fbpx
Wikipedia

Viareggio

Viareggio (Italian pronunciation: ) is a city and comune in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. With a population of over 62,000, it is the second largest city within the province of Lucca, after Lucca.

Viareggio
Città di VIAREGGIO
A view of one of Viareggio's Hotel Royal along the passeggiata ("promenade"), with the "Fountain of the Four Seasons" by Beppe Domenici in front.
Coat of arms
Location of Viareggio
Viareggio
Location of Viareggio in Tuscany
Show map of Italy
Viareggio
Viareggio (Tuscany)
Show map of Tuscany
Coordinates:43°52′N10°14′E /43.867°N 10.233°E /43.867; 10.233Coordinates: 43°52′N10°14′E /43.867°N 10.233°E /43.867; 10.233
CountryItaly
RegionTuscany
ProvinceLucca
FrazioniTorre del Lago Puccini
Government
• MayorGiorgio Del Ghingaro
Area
• Total32.42 km2 (12.52 sq mi)
Elevation
2 m (7 ft)
Population
(31 March 2017)
• Total62,169
• Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Viareggini, Torrelaghesi
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
55049, 55048
Dialing code0584
Patron saintMaria Santissima Annunziata
Saint dayMarch 25
WebsiteOfficial website
The Excelsior (right) and Principe di Piemonte (left) Hotels.

It is known as a seaside resort as well as being the home of the famous carnival of Viareggio (dating back to 1873), and its papier-mâché floats, which (since 1925), parade along the promenade known as "Passeggiata a mare", in the weeks of Carnival. The symbol of the carnival of Viareggio and its official mask is Burlamacco, designed and invented by Uberto Bonetti in 1930.

The city traces its roots back to the first half of the 16th century when it became the only gate to the sea for the Republic of Lucca. The oldest building in Viareggio, known as Torre Matilde, dates back to this time and was built by the Lucchesi in 1541 as a defensive fortification to fight the constant menace of corsair incursions.

Viareggio is also an active industrial and manufacturing centre; its shipbuilding industry has long been renowned around the world and its fishing and floricultural industries are still fundamental sectors to the city's economy.

Viareggio hosts the Premio letterario Viareggio Répaci for literature, established in 1929. Amongst the other events organized around the year, it is worth mentioning the Festival Gaber, which has been held every August since 2004 to celebrate the memory of Giorgio Gaber, and is attended by several high-profile Italian musicians.

Contents

The entire area of Viareggio extends over the coastal flooding plain of Versilia. Located on the Ligurian Sea (although traditionally considered to face the Tyrrhenian Sea), it has 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) of sandy beaches, of which 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) are managed by private beach resorts and the remaining 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) are public (most of the public beach is part of the Parco Naturale Regionale Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli. Viareggio borders the local municipalities of Camaiore, Massarosa and Vecchiano) (PI).

The municipal area comprises the Lake of Massaciuccoli and several canals, the most important ones of which are known as Burlamacca, Farabola, Fossa dell'Abate (bordering the municipality of Camaiore), and Fosso Le Quindici.

Climate

The climate is characterised by high levels of humidity (between 60 and 80% of relative humidity in the summer months) and a yearly rainfall off 900 to 1,000 millimetres (35 to 39 in) as a result of the proximity of the Apuanian Alps to the coast.

The main winds blow from the south-east, the Libeccio and the Ponente which batter the coast for two to three days in a row and cause severe storms.

During winter months (Dec-Feb), high temperatures can vary between 14–15 °C (57–59 °F) and 4–5 °C (39–41 °F), while night time temperatures can reach below 0 °C (32 °F). In the summer (Jun-Aug), temperatures peak around 31–33 °C (88–91 °F). The very high summer humidity (average 70%) and low cloud cover can mean that the heat index temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) or more higher than the air temperature.

  • Climatic classification: zone D, 1416 GR/G
  • Atmospheric diffusivity: low, Ibimet CNR 2002
Climate data for Pisa ITA, 1973–2017
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
21.0
(69.8)
24.0
(75.2)
28.0
(82.4)
32.0
(89.6)
37.6
(99.7)
39.0
(102.2)
38.2
(100.8)
36.0
(96.8)
30.2
(86.4)
25.0
(77.0)
20.4
(68.7)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
12.3
(54.1)
15.1
(59.2)
17.8
(64.0)
22.1
(71.8)
26.3
(79.3)
29.4
(84.9)
29.4
(84.9)
25.7
(78.3)
20.9
(69.6)
15.5
(59.9)
11.8
(53.2)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.7
(45.9)
10.1
(50.2)
12.7
(54.9)
16.6
(61.9)
20.5
(68.9)
23.4
(74.1)
23.7
(74.7)
20.2
(68.4)
16.1
(61.0)
11.1
(52.0)
7.6
(45.7)
14.7
(58.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.0
(37.4)
5.0
(41.0)
7.5
(45.5)
11.1
(52.0)
14.8
(58.6)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
14.8
(58.6)
11.3
(52.3)
6.8
(44.2)
3.4
(38.1)
9.6
(49.3)
Record low °C (°F) −14.0
(6.8)
−8.0
(17.6)
−8.0
(17.6)
−5.0
(23.0)
1.0
(33.8)
5.0
(41.0)
9.0
(48.2)
8.0
(46.4)
5.0
(41.0)
0.8
(33.4)
−7.0
(19.4)
−7.0
(19.4)
−14.0
(6.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 68.72
(2.71)
65.42
(2.58)
65.04
(2.56)
72.48
(2.85)
54.73
(2.15)
50.31
(1.98)
33.21
(1.31)
58.70
(2.31)
87.74
(3.45)
122.73
(4.83)
105.45
(4.15)
81.77
(3.22)
866.29
(34.11)
Average relative humidity (%) 77.4 73.6 72.5 73.9 74.0 71.7 69.2 70.5 73.3 77.6 79.3 78.8 74.3
Source 1: Il Meteo All temperatures and humidity, rainfall to 2009.
Source 2: Wunderground Rainfall from April 2012 onwards.

