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Wikipedia

Not to be confused with Wermuth.
For the character in Detective Conan, see Vermouth (Case Closed).

Vermouth (,UK also) is an aromatized fortified wine, flavoured with various botanicals (roots, barks, flowers, seeds, herbs, and spices) and sometimes colored. The modern versions of the beverage were first produced in the mid- to late 18th century in Turin, Italy. While vermouth was traditionally used for medicinal purposes, it was later served as an apéritif, with fashionable cafés in Turin serving it to guests around the clock. In the late 19th century, it became popular with bartenders as a key ingredient for cocktails, such as the martini, the Manhattan, the Rob Roy, and the Negroni. In addition to being consumed as an apéritif or cocktail ingredient, vermouth is sometimes used as an alternative to white wine in cooking.

A collection of leading Vermouth di Torino brands, including 1757, Antica Formula, Punt e Mes, and 9diDANTE
Four bottles of Vermouth: Fot-Li and Yzaguirre, red Vermouths from Spain; Punt e Mes, red Vermouth from Italy; and Dolin, dry Vermouth from France

Historically, there have been two main types of vermouth: sweet and dry. Responding to demand and competition, vermouth manufacturers have created additional styles, including extra-dry white, sweet white (blanc or bianco), red (rosso), amber (ambre), and rosé.

Vermouth is produced by starting with a base of a neutral grape wine or unfermented wine must. Each manufacturer adds additional alcohol and a proprietary mixture of dry ingredients, consisting of aromatic herbs, roots, and barks, to the base wine, base wine plus spirit, or spirit only – which may be redistilled before adding to the wine or unfermented wine must. After the wine is aromatized and fortified, the vermouth is sweetened with either cane sugar or caramelized sugar, depending on the style.

Italian and French companies produce most of the vermouth consumed throughout the world.

Contents

A collection of vermouth and quinquina bottles, including Noilly Prat Extra Dry, Lillet Blanc, Dolin Rouge, and Martini & Rossi Rosso

Consumption of wines fortified with herbs or roots is believed to have begun in China at least as early as the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties (1250–1000 BC). The extra ingredients were added to wine to make it a medicinal drink. Medicinal drinks made by alcoholic fermentation of herbs and sugars are mentioned in early Indian texts on medicine, though this does not imply that European vermouths originated from ancient Chinese and Indian drinks. Recipes for infusing white wine date back to ancient Greece from around 400 BC. A popular ingredient was wormwood, based on the belief that it was effective at treating stomach disorders and intestinal parasites.[citation needed]

It was commonly used in Hungary at least since the 15th century with different species of artemisia plant like mugwort or wormwood and other spices like mustard seeds, horseradish, elfdock etc. Wormwood is called "üröm" or "irem" in Hungarian hence the drink is called "ürmös" (wormwoodish) or "ürmösbor" (wormwoodish wine). In the 16th century it was used with imported spices too like cinnamon, clove etc. It was well known for healing stomach and digesting problems.

The name "vermouth" is the French pronunciation of the German word Wermut for wormwood that has been used as an ingredient in the drink over its history. Fortified wines containing wormwood as a principal ingredient existed in Germany around the 16th century. At about this time an Italian merchant named D'Alessio began producing a similar product in Piedmont as a "wormwood wine". D'Alessio's version of the libation contained other botanical ingredients in addition to wormwood. Competing brands developed shortly thereafter in eastern and southeastern France, containing their own proprietary mix of ingredients, including herbs, roots, bark and spices. By the mid-17th century, the drink was being consumed in England under the name "vermouth" which has been the common name for the beverage until the present day.

Over time, two distinct versions of vermouth became established, one pale, dry, and bitter, and the other red and sweeter. Merchant Antonio Benedetto Carpano introduced the first sweet vermouth in 1786 in Turin, Italy. The drink reportedly quickly became popular with the royal court of Turin. Around 1800 to 1813, the first pale, dryvermouth was produced in France by Joseph Noilly.However, not all pale vermouths produced over time have been dry, and not all red vermouths have been sweet.

