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Vibrio

Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod (comma) shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Typically found in salt water, Vibrio species are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are motile. They are able to have polar or lateral flagellum with or without sheaths. Vibrio species typically possess two chromosomes, which is unusual for bacteria. Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication, and are conserved together over time in the genus. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes (multilocus sequence analysis).

Vibrio
Flagellar stain of V. cholerae
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Vibrionales
Family: Vibrionaceae
Genus: Vibrio
Pacini 1854
Type species
Vibrio cholerae
Species

V. adaptatus
V. aerogenes
V. aestivus
V. aestuarianus
V. agarivorans
V. albensis
V. alfacsensis
V. alginolyticus
V. anguillarum
V. areninigrae
V. artabrorum
V. atlanticus
V. atypicus
V. azureus
V. brasiliensis
V. bubulus
V. calviensis
V. campbellii
V. casei
V. chagasii
V. cholerae
V. cincinnatiensis
V. coralliilyticus
V. crassostreae
V. cyclitrophicus
V. diabolicus
V. diazotrophicus
V. ezurae
V. fluvialis
V. fortis
V. furnissii
V. gallicus
V. gazogenes
V. gigantis
V. halioticoli
V. harveyi
V. hepatarius
V. hippocampi
V. hispanicus
V. ichthyoenteri
V. indicus
V. kanaloae
V. lentus
V. litoralis
V. logei
V. mediterranei
V. metschnikovii
V. mimicus
V. mytili
V. natriegens
V. navarrensis
V. neonatus
V. neptunius
V. nereis
V. nigripulchritudo
V. ordalii
V. orientalis
V. pacinii
V. parahaemolyticus
V. pectenicida
V. pelagius

V. penaeicida
V. pomeroyi
V. ponticus
V. proteolyticus
V. rotiferianus
V. ruber
V. rumoiensis
V. salmonicida
V. scophthalmi
V. splendidus
V. superstes
V. tapetis
V. tasmaniensis
V. tubiashii
V. vulnificus
V. wodanis
V. xuii
Moved:
V. fischeri to Aliivibrio fischeri
V. hollisae to Grimontia hollisae

O. F. Müller (1773, 1786) described eight species of the genus Vibrio (included in Infusoria), three of which were spirilliforms. Some of the other species are today assigned to eukaryote taxa, e.g., to the euglenoid Peranema or to the diatom Bacillaria. However, Vibrio Müller, 1773 became regarded as the name of a zoological genus, and the name of the bacterial genus became Vibrio Pacini, 1854. Filippo Pacini isolated micro-organisms he called "vibrions" from cholera patients in 1854, because of their motility. In Latin "vibrio" means "to quiver".

Vibrio spp. are commonly found in marine environments. Marine Vibrio species are highly salt tolerant and can grow in wide range of salinity. S.I. Paul et al. (2021) isolated, characterized, and identified multiple strains of Vibrio species (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio pelagius, Vibrio azureus) from marine sponges of the Saint Martin's Island Area of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Where, Vibrio species were found most dominant bacteria in marine environment.

Contents

The genus Vibrio contains a large number of species. So, variation in the biochemical characteristics are most common in case of the genus Vibrio. Colony, morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of the genus Vibrio are shown in the Table below.

Test type Test Group-1 Group-2
Colony characters Size Medium Medium
Type Round Round
Color Whitish Whitish
Shape Convex Convex
Morphological characters Shape Curved-rod Curved-rod
Physiological characters Motility + +
Growth at 6.5% NaCl + +
Biochemical characters Gram’s staining
Oxidase + +
Catalase + +
Oxidative-Fermentative Fermentative Oxidative
Motility + +
Methyl Red +
Voges-Proskauer +
Indole
H2S Production +
Urease +
Nitrate reductase +
β-Galactosidase + +
Hydrolysis of Gelatin + +
Aesculin +
Casein +
Tween 40 + +
Tween 60 + +
Tween 80 + +
Acid production from Glycerol + +
Galactose +
D-Glucose + +
D-Fructose + V
D-Mannose + V
Mannitol + V
N-Acetylglucosamine + +
Amygdalin +
Maltose + +
D-Melibiose
D-Trehalose +
Glycogen + +
D-Turanose + +

Note: Group-1: Vibrio alginolyticus; Group-2: Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio pelagius, Vibrio azureus; + = Positive; – =Negative; V =Variable (+/–)