Ancient and medieval ages

During the 3rd century BC, the mountains of Versilia were slowly invaded by the Ligurian tribes who, coming from the north, stretched their area of influence as far south as the river Arno. In 180 BC the Romans defeated the Ligurians and started colonising the Versilia (the areas known today as Massaciuccoli, Camaiore, Pietrasanta).

The most widely accepted theory recognises the city's name as deriving from the Latin Via Regis ("Kings' Road"), the name of the Medieval road linking the fortification built on the beach to Lucca.

According to other historians, instead, the name derives from Vicus Regius. This theory is based on the fact that in imperial times, there was a small inhabited centre (vicus) in the area known as "Gli Ortacci" which belonged to the empire, hence regius ("Royal").

Several hillside towns started developing in the Middle Ages, some of which are still active. The area currently hosting the city of Viareggio was still marshland and not inhabited. Around 1000 A.D. the first hostilities between Lucca and Pisa arose, aimed at gaining control over the coast of the Versila, which since the High Middle Ages had been nothing more than a forest owned by feudal lords in constant rivalry with each other.

The Burlamacca canal and the old lighthouse.

The first mention of Viareggio dates back to 1169 when a wooden tower guarding the coast was built. A little over two years later, in (1172) a military building named Turris de Via Regia was erected, taking its name from the road that linked it to Lucca (known today as via Montramito). In the following years the area around Viareggio, was involved in the hostilities between Pisa and Lucca, in their attempt to gain control over the coastal area. The conflict was spurred by the desire of the Lucchesi to finally gain access to the sea, and to the Pisane fear of the economic competition of its rival city. It is during these years that the feudal Lords of Versilia were forced to abdicate in favour of Castruccio Castracani. In the following years the area upon which Viareggio would eventually be built was marked by a number of minor battles, invasions and pillages. In addition, the area was also affected by the pestilence which, recounted by Giovanni Boccaccio in his masterpiece the Decameron, spread throughout the whole of Italy.

15th through 17th centuries

In these years Florence expanded its control over Tuscany. Lucca, however, managed to maintain its independence in exchange for hefty financial penalties.

On September 10, 1513, Pope Leo X removed the port of Motrone from the control of Lucca. This directly affected the future of Viareggio which, from that moment, became the focus of Lucca's efforts to turn the town into its centre for commercial activities, and, in addition to the square-plan tower erected in (1534) with the aim to protect the port, several settlements started appearing.

The 17th century was perhaps one of the most difficult periods for the 300 inhabitants of Viareggio; the area was insalubrious, malaria and other deadly epidemic diseases made the lives of fishermen and farmers extremely difficult. Lucca, on the other hand, increased its efforts to drain the marshlands to improve quality of life and encouraged migration to the new town.

Slowly Viareggio changed its appearance; two small churches and as many factories were built, followed by a number of small shops. Meanwhile, its port became more active, while the cultivation of the drained fields started.

18th and 19th centuries

Principe di Piemonte Hotel.

In 1701 Viareggio became a comune (municipality). In 1739, thanks to the work of hydraulics engineer Bernardino Zendrini the marshlands were finally completely drained and the town turned into a place where noblemen from Lucca would come and build their palaces.

In May 1799 Viareggio was the centre of a popular uprising against the Jacobins.

With the invasion of Italy by Napoleon the Lucchese state was turned into a principality whose sovereignty was given to Felice Baciocchi, although the real power was in the hands of Napoleon's older sister, Elisa. Elisa's government was characterised by unpopular measures such as those against the ecclesiastic patrimony. Similarly, most of her financial policies were of dubious effect, although some were welcomed by the locals, such as the adoption of the "Napoleonic Code", the adoption of the metric system, the introduction of mandatory vaccination against smallpox.

With the fall of Napoleon and Baciocchi, Viareggio was the centre of several acts of violence. In March 1814 the population openly protested against the French, an event which turned into acts of pure vandalism.

Viareggio remained under the control of the Austrians until 1817 when, as part of the agreements from Congress of Vienna, Maria Luisa of Spain was assigned the new Duchy of Lucca. The years to come would wipe out any good action that had been taken during the Napoleonic rule, although the new ruler would contribute to the town's expansion by building its first marina (seaside). In 1820 Viareggio obtained the status of city.

