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Vibia Sabina

Vibia Sabina (13 August 83–136/137) was a Roman Empress, wife and second cousin once removed to the Roman Emperor Hadrian. She was the daughter of Matidia (niece of Roman Emperor Trajan) and suffect consul Lucius Vibius Sabinus.

Vibia Sabina
Statue of Vibia Sabina (Villa Adriana, Tivoli)
Roman empress
Tenure117 – 136/137
Born13 August 83
Rome, Italy
Died136/137
SpouseHadrian
Names
Vibia Sabina
Regnal name
Vibia Sabina Augusta
DynastyNerva–Antonine
FatherLucius Vibius Sabinus
MotherSalonia Matidia
Bust of Vibia Sabina (Capitoline Museums, Rome)

Contents

After her father's death in 84, Sabina, along with her half-sister Matidia Minor, went to live with their maternal grandmother, Marciana. They were raised in the household of Trajan and his wife Plotina.

Sabina married Hadrian in 100, at the empress Plotina's request. Hadrian succeeded her great uncle in 117. Sabina's mother Matidia (Hadrian's second cousin) was also fond of Hadrian and allowed him to marry her daughter.

Sabina accumulated more public honors in Rome and the provinces than any imperial woman had enjoyed since the first empress, Augustus’ wife Livia. Indeed, Sabina is the first woman whose image features on a regular and continuous series of coins minted at Rome. She was the most traveled and visible empress to date. In 128, she was awarded the title of Augusta.

Sabina is described in the poetry of Julia Balbilla, her companion, in a series of epigrams on the occasion of Hadrian's visit to Egypt in November of 130. In the poems, Balbilla refers to Sabina as "beautiful" and "lovely."

The Historia Augusta reports that the historian Suetonius, who was Hadrian's secretary, was dismissed by Hadrian from his position in 119, for "conducting [himself] toward his wife, Sabina, in a more informal fashion than the etiquette of the court demanded." Meanwhile, her husband was thought to be more sexually interested in his favourite Antinous and other male lovers, and he and Sabina had no children.

Coin of "Sabina Augusta", found in the Buddhist stupa of Ahin Posh, modern Afghanistan.

Vibia Sabina died before her husband, some time in 136 or early 137. There is a strong ancient tradition that Hadrian treated his wife little better than a slave, and may have driven her to suicide. Hadrian's stone elegy for his wife "depicts the apotheosis, or divine ascent of Sabina in accordance with her posthumous deification on the order of Hadrian." However other sources say he had great respect for her.

Nerva–Antonine family tree
Q. Marcius Barea SoranusQ. Marcius Barea SuraAntonia FurnillaM. Cocceius NervaSergia PlautillaP. Aelius Hadrianus
Titus
(r. 79–81)
Marcia FurnillaMarciaTrajanus PaterNerva
(r. 96–98)
UlpiaAelius Hadrianus Marullinus
FlaviaMarcianaC. Salonius MatidiusTrajan
(r. 98–117)
PlotinaP. Acilius AttianusP. Aelius AferPaulina Major
Lucius Mindius
(2)
Libo Rupilius Frugi
(3)
MatidiaL. Vibius Sabinus
(1)
Paulina MinorL. Julius Ursus Servianus
Matidia MinorSuetonius?SabinaHadrian (r. 117–138)Antinous
Julia Balbilla?C. Fuscus Salinator IJulia Serviana Paulina
M. Annius VerusRupilia FaustinaBoionia ProcillaCn. Arrius Antoninus
L. Ceionius CommodusAppia SeveraC. Fuscus Salinator II
L. Caesennius PaetusArria AntoninaArria FadillaT. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius AntoninusL. CommodusPlautiaignotaC. Avidius Nigrinus
M. Annius VerusDomitia CalvillaFundaniaM. Annius LiboFAUSTINAAntoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
L. Aelius CaesarAvidia
CornificiaMARCUS AURELIUS
(r. 161–180)
FAUSTINA MinorC. Avidius CassiusAurelia FadillaLUCIUS VERUS
(r. 161–169)
(1)
Ceionia FabiaPlautius QuintillusQ. Servilius PudensCeionia Plautia
Cornificia MinorM. Petronius SuraCOMMODUS
(r. 177–192)
FadillaM. Annius Verus CaesarTi. Claudius Pompeianus
(2)
LucillaM. Plautius QuintillusJunius Licinius BalbusServilia Ceionia
Petronius AntoninusL. Aurelius Agaclytus
(2)
Aurelia SabinaL. Antistius Burrus
(1)
Plautius QuintillusPlautia ServillaC. Furius Sabinus TimesitheusAntonia GordianaJunius Licinius Balbus?
Furia Sabina TranquillinaGORDIAN III
(r. 238–244)
  • (1) = 1st spouse
  • (2) = 2nd spouse
  • (3) = 3rd spouse
  • Reddish purple indicates emperor of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty

    lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned

    grey indicates unsuccessful imperial aspirants

    bluish purple indicates emperors of other dynasties
  • dashed lines indicate adoption; dotted lines indicate love affairs/unmarried relationships
  • small caps = posthumously deified (Augusti, Augustae, or other)
Notes:

Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree.

  1. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7.
  2. Giacosa (1977), p. 8.
  3. Levick (2014), p. 161.
  4. Husband of Ulpia Marciana: Levick (2014), p. 161.
  5. Giacosa (1977), p. 7.
  6. DIR contributor (Herbert W. Benario, 2000), "Hadrian".
  7. Giacosa (1977), p. 9.
  8. Husband of Salonia Matidia: Levick (2014), p. 161.
  9. Smith (1870), "Julius Servianus".
  10. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of HA Hadrianus 11:3
  11. Smith (1870), "Hadrian", pp. 319–322.
  12. Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and passim; deification: Lamber (1984), pp. 2–5, etc.
  13. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997), Hadrian, the Restless Emperor, p. 251, cited in Levick (2014), p. 30, who is sceptical of this suggestion.
  14. Husband of Rupilia Faustina: Levick (2014), p. 163.
  15. Levick (2014), p. 163.
  16. Levick (2014), p. 162.
  17. Levick (2014), p. 164.
  18. Wife of M. Annius Verus: Giacosa (1977), p. 10.
  19. Wife of M. Annius Libo: Levick (2014), p. 163.
  20. Giacosa (1977), p. 10.
  21. The epitomator of Cassius Dio (72.22) gives the story that Faustina the Elder promised to marry Avidius Cassius. This is also echoed in HA "Marcus Aurelius" 24.
  22. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164.
  23. Levick (2014), p. 117.
References:
  1. Brennan, Corey (2018). Sabina Augusta. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190250997.
  2. Historia Augusta 11.3
  3. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911)."Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  4. Opper, Thorsten. Hadrian: Empire and Conflict, Harvard University Press, 2008, p. 205. ISBN 0-674-03095-8
  5. Annelise Freisenbruch, Caesars’ Wives: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Roman Empire (London and New York: Free Press, 2010), 170.
  • (in French) L’Harmattan, La vie de Sabine, femme d’Hadrien, in Minaud, Gérard, Les vies de 12 femmes d’empereur romain – Devoirs, Intrigues & Voluptés , Paris, 2012, pp. 169–188.
  • Brennan, Corey T., Sabina Augusta: An Imperial Journey, Oxford, 2018, ISBN 978-0190250997
Wikimedia Commons has media related toVibia Sabina.
Royal titles
Preceded by Empress of Rome
117–136
Succeeded by

