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Vickers machine gun

Not to be confused with Vickers–Berthier light machine gun or Vickers K machine gun.

The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled .303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army. The machine gun typically required a six- to eight-man team to operate: one fired, one fed the ammunition, the rest helped to carry the weapon, its ammunition, and spare parts. Not to be confused with the Maxim machine gun, it was in service from before the First World War until the 1960s, with air-cooled versions of it on many Allied World War I fighter aircraft.

Vickers Medium Machine Gun
A Vickers Machine Gun mounted on a tripod. This particular example resides at the York Castle Museum.
TypeMedium machine gun
Place of originUnited Kingdom
Service history
In service1912–1968
Used bySee Users
WarsWorld War I
Irish Civil War
Chaco War
Spanish Civil War
Winter War
World War II
Greek Civil War
First Indochina War
Bangladesh Liberation War[citation needed]
Indo-Pakistan War of 1947
1948 Arab–Israeli War
Malayan Emergency
Korean War
Algerian War
Cypriot intercommunal violence
1971 JVP insurrection
Congo Crisis
Aden Emergency[citation needed]
South African Border War
Syrian Civil War[citation needed]
Production history
Designed1912
ManufacturerVickers
Specifications
Mass33–51 lb (15–23 kg) all-up
Length3 ft 8 in (1.12 m)
Barrel length28 in (720 mm)
CrewThree man crew

Cartridge.303 British
.30-06 Springfield
11mm Vickers
others
ActionRecoil with gas boost
Rate of fire450 to 500 round/min
Muzzle velocity2,440 ft/s (744 m/s) (.303 Mk. VII ball)
2,525 ft/s (770 m/s) (.303 Mk. VIIIz ball)
Effective firing range2,187 yd (2,000 m)
Maximum firing range4,500 yd (4,115 m) indirect fire (.303 Mk. VIIIz ball)
Feed system250-round canvas belt

The weapon had a reputation for great solidity and reliability. Ian V. Hogg, in Weapons & War Machines, describes an action that took place in August 1916, during which the British 100th Company of the Machine Gun Corps fired their ten Vickers guns to deliver sustained fire for twelve hours. Using 100 barrels, they fired a million rounds without breakdowns. "It was this absolute foolproof reliability which endeared the Vickers to every British soldier who ever fired one. It never broke down; it just kept on firing and came back for more."

Contents

A Vickers machine gun crew in action at the Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, September 1917

The Vickers machine gun was based on the successful Maxim gun of the late 19th century. After purchasing the Maxim company outright in 1896, Vickers took the design of the Maxim gun and improved it, inverting the mechanism as well as reducing its weight by lightening and simplifying the action and using high strength alloys for certain components. A muzzle booster was also added.

The British Army formally adopted the Vickers gun as its standard machine gun under the name Gun, Machine, Mark I, Vickers, .303-inch on 26 November 1912. There were still great shortages when the First World War began, and the British Expeditionary Force was still equipped with Maxims when sent to France in 1914. Vickers was, in fact, threatened with prosecution for war profiteering, due to the exorbitant price it was demanding for each gun.[citation needed] As a result, the price was slashed. As the war progressed, and numbers increased, it became the British Army's primary machine gun, and served on all fronts during the conflict. When the Lewis Gun was adopted as a light machine gun and issued to infantry units, the Vickers guns were redefined as heavy machine guns, withdrawn from infantry units, and grouped in the hands of the new Machine Gun Corps (when heavier 0.5 in/12.7 mm calibre machine guns appeared, the tripod-mounted, rifle-calibre machine guns like the Vickers were re-classified as "medium machine guns"). After the First World War, the Machine Gun Corps (MGC) was disbanded and the Vickers returned to infantry units. Before the Second World War, there were plans to replace the Vickers gun as part of a widescale change from rimmed to rimless rounds; one of the contenders was the 7.92mm Besa machine gun (British-built Czech ZB-53 design), which eventually became the British Army's standard tank-mounted machine gun. However, the Vickers remained in service with the British Army until 30 March 1968. Its last operational use was in the Radfan during the Aden Emergency. Its successor in UK service is the British L7 variant of the FN MAG general purpose machine gun.

Use in aircraft

The cockpit of a Bristol Scout biplane in 1916, showing a Vickers machine gun synchronised to fire through the propeller by an early Vickers-Challenger interrupter gear.

In 1913, a Vickers machine gun was mounted on the experimental Vickers E.F.B.1 biplane, which was probably the world's first purpose-built combat aeroplane. However, by the time the production version, the Vickers F.B.5, had entered service the following year, the armament had been changed to a Lewis gun.

During World War I, the Vickers gun became a standard weapon on British and French military aircraft, especially after 1916. Although heavier than the Lewis, its closed bolt firing cycle made it much easier to synchronize to allow it to fire through aircraft propellers. The belt feed was enclosed right up to the gun's feed-way to inhibit effects from wind. Steel disintegrating-link ammunition belts were perfected in the UK by William de Courcy Prideaux in mid-war and became standard for aircraft guns thereafter. By 1917 it had been determined that standard rifle calibre cartridges were less satisfactory for shooting down observation balloons than larger calibres carrying incendiary or tracer bullets; the Vickers machine gun was chambered in the 11mm Vickers round, known as the Vickers aircraft machine gun and sometimes the "Balloon Buster", and was adopted by the Allies as a standard anti-balloon armament, used by both the British and French in this role until the end of the war.

The famous Sopwith Camel and the SPAD XIII types used twin synchronized Vickers, as did most British and French fighters between 1918 and the mid-1930s. In the air, the weighty water cooling system was rendered redundant by the chilly temperatures at high altitude and the constant stream of air passing over the gun as the plane flew; but because the weapon relied on barrel recoil, the (empty) water-holding barrel jacket or casing needed to be retained. Several sets of louvred slots were cut into the barrel jacket to aid air cooling, a better solution than what had initially been attempted with the 1915-vintage lMG 08 German aircraft ordnance.

