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Vyborg Castle

Vyborg Castle (Russian:Выборгский замок, Finnish: Viipurin linna, Swedish: Viborgs slott) is a Swedish-built medieval fortress around which the town of Vyborg (today in Russia) evolved. The castle became the stronghold of the Swedish realm in the Karelian region. Throughout the centuries, it was the first defence of the kingdom against Russians. Its military and strategic status in the late Middle Ages was second only to the fortified capital Stockholm. Currently it serves as the site of Vyborg Regional Museum.

Vyborg Castle
Native names
Russian:Выборгский замок
Finnish: Viipurin linna
Swedish: Viborgs slott
View of the Vyborg Castle
TypeMedieval castle
LocationVyborg, Leningrad Oblast, Russia
Coordinates60°42′57″N28°43′45″E /60.71583°N 28.72917°E /60.71583; 28.72917Coordinates: 60°42′57″N28°43′45″E /60.71583°N 28.72917°E /60.71583; 28.72917
Built1293
Built forTorkel Knutsson
Current useMuseum
Location of Vyborg Castle in Leningrad Oblast

Contents

Vyborg Castle was one of the three major castles of Finland, the three being the castles of Turku (Åbo in Swedish) and Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus), and Vyborg (Viborg).

It was built as the easternmost outpost of the medieval Kingdom of Sweden: it is located on the Karelian Isthmus, on a little islet in the innermost corner of the Gulf of Finland, in a tight strait which connects Suomenvedenpohja to the Bay of Viipuri. It was originally constructed in the 1290s on the site of Karelian fortress after the Third Swedish Crusade to Finland. The town was originally located inside the outer fortifications of the castle, at the fortress island, but it had to be moved to its present location off of the island because of lack of space.

Excavations in 1980s indicated that a Karelian fortress pre-dated the castle built by the Swedes in 1293. The oldest layers of occupation have been discovered in the so-called Smith`s Courtyard. A man-made breastwork of sand with timber posts was found from this area. Also charred remains of buildings, which some were linked to the breastwork, were also found. Tjulenev suggests that the Karelian fort had a wooden tower. Tjulanev's several finds from the area include a bent sword which was dated to the period between 1130–1200.

Construction of the next phase of the fortress started in 1293 by orders of Torkel Knutsson, Lord High Constable of Sweden, who in the 1290s made a supposed crusade against Karelia, the Third Swedish Crusade. The crusade was part of the ongoing Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, against the Russians of the Novgorod Republic. Knutsson chose the location of the new fortress to control the Bay of Vyborg, which was bordered by trading sites long used by the local population. From the bay, a navigable river passage goes inland, ultimately connecting the place with several districts, lakes, and, indirectly by portage, with rivers flowing into Lake Ladoga.

In 1364, Albert III of Mecklenburg was proclaimed king of Sweden, and in accordance with the German model he began to divide the castle fiefs, which were immense in Finland, into smaller provinces. In some instances, these new, smaller provinces were given separate bailiffs' residences which have since disappeared; this was the case with the Linnavuori castle mound in Porvoo (Borgå) and the castle of Korsholm in Ostrobothnia, near the modern-day city of Vaasa which was founded later. Only earthworks remain at these sites, but in two places, still-extant though now ruined stone strongholds were built: Raseborg Castle, in western Uusimaa (west of Helsinki), and Kastelholm Castle, in the Åland Islands.

The castle and the large surrounding fief became a virtually autonomous principality. Its governors were usually enfeoffed with the incomes of the county. The fief of Viborg became known as a margraviate. Its governors were generally from the most powerful families of the kingdom. They enjoyed large administrative powers at a significant distance from the capital. These realities made them practically independent rulers. The castle of Savonlinna, Olavinlinna (built in the 1470s), was usually subjugated to Viborg.

Prominent men who held Viborg as their fief included Bo Jonsson (Grip), Christer Nilsson Vasa (1417–42), Karl Knutsson Bonde (1442–48, the future king), Eric Axelsson Tott (1457–81), Knut Posse (1495–97), Sten Sture the Elder (1497–99, between his regencies), Eric Bielke, and Count John of Hoya. Particularly in the 1440s and the late 15th century, the fortresses were further enlarged.