Following the death of his mother (March 13, 1824), Charles Louis of Parma took over the government of Lucca and greatly contributed to Viareggio's expansion, by building a new church, a royal casino and two beach resorts, the first ones to be built in Viareggio.

On October 5, 1847, Lucca was acquired by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Viareggio, in this new scenario, developed as a seaside resort for the whole of Tuscany. In 1848 the city adopted its current coat of arms. In these years Viareggio was the destination of many exiled intellectuals of the Italian Risorgimento who were tolerated by the local sovereigns.

During these years Viareggio's economy saw a very rapid expansion through its already recognised beach tourism and the newly expanding sailboat industry. Its population increased from 300 in 1740 to 6,549 in 1841.

20th century

The beginning of the 20th century saw again a marked development of the coast and tourism industry which determined a drastic change to most of the beach. The Passeggiata or promenade was born, with its cafés and shops, contributing to turning the city into the "Pearl of the Tyrrhenian Sea". Wood was very widely used in most building and, in 1917, a large portion of the city was lost in fire in only one night. It was only during the fascist era that wood would finally be replaced by other materials.

During World War II Viareggio was subject to heavy bombings and entire suburbs of the city were destroyed.

After the war, the reconstruction could finally begin, but the city had changed its appearance dramatically. Today Viareggio is still a renowned seaside resort and is widely famous for its carnival and shipbuilding industry.

21st century

Late in the evening of June 29, 2009, a train carrying liquified petroleum gas derailed while approaching Viareggio's railway station. The ensuing explosion killed 32 people, injured many others, and destroyed a large number of homes and families near the station.

Statue of Burlamacco on Belvedere delle Maschere.
War Memorial in Piazza Garibaldi, known as "Piazza delle Paure".
Grand Hotel.
Torre Matilde and the Marina of Lucca.
Liberty-style building.
Villa Borbone, between Viareggio and Torre del Lago Puccini.
A float being towed out of the Cittadella del Carnevale.
Carnival Float, 2007.
  • Villa Orlandi
  • Villa Borbone (between Viareggio and Torre del Lago Puccini).
  • Villa Puccini, Museum.
  • Monument to the Resistance and to Peace, (largo Risorgimento). The monument is made of columns taken from the old City Hall, destroyed by the aerial bombardments of World War II, and two walls running perpendicular to each other. On one of these a mosaic from Jean-Michel Folon can be found together with a quote from Quasimodo: "E come potevamo noi cantare con i piedi stranieri sopra il cuore?"/"And how could we sing with foreign feet trampling onto our hearts?"
The pier and the Burlamacca's canal.

Viareggio can be reached by car from the A11 (Firenze-Mare) motorway, via the A11/"Bretella" Lucca-Viareggio link road or A12 (Genoa-Rosignano) motorway.

Viareggio railway station is located near the city center, with 60 daily trains running along the RomePisa–La Spezia–Genoa line, and the line to Florence, as well as international trains.

The nearest airport is Pisa's "Galileo Galilei" international airport, just 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Viareggio's city center. Florence's "Amerigo Vespucci" airport is 95 kilometres (59 mi) to the east.

Port and marina

Two extensions to today's Burlamacca canal were built in 1577. It is on its banks that the first maritime activities developed

In 1740, Bernardino Zendrini had a water-gate built in order to prevent the sea water from arriving to lake Massaciuccoli.

In 1820 Maria Luisa, duchess of Lucca had the first marina of Viareggio built, which was completed in 1823, and took the name of Marina of Lucca.

Between 1871 and 1873 the so-called Marina of Tuscany was built, then followed by the Marina of Italy, 1907 through to 1911.

In 1938 the Marina of the Empire was also built, which was followed in the 1970s by the Marina of Viareggio (also known as the New Marina), the Marina of the Madonnina, and the new lighthouse.

The Madonnina can host up to 500 vessels.

The city hosts the local Capitaneria di Porto, and all vessels registered here bear the marking VG.

The primary sectors of Viareggio's economy are tourism, commerce and services, include fishing and floriculture (the flowers of Versilia).

The city also houses prolific shipyards.

At the beginning of the 19th century the craftsmen from Viareggio used to build small fishing vessels along the banks of the Burlamacca canal. As the century moved on, however, this small shipbuilding activity prospered until it became an internationally acclaimed centre. Nowadays, Viareggio represents the main luxury yachts producer city in the world thanks to the presence in the territory of shipyards like Azimut Benetti, Codecasa, Fipa, Rossinavi, Perini navi and many others.

Carnival

Main article: Carnival of Viareggio

The Carnival of Viareggio was established in 1873, while the now ever-present papier mâché – used to build the floats featured during its parades – was first introduced in 1925. The official masks of the Carnival are Burlamacco and Ondina, drawn for the first time in 1930.

Since 1954, RAI broadcasts the entire event on national TV. Since 2001, the craftsmen of the carnival have moved to the Cittadella del Carnevale or, literally, Carnival Town.

Prizes

  • Premio letterario Viareggio Repaci, a literary award founded in 1929 by Leonida Rèpaci, Alberto Colantuoni and Carlo Salsa.
  • Premio internazionale Artiglio.
  • Premio Sport Città di Viareggio.
  • Premio Viareggio Sport.