As the machine gun armament of fighter aircraft moved from the fuselage to the wings in the years before the Second World War, the Vickers was generally replaced by the faster-firing and more reliable Browning Model 1919 using metal-linked cartridges. The Gloster Gladiator was the last RAF fighter to be armed with the Vickers, although they were later replaced by Brownings. The Fairey Swordfish continued to be fitted with the weapon until production ended in August 1944.

Several British bombers and attack aircraft of the Second World War mounted the Vickers K machine gun or VGO, a completely different design, resembling the Lewis gun in external appearance.

Vickers machine guns, designated as models E (pilot's) and F (observer's) were also used among others in Poland, where 777 of them were converted to 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge in 1933-1937.

Variants

A .5-inch Mk. III, four-gun anti-aircraft mount and its crew on the cruiser HMS London in 1941

The larger calibre (half-inch) version of the Vickers was used on armoured fighting vehicles and naval vessels.

The Gun, Machine, Vickers, .5-inch, Mk. II was used in tanks, the earlier Mark I having been the development model. This entered service in 1933 and was obsolete in 1944. Firing either single shot or automatic it had a pistol type trigger grip rather than the spades of the 0.303 in (7.7 mm) weapon.

The Gun, Machine, Vickers, .5-inch, Mk. III was used as an anti-aircraft gun on British ships. This variation was typically four guns mounted on a 360° rotating and (+80° to −10°) elevating housing. The belts were rolled into a spiral and placed in hoppers beside each gun. The heavy plain bullet weighed 1.3 oz (37 g) and was good for 1,500 yd (1,400 m) range. Maximum rate of fire for the Mark III was about 700 rpm from a 200-round belt carried in a drum. They were fitted from the 1920s onwards, but in practical terms, proved of little use. During the Second World War, the naval 0.5 in (12.7 mm) version was also mounted on power-operated turrets in smaller watercraft, such as Motor Gun Boats and Motor Torpedo Boats.

The Mark IV and V guns were improvements on the Mark II. Intended for British light tanks, some were used during the war on mounts on trucks by the Long Range Desert Group in the North Africa Campaign.

The Vickers machine gun was produced, between the wars, as the vz.09 machine gun.[citation needed]

Foreign service

A British Indian Army Vickers machine gun crew in the North West Frontier, India, 1940.

The Vickers was widely sold commercially and saw service with many nations and their own particular ammunition. It was also modified for each country and served as a base for many other weapons. For example:

Service after World War II

Australian soldiers of the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment operate a Vickers gun during fighting near Chipyong-ni during the Korean War, February 1951

The Union of South Africa retained a large inventory of surplus Vickers machine guns after World War II. Many of these were donated to the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) during the Angolan Civil War. Angolan militants were usually trained in their use by South African advisers. Small quantities re-chambered for 7.62mm NATO ammunition remained in active service with the South African Defence Force until the mid 1980s, when they were all relegated to reserve storage. Six were withdrawn from storage and reused by a South African liaison team operating with UNITA during the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale, after which the weapons were finally retired.

In the mid-1960s, the Vickers machine gun remained in service in countries such as India, Israel and Egypt. It saw action with the Ceylon Army in the 1971 JVP insurrection.

Colt–Vickers M1915

By the early 1900s, the U.S. military had a mixed collection of automatic machine guns in use that included M1895 "potato diggers", 287 M1904 Maxims, 670 M1909 Benét–Mercié guns, and 353 Lewis machine guns. In 1913, the U.S. began to search for a superior automatic weapon. One of the weapons considered was the British Vickers machine gun.

The Board of Ordnance & Fortifications held a meeting on March 15, 1913 to consider the adoption of a new type of machine gun...The Board is of the opinion that, with the exception of the Vickers gun, none of the other guns submitted showed sufficiently marked superiority for the military service, in comparison with the service Automatic Machine Rifle to warrant further consideration of them in the field test. The Board is of the unanimous opinion that the Vickers rifle caliber gun, light model, stood the most satisfactory test. As to the merits of the Vickers gun there is no question – it stood in a class by itself. Not a single part was broken nor replaced. Nor was there a jam worthy of the name during the entire series of tests. A better performance could not be desired.

Captain John S. Butler, Office of the Chief of Ordnance

Field tests were conducted of the Vickers in 1914, and the gun was unanimously approved by the board for the army under the designation "Vickers Machine Gun Model of 1915, Caliber .30, Water-Cooled". One hundred twenty-five guns were ordered from Colt's Manufacturing Company in 1915, with an additional 4,000 ordered the next year, all chambered for .30-06. Design complexities, design modifications, and focus on producing previously ordered weapons meant that when the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917, Colt had not manufactured a single M1915.

Production began in late 1917 with shipments to the Western Front in mid-1918. The first twelve divisions to reach France were given French Hotchkiss M1914 machine guns, and the next ten had M1915s. The next twelve divisions were to have Browning M1917 machine guns, but there was a shortage of parts. By August 1918, thirteen U.S. divisions were armed with the Colt–Vickers machine gun. 7,653 guns were issued during the war out of 12,125 produced in total. War damage losses reduced the number of M1915s in the U.S. inventory to about 8,000 total.

After World War I, the Colt–Vickers machine guns were kept in reserve until World War II. Several hundred were sent to the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines, and were all eventually lost to enemy action. In 1940 and 1941, a total of 7,071 M1915 guns were purchased by the United Kingdom to re-equip their forces after the Dunkirk evacuation, which depleted the weapon from the U.S. inventory before their entry into the war. Because the M1915 Colt–Vickers was not chambered for the standard British .303, it was painted with a red band to differentiate it and restricted it to Home Guard use.