The use of vermouth as a medicinal liquor waned by the end of the 18th century, but its use as an apéritif increased in Italy and France. By the late 19th century, vermouth was being used in cocktails. Bartenders found that it was an ideal mixer for many cocktails, including the Manhattan (beginning around 1880) and the precursors to the Martini. In addition, the popular Vermouth cocktail, first appearing in 1868, consisted of chilled vermouth and a twist of lemon peel with the occasional addition of small amounts of bitters or maraschino. The popularity of vermouth-heavy cocktails in America, often using twice as much vermouth as gin or whiskey, continued through the 1880s and 1890s. Although the amount of vermouth used in cocktail recipes had somewhat declined, it has recently been experiencing a rise as a favorite among a new breed of bartenders, as a key ingredient in many cocktails. Vermouth gained popularity in the 1950s with help from the Martini, which was being marketed by liquor companies. Product placement and celebrity endorsements from personalities such as Ernest Hemingway and Humphrey Bogart helped to increase the Martini's profile. However, the most successful advertiser of the Martini was the fictional character James Bond.

The popularity of vermouth in the United States and Great Britain declined after the mid-20th century, but was still used in those countries in many classic cocktails such as the Manhattan, albeit in smaller amounts. The drink is more popular in other parts of Europe (such as Italy, France and Spain, where it is often consumed by itself as an apéritif).

In the years since 2013, there has been renewed interest in vermouth in the US. Artisanal makers have created new brands of vermouth which do not seek to imitate European styles, and vermouth has been a fast-growing category within the wine trade.

Several wine grapes, including Clairette blanche, Piquepoul, Bianchetta Trevigiana, Catarratto and Trebbiano, are generally used as the base ingredients for vermouths. From these grapes, a low-alcohol white wine is produced by vermouth manufacturers. The wine may be aged for a short while before the addition of other ingredients. For sweet vermouths, sugar syrup is added before the wine is fortified with extra alcohol. The added alcohol is usually a neutral grape spirit, but may also come from vegetable sources such as sugar beets. The wine is then placed in large barrels or tanks to which the dry ingredients have already been added. The mixture is stirred at intervals until the dry ingredients have been absorbed and the drink is ready for bottling. Red vermouths can derive their color from botanicals, added red wine, or sometimes from caramel color. Rose-colored vermouth uses red and white wines as its base. Most vermouths are bottled at between 16% and 18% ABV, as compared with the 9–14% ABV of most unfortified wines.

Spice ingredients often used in vermouths include cloves, cinnamon, quinine, citrus peel, cardamom, marjoram, chamomile, coriander, juniper, hyssop, ginger, and labdanum. The prohibition of wormwood as a drink ingredient in the early 20th century in some countries sharply reduced its use in vermouth, but small amounts of the herb are still sometimes included in artisan products. Vermouth brand recipes vary, with most manufacturers marketing their own unique flavour and version of the beverage. Vermouth manufacturers keep their recipes for the drink secret.

Sweet vermouths usually contain 10–15% sugar. The sugar content in dry vermouths generally does not exceed 4%. Dry vermouths usually are lighter in body than sweet vermouths.

In addition to pale and red vermouths, there exist golden and rosé versions, but these are not as internationally popular. The region of Chambéry in France has received an appellation d'origine contrôlée for its vermouths, which is where the blanc style originated and also includes a strawberry-flavored version called Chambéryzette. Lillet, St. Raphael and Dubonnet are fortified wines similar to vermouth, but are usually considered separate products. The two predominant styles of vermouth—the red, Italian rosso and the dry, white vermouth from France—were created and commercialized more than two centuries ago.

The term "Italian vermouth" is often used to refer to red-colored, mildly bitter, and slightly sweet vermouths. These types of vermouths have also been called "rosso." The label "French vermouth" generally refers to pale, dry vermouths that are more bitter than sweet vermouths. The extra bitterness is often obtained by using nutmeg or bitter orange peel in the drink recipe. Blanc or Bianco is a name given to a type of pale, sweeter vermouth.

According to Stuart Walton and Brian Glover, vermouth "is as far removed from the natural produce of the vine as it is possible for a fortified wine to get."