Events

  • Festival Puccini (held in Torre del Lago Puccini). It takes place every summer since 1930, between July and August, in an open-air theatre with 3,200 seats on the shore of lake Massaciuccoli. A new permanent theatre was opened in 2009.
  • Jazz and more..., music festival held since 2002
  • Festival teatro canzone – Giorgio Gaber, since 2004
  • Viareggio Incontri, at "Il Principino", on the Promenade.
  • EuropaCinema, an international film festival reserved to the European film industry. It has been founded in 1984 in Rimini, it was then moved to Bari in 1988, and finally to Viareggio in 1989.
  • The Torneo Mondiale Giovanile di Calcio "Coppa Carnevale" is one of the most prestigious youth football tournaments and is contested by the youth teams from clubs around the world.

The city is home of the roller hockey team CGC Viareggio. CGC Viareggio was the first club of Lucca province to be champion, in Italian sport. In 2011, got for the city the Lega Nazionale Hockey title.

The association football team is F.C. Esperia Viareggio.

It also has its own professional beach soccer team Viareggio Beach Soccer.

Viareggio has a single frazione, Torre del Lago Puccini, having a population of around 11,000.

The city itself is subdivided into four Circoscrizioni:

  • Circoscrizione no. 1: Torre del Lago Puccini.
  • Circoscrizione no. 2: Centro Marco Polo.
  • Circoscrizione no. 3: Darsena/ex Campo d'Aviazione.
  • Circoscrizione no. 4: Viareggio Nuova.

The current coat of arms was chosen in 1848 and replaces the previous one dating back to 1752, which showed an image of Saint Anthony from Padua, the first patron saint of the city.

The current coat of arms consists of an anchor with a hawser placed on top of a white, red and green shield. Viareggio was one of the first municipalities to adopt the tricolore (later to become the official flag of the unified Italy) for its coat of arm; even before Italy was officially unified.

Viareggio is twinned with:

  1. "A Viareggio vince Del Ghingaro, l'uomo Pd che batte il suo partito".
  2. "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Italian National Institute of Statistics. RetrievedMarch 16, 2019.
  3. "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Italian National Institute of Statistics. RetrievedMarch 16, 2019.
  4. Population data from Istat
  5. "Archivio Meteo Viareggio". ilmeteo.it. RetrievedMarch 3, 2017.
  6. "Weather History for LIRP". www.wunderground.com. RetrievedMarch 3, 2017.
  7. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911)."Viareggio" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 17.
  8. "Italian train inferno kills 16". Yahoo news. RetrievedJune 30, 2009.[dead link]
  9. 1998, Bruno Belluomini
  10. "Opole Official Website – Twin Towns". (in English and Polish)copyright 2007–2009 Urząd Miasta Opola. RetrievedJune 18, 2009.

History

  • Bergamini, Francesco (1995). Le mille e una...notizia di vita viareggina 1169/1940. Viareggio: Pezzini Editore.
  • Paolo Fornaciari (ed.). I quaderni del Centro Documentario Storico (Cenni di storia viareggina).
  • __ (1994). I quaderni della torre. Viareggio: Pezzini Editore.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  • Paolo Fornaciari (ed.). Quaderni di storia e cultura. Viareggio: Pezzini Editore.
  • Del Carlo, Quinto. Ruggero Righini (ed.). L'antica magione...storia preromana di Viareggio e Versilia. Edizioni Dedalus.
  • Bergamini, Francesco (2000). Viareggio e la sua Storia 1000–1800. Viareggio: Pezzini Editore.

Buildings

  • Polleschi, Giorgio (1994). Le opere dell'ingegnere architetto Alfredo Belluomini. Viareggio: Edizioni della Fontana.
  • Gravina, Luigi. Viareggio Illustrata. Viareggio: Arti Grafiche G. Pezzini.

Religion

  • Menchini, C.; G. Pratesi (1996). La Basilica di Sant'Andrea di Viareggio. Viareggio: Grafiche L'ancora.
  • __ (1996). La Basilica di San Paolino. Viareggio: Grafiche L'ancora.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  • __ (2004). Luoghi ebraici in Toscana. Settimo Milanese: Grafiche Mazzucchelli.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

Other

  • Daniele Palchetti, ed. (2003). Viareggio. Milan: Idea Books.
  • Isaliana Lazzerini, ed. (2003). D'incanto (attraverso Viareggio tra natura, storia, cultura e sogno). Florence: Maschietto Editore.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toViareggio.