Rimmed, centrefire Mk 7 .303 inch cartridge from World War II. The type of ammunition is denoted by the colour of the annulus, the narrow ring shown here surrounding the percussion cap

The weight of the gun itself varied based on the gear attached, but was generally 25 to 30 pounds (11 to 14 kg) with a 40-to-50-pound (18 to 23 kg) tripod. The ammunition boxes for the 250-round ammunition belts weighed 22 pounds (10.0 kg) each. In addition, it required about 7.5 imperial pints (4.3 l) of water in its evaporative cooling system to prevent overheating. The heat of the barrel boiled the water in the jacket surrounding it. The resulting steam was taken off by a flexible tube to a condenser container—this had the dual benefits of avoiding giving away the gun's location, and also enabling re-use of the water, which was very important in arid environments.

In British service, the Vickers gun fired the standard .303 inch cartridges used in the Lee–Enfield rifle, which generally had to be hand-loaded into the cloth ammunition belts. There was also a 0.5 in calibre version used as an anti-aircraft weapon and various other calibres produced for foreign buyers.

The gun was 3 feet 8 inches (112 cm) long and its cyclic rate of fire was between 450 and 600 rounds per minute. In practice, it was expected that 10,000 rounds would be fired per hour, and that the barrel would be changed every hour—a two-minute job for a trained team. The Vickers gun could sustain fire for long durations of time exceeding the recommended 10,000 rounds an hour due to the water-cooled barrel and hourly barrel swaps. One account states that a Vickers fired just under 5 million rounds in a week as a test in 1963 at Strensall Barracks and was still operable. The muzzle velocity was 2,440 ft/s (744 m/s) ±40 ft/s (12 m/s) with Mark VII(z) ammunition and 2,525 ft/s (770 m/s) with Mark VIIIz ammunition. The Mark VIIIz cartridge, which had a boat-tailed spitzer 'streamlined' bullet, could be used against targets at a range of approximately 4,500 yd (4,115 m). The bullet jackets were generally made of an alloy of cupro-nickel, and gilding metal. Ammunition for the Vickers used colour-coded annuli. Tracer ammunition was marked with a red annulus; armouring-piercing ammunition with a green annulus, and incendiary ammunition with a blue annulus. Explosive ammunition was marked with an orange annulus before the Second World War and was changed to black.

Soldiers of Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry firing a Vickers machine gun during a training exercise, Eastbourne, England, 3 December 1942

The gun and its tripod were carried separately and both were heavy. The Vickers Mk I was 30 lb (13.6 kg) without the water and tripod, and weighed 40 lb (18.1 kg) with the water. The original design did not anticipate it being carried up jungle-covered mountains on men's backs, but such was the weapon's popularity that men were generally content to pack it to all manner of difficult locations. The tripod would be set up to make a firm base, often dug into the ground a little and perhaps with the feet weighted down with sandbags.

The water jacket would be filled with about 4 litres (1.1 US gal) of water from a small hole at the rear end, sealed by a cap. The evaporative cooling system, though heavy, was very effective and enabled the gun to keep firing far longer than its air-cooled rival weapons. If water was unavailable, soldiers were known to resort to using their urine. It was sometimes claimed that crews would fire off a few rounds simply to heat their gun's cooling water to make tea, despite the resulting brew tasting of machine-oil. In extremely cold weather, the cooling water could freeze and damage the gun. This problem was addressed using an insulating water jacket cover, introduced in 1918 but still in use during the Korean War. Some crews added vehicle antifreeze, others drained the water jacket, or simply fired a few rounds periodically to keep the water from freezing.

The loader sat to the gunner's right, and fed in belts of cloth, into which the rounds had been placed. The weapon would draw in the belt from right to left, pull the next round out of the belt and into the chamber, fire it, then send the fired brass cartridge down and out of the receiver while the cloth belt would continue out the left side. During sustained fire, the barrel would heat up which heated the water in the jacket until hot enough for the water to evaporate or boil thereby cooling the barrel releasing the heat through steam. It took the Mk I 600 rounds of continuous fire to boil the water in the jacket, evaporating at a rate of 1.5 pints (0.852 L) per 1,000 rounds. The steam would reach the top of the jacket and enter a steam tube which led to a port that was situated under the jacket near the muzzle. A hose was connected to this, which released the steam into a metal water can allowing it to be vented away from the rest of the gun hiding the steam cloud and the gun's position. This also allowed any condensate to be reclaimed from the steam. Before the can got too full, it would be emptied back into the jacket to replenish the water level which would have fallen as the water evaporated and boiled away. If the water jacket needed to be emptied, a plug under the jacket could be unscrewed to drain the entire jacket.

Clinometer for Vickers .303 machine gun

The Vickers was used for indirect fire against enemy positions at ranges up to 4,500 yards (4,115 m) with Mark VIIIz ammunition. This plunging fire was used to great effect against road junctions, trench systems, forming up points, and other locations that might be observed by a forward observer, or zeroed in at one time for future attacks, or guessed at by men using maps and experience. Sometimes a location might be zeroed in during the day, and then attacked at night, much to the surprise and confusion of the enemy. New Zealand units were especially fond of this use. A white disc would be set up on a pole near the MMG, and the gunner would aim at a mark on it, knowing that this corresponded to aiming at the distant target. There was a special back-sight with a tall extension on it for this purpose. The only similar weapon of the time to use indirect fire was the German MG 08, which had a separate attachment sight with range calculator.

A British World War II Vickers medium machine gun platoon typically had one officer in command of four guns, in two sections of two, each with a crew and a small team of riflemen whose job was to protect the gun and keep it supplied with ammunition.