Beverage

Vermouth is a common cocktail ingredient, particularly in Martinis and Manhattans. When vermouth is drunk by itself— which is seldom outside of Spain, Italy, Portugal, and France — it is normally consumed as an apéritif. Vermouth is used as an ingredient in many different cocktails, as people found it beneficial for lowering the alcohol content of cocktails with strong spirits as their base, for providing a pleasant herbal flavor and aroma, and for accentuating the flavors in the base liquor. As previously stated, vermouth is an ingredient in the martini, one of the most popular and well-known cocktails. At first, martinis used sweet vermouth. Around 1904, however, drier French vermouths began to be used in the cocktail. The term "dry martini" originally meant using a drier vermouth as a mixer, not using less vermouth, as the term is used today.

Sharon Tyler Herbst's book, The Ultimate A-To-Z Bar Guide, lists 112 cocktails using dry vermouth and 82 containing sweet vermouth. Cocktails using either dry or sweet vermouth or both include the Americano, Bronx, Gibson, Malecon, Manhattan, Negroni, Rob Roy, and Rose. Variations of cocktail recipes using equal portions of dry and sweet vermouths are called perfect, as in a Perfect Manhattan.

Cooking

While vermouth can be used as a substitute for white wine in food recipes, because it is more flavorful than wine, it may be overwhelming when used in certain dishes. The herbs in dry vermouth make it an attractive ingredient in sauces for fish dishes or as a marinade for other meats, including pork and chicken.

Storing

Because vermouth is fortified, an opened bottle will not sour as quickly as white wine. Opened vermouth, however, will gradually deteriorate over time. Gourmets recommend that opened bottles of vermouth be consumed within one to three months and should be kept refrigerated to slow oxidation.

The Carpano family originated several notable brands of vermouth, including Punt e Mes, a deep red vermouth with sweet and bitter flavors, and the Antica Formula brand, a bitter, fuller-flavored version of vermouth. Distillerie Fratelli Branca of Milan bought 50% of the Giuseppe B. Carpano company in 1982 and acquired the company outright in 2001. Gancia, Drapò Vermouth, Delmistero, 9diDANTE and Cocchi are other Italian producers.[citation needed]

A bottle of Noilly Prat vermouth

The Cinzano family began production in 1757 in Turin. Their Bianco product is a sweet, pale vermouth.

Dolin [fr] vermouth from Chambéry, France, has been made since 1815. Their product lineup carries both a traditional dry, two different kinds of sweet (red and blanco), and a strawberry (chamberyzette). Dolin is recognized as creating the blanc style.

Martini & Rossi, the top-selling international brand of vermouth, started in 1863 in Turin and produces both dry and sweet vermouths, but is mostly known for its Rosso.Cinzano and Martini & Rossi also produce rosé vermouths, which are mainly distributed in Italy and France.

Noilly Prat, based in southern France, is primarily known for its dry, pale vermouths, but also produces a sweeter version. The company was founded by Joseph Noilly in 1813.