The first mention of firearms in Finland relates to Viborg castle in 1429. During the Middle Ages the Russians repeatedly besieged the castle, most famously in 1495 during the Russo-Swedish War (1495–97) while Knut Posse was governor of the castle. The situation of the defenders looked hopeless, but they were saved by the Viborg blast on 30 November 1495 (St. Andrew's Day), a mysterious explosion which scared the Russians away after they believed they had seen a Saint Andrew's cross in the sky.

  • Simulation of Viborg castle ablaze in 1710, after the Russian attack in the Great Northern War.

  • Vyborg Castle
    Torsten Wilhelm Forstén: 1840

  • Charles VIII leaving Vyborg Castle to the election of the new king in 1448, Severin Falkman [fi], 1886

Vyborg Castle in 1918

In the 16th century, much was renovated and additions were made. In the 17th century, the castle was allowed to decay, as Russian danger was lessened and the border was further eastwards.

Viborg was taken by the Russians in 1710, but passed back to Finnish hands in 1812 when all of Old Finland was attached to the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. The castle owes its present appearance to extensive restorations undertaken in the 1890s. The military of the Russian Empire used the castle until 1918 for housing administration.

Viipuri belonged to the newly independent Republic of Finland between 1917–40 and again 1941–44. As a result of border changes in World War II it was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944.

The main castle, located in the eastern part of the islet on its highest hill, has an irregular four-cornered layout, with the immense tower of St. Olav (Pyhän Olavin torni in Finnish) as its biggest section. It is 3–4 storeys tall, varying in places. Outer defensive works surround the main castle, following the islet's coastlines.

  • View of the castle

  • Walls of the castle

  • St. Olav Tower

  1. "Viborg". Nordisk familjebok. RetrievedAugust 1, 2020.
  2. "History of the museum". Vyborg Regional Museum. RetrievedAugust 1, 2020.
  3. Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka (1990). Ancient Hillforts of Finland. Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakausikirja 94. p. 240.
  4. Vyborg Castle, Vyborg, Russia - Spotting History
  5. "Knut Posse". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. RetrievedAugust 1, 2020.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toVyborg Castle.