Animation of the Vickers muzzle booster operation, showing the expanding gases pushing the barrel to the rear relative to the cooling jacket

The Vickers is a fully automatic belt-fed firearm which is fired from a closed-bolt. When ready to fire, a round is in the chamber and the breechblock assembly and working parts are forward. It has a recoil operated, floating action with a toggle lock similar to a Luger pistol. However, unlike the Luger, the mechanism is totally contained within the receiver or body of the Vickers. When operated, the floating action, which consists of the barrel, breechblock assembly and toggle mechanism, reciprocate as a unit within the body of the gun. The mechanism is held together by recoiling plates, that connect the breech end of the barrel to the rear of the toggle mechanism. The breech is locked closed when the toggle is straight. The crank cocking handle is part of the floating action. It acts through the rear pivot of the toggle lock. Pulling the cocking handle causes the toggle to rise. This unlocks the breech and then draws the breechblock assembly rearward. While firing, the opposite end of the crank handle cams on a round lug fixed to the body. Rearward movement of the floating action tips the cocking handle and unlocks the toggle. The recoil that unlocks the toggle is gas assisted. Propellent gases leaving the muzzle are partly contained within the muzzle cap and act on the muzzle cup (attached to the barrel) to assist in propelling the floating action rearward to the point where the toggle mechanism is unlocked. The breechblock assembly then opens fully while opposed by a spring which ultimately returns it to the closed position. The spring under tension acts on a crank mounted on the opposite side of the body to the cocking handle.

The feed block assembly sits directly above the breech. It accepts the canvas belt loaded with ammunition. With each firing cycle, it advances the belt by one round so that a fresh cartridge is presented ready for loading. The belt is advanced by pawls which move from side to side. The pawls are operated by a linkage that engages with the floating action. A second set of spring-loaded pawls tilt up and down as the belt passes over them. These hold the belt during the return cycle of the feed pawls.

The breechblock assembly is roughly as high as the receiver of the gun. On its front face is the extractor block. Levers cause this to move up and down as the action is cycled. It has a slot with two grooves which allow the rim of the cartridge to be held from each side, much like a stripper clip does. With the breechblock assembly closed and ready to fire, the extractor block grips the base of two cartridges: the lower cartridge in the chamber ready to fire and an upper cartridge held in the canvas belt within the feed block. When the breechblock assembly unlocks after firing, the extractor pulls the spent cartridge from the chamber and, once clear, this falls through an ejection port in the underside of the gun's body. Unlocking the breechblock assembly also withdraws the upper round (the next round to be chambered) from the belt. When there is sufficient clearance, the extractor block lowers the new round until it is aligned with the chamber. Forward movement of the breechblock assembly then chambers the round. Near the very end of the forward cycle, the extractor block rises to engage the next round ready to be loaded.

The breechblock assembly houses the firing pin and trigger mechanism. The firing pin, under spring tension, strikes the primer of the cartridge through a hole in the extractor block. It must therefore be retracted before the extractor block moves down as part of the loading cycle. Once retracted, the firing pin is held in a cocked position by a sear, ready for the next firing cycle. As the breechblock assembly fully closes on the breech, the sear disengages but the firing pin is held rearward by the trigger. The end of the trigger protrudes from the top of the breechblock assembly.

To fire the loaded gun, the gunner depresses a paddle at the rear of the gun. Through a lever, this pulls on a sliding bar that trips the trigger to release the firing pin. The weapon then cycles to load the next cartridge for firing. If the paddle is still depressed when the breech closes, the trigger is tripped again and a further firing cycle occurs.

  • British Vickers gun team in action at the Battle of the Somme. Both are wearing gas masks.

  • Rear view of Vickers gun team in action at the Battle of the Somme.

  • Vickers gun set up for anti-aircraft purposes during the First World War.

  • Vickers machine-gun of the 1st Manchester Regiment in Malaya, 1941.

  • British Vickers gunners in action in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden. All are wearing the Mk III Turtle helmet.

  • British commandos on the outskirts of Wesel during Operation Plunder in 1945.

  • View of the breech of a Vickers gun showing brass feed ramp.

  • Dorsal view of a Vickers gun showing fluted water-cooling tank.

  • Vickers machine gun from Polish Army Museum's collection.