  1. Jones & Gimson 1977.
  2. "Vermouth". Oxford Dictionaries.
  3. Brown & Miller 2011.
  4. Patterson, Troy. "Martini Madness". Slate Magazine. Retrieved14 March 2013.
  5. Clarke, Paul (15 August 2008). "The Truth About Vermouth: The secret ingredient in today's top cocktails remains misunderstood"(Newspaper article). San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved16 May 2011.
  6. Boyd, Gerald (April 2007). "Vermouth - The Aromatized Wine". Hotel F&B.
  7. "Vermouth Styles". vermouth101.com. Retrieved5 February 2019.
  8. "Gold Medal Sweet Vermouth". Boston Apothecary. 19 March 2009.
  9. McGovern, P.E.; Christofidou-Solomidou, M.; Wang, W.; Dukes, F.; Davidson, T.; El-Deiry, W.S. (2010). "Anticancer Activity of Botanical Compounds in Ancient Fermented Beverages". International Journal of Oncology. 37 (1): 5–21. doi:10.3892/ijo_00000647. PMID 20514391.
  10. Meulenbeld & Brill 1971.
  11. "Magyar Ürmös, ürmösbor - Sümegi és Fiai Pincészet". Retrieved7 January 2022.
  12. Walton & Glover 1998, p. 496.
  13. Herbst & Herbst 1998, p. 349.
  14. "Vermouth". Moscow Times Bar Guide. Sanoma. 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 7 June 2012. Retrieved19 May 2011.
  15. Wondrich, David (30 March 2018). "The Coming of the Martini: An Annotated Timeline". Retrieved16 May 2019.
  16. Wondrich, David (10 February 2017). "The American Cocktail That Changed Italy". Retrieved16 May 2019.
  17. Clarke, Paul (October 2012). "American Beauty - Domestic winemakers are doing vermouth in their own way". Imbibe Magazine.
  18. Coley, Jim. "The Art of the Aperitif". 435 South Magazine. Retrieved1 September 2012.
  19. Krader 2009, pp. 120, 129.
  20. Herbst & Herbst 1998, pp. 231, 235–236.
  21. Barnes, Bingo (4 May 2005). "The Classic Martini". Boise Weekly.
  22. Ford 2015, p. 166-69.
  23. Robinson 2012.
  24. "4 essential Italian cocktails made with vermouth | The Grand Wine Tour". www.thegrandwinetour.com.
  25. Walton & Glover 1998, p. 499.
  26. Bettridge, Jack (30 April 2011). "Italy's Gift to Bartenders". Wine Spectator. p. 27.
  27. Feiring, Alice (12 February 2013). "American Vermouth: Anything Goes". The New York Times. Retrieved23 March 2017.
  28. Walton & Glover 1998, p. 497.
  29. Walton & Glover 1998, pp. 498–499.
  30. Ward, Bill (10 March 2010). "Beyond martinis, vermouth can shine"(Newspaper article). Star Tribune. Michael J. Klingensmith. Retrieved19 May 2011.
  31. Viera, Lauren (18 May 2011). "The straight truth about vermouth"(Newspaper article). Chicago Tribune. Tony W. Hunter. Retrieved19 May 2011.
  32. Clark, Paul (28 December 2012). "American Beauty". Imbibe magazine. Retrieved19 November 2013.
  33. Walton & Glover 1998, pp. 496, 499.
  34. Krader 2009, p. 120.
  35. Cole, Katherine (18 January 2011). "Two Local Producers Help Boost Vermouth's Revival"(Newspaper article). The Oregonian. Advance Publications. Retrieved19 May 2011.
  36. Herbst & Herbst 1998, pp. 378–380.
  37. Herbst & Herbst 1998, pp. 62–63.
  38. Krader 2009, p. 129.
  39. Escalante 1915, p. 23.
  40. Krader 2009, p. 123.
  41. Herbst & Herbst 1998, p. 291.
  42. Herbst & Herbst 1998, p. 293.
  43. Orchant, Rebecca (7 October 2013). "Don't Just Drink Vermouth, Eat It". Huffington Post. Retrieved14 November 2013.
  44. Cicero, Linda (5 January 2010). "Recipes: Roast Pork with Vermouth and Olives and Bishop's Bread"(Newspaper article). Seattle Times. Frank A. Blethen. Retrieved19 May 2011.
  45. "Dinner in minutes: Roasted chicken flavored with sage and vermouth". Miami Herald. 24 April 2002.
  46. "The Story: Vermouth Carpano - The Italian Vermouth since 1876". Carpano. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved17 March 2016.
  47. Walton & Glover 1998, pp. 497–498.
  48. "Dolin vermouths". dolin.fr. Retrieved5 February 2019.
  49. "Vermouth boom". punchdrinks.com. Retrieved5 February 2019.
  50. Walton & Glover 1998, pp. 496, 498.
  • Amerine, Maynard Andrew (1974). Vermouth: An Annotated Bibliography. ANR Publications. University of California (System), Division of Agricultural Sciences. ISBN 978-0-931876-20-2.
  • Rizzo, Francesco (1955). La fabbricazione del vermouth (in Italian). Edizioni Agricole.
  • Strucchi, Arnaldo (1907). Il vermouth di Torino: monografia, con 18 incisioni e 12 tavole fototipiche (in Italian). Tip. e Litografia C. Cassone.