Vibia Sabina
Vibia Sabina Language Watch Edit Vibia Sabina 13 August 83 136 137 was a Roman Empress wife and second cousin once removed to the Roman Emperor Hadrian She was the daughter of Matidia niece of Roman Emperor Trajan and suffect consul Lucius Vibius Sabinus Vibia SabinaStatue of Vibia Sabina Villa Adriana Tivoli Roman empressTenure117 136 137Born13 August 83 Rome ItalyDied136 137SpouseHadrianNamesVibia SabinaRegnal nameVibia Sabina AugustaDynastyNerva AntonineFatherLucius Vibius SabinusMotherSalonia MatidiaBust of Vibia Sabina Capitoline Museums Rome Contents 1 Early life 2 Empress 3 Death 4 See also 5 Nerva Antonine family tree 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly life EditAfter her father s death in 84 Sabina along with her half sister Matidia Minor went to live with their maternal grandmother Marciana They were raised in the household of Trajan and his wife Plotina Sabina married Hadrian in 100 at the empress Plotina s request Hadrian succeeded her great uncle in 117 Sabina s mother Matidia Hadrian s second cousin was also fond of Hadrian and allowed him to marry her daughter Empress EditSabina accumulated more public honors in Rome and the provinces than any imperial woman had enjoyed since the first empress Augustus wife Livia Indeed Sabina is the first woman whose image features on a regular and continuous series of coins minted at Rome She was the most traveled and visible empress to date 1 In 128 she was awarded the title of Augusta Sabina is described in the poetry of Julia Balbilla her companion in a series of epigrams on the occasion of Hadrian s visit to Egypt in November of 130 In the poems Balbilla refers to Sabina as beautiful and lovely The Historia Augusta reports that the historian Suetonius who was Hadrian s secretary was dismissed by Hadrian from his position in 119 for conducting himself toward his wife Sabina in a more informal fashion than the etiquette of the court demanded 2 3 Meanwhile her husband was thought to be more sexually interested in his favourite Antinous and other male lovers and he and Sabina had no children Death Edit Coin of Sabina Augusta found in the Buddhist stupa of Ahin Posh modern Afghanistan Vibia Sabina died before her husband some time in 136 or early 137 4 There is a strong ancient tradition that Hadrian treated his wife little better than a slave and may have driven her to suicide 1 Hadrian s stone elegy for his wife depicts the apotheosis or divine ascent of Sabina in accordance with her posthumous deification on the order of Hadrian 5 However other sources say he had great respect for her See also EditVibia Aurelia Sabina 170 died before 217 great greatniece to Vibia SabinaNerva Antonine family tree EditvteNerva Antonine family treeQ Marcius Barea SoranusQ Marcius Barea SuraAntonia FurnillaM Cocceius NervaSergia PlautillaP Aelius HadrianusTitus r 79 81 Marcia FurnillaMarciaTrajanus PaterNerva r 96 98 Ulpia i Aelius Hadrianus MarullinusFlavia ii Marciana iii C Salonius Matidius iv Trajan r 98 117 PlotinaP Acilius AttianusP Aelius Afer v Paulina Major vi Lucius Mindius 2 Libo Rupilius Frugi 3 Matidia vii L Vibius Sabinus 1 viii Paulina Minor vi L Julius Ursus Servianus ix Matidia Minor vii Suetonius x Sabina iii Hadrian v xi vi r 117 138 Antinous xii Julia Balbilla xiii C Fuscus Salinator IJulia Serviana PaulinaM Annius Verus xiv Rupilia Faustina xv Boionia ProcillaCn Arrius AntoninusL Ceionius CommodusAppia SeveraC Fuscus Salinator IIL Caesennius PaetusArria AntoninaArria Fadilla xvi T Aurelius FulvusL Caesennius AntoninusL CommodusPlautiaignota xvii C Avidius NigrinusM Annius Verus xv Domitia Calvilla xviii Fundania xix M Annius Libo xv FAUSTINA xvi Antoninus Pius r 138 161 xvi L Aelius Caesar xvii Avidia xvii Cornificia xv MARCUS AURELIUS r 161 180 xx FAUSTINA Minor xx C Avidius Cassius xxi Aurelia Fadilla xvi LUCIUS VERUS r 161 169 xvii 1 Ceionia Fabia xvii Plautius Quintillus