Weapons of comparable role, performance and era

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  69. "RaRe & Klasik – Anggota Tentera dari Regimen Askar Melayu di Singapura – 1941". Facebook (in Malay).
  70. Smith 1969, p. 147.
  71. Bloomfield & Leiss 1967, pp. 79, 89.
  72. Stack, Wayne; O’Sullivan, Barry (20 March 2013). The New Zealand Expeditionary Force in World War II. Men-at-Arms 486. Osprey Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 9781780961118.
  73. Smith 1969, p. 530.
  74. "World Infantry Weapons: Sierra Leone". 2013. Archived from the original on 24 November 2016.
  75. Capie, David (2004). Under the Gun: The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific. Wellington: Victoria University Press. pp. 66–69. ISBN 978-0864734532.
  • Richardson, A. (1902). "Vickers, Sons and Maxim Limited: Their Works and Manufactures". Engineering. OCLC 457878220. (Plates showing the mechanism of the forerunner of the Vickers gun, the Vickers Maxim gun as well as numerous plates of the factories in which they and other arms were made.)
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Vickers machine gun
Vickers machine gun Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Vickers Berthier light machine gun or Vickers K machine gun The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water cooled 303 British 7 7 mm machine gun produced by Vickers Limited originally for the British Army The machine gun typically required a six to eight man team to operate one fired one fed the ammunition the rest helped to carry the weapon its ammunition and spare parts 11 Not to be confused with the Maxim machine gun it was in service from before the First World War until the 1960s with air cooled versions of it on many Allied World War I fighter aircraft Vickers Medium Machine GunA Vickers Machine Gun mounted on a tripod This particular example resides at the York Castle Museum TypeMedium machine gunPlace of originUnited KingdomService historyIn service1912 1968Used bySee UsersWarsWorld War I 1 Irish Civil War 2 Chaco War 3 Spanish Civil War 4 Winter War World War II 5 Greek Civil War 6 First Indochina War 7 Bangladesh Liberation War citation needed Indo Pakistan War of 1947 1948 Arab Israeli War Malayan Emergency 5 Korean War 5 Algerian War 8 Cypriot intercommunal violence 9 1971 JVP insurrection Congo Crisis 10 Aden Emergency citation needed South African Border War Syrian Civil War citation needed Production historyDesigned1912ManufacturerVickersSpecificationsMass33 51 lb 15 23 kg all upLength3 ft 8 in 1 12 m Barrel length28 in 720 mm CrewThree man crewCartridge 303 British 30 06 Springfield 11mm Vickers othersActionRecoil with gas boostRate of fire450 to 500 round minMuzzle velocity2 440 ft s 744 m s 303 Mk VII ball 2 525 ft s 770 m s 303 Mk VIIIz ball Effective firing range2 187 yd 2 000 m Maximum firing range4 500 yd 4 115 m indirect fire 303 Mk VIIIz ball Feed system250 round canvas belt The weapon had a reputation for great solidity and reliability Ian V Hogg in Weapons amp War Machines describes an action that took place in August 1916 during which the British 100th Company of the Machine Gun Corps fired their ten Vickers guns to deliver sustained fire for twelve hours Using 100 barrels they fired a million rounds without breakdowns It was this absolute foolproof reliability which endeared the Vickers to every British soldier who ever fired one It never broke down it just kept on firing and came back for more 12 Contents 1 History 1 1 Use in aircraft 1 2 Variants 1 3 Foreign service 1 3 1 Service after World War II 1 3 2 Colt Vickers M1915 2 Specifications 3 Use 4 Operating mechanism 5 Users 6 Gallery of images 7 See also 7 1 Weapons of comparable role performance and era 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory Edit A Vickers machine gun crew in action at the Battle of the Menin Road Ridge September 1917 The Vickers machine gun was based on the successful Maxim gun of the late 19th century After purchasing the Maxim company outright in 1896 Vickers took the design of the Maxim gun and improved it inverting the mechanism as well as reducing its weight by lightening and simplifying the action and using high strength alloys for certain components A muzzle booster was also added The British Army formally adopted the Vickers gun as its standard machine gun under the name Gun Machine Mark I Vickers 303 inch on 26 November 1912 13 There were still great shortages when the First World War began and the British Expeditionary Force was still equipped with Maxims when sent to France in 1914 14 Vickers was in fact threatened with prosecution for war profiteering due to the exorbitant price it was demanding for each gun citation needed As a result the price was slashed As the war progressed and numbers increased it became the British Army s primary machine gun and served on all fronts during the conflict When the Lewis Gun was adopted as a light machine gun and issued to infantry units the Vickers guns were redefined as heavy machine guns withdrawn from infantry units and grouped in the hands of the new Machine Gun Corps when heavier 0 5 in 12 7 mm calibre machine guns appeared the tripod mounted rifle calibre machine guns like the Vickers were re classified as medium machine guns After the First World War the Machine Gun Corps MGC was disbanded and the Vickers returned to infantry units Before the Second World War there were plans to replace the Vickers gun as part of a widescale change from rimmed to rimless rounds one of the contenders was the 7 92mm Besa machine gun British built Czech ZB 53 design which eventually became the British Army s standard tank mounted machine gun However the Vickers remained in service with the British Army until 30 March 1968 Its last operational use was in the Radfan during the Aden Emergency Its successor in UK service is the British L7 variant of the FN MAG general purpose machine gun Use in aircraft Edit The cockpit of a Bristol Scout biplane in 1916 showing a Vickers machine gun synchronised to fire through the propeller by an early Vickers Challenger interrupter gear In 1913 a Vickers machine gun was mounted on the experimental Vickers E F B 1 biplane which was probably the world s first purpose built combat aeroplane However by the time the production version the Vickers F B 5 had entered service the following year the armament had been changed to a Lewis gun 15 During World War I the Vickers gun became a standard weapon on British and French military aircraft especially after 1916 Although heavier than the Lewis its closed bolt firing cycle made it much easier to synchronize to allow it to fire through aircraft propellers The belt feed was enclosed right up to the gun s feed way to inhibit effects from wind Steel disintegrating link ammunition belts were perfected in the UK by William de Courcy Prideaux in mid war and became standard for aircraft guns thereafter 16 By 1917 it had been determined that standard rifle calibre cartridges were less satisfactory for shooting down observation balloons than larger calibres carrying incendiary or tracer bullets the Vickers machine gun was chambered in the 11mm Vickers round known as the Vickers aircraft machine gun and sometimes the Balloon