Vermouth Article Talk Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Wermuth For the character in Detective Conan see Vermouth Case Closed Vermouth v er ˈ m uː 8 UK also ˈ v ɜːr m e 8 1 2 is an aromatized fortified wine flavoured with various botanicals roots barks flowers seeds herbs and spices and sometimes colored The modern versions of the beverage were first produced in the mid to late 18th century in Turin Italy 3 While vermouth was traditionally used for medicinal purposes it was later served as an aperitif with fashionable cafes in Turin serving it to guests around the clock 3 In the late 19th century it became popular with bartenders as a key ingredient for cocktails 4 5 such as the martini the Manhattan the Rob Roy and the Negroni In addition to being consumed as an aperitif or cocktail ingredient vermouth is sometimes used as an alternative to white wine in cooking A collection of leading Vermouth di Torino brands including 1757 Antica Formula Punt e Mes and 9diDANTE Four bottles of Vermouth Fot Li and Yzaguirre red Vermouths from Spain Punt e Mes red Vermouth from Italy and Dolin dry Vermouth from France Historically there have been two main types of vermouth sweet and dry 6 Responding to demand and competition vermouth manufacturers have created additional styles including extra dry white sweet white blanc or bianco red rosso amber ambre and rose 7 5 Vermouth is produced by starting with a base of a neutral grape wine or unfermented wine must Each manufacturer adds additional alcohol and a proprietary mixture of dry ingredients consisting of aromatic herbs roots and barks to the base wine base wine plus spirit or spirit only which may be redistilled before adding to the wine or unfermented wine must After the wine is aromatized and fortified the vermouth is sweetened with either cane sugar or caramelized sugar depending on the style 8 Italian and French companies produce most of the vermouth consumed throughout the world 3 Contents 1 Etymology and history 2 Production ingredients and flavours 3 Modern use 3 1 Beverage 3 2 Cooking 3 3 Storing 4 Notable brands 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingEtymology and history Edit A collection of vermouth and quinquina bottles including Noilly Prat Extra Dry Lillet Blanc Dolin Rouge and Martini amp Rossi Rosso Consumption of wines fortified with herbs or roots is believed to have begun in China at least as early as the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties 1250 1000 BC 9 The extra ingredients were added to wine to make it a medicinal drink Medicinal drinks made by alcoholic fermentation of herbs and sugars are mentioned in early Indian texts on medicine 10 though this does not imply that European vermouths originated from ancient Chinese and Indian drinks Recipes for infusing white wine date back to ancient Greece from around 400 BC A popular ingredient was wormwood based on the belief that it was effective at treating stomach disorders and intestinal parasites citation needed It was commonly used in Hungary at least since the 15th century with different species of artemisia plant like mugwort or wormwood and other spices like mustard seeds horseradish elfdock etc Wormwood is called urom or irem in Hungarian hence the drink is called urmos wormwoodish or urmosbor wormwoodish wine In the 16th century it was used with imported spices too like cinnamon clove etc It was well known for healing stomach and digesting problems 11 The name vermouth is the French pronunciation of the German word Wermut for wormwood that has been used as an ingredient in the drink over its history Fortified wines containing wormwood as a principal ingredient existed in Germany around the 16th century At about this time an Italian merchant named D Alessio began producing a similar product in Piedmont as a wormwood wine D Alessio s version of the libation contained other botanical ingredients in addition to wormwood Competing brands developed shortly thereafter in eastern and southeastern France containing their own proprietary mix of ingredients including herbs roots bark and spices 5 12 13 By the mid 17th century the drink was being consumed in England under the name vermouth which has been the common name for the beverage until the present day 12 13 Over time two distinct versions of vermouth became established one pale dry and bitter and the other red and sweeter Merchant Antonio Benedetto Carpano introduced the first sweet vermouth in 1786 in Turin Italy The drink