xxii Q Servilius PudensCeionia Plautia xvii Cornificia Minor xxiii M Petronius SuraCOMMODUS r 177 192 xx Fadilla xxiii M Annius Verus Caesar xx Ti Claudius Pompeianus 2 Lucilla xx M Plautius Quintillus xvii Junius Licinius BalbusServilia CeioniaPetronius AntoninusL Aurelius Agaclytus 2 Aurelia Sabina xxiii L Antistius Burrus 1 Plautius QuintillusPlautia ServillaC Furius Sabinus TimesitheusAntonia GordianaJunius Licinius Balbus Furia Sabina TranquillinaGORDIAN III r 238 244 1 1st spouse 2 2nd spouse 3 3rd spouse Reddish purple indicates emperor of the Nerva Antonine dynasty lighter purple indicates designated imperial heir of said dynasty who never reigned grey indicates unsuccessful imperial aspirants bluish purple indicates emperors of other dynasties dashed lines indicate adoption dotted lines indicate love affairs unmarried relationships small caps posthumously deified Augusti Augustae or other Notes Except where otherwise noted the notes below indicate that an individual s parentage is as shown in the above family tree Sister of Trajan s father Giacosa 1977 p 7 Giacosa 1977 p 8 a b Levick 2014 p 161 Husband of Ulpia Marciana Levick 2014 p 161 a b Giacosa 1977 p 7 a b c DIR contributor Herbert W Benario 2000 Hadrian a b Giacosa 1977 p 9 Husband of Salonia Matidia Levick 2014 p 161 Smith 1870 Julius Servianus Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina One interpretation of HA Hadrianus 11 3 Smith 1870 Hadrian pp 319 322 Lover of Hadrian Lambert 1984 p 99 and passim deification Lamber 1984 pp 2 5 etc Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina A R Birley 1997 Hadrian the Restless Emperor p 251 cited in Levick 2014 p 30 who is sceptical of this suggestion Husband of Rupilia Faustina Levick 2014 p 163 a b c d Levick 2014 p 163 a b c d Levick 2014 p 162 a b c d e f g Levick 2014 p 164 Wife of M Annius Verus Giacosa 1977 p 10 Wife of M Annius Libo Levick 2014 p 163 a b c d e Giacosa 1977 p 10 The epitomator of Cassius Dio 72 22 gives the story that Faustina the Elder promised to marry Avidius Cassius This is also echoed in HA Marcus Aurelius 24 Husband of Ceionia Fabia Levick 2014 p 164 a b c Levick 2014 p 117 References DIR contributors 2000 De Imperatoribus Romanis An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families Retrieved 2015 04 14 Giacosa Giorgio 1977 Women of the Caesars Their Lives and Portraits on Coins Translated by R Ross Holloway Milan Edizioni Arte e Moneta ISBN 0 8390 0193 2 Lambert Royston 1984 Beloved and God The Story of Hadrian and Antinous New York Viking ISBN 0 670 15708 2 Levick Barbara 2014 Faustina I and II Imperial Women of the Golden Age Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 537941 9 William Smith ed 1870 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology References Edit a b Brennan Corey 2018 Sabina Augusta Oxford University Press ISBN 9780190250997 Historia Augusta 11 3 Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Suetonius Tranquillus Gaius Encyclopaedia Britannica 26 11th ed Cambridge University Press Opper Thorsten Hadrian Empire and Conflict Harvard University Press 2008 p 205 ISBN 0 674 03095 8 Annelise Freisenbruch Caesars Wives Sex Power and Politics in the Roman Empire London and New York Free Press 2010 170 Further reading Edit in French L Harmattan La vie de Sabine femme d Hadrien in Minaud Gerard Les vies de 12 femmes d empereur romain Devoirs Intrigues amp Voluptes Paris 2012 pp 169 188 Brennan Corey T Sabina Augusta An Imperial Journey Oxford 2018 ISBN 978 0190250997External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Vibia Sabina Coins of Sabina at Dirty Old CoinsRoyal titlesPreceded byPompeia Plotina Empress of Rome 117 136 Succeeded by Annia Galeria Faustina Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vibia Sabina amp oldid 1038821442, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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