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Vetulocystidae is the only family of the taxon Vetulocystida, which is a group of extinct deuterostomes of uncertain phylogenetic position. Vetulocystidae is made up of the genera Vetulocystis, Dianchicystis and Thylacocercus.

Vetulocystidae
Reconstruction of 2 specimens of Vetulocystis catenata (in the lower part), and the cephalochordate Cathaymyrus diadexus.
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Superphylum:
Order:
Vetulocystida
Family:
Vetulocystidae

Shu, et al., 2004
Type species
Vetulocystis catenata
Shu, et al., 2004
Genera

Contents

The body consists of a voluminous thecal-shaped section (similar to the outer shape of the pterobranchs), where there are two cone-shaped structures (anterior and posterior) and a lenticular respiratory organ; and another small section attached to the substrate.

The anterior cone-shaped structure is believed to have constituted the mouth, due to its similarity to other primitive echinoderms (such as stylophoids and blastoids); while the posterior structure (similar to that of the cystoids and eocrinoids) fulfilled the functions of anus and gonopore. Furthermore, and unlike many other echinoderms, these animals lacked a calcified skeleton.

They were probably sessile, although it is possible that the part attached to the substrate produced a slow displacement. They were fed by filtration.

Despite sharing certain surface characteristics with other taxa (such as Urochordata), Vetulocystida is believed to belong to the Echinodermata stem group; and that it is also related to the taxon Vetulicolia. Based on this, Vetulocystida would represent the transition from the body plan of the vetulicolians to one of the echinoderms.

Old studies suggest the following phylogenetic relationships:

Ambulacraria
Echinodermata (s. l.)

Vetulocystida (Vetulocystidae)

Echinodermata

Homalozoa

Other echinoderms

Hemichordata

However, subsequent studies result in the following phylogeny:

Both cases imply a close relationship with vetulicolians, which is supported by physiological similarities and phylogenetic analyzes.

  1. Shu, D.-G.; Morris, S. Conway; Han, J.; Zhang, Z.-F.; Liu, J.-N. (2004). "Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China". Nature. 430 (6998): 422–428. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..422S. doi:10.1038/nature02648. PMID 15269760. S2CID 4421182.
  2. Rare primitive deuterostomes from the Cambrian (Series 3) of Utah(PDF). Vol. 89. 2015. pp. 631–636.
  3. Han, Jian; Morris, Simon Conway; Ou, Qiang; Shu, Degan; Huang, Hai (2017). "Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)"(PDF). Nature. 542 (7640): 228–231. Bibcode:2017Natur.542..228H. doi:10.1038/nature21072. PMID 28135722. S2CID 353780.

Vetulocystidae Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Vetulocystida Vetulocystidae is the only family of the taxon Vetulocystida which is a group of extinct deuterostomes of uncertain phylogenetic position Vetulocystidae is made up of the genera Vetulocystis Dianchicystis and Thylacocercus 1 2 Vetulocystidae Temporal range 541 501 Ma PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N Early Cambrian Middle CambrianReconstruction of 2 specimens of Vetulocystis catenata in the lower part and the cephalochordate Cathaymyrus diadexus Scientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaSuperphylum DeuterostomiaOrder VetulocystidaFamily Vetulocystidae Shu et al 2004Type species Vetulocystis catenata Shu et al 2004Genera Vetulocystis Dianchicystis Thylacocercus Contents 1 Features 2 Paleoecology 3 Phylogeny 4 References 5 External linksFeatures EditThe body consists of a voluminous thecal shaped section similar to the outer shape of the pterobranchs where there are two cone shaped structures anterior and posterior and a lenticular respiratory organ and another small section attached to the substrate 1 The anterior cone shaped structure is believed to have constituted the mouth due to its similarity to other primitive echinoderms such as stylophoids and blastoids while the posterior structure similar to that of the cystoids and eocrinoids fulfilled the functions of anus and gonopore Furthermore and unlike many other echinoderms these animals lacked a calcified skeleton 1 Paleoecology EditThey were probably sessile although it is possible that the part attached to the substrate produced a slow displacement They were fed by filtration 1 Phylogeny EditDespite sharing certain surface characteristics with other taxa such as Urochordata Vetulocystida is believed to belong to the Echinodermata stem group and that it is also related to the taxon Vetulicolia Based on this Vetulocystida would represent the transition from the body plan of the vetulicolians to one of the echinoderms Old studies suggest the following phylogenetic relationships 1 Ambulacraria Echinodermata s l Vetulocystida Vetulocystidae Echinodermata Homalozoa Other echinoderms Hemichordata However subsequent studies result in the following phylogeny 3 Deuterostomia Xenambulacraria Chordata Saccorhytida Vetulocystida Vetulocystidae Vetulicolia Both cases imply a close relationship with vetulicolians which is supported by physiological similarities and phylogenetic analyzes 3 References Edit a b c d e Shu D G Morris S Conway Han J Zhang Z F Liu J N 2004 Ancestral echinoderms from the Chengjiang deposits of China Nature 430 6998 422 428 Bibcode 2004Natur 430 422S doi 10 1038 nature02648 PMID 15269760 S2CID 4421182 Rare primitive deuterostomes from the Cambrian Series 3 of Utah PDF Vol 89 2015 pp 631 636 a b Han Jian Morris Simon Conway Ou Qiang Shu Degan Huang Hai 2017 Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi China PDF Nature 542 7640 228 231 Bibcode 2017Natur 542 228H doi 10 1038 nature21072 PMID 28135722 S2CID 353780 External links EditSmith A B 2004 Echinoderm roots Nature 430 411 412 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vetulocystidae amp oldid 1081316850, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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