reportedly quickly became popular with the royal court of Turin 5 14 Around 1800 to 1813 the first pale dry 13 vermouth was produced in France by Joseph Noilly 5 13 However not all pale vermouths produced over time have been dry and not all red vermouths have been sweet 5 The use of vermouth as a medicinal liquor waned by the end of the 18th century but its use as an aperitif increased in Italy and France 3 By the late 19th century vermouth was being used in cocktails 4 5 Bartenders found that it was an ideal mixer for many cocktails including the Manhattan beginning around 1880 and the precursors to the Martini 15 In addition the popular Vermouth cocktail first appearing in 1868 16 consisted of chilled vermouth and a twist of lemon peel with the occasional addition of small amounts of bitters or maraschino The popularity of vermouth heavy cocktails in America often using twice as much vermouth as gin or whiskey continued through the 1880s and 1890s Although the amount of vermouth used in cocktail recipes had somewhat declined it has recently been experiencing a rise as a favorite among a new breed of bartenders 17 as a key ingredient in many cocktails 5 18 19 20 Vermouth gained popularity in the 1950s with help from the Martini which was being marketed by liquor companies Product placement and celebrity endorsements from personalities such as Ernest Hemingway and Humphrey Bogart helped to increase the Martini s profile However the most successful advertiser of the Martini was the fictional character James Bond 21 The popularity of vermouth in the United States and Great Britain declined after the mid 20th century but was still used in those countries in many classic cocktails such as the Manhattan albeit in smaller amounts The drink is more popular in other parts of Europe such as Italy France and Spain where it is often consumed by itself as an aperitif In the years since 2013 there has been renewed interest in vermouth in the US Artisanal makers have created new brands of vermouth which do not seek to imitate European styles and vermouth has been a fast growing category within the wine trade 22 Production ingredients and flavours EditSeveral wine grapes including Clairette blanche Piquepoul Bianchetta Trevigiana 23 Catarratto and Trebbiano are generally used as the base ingredients for vermouths From these grapes a low alcohol white wine is produced by vermouth manufacturers The wine may be aged for a short while before the addition of other ingredients For sweet vermouths sugar syrup is added before the wine is fortified with extra alcohol The added alcohol is usually a neutral grape spirit but may also come from vegetable sources such as sugar beets The wine is then placed in large barrels or tanks to which the dry ingredients have already been added The mixture is stirred at intervals until the dry ingredients have been absorbed and the drink is ready for bottling Red vermouths can derive their color from botanicals added red wine or sometimes from caramel color Rose colored vermouth uses red and white wines as its base 24 Most vermouths are bottled at between 16 and 18 ABV as compared with the 9 14 ABV of most unfortified wines 5 25 26 Spice ingredients often used in vermouths include cloves cinnamon quinine citrus peel cardamom marjoram chamomile coriander juniper hyssop ginger and labdanum The prohibition of wormwood as a drink ingredient in the early 20th century in some countries sharply reduced its use in vermouth but small amounts of the herb are still sometimes included in artisan products 27 Vermouth brand recipes vary with most manufacturers marketing their own unique flavour and version of the beverage 5 28 Vermouth manufacturers keep their recipes for the drink secret 14 Sweet vermouths usually contain 10 15 sugar The sugar content in dry vermouths generally does not exceed 4 Dry vermouths usually are lighter in body than sweet vermouths 14 In addition to pale and red vermouths there exist golden and rose versions but these are not as internationally popular The region of Chambery in France has received an appellation d origine controlee for its vermouths which is where the blanc style originated and also includes a strawberry flavored version called Chamberyzette 29 30 Lillet St Raphael and Dubonnet are fortified wines similar to vermouth but are usually considered separate products 29 31 The two predominant styles of vermouth the red Italian rosso and the dry white vermouth from France were created and commercialized more