Viareggio
Viareggio Language Watch Edit Viareggio Italian pronunciation vjaˈreddʒo vi aˈreddʒo is a city and comune in northern Tuscany Italy on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea With a population of over 62 000 it is the second largest city within the province of Lucca after Lucca ViareggioComuneCitta di VIAREGGIOA view of one of Viareggio s Hotel Royal along the passeggiata promenade with the Fountain of the Four Seasons by Beppe Domenici in front Coat of armsLocation of ViareggioViareggioLocation of Viareggio in TuscanyShow map of ItalyViareggioViareggio Tuscany Show map of TuscanyCoordinates 43 52 N 10 14 E 43 867 N 10 233 E 43 867 10 233 Coordinates 43 52 N 10 14 E 43 867 N 10 233 E 43 867 10 233CountryItalyRegionTuscanyProvinceLuccaFrazioniTorre del Lago PucciniGovernment MayorGiorgio Del Ghingaro 1 Area 2 Total32 42 km2 12 52 sq mi Elevation2 m 7 ft Population 31 March 2017 4 Total62 169 Density1 900 km2 5 000 sq mi Demonym s Viareggini TorrelaghesiTime zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Postal code55049 55048Dialing code0584Patron saintMaria Santissima AnnunziataSaint dayMarch 25WebsiteOfficial websiteThe Excelsior right and Principe di Piemonte left Hotels It is known as a seaside resort as well as being the home of the famous carnival of Viareggio dating back to 1873 and its papier mache floats which since 1925 parade along the promenade known as Passeggiata a mare in the weeks of Carnival The symbol of the carnival of Viareggio and its official mask is Burlamacco designed and invented by Uberto Bonetti in 1930 The city traces its roots back to the first half of the 16th century when it became the only gate to the sea for the Republic of Lucca The oldest building in Viareggio known as Torre Matilde dates back to this time and was built by the Lucchesi in 1541 as a defensive fortification to fight the constant menace of corsair incursions Viareggio is also an active industrial and manufacturing centre its shipbuilding industry has long been renowned around the world and its fishing and floricultural industries are still fundamental sectors to the city s economy Viareggio hosts the Premio letterario Viareggio Repaci for literature established in 1929 Amongst the other events organized around the year it is worth mentioning the Festival Gaber which has been held every August since 2004 to celebrate the memory of Giorgio Gaber and is attended by several high profile Italian musicians Contents 1 Geography 1 1 Climate 2 History 2 1 Ancient and medieval ages 2 2 15th through 17th centuries 2 3 18th and 19th centuries 2 4 20th century 2 5 21st century 3 Main sights 4 Transportation 4 1 Port and marina 5 Economy 6 Culture 6 1 Carnival 6 2 Prizes 6 3 Events 7 Sport 8 Administrative subdivisions 9 Coat of arms 10 International relations 11 People 12 See also 13 References 14 Sources 14 1 History 14 2 Buildings 14 3 Religion 14 4 Other 15 External linksGeography EditThe entire area of Viareggio extends over the coastal flooding plain of Versilia Located on the Ligurian Sea although traditionally considered to face the Tyrrhenian Sea it has 10 kilometres 6 2 mi of sandy beaches of which 6 kilometres 3 7 mi are managed by private beach resorts and the remaining 4 kilometres 2 5 mi are public most of the public beach is part of the Parco Naturale Regionale Migliarino San Rossore Massaciuccoli Viareggio borders the local municipalities of Camaiore Massarosa and Vecchiano PI The municipal area comprises the Lake of Massaciuccoli and several canals the most important ones of which are known as Burlamacca Farabola Fossa dell Abate bordering the municipality of Camaiore and Fosso Le Quindici Climate Edit The climate is characterised by high levels of humidity between 60 and 80 of relative humidity in the summer months and a yearly rainfall off 900 to 1 000 millimetres 35 to 39 in as a result of the proximity of the Apuanian Alps to the coast The main winds blow from the south east the Libeccio and the Ponente which batter the coast for two to three days in a row and cause severe storms During winter months Dec Feb high temperatures can vary between 14 15 C 57 59 F and 4 5 C 39 41 F while night time temperatures can reach below 0 C 32 F In the summer Jun Aug temperatures peak around 31 33 C 88 91 F The very high summer humidity average 70 and low cloud cover can mean that the heat index temperature is 20 C 68 F or more higher than the air temperature Climatic classification zone D 1416 GR G Atmospheric diffusivity low Ibimet CNR 2002Climate data for Pisa ITA 1973 2017Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 20 0 68 0 21 0 69 8 24 0 75 2 28 0 82 4 32 0 89 6 37 6 99 7 39 0 102 2 38 2 100 8 36 0 96 8 30 2 86 4 25 0 77 0 20 4 68 7 39 0 102 2 Average high C F 11 2 52 2 12 3 54 1 15 1 59 2 17 8 64 0 22 1 71 8 26 3 79 3 29 4 84 9 29 4 84 9 25 7 78 3 20 9 69 6 15 5 59 9 11 8 53 2 19 8 67 6 Daily mean C F 6 8 44 2 7 7 45 9 10 1 50 2 12 7 54 9 16 6 61 9 20 5 68 9 23 4 74 1 23 7 74 7 20 2 68 4 16 1 61 0 11 1 52 0 7 6 45 7 14 7 58 5 Average low C F 2 4 36 3 3 0 37 4 5 0 41 0 7 5 45 5 11 1 52 0 14 8 58 6 17 4 63 3 18 0 64 4 14 8 58 6 11 3 52 3 6 8 44 2 3 4 38 1 9 6 49 3 Record low C F 14 0 6 8 8 0 17 6 8 0 17 6 5 0 23 0 1 0 33 8 5 0 41 0 9 0 48 2 8 0 46 4 5 0 41 0 0 8 33 4 7 0 19 4 7 0 19 4 14 0 6 8 Average rainfall mm inches 68 72 2 71 65 42 2 58 65 04 2 56 72 48 2 85 54 73 2 15 50 31 1 98 33 21 1 31 58 70 2 31 87 74 3 45 122 73 4 83 105 45 4 15 81 77 3 22 866 29 34 11 Average relative humidity 77 4 73 6 72 5 73 9 74 0 71 7 69 2 70 5 73 3 77 6 79 3 78 8 74 3Source 1 Il Meteo 5 All temperatures and humidity