Several species of Vibrio are pathogens. Most disease-causing strains are associated with gastroenteritis, but can also infect open wounds and cause sepsis. They can be carried by numerous marine animals, such as crabs or prawns, and have been known to cause fatal infections in humans during exposure. Risk of clinical disease and death increases with certain factors, such as uncontrolled diabetes, elevated iron levels (cirrhosis, sickle cell disease, hemochromatosis), and cancer or other immunocompromised states. Pathogenic Vibrio species include V. cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. V. cholerae is generally transmitted by contaminated water. Pathogenic Vibrio species can cause foodborne illness (infection), usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. When ingested Vibrio bacteria can primarily result in watery diarrhea along with other secondary symptoms.The pathogenic features can be linked to quorum sensing, where bacteria are able to express their virulence factor via their signalling molecules.

V. vulnificus outbreaks commonly occur in warm climates and small, generally lethal, outbreaks occur regularly. An outbreak occurred in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, and several lethal cases occur most years in Florida. As of 2013 in the United States, Vibrio infections as a whole were up 43% when compared with the rates observed in 2006–2008. V. vulnificus, the most severe strain, has not increased. Foodborne Vibrio infections are most often associated with eating raw shellfish.

V. parahaemolyticus is also associated with the Kanagawa phenomenon, in which strains isolated from human hosts (clinical isolates) are hemolytic on blood agar plates, while those isolated from nonhuman sources are not hemolytic.

Many Vibrio species are also zoonotic. They cause disease in fish and shellfish, and are common causes of mortality among domestic marine life.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(March 2016) ()

Medical care depends on the clinical presentation and the presence of underlying medical conditions.

Vibrio gastroenteritis

Because Vibrio gastroenteritis is self-limited in most patients, no specific medical therapy is required. Patients who cannot tolerate oral fluid replacement may require intravenous fluid therapy.

Although most Vibrio species are sensitive to antibiotics such as doxycycline or quinolones, antibiotic therapy does not shorten the course of the illness or the duration of pathogen excretion. However, if the patient is ill and has a high fever or an underlying medical condition, oral antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or a quinolone can be initiated.

Noncholera Vibrio infections

Patients with noncholera Vibrio wound infection or sepsis are much more ill and frequently have other medical conditions. Medical therapy consists of:

  • Prompt initiation of effective antibiotic therapy (doxycycline or a quinolone)
  • Intensive medical therapy with aggressive fluid replacement and vasopressors for hypotension and septic shock to correct acid-base and electrolytes abnormalities that may be associated with severe sepsis
  • Early fasciotomy within 24 hours after development of clinical symptoms can be life-saving in patients with necrotizing fasciitis.
  • Early debridement of the infected wound has an important role in successful therapy and is especially indicated to avoid amputation of fingers, toes, or limbs.
  • Expeditious and serial surgical evaluation and intervention are required because patients may deteriorate rapidly, especially those with necrotizing fasciitis or compartment syndrome.
  • Reconstructive surgery, such as skin grafts, are used in the recovery phase.

V. harveyi is a pathogen of several aquatic animals, and is notable as a cause of luminous vibriosis in shrimp (prawns). V. fischeri (or Aliivibrio fishceri) is known for its mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, which is dependent on microbial luminescence.

The "typical", early-discovered Vibrio species, such as V. cholerae, have a single polar flagellum (monotrichous) with sheath. Some species, such as V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, have both a single polar flagellum with sheath and thin flagella projecting in all directions (peritrichous), and the other species, such as V. fischeri, have tufts of polar flagella with sheath (lophotrichous).

Natural transformation is a common bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that employs numerous bacterial gene products. For a recipient bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must become competent, that is, enter a special physiologic state. The DNA-uptake process of naturally competent V. cholerae involves an extended competence-induced pilus and a DNA-binding protein that acts as a rachet and reels DNA into the periplasm. Natural transformation has also been described for V. fisheri, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus.

V. cholerae has been used in discoveries of many bacterial small RNAs. Using sRNA-Seq and Northern blot candidate sRNAs were identified and characterised as IGR-sRNA (intragenic region), AS-sRNAs (transcribed from the antisense strand of the [[open reading frame (ORF) and ORF-derived. One of the candidates from this study, IGR7, was shown to be involved in carbon metabolism and later renamed MtlS RNA. Other sRNAs identified in V. cholerae through genetic screens and computational methods include Qrr RNA, Vibrio regulatory RNA of OmpA, MicX sRNA, Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs, tfoR RNA, and VqmR sRNA.