than two centuries ago 32 The term Italian vermouth is often used to refer to red colored mildly bitter and slightly sweet vermouths These types of vermouths have also been called rosso 5 The label French vermouth generally refers to pale dry vermouths that are more bitter than sweet vermouths The extra bitterness is often obtained by using nutmeg or bitter orange peel in the drink recipe 5 Blanc or Bianco is a name given to a type of pale sweeter vermouth 5 According to Stuart Walton and Brian Glover vermouth is as far removed from the natural produce of the vine as it is possible for a fortified wine to get 12 Modern use EditBeverage Edit Vermouth is a common cocktail ingredient particularly in Martinis and Manhattans When vermouth is drunk by itself which is seldom outside of Spain Italy Portugal and France it is normally consumed as an aperitif 3 Vermouth is used as an ingredient in many different cocktails as people found it beneficial for lowering the alcohol content of cocktails with strong spirits as their base for providing a pleasant herbal flavor and aroma and for accentuating the flavors in the base liquor As previously stated vermouth is an ingredient in the martini one of the most popular and well known cocktails At first martinis used sweet vermouth 4 Around 1904 however drier French vermouths began to be used in the cocktail The term dry martini originally meant using a drier vermouth as a mixer not using less vermouth as the term is used today 26 33 34 35 Sharon Tyler Herbst s book The Ultimate A To Z Bar Guide lists 112 cocktails using dry vermouth and 82 containing sweet vermouth 36 Cocktails using either dry or sweet vermouth or both include the Americano 37 Bronx 38 Gibson 37 Malecon 39 Manhattan 38 Negroni 40 Rob Roy 41 and Rose 42 Variations of cocktail recipes using equal portions of dry and sweet vermouths are called perfect as in a Perfect Manhattan 13 Cooking Edit While vermouth can be used as a substitute for white wine in food recipes 30 because it is more flavorful than wine it may be overwhelming when used in certain dishes 43 The herbs in dry vermouth make it an attractive ingredient in sauces for fish dishes or as a marinade for other meats including pork and chicken 25 44 45 Storing Edit Because vermouth is fortified an opened bottle will not sour as quickly as white wine Opened vermouth however will gradually deteriorate over time Gourmets recommend that opened bottles of vermouth be consumed within one to three months and should be kept refrigerated to slow oxidation 5 26 Notable brands EditThe Carpano family originated several notable brands of vermouth including Punt e Mes a deep red vermouth with sweet and bitter flavors and the Antica Formula brand a bitter fuller flavored version of vermouth 5 Distillerie Fratelli Branca of Milan bought 50 of the Giuseppe B Carpano company in 1982 and acquired the company outright in 2001 46 Gancia Drapo Vermouth Delmistero 9diDANTE and Cocchi are other Italian producers citation needed A bottle of Noilly Prat vermouth The Cinzano family began production in 1757 in Turin Their Bianco product is a sweet pale vermouth 5 47 Dolin fr vermouth from Chambery France has been made since 1815 Their product lineup carries both a traditional dry two different kinds of sweet red and blanco and a strawberry chamberyzette 48 Dolin is recognized as creating the blanc style 49 Martini amp Rossi the top selling international brand of vermouth started in 1863 in Turin and produces both dry and sweet vermouths but is mostly known for its Rosso 5 50 Cinzano and Martini amp Rossi also produce rose vermouths which are mainly distributed in Italy and France 5 26 Noilly Prat based in southern France is primarily known for its dry pale vermouths but also produces a sweeter version The company was founded by Joseph Noilly in 1813 5 See also Edit Liquor portal Amaro liqueur Bitters Fortified wineNotes Edit Jones amp Gimson 1977 Vermouth Oxford Dictionaries a b c d e Brown amp Miller 2011 a b c Patterson Troy Martini Madness Slate Magazine Retrieved 14 March 2013 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Clarke Paul 15 August 2008 The Truth About Vermouth The secret ingredient in today s top cocktails remains misunderstood Newspaper article San Francisco Chronicle Hearst Corporation Retrieved 16 May 2011 Boyd Gerald April 2007 Vermouth The Aromatized Wine Hotel F amp B Vermouth Styles vermouth101 com Retrieved 5 February 2019 Gold Medal Sweet Vermouth Boston Apothecary 19 March 2009 