Book IX De l annee 587 a l annee 589 Gontran Childebert II et Clotaire II Rois page 8 Available on November 16h 2006 in bnf fr Schulten 1927 234 Schulten 1927 235 Espana un enigma historico Barcelona 1973 451 452 Schulten 1927 240 Schulten 1927 238 Collins Roger 1990 The Basques 2nd ed Oxford UK Basil Blackwell pp 53 56 ISBN 0631175652 Collins 1990 p 51 Collins 1990 pp 75 76 Caro Baroja Julio 1985 Los vascones y sus vecinos San Sebastian Editorial Txertoa p 89 ISBN 84 7148 136 7 Collins 1992 p 214 sfnp error no target CITEREFCollins1992 help Collins 1990 p 124 126 Inigo Iniguez Arista Aunamendi Entziklopedia EuskoMedia Fundazioa Retrieved 15 August 2013 Collins 1990 p 139 Collins 1990 p 179 Gil Zubillaga 2006 Fatas Cabeza 1972 Knorr 2004 Gorrochategui 1999 J Caro Baroja sourced in Blazquez 1966 10 Koldo Mitxelena Koldo Zuazo Knorr 2004 Nueva Sintesis de la Historia del Pais Vasco Desde la Prehistoria hasta el gobierno de Garaikoetxea Ed TTartalo San Sebastian 2004 ISBN 84 8091 902 7 Koldo Zuazo and the Basque dialects on Hiru com Towards a History of the Basque Language p 190 Jose Ignacio Hualde Joseba Andoni Lakarra Robert Lawrence Trask Koldo Mitxelena etc John Benjamins publishing company Amsterdam Philadelphia 1997 Joaquin Gorrochategui La romanizacion del Pais Vasco Aspectos linguisticos Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea Filologia Articulo en Guipuzkoakultura net Ed digital Archived 2008 12 02 at the Wayback Machine Gil Zubillaga 2006 The inscription in the funerary stele of Lerga has been studied since the 19th Century by Achille Luchaire Koldo Mitxelena and Joaquin Gorrochategui as a part of different researches about the Aquitanian language as it includes the Aquitanian anthroponym of Vmmesahar from ume young child and zahar old umme sahar ume zahar oldest son Um me Sa har i fi lius Nar hun ge si Abi sun ha ri fi lio ann orum XXV T itulum p osuit s umptu s uo Koldo Mitxelena Los nombres indigenas de la inscripcion hispanoromana de Lerga Navarra Principe de Viana magazine XXII 82 83 pp 65 74 1961 Irun Gipuzkoa Iruna Alava Juan Jose Sayas Abengoechea Algunas consideraciones sobre la cristianizacion de los Vascones Principe de Viana magazine XLVI 174 pp 35 56 1985 Roldan Jimeno Origenes del Cristianismo en la tierra de los vascones Ed Pamiela Pamplona 2003 ISBN 84 7681 380 5 Epigraphic catalog in Basque Lacubegis Coelii Te sphoros et Festa et Telesi nus Lacu begi Ex voto Tesphoros Festa and Tesesinus Coeli Peremustae teonimoaren inguruan The altars read Semprini us Betunus Se latse V otum s olvit l ibens m erito References EditCollins Roger The Vaccaei the Vaceti and the rise of Vasconia Studia Historica VI Salamanca 1988 Reprinted in Roger Collins Law Culture and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain Variorum 1992 ISBN 0 86078 308 1 Collins Roger 1990 The Basques Oxford UK Basil Blackwell ISBN 0 631 17565 2 Lewis Archibald R 1965 The Development of Southern French and Catalan Society 718 1050 Austin University of Texas Press Sorauren Mikel Historia de Navarra el Estado Vasco Pamiela Ed 1998 ISBN 84 7681 299 X External links EditVascones in the Aunamendi Encyclopedia by Bernardo Estornes Lasa Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vascones amp oldid 1070871974, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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