rainfall to 2009 Source 2 Wunderground 6 Rainfall from April 2012 onwards History EditAncient and medieval ages Edit During the 3rd century BC the mountains of Versilia were slowly invaded by the Ligurian tribes who coming from the north stretched their area of influence as far south as the river Arno In 180 BC the Romans defeated the Ligurians and started colonising the Versilia the areas known today as Massaciuccoli Camaiore Pietrasanta The most widely accepted theory recognises the city s name as deriving from the Latin Via Regis Kings Road the name of the Medieval road linking the fortification built on the beach to Lucca According to other historians instead the name derives from Vicus Regius This theory is based on the fact that in imperial times there was a small inhabited centre vicus in the area known as Gli Ortacci which belonged to the empire hence regius Royal Several hillside towns started developing in the Middle Ages some of which are still active The area currently hosting the city of Viareggio was still marshland and not inhabited Around 1000 A D the first hostilities between Lucca and Pisa arose aimed at gaining control over the coast of the Versila which since the High Middle Ages had been nothing more than a forest owned by feudal lords in constant rivalry with each other The Burlamacca canal and the old lighthouse The first mention of Viareggio dates back to 1169 when a wooden tower guarding the coast was built A little over two years later in 1172 a military building named Turris de Via Regia was erected taking its name from the road that linked it to Lucca known today as via Montramito In the following years the area around Viareggio was involved in the hostilities between Pisa and Lucca in their attempt to gain control over the coastal area The conflict was spurred by the desire of the Lucchesi to finally gain access to the sea and to the Pisane fear of the economic competition of its rival city It is during these years that the feudal Lords of Versilia were forced to abdicate in favour of Castruccio Castracani In the following years the area upon which Viareggio would eventually be built was marked by a number of minor battles invasions and pillages In addition the area was also affected by the pestilence which recounted by Giovanni Boccaccio in his masterpiece the Decameron spread throughout the whole of Italy 15th through 17th centuries Edit In these years Florence expanded its control over Tuscany Lucca however managed to maintain its independence in exchange for hefty financial penalties On September 10 1513 Pope Leo X removed the port of Motrone from the control of Lucca This directly affected the future of Viareggio which from that moment became the focus of Lucca s efforts to turn the town into its centre for commercial activities and in addition to the square plan tower erected in 1534 with the aim to protect the port several settlements started appearing The 17th century was perhaps one of the most difficult periods for the 300 inhabitants of Viareggio the area was insalubrious malaria and other deadly epidemic diseases made the lives of fishermen and farmers extremely difficult Lucca on the other hand increased its efforts to drain the marshlands to improve quality of life and encouraged migration to the new town Slowly Viareggio changed its appearance two small churches and as many factories were built followed by a number of small shops Meanwhile its port became more active while the cultivation of the drained fields started 18th and 19th centuries Edit Principe di Piemonte Hotel In 1701 Viareggio became a comune municipality In 1739 thanks to the work of hydraulics engineer Bernardino Zendrini the marshlands were finally completely drained and the town turned into a place where noblemen from Lucca would come and build their palaces In May 1799 Viareggio was the centre of a popular uprising against the Jacobins With the invasion of Italy by Napoleon the Lucchese state was turned into a principality whose sovereignty was given to Felice Baciocchi although the real power was in the hands of Napoleon s older sister Elisa Elisa s government was characterised by unpopular measures such as those against the ecclesiastic patrimony Similarly most of her financial policies were of dubious effect although some were welcomed by the locals such as the adoption of the Napoleonic Code the adoption of the metric system the introduction of mandatory vaccination against smallpox With the fall of Napoleon and Baciocchi Viareggio was the centre of several acts of violence In March 1814 the population openly protested against the French an event which turned into acts of pure vandalism Viareggio remained under the control of the Austrians until 1817 when as part of the agreements from Congress of Vienna Maria Luisa of Spain was assigned the new Duchy of Lucca The years to come would wipe out any good action that had been taken during the Napoleonic rule although the new ruler would contribute to the town s expansion by building its first marina seaside In 1820 Viareggio obtained the status of city Following the death of his mother March 13 1824 Charles Louis of Parma took over the government of Lucca and greatly contributed to Viareggio s expansion by building a new church a royal casino and two beach resorts the first ones to be built in Viareggio On October 5 1847 Lucca was acquired by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany Viareggio in this new scenario developed as a seaside resort for the whole of Tuscany In 1848 the city adopted its current coat of arms In these years Viareggio was the destination of many