Buster and was adopted by the Allies as a standard anti balloon armament used by both the British and French in this role until the end of the war 17 18 The famous Sopwith Camel and the SPAD XIII types used twin synchronized Vickers as did most British and French fighters between 1918 and the mid 1930s In the air the weighty water cooling system was rendered redundant by the chilly temperatures at high altitude and the constant stream of air passing over the gun as the plane flew but because the weapon relied on barrel recoil the empty water holding barrel jacket or casing needed to be retained Several sets of louvred slots were cut into the barrel jacket to aid air cooling a better solution than what had initially been attempted with the 1915 vintage lMG 08 German aircraft ordnance As the machine gun armament of fighter aircraft moved from the fuselage to the wings in the years before the Second World War the Vickers was generally replaced by the faster firing and more reliable 19 Browning Model 1919 using metal linked cartridges The Gloster Gladiator was the last RAF fighter to be armed with the Vickers although they were later replaced by Brownings 20 The Fairey Swordfish continued to be fitted with the weapon until production ended in August 1944 21 Several British bombers and attack aircraft of the Second World War mounted the Vickers K machine gun or VGO a completely different design resembling the Lewis gun in external appearance Vickers machine guns designated as models E pilot s and F observer s were also used among others in Poland where 777 of them were converted to 7 92 57mm Mauser cartridge in 1933 1937 22 Variants Edit Main article Vickers 50 machine gun A 5 inch Mk III four gun anti aircraft mount and its crew on the cruiser HMS London in 1941 The larger calibre half inch version of the Vickers was used on armoured fighting vehicles and naval vessels The Gun Machine Vickers 5 inch Mk II was used in tanks the earlier Mark I having been the development model This entered service in 1933 and was obsolete in 1944 Firing either single shot or automatic it had a pistol type trigger grip rather than the spades of the 0 303 in 7 7 mm weapon The Gun Machine Vickers 5 inch Mk III was used as an anti aircraft gun on British ships 23 This variation was typically four guns mounted on a 360 rotating and 80 to 10 elevating housing The belts were rolled into a spiral and placed in hoppers beside each gun The heavy plain bullet weighed 1 3 oz 37 g and was good for 1 500 yd 1 400 m range Maximum rate of fire for the Mark III was about 700 rpm from a 200 round belt carried in a drum They were fitted from the 1920s onwards but in practical terms proved of little use During the Second World War the naval 0 5 in 12 7 mm version was also mounted on power operated turrets in smaller watercraft such as Motor Gun Boats and Motor Torpedo Boats The Mark IV and V guns were improvements on the Mark II Intended for British light tanks some were used during the war on mounts on trucks by the Long Range Desert Group in the North Africa Campaign 23 The Vickers machine gun was produced between the wars as the vz 09 machine gun citation needed Foreign service Edit A British Indian Army Vickers machine gun crew in the North West Frontier India 1940 The Vickers was widely sold commercially and saw service with many nations and their own particular ammunition It was also modified for each country and served as a base for many other weapons For example 6 5 52mm Mannlicher Carcano 24 6 5 50mmSR Arisaka citation needed 6 5 53mmR 25 7 57mm Mauser citation needed 280 British 5 7 5 55mm Swiss citation needed 7 62 51mm NATO 26 30 06 Springfield 27 7 62 54mmR 28 7 65 53mm Argentine citation needed 8mm Lebel citation needed Service after World War II Edit Australian soldiers of the 3rd Battalion Royal Australian Regiment operate a Vickers gun during fighting near Chipyong ni during the Korean War February 1951 29 The Union of South Africa retained a large inventory of surplus Vickers machine guns after World War II Many of these were donated to the National Liberation Front of Angola FNLA and National Union for the Total Independence of Angola UNITA during the Angolan Civil War 26 Angolan militants were usually trained in their use by South African advisers 26 Small quantities re chambered for 7 62mm NATO ammunition remained in active service with the South African Defence Force until the mid 1980s when they were all relegated to reserve storage 26 Six were withdrawn from storage and reused by a South African liaison team operating with UNITA during the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale after which the weapons were finally retired 30 In the mid 1960s the Vickers machine gun remained in service in countries such as India 31 Israel 32 and Egypt 33 It saw action with the Ceylon Army in the 1971 JVP insurrection Colt Vickers M1915 Edit By the early 1900s the U S military had a mixed collection of automatic machine guns in use that included M1895 potato diggers 287 M1904 Maxims 670 M1909 Benet Mercie guns and 353 Lewis machine guns In 1913 the U S began to search for a superior automatic weapon One of the weapons considered was the British Vickers machine gun The Board of Ordnance amp Fortifications held a meeting on March 15 1913 to consider the adoption of a new type of machine gun The Board is of the opinion that with the exception of the Vickers gun none of the other guns submitted showed sufficiently marked superiority for the military service in comparison with the service Automatic Machine Rifle to warrant further consideration of them in the field test The Board is of the unanimous opinion that the Vickers rifle caliber gun light model stood the most satisfactory test As to the merits of the Vickers gun there is no question it stood in a class by itself Not a single part was broken nor replaced Nor was there a jam worthy of the name during the entire series of tests A better performance could not be desired Captain John S Butler Office of the Chief of Ordnance 28 Field tests were conducted of the Vickers in 1914 and the gun was unanimously approved by the board for the army under the designation Vickers Machine Gun Model of 1915 Caliber 30 Water Cooled One hundred twenty five guns were ordered from Colt s Manufacturing Company in 1915 with an additional 4 000 ordered the next year all chambered for 30 06 Design complexities design modifications and focus on producing previously ordered weapons meant that when the U S entered World War I in April 1917 Colt had not manufactured a single M1915 28 Production began in late 1917 with shipments to the Western Front in mid 1918 The first twelve divisions to reach France were given French Hotchkiss M1914 machine guns and the next ten had M1915s The next twelve divisions were to have Browning M1917 machine guns but there was a shortage of parts By August 1918 thirteen U S divisions were armed with the Colt Vickers machine gun 7 653 guns were issued during the war out of 12 125 produced in total War damage losses reduced the number of M1915s in the U S inventory to about 8 000 total 28 After World War I the Colt Vickers machine guns were kept in reserve until World War II Several hundred were sent to