McGovern P E Christofidou Solomidou M Wang W Dukes F Davidson T El Deiry W S 2010 Anticancer Activity of Botanical Compounds in Ancient Fermented Beverages International Journal of Oncology 37 1 5 21 doi 10 3892 ijo 00000647 PMID 20514391 Meulenbeld amp Brill 1971 Magyar Urmos urmosbor Sumegi es Fiai Pinceszet Retrieved 7 January 2022 a b c Walton amp Glover 1998 p 496 a b c d e Herbst amp Herbst 1998 p 349 a b c Vermouth Moscow Times Bar Guide Sanoma 19 May 2011 Archived from the original on 7 June 2012 Retrieved 19 May 2011 Wondrich David 30 March 2018 The Coming of the Martini An Annotated Timeline Retrieved 16 May 2019 Wondrich David 10 February 2017 The American Cocktail That Changed Italy Retrieved 16 May 2019 Clarke Paul October 2012 American Beauty Domestic winemakers are doing vermouth in their own way Imbibe Magazine Coley Jim The Art of the Aperitif 435 South Magazine Retrieved 1 September 2012 Krader 2009 pp 120 129 Herbst amp Herbst 1998 pp 231 235 236 Barnes Bingo 4 May 2005 The Classic Martini Boise Weekly Ford 2015 p 166 69 Robinson 2012 4 essential Italian cocktails made with vermouth The Grand Wine Tour www thegrandwinetour com a b Walton amp Glover 1998 p 499 a b c d Bettridge Jack 30 April 2011 Italy s Gift to Bartenders Wine Spectator p 27 Feiring Alice 12 February 2013 American Vermouth Anything Goes The New York Times Retrieved 23 March 2017 Walton amp Glover 1998 p 497 a b Walton amp Glover 1998 pp 498 499 a b Ward Bill 10 March 2010 Beyond martinis vermouth can shine Newspaper article Star Tribune Michael J Klingensmith Retrieved 19 May 2011 Viera Lauren 18 May 2011 The straight truth about vermouth Newspaper article Chicago Tribune Tony W Hunter Retrieved 19 May 2011 Clark Paul 28 December 2012 American Beauty Imbibe magazine Retrieved 19 November 2013 Walton amp Glover 1998 pp 496 499 Krader 2009 p 120 Cole Katherine 18 January 2011 Two Local Producers Help Boost Vermouth s Revival Newspaper article The Oregonian Advance Publications Retrieved 19 May 2011 Herbst amp Herbst 1998 pp 378 380 a b Herbst amp Herbst 1998 pp 62 63 a b Krader 2009 p 129 Escalante 1915 p 23 Krader 2009 p 123 Herbst amp Herbst 1998 p 291 Herbst amp Herbst 1998 p 293 Orchant Rebecca 7 October 2013 Don t Just Drink Vermouth Eat It Huffington Post Retrieved 14 November 2013 Cicero Linda 5 January 2010 Recipes Roast Pork with Vermouth and Olives and Bishop s Bread Newspaper article Seattle Times Frank A Blethen Retrieved 19 May 2011 Dinner in minutes Roasted chicken flavored with sage and vermouth Miami Herald 24 April 2002 The Story Vermouth Carpano The Italian Vermouth since 1876 Carpano Archived from the original on 20 March 2016 Retrieved 17 March 2016 Walton amp Glover 1998 pp 497 498 Dolin vermouths dolin fr Retrieved 5 February 2019 Vermouth boom punchdrinks com Retrieved 5 February 2019 Walton amp Glover 1998 pp 496 498 References EditKrader Kate ed 2009 Cocktails 09 New York Food amp Wine Books American Express Publishing ISBN 978 1 60320 811 6 Brown Jared Miller Anistatia 2011 The Mixellany Guide to Vermouth amp Other Aperitifs Mixellany Limited ISBN 978 1 907434 29 7 Escalante John 1915 Manual del Cantinero Havana Modern Imprint Ford Adam 2015 Vermouth The Revival of the Spirit That Created American s Cocktail Culture Woodstock VT Countryman Press ISBN 978 1 58157 296 4 Herbst Sharon Tyler Herbst Ron 1998 The Ultimate A To Z Bar Guide New York Broadway Books ISBN 978 0 7679 0197 0 Jones Daniel Gimson A C 1977 Everyman s English Pronouncing Dictionary 14 ed London J M Dent amp Sons Meulenbeld G J Brill E J 1971 The Madhavanidana and its Chief Commentary Leiden p 441 Robinson Jancis 2012 Wine grapes a complete guide to 1 368 vine varieties including their origins and flavours Julia Harding Jose Vouillamoz London Allen Lane ISBN 978 1 84614 446 2 OCLC 795857065 Walton Stuart Glover Brian 1998 The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Wine Beer Spirits amp Liqueurs London Lorenz Books ISBN 978 0 7548 0334 8 Further reading EditAmerine Maynard Andrew 1974 Vermouth An Annotated Bibliography ANR Publications University of California System Division of Agricultural Sciences ISBN 978 0 931876 20 2 Rizzo Francesco 1955 La fabbricazione del vermouth in Italian Edizioni Agricole Strucchi Arnaldo 1907 Il vermouth di Torino monografia con 18 incisioni e 12 tavole fototipiche in Italian Tip e Litografia C Cassone Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vermouth amp oldid 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