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Vibrio
Vibrio Language Watch Edit Vibrio is a genus of Gram negative bacteria possessing a curved rod comma shape 1 2 3 4 several species of which can cause foodborne infection usually associated with eating undercooked seafood Typically found in salt water Vibrio species are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores 4 5 All members of the genus are motile They are able to have polar or lateral flagellum with or without sheaths 4 6 Vibrio species typically possess two chromosomes which is unusual for bacteria 7 8 Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication 9 and are conserved together over time in the genus 10 Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes multilocus sequence analysis 1 VibrioFlagellar stain of V choleraeScientific classificationDomain BacteriaPhylum ProteobacteriaClass GammaproteobacteriaOrder VibrionalesFamily VibrionaceaeGenus Vibrio Pacini 1854Type speciesVibrio choleraeSpeciesV adaptatus V aerogenes V aestivus V aestuarianus V agarivorans V albensis V alfacsensis V alginolyticus V anguillarum V areninigrae V artabrorum V atlanticus V atypicus V azureus V brasiliensis V bubulus V calviensis V campbellii V casei V chagasii V cholerae V cincinnatiensis V coralliilyticus V crassostreae V cyclitrophicus V diabolicus V diazotrophicus V ezurae V fluvialis V fortis V furnissii V gallicus V gazogenes V gigantis V halioticoli V harveyi V hepatarius V hippocampi V hispanicus V ichthyoenteri V indicus V kanaloae V lentus V litoralis V logei V mediterranei V metschnikovii V mimicus V mytili V natriegens V navarrensis V neonatus V neptunius V nereis V nigripulchritudo V ordalii V orientalis V pacinii V parahaemolyticus V pectenicida V pelagius V penaeicida V pomeroyi V ponticus V proteolyticus V rotiferianus V ruber V rumoiensis V salmonicida V scophthalmi V splendidus V superstes V tapetis V tasmaniensis V tubiashii V vulnificus V wodanis V xuii Moved V fischeri to Aliivibrio fischeri V hollisae to Grimontia hollisae O F Muller 1773 1786 described eight species of the genus Vibrio included in Infusoria three of which were spirilliforms 11 Some of the other species are today assigned to eukaryote taxa e g to the euglenoid Peranema or to the diatom Bacillaria However Vibrio Muller 1773 became regarded as the name of a zoological genus and the name of the bacterial genus became Vibrio Pacini 1854 12 13 Filippo Pacini isolated micro organisms he called vibrions from cholera patients in 1854 because of their motility 14 In Latin vibrio means to quiver 15 Vibrio spp are commonly found in marine environments Marine Vibrio species are highly salt tolerant and can grow in wide range of salinity 4 S I Paul et al 2021 4 isolated characterized and identified multiple strains of Vibrio species Vibrio alginolyticus Vibrio natriegens Vibrio pelagius Vibrio azureus from marine sponges of the Saint Martin s Island Area of the Bay of Bengal Bangladesh Where Vibrio species were found most dominant bacteria in marine environment 4 Contents 1 Biochemical characteristics of Vibrio spp 2 Pathogenic strains 3 Treatment 3 1 Vibrio gastroenteritis 3 2 NoncholeraVibrio infections 4 Other strains 5 Flagella 6 Natural transformation 7 Small RNA 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBiochemical characteristics of Vibrio spp EditThe genus Vibrio contains a large number of species So variation in the biochemical characteristics are most common in case of the genus Vibrio Colony morphological physiological and biochemical characteristics of the genus Vibrio are shown in the Table below 4 Test type Test Group 1 Group 2Colony characters Size Medium MediumType Round RoundColor Whitish WhitishShape Convex ConvexMorphological characters Shape Curved rod Curved rodPhysiological characters Motility Growth at 6 5 NaCl Biochemical characters Gram s staining Oxidase Catalase Oxidative Fermentative Fermentative OxidativeMotility Methyl Red Voges Proskauer Indole H2S Production Urease Nitrate reductase b Galactosidase Hydrolysis of Gelatin Aesculin Casein Tween 40 Tween 60 Tween 80 Acid production from Glycerol Galactose D Glucose D Fructose VD Mannose VMannitol VN Acetylglucosamine Amygdalin Maltose D Melibiose D Trehalose Glycogen D Turanose Note Group 1 Vibrio alginolyticus Group 2 Vibrio natriegens Vibrio pelagius Vibrio azureus Positive Negative V Variable Pathogenic strains Edit TCBS agar plate of Vibrio Cholerae left and Vibrio parahaemolyticus right Several species of