exiled intellectuals of the Italian Risorgimento who were tolerated by the local sovereigns During these years Viareggio s economy saw a very rapid expansion through its already recognised beach tourism and the newly expanding sailboat industry Its population increased from 300 in 1740 to 6 549 in 1841 7 20th century Edit The beginning of the 20th century saw again a marked development of the coast and tourism industry which determined a drastic change to most of the beach The Passeggiata or promenade was born with its cafes and shops contributing to turning the city into the Pearl of the Tyrrhenian Sea Wood was very widely used in most building and in 1917 a large portion of the city was lost in fire in only one night It was only during the fascist era that wood would finally be replaced by other materials During World War II Viareggio was subject to heavy bombings and entire suburbs of the city were destroyed After the war the reconstruction could finally begin but the city had changed its appearance dramatically Today Viareggio is still a renowned seaside resort and is widely famous for its carnival and shipbuilding industry 21st century Edit Main article 2009 Viareggio train derailment Late in the evening of June 29 2009 a train carrying liquified petroleum gas derailed while approaching Viareggio s railway station The ensuing explosion killed 32 people injured many others and destroyed a large number of homes and families near the station 8 Statue of Burlamacco on Belvedere delle Maschere War Memorial in Piazza Garibaldi known as Piazza delle Paure Grand Hotel Torre Matilde and the Marina of Lucca Liberty style building Villa Borbone between Viareggio and Torre del Lago Puccini A float being towed out of the Cittadella del Carnevale Carnival Float 2007 Main sights EditVilla Orlandi Villa Borbone between Viareggio and Torre del Lago Puccini Villa Puccini Museum Monument to the Resistance and to Peace largo Risorgimento The monument is made of columns taken from the old City Hall destroyed by the aerial bombardments of World War II and two walls running perpendicular to each other On one of these a mosaic from Jean Michel Folon can be found together with a quote from Quasimodo E come potevamo noi cantare con i piedi stranieri sopra il cuore And how could we sing with foreign feet trampling onto our hearts 9 Transportation Edit The pier and the Burlamacca s canal Viareggio can be reached by car from the A11 Firenze Mare motorway via the A11 Bretella Lucca Viareggio link road or A12 Genoa Rosignano motorway Viareggio railway station is located near the city center with 60 daily trains running along the Rome Pisa La Spezia Genoa line and the line to Florence as well as international trains The nearest airport is Pisa s Galileo Galilei international airport just 20 kilometres 12 mi south of Viareggio s city center Florence s Amerigo Vespucci airport is 95 kilometres 59 mi to the east Port and marina Edit Two extensions to today s Burlamacca canal were built in 1577 It is on its banks that the first maritime activities developed In 1740 Bernardino Zendrini had a water gate built in order to prevent the sea water from arriving to lake Massaciuccoli In 1820 Maria Luisa duchess of Lucca had the first marina of Viareggio built which was completed in 1823 and took the name of Marina of Lucca Between 1871 and 1873 the so called Marina of Tuscany was built then followed by the Marina of Italy 1907 through to 1911 In 1938 the Marina of the Empire was also built which was followed in the 1970s by the Marina of Viareggio also known as the New Marina the Marina of the Madonnina and the new lighthouse The Madonnina can host up to 500 vessels The city hosts the local Capitaneria di Porto and all vessels registered here bear the marking VG Economy EditThe primary sectors of Viareggio s economy are tourism commerce and services include fishing and floriculture the flowers of Versilia The city also houses prolific shipyards At the beginning of the 19th century the craftsmen from Viareggio used to build small fishing vessels along the banks of the Burlamacca canal As the century moved on however this small shipbuilding activity prospered until it became an internationally acclaimed centre Nowadays Viareggio represents the main luxury yachts producer city in the world thanks to the presence in the territory of shipyards like Azimut Benetti Codecasa Fipa Rossinavi Perini navi and many others Culture EditCarnival Edit Main article Carnival of Viareggio The Carnival of Viareggio was established in 1873 while the now ever present papier mache used to build the floats featured during its parades was first introduced in 1925 The official masks of the Carnival are Burlamacco and Ondina drawn for the first time in 1930 Since 1954 RAI broadcasts the entire event on national TV Since 2001 the craftsmen of the carnival have moved to the Cittadella del Carnevale or literally Carnival Town Prizes Edit See also Premio Viareggio Premio letterario Viareggio Repaci a literary award founded in 1929 by Leonida Repaci Alberto Colantuoni and Carlo Salsa Premio internazionale Artiglio Premio Sport Citta di Viareggio Premio Viareggio Sport Events Edit Festival Puccini held in Torre del Lago Puccini It takes place every summer since 1930 between July and August in an open air theatre with 3 200 seats on the shore of lake Massaciuccoli A new permanent theatre was opened in 2009 Jazz and more music festival held since 2002 Festival teatro canzone Giorgio Gaber since 2004 Viareggio Incontri at Il Principino on the Promenade EuropaCinema an international film festival reserved to the