the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines and were all eventually lost to enemy action In 1940 and 1941 a total of 7 071 M1915 guns were purchased by the United Kingdom 34 to re equip their forces after the Dunkirk evacuation which depleted the weapon from the U S inventory before their entry into the war Because the M1915 Colt Vickers was not chambered for the standard British 303 it was painted with a red band to differentiate it and restricted it to Home Guard use 28 Specifications Edit Rimmed centrefire Mk 7 303 inch cartridge from World War II The type of ammunition is denoted by the colour of the annulus the narrow ring shown here surrounding the percussion cap The weight of the gun itself varied based on the gear attached but was generally 25 to 30 pounds 11 to 14 kg with a 40 to 50 pound 18 to 23 kg tripod The ammunition boxes for the 250 round ammunition belts weighed 22 pounds 10 0 kg each In addition it required about 7 5 imperial pints 4 3 l of water in its evaporative cooling system to prevent overheating The heat of the barrel boiled the water in the jacket surrounding it The resulting steam was taken off by a flexible tube to a condenser container this had the dual benefits of avoiding giving away the gun s location and also enabling re use of the water which was very important in arid environments In British service the Vickers gun fired the standard 303 inch cartridges used in the Lee Enfield rifle which generally had to be hand loaded into the cloth ammunition belts There was also a 0 5 in calibre version used as an anti aircraft weapon and various other calibres produced for foreign buyers The gun was 3 feet 8 inches 112 cm long and its cyclic rate of fire was between 450 and 600 rounds per minute In practice it was expected that 10 000 rounds would be fired per hour and that the barrel would be changed every hour a two minute job for a trained team The Vickers gun could sustain fire for long durations of time exceeding the recommended 10 000 rounds an hour due to the water cooled barrel and hourly barrel swaps One account states that a Vickers fired just under 5 million rounds in a week as a test in 1963 at Strensall Barracks and was still operable 35 The muzzle velocity was 2 440 ft s 744 m s 40 ft s 12 m s with Mark VII z ammunition and 2 525 ft s 770 m s with Mark VIIIz ammunition The Mark VIIIz cartridge which had a boat tailed spitzer streamlined bullet could be used against targets at a range of approximately 4 500 yd 4 115 m The bullet jackets were generally made of an alloy of cupro nickel and gilding metal Ammunition for the Vickers used colour coded annuli Tracer ammunition was marked with a red annulus armouring piercing ammunition with a green annulus and incendiary ammunition with a blue annulus Explosive ammunition was marked with an orange annulus before the Second World War and was changed to black Use Edit Soldiers of Princess Patricia s Canadian Light Infantry firing a Vickers machine gun during a training exercise Eastbourne England 3 December 1942 The gun and its tripod were carried separately and both were heavy The Vickers Mk I was 30 lb 13 6 kg without the water and tripod and weighed 40 lb 18 1 kg with the water The original design did not anticipate it being carried up jungle covered mountains on men s backs but such was the weapon s popularity that men were generally content to pack it to all manner of difficult locations The tripod would be set up to make a firm base often dug into the ground a little and perhaps with the feet weighted down with sandbags The water jacket would be filled with about 4 litres 1 1 US gal of water from a small hole at the rear end sealed by a cap The evaporative cooling system though heavy was very effective and enabled the gun to keep firing far longer than its air cooled rival weapons If water was unavailable soldiers were known to resort to using their urine 36 It was sometimes claimed that crews would fire off a few rounds simply to heat their gun s cooling water to make tea despite the resulting brew tasting of machine oil 37 In extremely cold weather the cooling water could freeze and damage the gun This problem was addressed using an insulating water jacket cover introduced in 1918 but still in use during the Korean War Some crews added vehicle antifreeze others drained the water jacket or simply fired a few rounds periodically to keep the water from freezing 38 The loader sat to the gunner s right and fed in belts of cloth into which the rounds had been placed The weapon would draw in the belt from right to left pull the next round out of the belt and into the chamber fire it then send the fired brass cartridge down and out of the receiver while the cloth belt would continue out the left side During sustained fire the barrel would heat up which heated the water in the jacket until hot enough for the water to evaporate or boil thereby cooling the barrel releasing the heat through steam It took the Mk I 600 rounds of continuous fire to boil the water in the jacket evaporating at a rate of 1 5 pints 0 852 L per 1 000 rounds 23 The steam would reach the top of the jacket and enter a steam tube which led to a port that was situated under the jacket near the muzzle A hose was connected to this which released the steam into a metal water can allowing it to be vented away from the rest of the gun hiding the steam cloud and the gun s position This also allowed any condensate to be reclaimed from the steam Before the can got too full it would be emptied back into the jacket to replenish the water level which would have fallen as the water evaporated and boiled away If the water jacket needed to be emptied a plug under the jacket could be unscrewed to drain the entire jacket Clinometer for Vickers 303 machine gun The Vickers was used for indirect fire against enemy positions at ranges up to 4 500 yards 4 115 m with Mark VIIIz ammunition 39 This plunging fire was used to great effect against road junctions trench systems forming up points and other locations that might be observed by a forward observer or zeroed in at one time for future attacks or guessed at by men using maps and experience Sometimes a location might be zeroed in during the day and then attacked at night much to the surprise and confusion of the enemy New Zealand units were especially fond of this use A white disc would be set up on a pole near the MMG and the gunner would aim at a mark on it knowing that this corresponded to aiming at the distant target There was a special back sight with a tall extension on it for this purpose The only similar weapon of the time to use indirect fire was the German MG 08 which had a separate attachment sight with range calculator A British World War II Vickers medium machine gun platoon typically had one officer in command of four guns in two sections of two each with a crew and a small team of riflemen whose job was to protect the gun and keep it supplied with ammunition Operating mechanism Edit Animation of the Vickers muzzle booster operation showing the expanding gases pushing the barrel to the rear relative to the cooling jacket The Vickers is a fully automatic belt fed firearm which is fired from a closed bolt When ready to fire a round is in the chamber and the breechblock