Vibrio are pathogens 16 Most disease causing strains are associated with gastroenteritis but can also infect open wounds and cause sepsis 17 They can be carried by numerous marine animals such as crabs or prawns and have been known to cause fatal infections in humans during exposure 18 Risk of clinical disease and death increases with certain factors such as uncontrolled diabetes elevated iron levels cirrhosis sickle cell disease hemochromatosis and cancer or other immunocompromised states Pathogenic Vibrio species include V cholerae the causative agent of cholera V parahaemolyticus and V vulnificus V cholerae is generally transmitted by contaminated water 3 Pathogenic Vibrio species can cause foodborne illness infection usually associated with eating undercooked seafood When ingested Vibrio bacteria can primarily result in watery diarrhea along with other secondary symptoms 19 The pathogenic features can be linked to quorum sensing where bacteria are able to express their virulence factor via their signalling molecules 20 V vulnificus outbreaks commonly occur in warm climates and small generally lethal outbreaks occur regularly An outbreak occurred in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina 21 and several lethal cases occur most years in Florida 22 As of 2013 in the United States Vibrio infections as a whole were up 43 when compared with the rates observed in 2006 2008 V vulnificus the most severe strain has not increased Foodborne Vibrio infections are most often associated with eating raw shellfish 23 V parahaemolyticus is also associated with the Kanagawa phenomenon in which strains isolated from human hosts clinical isolates are hemolytic on blood agar plates while those isolated from nonhuman sources are not hemolytic 24 Many Vibrio species are also zoonotic They cause disease in fish and shellfish and are common causes of mortality among domestic marine life Treatment EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed March 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message Medical care depends on the clinical presentation and the presence of underlying medical conditions Vibrio gastroenteritis Edit Because Vibrio gastroenteritis is self limited in most patients no specific medical therapy is required 25 Patients who cannot tolerate oral fluid replacement may require intravenous fluid therapy Although most Vibrio species are sensitive to antibiotics such as doxycycline or quinolones antibiotic therapy does not shorten the course of the illness or the duration of pathogen excretion However if the patient is ill and has a high fever or an underlying medical condition oral antibiotic therapy with doxycycline or a quinolone can be initiated NoncholeraVibrio infections Edit Patients with noncholera Vibrio wound infection or sepsis are much more ill and frequently have other medical conditions Medical therapy consists of Prompt initiation of effective antibiotic therapy doxycycline or a quinolone Intensive medical therapy with aggressive fluid replacement and vasopressors for hypotension and septic shock to correct acid base and electrolytes abnormalities that may be associated with severe sepsis Early fasciotomy within 24 hours after development of clinical symptoms can be life saving in patients with necrotizing fasciitis Early debridement of the infected wound has an important role in successful therapy and is especially indicated to avoid amputation of fingers toes or limbs Expeditious and serial surgical evaluation and intervention are required because patients may deteriorate rapidly especially those with necrotizing fasciitis or compartment syndrome Reconstructive surgery such as skin grafts are used in the recovery phase Other strains EditV harveyi is a pathogen of several aquatic animals and is notable as a cause of luminous vibriosis in shrimp prawns 26 V fischeri or Aliivibrio fishceri is known for its mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid which is dependent on microbial luminescence 27 Flagella EditThe typical early discovered Vibrio species such as V cholerae have a single polar flagellum monotrichous with sheath Some species such as V parahaemolyticus and V alginolyticus have both a single polar flagellum with sheath and thin flagella projecting in all directions peritrichous and the other species such as V fischeri have tufts of polar flagella with sheath lophotrichous 28 Natural transformation EditNatural transformation is a common bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that