European film industry It has been founded in 1984 in Rimini it was then moved to Bari in 1988 and finally to Viareggio in 1989 The Torneo Mondiale Giovanile di Calcio Coppa Carnevale is one of the most prestigious youth football tournaments and is contested by the youth teams from clubs around the world Sport EditThe city is home of the roller hockey team CGC Viareggio CGC Viareggio was the first club of Lucca province to be champion in Italian sport In 2011 got for the city the Lega Nazionale Hockey title The association football team is F C Esperia Viareggio It also has its own professional beach soccer team Viareggio Beach Soccer Administrative subdivisions EditViareggio has a single frazione Torre del Lago Puccini having a population of around 11 000 The city itself is subdivided into four Circoscrizioni Circoscrizione no 1 Torre del Lago Puccini Circoscrizione no 2 Centro Marco Polo Circoscrizione no 3 Darsena ex Campo d Aviazione Circoscrizione no 4 Viareggio Nuova Coat of arms EditThe current coat of arms was chosen in 1848 and replaces the previous one dating back to 1752 which showed an image of Saint Anthony from Padua the first patron saint of the city The current coat of arms consists of an anchor with a hawser placed on top of a white red and green shield Viareggio was one of the first municipalities to adopt the tricolore later to become the official flag of the unified Italy for its coat of arm even before Italy was officially unified International relations EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Viareggio is twinned with Bastia France Bridgeport US Kunshan China Opole Poland 10 Palmi Italy San Benedetto del Tronto Italy Pasto ColombiaPeople EditInigo Campioni 1878 1944 soldier and politician Araldo Caprili 1920 1982 football player Pierluigi Collina football referee Marco Columbro presenter and actor Eleonora Duse actress in 1913 lived in a little rose villa behind a vineyard at Fossa Dell Abate Eugenio Fascetti football manager Carlo Lenci born 1928 football player Marcello Lippi football manager Nicola Luisotti orchestra director Renato Santini 1912 1995 painter Giorgio Michetti painter and ultracentenarian Mario Monicelli film director Giovanni Pacini 1796 1867 composer lived in Viareggio Andre Puccinelli governor of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil Stefania Sandrelli actress Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792 1822 English poet and writer whose body was cremated here Mario Tobino 1910 1991 doctor poet and writer Maria Valtorta writer and mysticSee also Edit2009 Viareggio derailment Carnival of Viareggio Festival Puccini Football Club Esperia Viareggio Premio letterario Viareggio Repaci VersiliaReferences Edit A Viareggio vince Del Ghingaro l uomo Pd che batte il suo partito Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011 Italian National Institute of Statistics Retrieved March 16 2019 Popolazione Residente al 1 Gennaio 2018 Italian National Institute of Statistics Retrieved March 16 2019 Population data from Istat Archivio Meteo Viareggio ilmeteo it Retrieved March 3 2017 Weather History for LIRP www wunderground com Retrieved March 3 2017 Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Viareggio Encyclopaedia Britannica 28 11th ed Cambridge University Press p 17 Italian train inferno kills 16 Yahoo news Retrieved June 30 2009 dead link 1998 Bruno Belluomini Opole Official Website Twin Towns in English and Polish copyright 2007 2009 Urzad Miasta Opola Retrieved June 18 2009 Sources EditHistory Edit Bergamini Francesco 1995 Le mille e una notizia di vita viareggina 1169 1940 Viareggio Pezzini Editore Paolo Fornaciari ed I quaderni del Centro Documentario Storico Cenni di storia viareggina 1994 I quaderni della torre Viareggio Pezzini Editore CS1 maint numeric names authors list link Paolo Fornaciari ed Quaderni di storia e cultura Viareggio Pezzini Editore Del Carlo Quinto Ruggero Righini ed L antica magione storia preromana di Viareggio e Versilia Edizioni Dedalus Bergamini Francesco 2000 Viareggio e la sua Storia 1000 1800 Viareggio Pezzini Editore Buildings Edit Polleschi Giorgio 1994 Le opere dell ingegnere architetto Alfredo Belluomini Viareggio Edizioni della Fontana Gravina Luigi Viareggio Illustrata Viareggio Arti Grafiche G Pezzini Religion Edit Menchini C G Pratesi 1996 La Basilica di Sant Andrea di Viareggio Viareggio Grafiche L ancora 1996 La Basilica di San Paolino Viareggio Grafiche L ancora CS1 maint numeric names authors list link 2004 Luoghi ebraici in Toscana Settimo Milanese Grafiche Mazzucchelli CS1 maint numeric names authors list link Other Edit Daniele Palchetti ed 2003 Viareggio Milan Idea Books Isaliana Lazzerini ed 2003 D incanto attraverso Viareggio tra natura storia cultura e sogno Florence Maschietto Editore External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Viareggio Photos from the Tuscany Seaside resort Viareggio English from the site Freerangetravellers com Comune di Viareggio in English the official website of the municipality of Viareggio Site with information about the city and a small dictionary about the local dialect in Italian Site hosted by the Carnevalari Association with news and historical information about Viareggio and its carnival in Italian Viareggio in English from the site www aboutversilia com Viareggio in English from the site www versilia org Viareggio in English from the holidaying site www vacanzeinversilia com 1 Viareggio Carnival in Italian and English Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Viareggio amp oldid 1049514079, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.