Vyborg Castle
Vyborg Castle Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Viborg Castle Vyborg Castle Russian Vyborgskij zamok Finnish Viipurin linna Swedish Viborgs slott is a Swedish built medieval fortress around which the town of Vyborg today in Russia evolved The castle became the stronghold of the Swedish realm in the Karelian region Throughout the centuries it was the first defence of the kingdom against Russians Its military and strategic status in the late Middle Ages was second only to the fortified capital Stockholm Currently it serves as the site of Vyborg Regional Museum 1 2 Vyborg CastleNative names Russian Vyborgskij zamok Finnish Viipurin linna Swedish Viborgs slottView of the Vyborg CastleTypeMedieval castleLocationVyborg Leningrad Oblast RussiaCoordinates60 42 57 N 28 43 45 E 60 71583 N 28 72917 E 60 71583 28 72917 Coordinates 60 42 57 N 28 43 45 E 60 71583 N 28 72917 E 60 71583 28 72917Built1293Built forTorkel KnutssonCurrent useMuseumLocation of Vyborg Castle in Leningrad Oblast Contents 1 General 2 Iron Age History 3 Medieval history 4 Modern history 5 Architecture 6 See also 7 References 8 Other sources 9 External linksGeneral EditVyborg Castle was one of the three major castles of Finland the three being the castles of Turku Abo in Swedish and Hameenlinna Tavastehus and Vyborg Viborg It was built as the easternmost outpost of the medieval Kingdom of Sweden it is located on the Karelian Isthmus on a little islet in the innermost corner of the Gulf of Finland in a tight strait which connects Suomenvedenpohja to the Bay of Viipuri It was originally constructed in the 1290s on the site of Karelian fortress after the Third Swedish Crusade to Finland 3 The town was originally located inside the outer fortifications of the castle at the fortress island but it had to be moved to its present location off of the island because of lack of space Iron Age History EditExcavations in 1980s indicated that a Karelian fortress pre dated the castle built by the Swedes in 1293 The oldest layers of occupation have been discovered in the so called Smith s Courtyard A man made breastwork of sand with timber posts was found from this area Also charred remains of buildings which some were linked to the breastwork were also found Tjulenev suggests that the Karelian fort had a wooden tower Tjulanev s several finds from the area include a bent sword which was dated to the period between 1130 1200 3 Medieval history EditConstruction of the next phase of the fortress started in 1293 by orders of Torkel Knutsson Lord High Constable of Sweden who in the 1290s made a supposed crusade against Karelia the Third Swedish Crusade 4 The crusade was part of the ongoing Swedish Novgorodian Wars against the Russians of the Novgorod Republic Knutsson chose the location of the new fortress to control the Bay of Vyborg which was bordered by trading sites long used by the local population From the bay a navigable river passage goes inland ultimately connecting the place with several districts lakes and indirectly by portage with rivers flowing into Lake Ladoga In 1364 Albert III of Mecklenburg was proclaimed king of Sweden and in accordance with the German model he began to divide the castle fiefs which were immense in Finland into smaller provinces In some instances these new smaller provinces were given separate bailiffs residences which have since disappeared this was the case with the Linnavuori castle mound in Porvoo Borga and the castle of Korsholm in Ostrobothnia near the modern day city of Vaasa which was founded later Only earthworks remain at these sites but in two places still extant though now ruined stone strongholds were built Raseborg Castle in western Uusimaa west of Helsinki and Kastelholm Castle in the Aland Islands The castle and the large surrounding fief became a virtually autonomous principality Its governors were usually enfeoffed with the incomes of the county The fief of Viborg became known as a margraviate Its governors were generally from the most powerful families of the kingdom They enjoyed large administrative powers at a significant distance from the capital These realities made them practically independent rulers The castle of Savonlinna Olavinlinna built in the 1470s was usually subjugated to Viborg Prominent men who held Viborg as their fief included Bo Jonsson Grip Christer Nilsson Vasa 1417 42 Karl Knutsson Bonde 1442 48 the future king Eric Axelsson Tott 1457 81 Knut Posse 1495 97 Sten Sture the Elder 1497 99 between his regencies Eric Bielke and Count John of Hoya Particularly in the 1440s and the late 15th century the fortresses were further enlarged The first mention of firearms in Finland relates to Viborg castle in 1429 During the Middle Ages the Russians repeatedly besieged the castle most famously in 1495 during the Russo Swedish War 1495 97 while Knut Posse was governor of the castle The situation of the defenders looked hopeless but they were saved by the Viborg blast on 30 November 1495 St Andrew s Day a mysterious explosion which scared the Russians away after they believed they had seen a Saint Andrew s cross in the sky 5 Simulation of Viborg castle ablaze in 1710 after the Russian attack in the Great Northern War Vyborg Castle Torsten Wilhelm Forsten 1840 Charles VIII leaving Vyborg Castle to the election of the new king in 1448 Severin Falkman fi 1886Modern history Edit Play media Vyborg Castle in 1918 In the 16th century much was renovated and additions were made In the 17th century the castle was allowed to decay as Russian danger was lessened and the border was further eastwards Viborg was taken by the Russians in 1710 but passed back to Finnish hands in 1812 when all of Old Finland was attached to the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland The castle owes its present appearance to extensive restorations undertaken in the 1890s The military of the Russian Empire used the castle until 1918 for housing administration Viipuri belonged to the newly independent Republic of Finland between 1917 40 and again 1941 44 As a result of border changes in World War II it was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944 Architecture EditThe main castle located in the eastern part of the islet on its highest hill has an irregular four cornered layout with the immense tower of St Olav Pyhan Olavin torni in Finnish as its biggest section It is 3 4 storeys tall varying in places Outer defensive works surround the main castle following the islet s coastlines View of the castle Walls of the castle St Olav TowerSee also EditVyborg town wallReferences Edit Viborg Nordisk familjebok Retrieved August 1 2020 History of the museum Vyborg Regional Museum Retrieved August 1 2020 a b Taavitsainen Jussi Pekka 1990 Ancient Hillforts of Finland Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakausikirja 94 p 240 Vyborg Castle Vyborg Russia Spotting History Knut Posse Svenskt biografiskt lexikon Retrieved August 1 2020 Other sources EditCarl Jacob Gardberg 1994 Finlands medeltida borgar Esbo Schildt ISBN 978 9515006165External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Vyborg Castle Photos Vyborg Castle Vyborg Castle State Museum website The Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vyborg Castle amp oldid 1040049459, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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