employs numerous bacterial gene products 29 30 For a recipient bacterium to bind take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome it must become competent that is enter a special physiologic state The DNA uptake process of naturally competent V cholerae involves an extended competence induced pilus and a DNA binding protein that acts as a rachet and reels DNA into the periplasm 31 Natural transformation has also been described for V fisheri 32 V vulnificus 33 and V parahaemolyticus 34 Small RNA EditV cholerae has been used in discoveries of many bacterial small RNAs Using sRNA Seq and Northern blot candidate sRNAs were identified and characterised as IGR sRNA intragenic region AS sRNAs transcribed from the antisense strand of the open reading frame ORF and ORF derived 35 One of the candidates from this study IGR7 was shown to be involved in carbon metabolism and later renamed MtlS RNA Other sRNAs identified in V cholerae through genetic screens and computational methods include Qrr RNA Vibrio regulatory RNA of OmpA MicX sRNA Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs tfoR RNA and VqmR sRNA See also EditCholera toxinReferences Edit a b Thompson FL Gevers D Thompson CC Dawyndt P Naser S Hoste B Munn CB Swings J 2005 Phylogeny and Molecular Identification of Vibrios on the Basis of Multilocus Sequence Analysis Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71 9 5107 5115 doi 10 1128 AEM 71 9 5107 5115 2005 PMC 1214639 PMID 16151093 Ryan KJ Ray CG eds 2004 Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed McGraw Hill ISBN 978 0 8385 8529 0 a b Faruque SM Nair GB eds 2008 Vibrio cholerae Genomics and Molecular Biology Caister Academic Press ISBN 978 1 904455 33 2 a b c d e f g Paul Sulav Indra Rahman Md Mahbubur Salam Mohammad Abdus Khan Md Arifur Rahman Islam Md Tofazzal 2021 12 15 Identification of marine sponge associated bacteria of the Saint Martin s island of the Bay of Bengal emphasizing on the prevention of motile Aeromonas septicemia in Labeo rohita Aquaculture 545 737156 doi 10 1016 j aquaculture 2021 737156 ISSN 0044 8486 Madigan Michael Martinko John eds 2005 Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11th ed Prentice Hall ISBN 978 0 13 144329 7 Khan Fazlurrahman Tabassum Nazia Anand Raksha Kim Young Mog 2020 10 01 Motility of Vibrio spp regulation and controlling strategies Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 104 19 8187 8208 doi 10 1007 s00253 020 10794 7 ISSN 1432 0614 PMID 32816086 S2CID 221182959 Trucksis Michele Michalski Jane Deng Ying Kang Kaper James B 1998 11 24 The Vibrio cholerae genome contains two unique circular chromosomes Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95 24 14464 14469 Bibcode 1998PNAS 9514464T doi 10 1073 pnas 95 24 14464 ISSN 0027 8424 PMC 24396 PMID 9826723 Okada Kazuhisa Iida Tetsuya Kita Tsukamoto Kumiko Honda Takeshi 2005 01 15 Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes Journal of Bacteriology 187 2 752 757 doi 10 1128 JB 187 2 752 757 2005 ISSN 0021 9193 PMC 543535 PMID 15629946 Rasmussen Tue Jensen Rasmus Bugge Skovgaard Ole 2007 07 11 The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle The EMBO Journal 26 13 3124 3131 doi 10 1038 sj emboj 7601747 ISSN 0261 4189 PMC 1914095 PMID 17557077 Kirkup Benjamin C Chang LeeAnn Chang Sarah Gevers Dirk Polz Martin F 2010 01 01 Vibrio chromosomes share common history BMC Microbiology 10 137 doi 10 1186 1471 2180 10 137 ISSN 1471 2180 PMC 2875227 PMID 20459749 Pot B Gillis M and De Ley J The genus Aquaspirillum In Balows A Truper H G Dworkin M Harder W Schleifer K H Eds The prokaryotes 2nd ed vol 3 Springer Verlag New York 1991 Hugh R 1964 The proposed conservation of the generic name Vibrio Pacini 1854 and designation of the neotype strain of Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 Hugh R 1964 The Proposed Conservation of the Generic Name Vibrio Pacini 1854 and Designation of the Neotype Strain of Vibrio Cholerae Pacini 1854 International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 14 2 87 101 doi 10 1099 0096266X 14 2 87 S2CID 84020788 http www whonamedit com doctor cfm 2605 html Stoppler MD Melissa Medical Definition of Vibrio cholerae MedTerms Dictionary MedicineNet Retrieved 2021 06 03 C Michael Hogan 2010 Bacteria Encyclopedia of Earth eds Sidney Draggan and C J Cleveland National Council for Science and the Environment Washington DC Archived May 11 2011 at the Wayback Machine Lee Michelle T Dinh An Q Nguyen Stephanie Krucke Gus Tran Truc T 2019 03 28 Late onset Vibrio vulnificus septicemia without cirrhosis Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 32 2 286 288 doi 10 1080 08998280 2019 1580661 ISSN 0899 8280 PMC 6541083 PMID 31191157 Cabanillas Beltran Hector LLausas Magana Eduardo Romero Ricardo Espinoza Abel Garcia Gasca Alejandra Nishibuchi Mitsuaki Ishibashi Masanori Gomez Gil Bruno 2006 12 01 Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by the pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3 K6 in Mexico FEMS Microbiology Letters 265 1 76 80 doi 10 1111 j 1574 6968 2006 00475 x ISSN 0378 1097 PMID 17107421 Symptoms Vibrio Illness Vibriosis CDC www cdc gov 2021 03 02 Retrieved 2021 03 30 Tan Wen Si Muhamad Yunos Nina Yusrina Tan Pui Wan Mohamad Nur Izzati Adrian Tan Guan Sheng Yin Wai Fong Chan Kok Gan 8 July 2014 Characterisation of a Marine Bacterium Vibrio Brasiliensis T33 Producing N acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Molecules Sensors 14 7 12104 12113 doi 10 3390 s140712104 PMC 4168498 PMID 25006994 Jablecki J Norton SA Keller GR DeGraw C Ratard R Straif Bourgeois S Holcombe JM Quilter S Byers P McNeill M Schlossberg D Dohony DP Neville J Carlo J Buhner D Smith BR Wallace C Jernigan D Sobel J Reynolds M Moore M Kuehnert M Mott J Jamieson D Burns Grant G Misselbeck T Cruise PE LoBue P Holtz T Haddad M Clark TA Cohen A Sunenshine R Jhung M Vranken P Lewis FM Carpenter LR 2005 Infectious Disease and Dermatologic Conditions in Evacuees and Rescue Workers After Hurricane Katrina Multiple States August September 2005 Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report 54 1 4 Bureau of Community Environmental Health Division of Environmental Health Florida Department of Health 2005 Annual Report Florida Food and Waterborne Illness Surveillance and Investigation 21 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Infections from some foodborne germs increased while others remained unchanged in 2012 Centers for Disease Control April 18 2013 Retrieved April 19 2013 Joseph S Colwell R Kaper J 1982 Vibrio parahaemolyticus and related halophilic Vibrios Crit Rev Microbiol 10 1 77 124 doi 10 3109 10408418209113506 PMID 6756788 Noncholera Vibrio Infections Infectious Diseases Merck Manuals Professional Edition Retrieved 2021 03 30 Austin B Zhang XH 2006 Vibrio harveyi a significant pathogen of marine vertebrates and invertebrates Letters in Applied Microbiology 43 2 119 214 doi 10 1111 j 1472 765X 2006 01989 x PMID 16869892 Aliivibrio fischeri Wikipedia 2020 04 26 retrieved 2020 04 26 George M Garrity ed 2005 Bergey s manual of Systematic Bacteriology Vol 2 Part B 2nd ed Springer pp 496 8 ISBN 978 0 387 24144 9 Chen I Dubnau D 2004 DNA uptake during bacterial transformation Nat Rev Microbiol 2 3 241 9 doi 10 1038 nrmicro844 PMID 15083159 S2CID 205499369 Bernstein H Bernstein C Michod RE 2018 Sex in microbial pathogens Infection Genetics and Evolution volume 57 pages 8 25 https doi org 10 1016 j meegid 2017 10 024 Matthey N Blokesch M 2016 The DNA Uptake Process of Naturally Competent Vibrio cholerae Trends Microbiol 24 2 98 110 doi 10 1016 j tim 2015 10 008 PMID 26614677 Pollack Berti A Wollenberg MS Ruby EG 2010 Natural transformation of Vibrio fischeri requires tfoX and tfoY Environ Microbiol 12 8 2302 11 doi 10 1111 j 1462 2920 2010 02250 x PMC 3034104 PMID 21966921 Gulig PA Tucker MS Thiaville PC Joseph JL Brown RN 2009 USER friendly cloning coupled with chitin based natural transformation enables rapid mutagenesis of Vibrio vulnificus Appl Environ Microbiol 75 15 4936 49 doi 10 1128 AEM 02564 08 PMC 2725515 PMID 19502446 Chen Y Dai J Morris JG Johnson JA 2010 Genetic analysis of the capsule polysaccharide K antigen and exopolysaccharide genes in pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3 K6 BMC Microbiol 10 274 doi 10 1186 1471 2180 10 274 PMC 2987987 PMID 21044320 Liu Jane M Livny Jonathan Lawrence Michael S Kimball Marc D Waldor Matthew K Camilli Andrew April 2009 Experimental discovery of sRNAs in Vibrio cholerae by direct cloning 5S tRNA depletion and parallel sequencing Nucleic Acids Research 37 6 e46 doi 10 1093 nar gkp080 ISSN 1362 4962 PMC 2665243 PMID 19223322 External links EditVibrio genomes and related information at PATRIC a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Bacteriological Analytical Manual Online Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vibrio amp oldid 1045981501, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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