assembly and working parts are forward It has a recoil operated floating action with a toggle lock similar to a Luger pistol However unlike the Luger the mechanism is totally contained within the receiver or body of the Vickers When operated the floating action which consists of the barrel breechblock assembly and toggle mechanism reciprocate as a unit within the body of the gun The mechanism is held together by recoiling plates that connect the breech end of the barrel to the rear of the toggle mechanism The breech is locked closed when the toggle is straight The crank cocking handle is part of the floating action It acts through the rear pivot of the toggle lock Pulling the cocking handle causes the toggle to rise This unlocks the breech and then draws the breechblock assembly rearward While firing the opposite end of the crank handle cams on a round lug fixed to the body Rearward movement of the floating action tips the cocking handle and unlocks the toggle The recoil that unlocks the toggle is gas assisted Propellent gases leaving the muzzle are partly contained within the muzzle cap and act on the muzzle cup attached to the barrel to assist in propelling the floating action rearward to the point where the toggle mechanism is unlocked The breechblock assembly then opens fully while opposed by a spring which ultimately returns it to the closed position The spring under tension acts on a crank mounted on the opposite side of the body to the cocking handle 40 41 42 The feed block assembly sits directly above the breech It accepts the canvas belt loaded with ammunition With each firing cycle it advances the belt by one round so that a fresh cartridge is presented ready for loading The belt is advanced by pawls which move from side to side The pawls are operated by a linkage that engages with the floating action A second set of spring loaded pawls tilt up and down as the belt passes over them These hold the belt during the return cycle of the feed pawls 40 41 42 The breechblock assembly is roughly as high as the receiver of the gun On its front face is the extractor block Levers cause this to move up and down as the action is cycled It has a slot with two grooves which allow the rim of the cartridge to be held from each side much like a stripper clip does With the breechblock assembly closed and ready to fire the extractor block grips the base of two cartridges the lower cartridge in the chamber ready to fire and an upper cartridge held in the canvas belt within the feed block When the breechblock assembly unlocks after firing the extractor pulls the spent cartridge from the chamber and once clear this falls through an ejection port in the underside of the gun s body Unlocking the breechblock assembly also withdraws the upper round the next round to be chambered from the belt When there is sufficient clearance the extractor block lowers the new round until it is aligned with the chamber Forward movement of the breechblock assembly then chambers the round Near the very end of the forward cycle the extractor block rises to engage the next round ready to be loaded 40 41 42 The breechblock assembly houses the firing pin and trigger mechanism The firing pin under spring tension strikes the primer of the cartridge through a hole in the extractor block It must therefore be retracted before the extractor block moves down as part of the loading cycle Once retracted the firing pin is held in a cocked position by a sear ready for the next firing cycle As the breechblock assembly fully closes on the breech the sear disengages but the firing pin is held rearward by the trigger The end of the trigger protrudes from the top of the breechblock assembly 40 41 42 To fire the loaded gun the gunner depresses a paddle at the rear of the gun Through a lever this pulls on a sliding bar that trips the trigger to release the firing pin The weapon then cycles to load the next cartridge for firing If the paddle is still depressed when the breech closes the trigger is tripped again and a further firing cycle occurs 40 41 42 Users Edit Australia 43 44 Bangladesh 45 Belgium 46 Bolivia Used during the Chaco War 3 British Empire Bermuda Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps 47 British Somaliland Somaliland Camel Corps 48 Gold Coast 49 Southern Rhodesia 50 British Malaya 51 Fiji 52 Canada 53 Ceylon Used by Ceylonese army in the 1971 JVP insurrection China 54 Cyprus possibly used during the Cypriot intercommunal violence and supplied from Greece or Turkey 55 56 Egypt 57 58 33 France 2 000 ordered in 1914 59 Finland Vickers from various sources were acquired from 1920 and 100 were also delivered by United Kingdom during Winter war 60 German Empire in 1918 Schutztruppe used 17 Vickers guns captured during the South West Africa campaign 61 Greece 62 56 India 63 64 Indonesia 65 Ireland 10 Israel 57 66 Italy chambered in 6 5 52mm Carcano for infantry and 303 British for aircraft 24 Jordan Arab Legion 67 Latvia used by pre 1940 Latvian Army and by Nazi allied Latvian Police Battalions 68 British Malaya 69 Mexico 70 Nepal Netherlands M23 machine gun in 6 5 53mmR 25 Used some Australian or British made 303 Vickers during the Indonesian National Revolution 71 New Zealand 72 Pakistan 63 Used by Pakistan army in the Indo Pakistani War of 1947 1948 Paraguay captured from Bolivia 3 Philippines citation needed Poland aircraft version later rechambered in 7 92 57 mm Portugal produced locally as m 917 73 Russian Empire Vickers manufactured by Colt in 7 62 54mmR 28 Sierra Leone 74 South Africa 26 Spanish Republic 4 Tonga 75 Turkey 55 United Kingdom United States 12 125 Vickers were issued to the US Army in France 27 Vietnam Used by Viet Minh 7 South Yemen citation needed Gallery of images Edit British Vickers gun team in action at the Battle of the Somme Both are wearing gas masks Rear view of Vickers gun team in action at the Battle of the Somme Vickers gun set up for anti aircraft purposes during the First World War Vickers machine gun of the 1st Manchester Regiment in Malaya 1941 British Vickers gunners in action in the Netherlands during Operation Market Garden All are wearing the Mk III Turtle helmet British commandos on the outskirts of Wesel during Operation Plunder in 1945 View of the breech of a Vickers gun showing brass feed ramp Dorsal view of a Vickers gun showing fluted water cooling tank Vickers machine gun from Polish Army Museum s collection See also EditVickers 50 machine gunWeapons of comparable role performance and era Edit M1917 Browning machine gun United States MG 08 German Maxim machine gun Marlin M1917 1918 machine gun PM M1910 Russian Maxim machine gun Schwarzlose machine gun Austro Hungarian Hotchkiss Mle 1914 machine gun FrenchNotes Edit Pegler 2013 p 5 Neeson Eoin 22 August 2003 So once and for all who did shoot Michael Collins The Irish Times a b c Alejandro de Quesada 20 November 2011 The Chaco War 1932 35 South America s greatest modern conflict Osprey Publishing p 33 ISBN 978 1 84908 901 2 a b de Quesada Alejandro 20 January 2015 The Spanish Civil War 1936 39 2 Republican Forces Men at Arms 498 Osprey Publishing p 38 ISBN 9781782007852 a b c d Pegler 2013 p 49 Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 p 769 a b Indochine 1945 1954 Le Viet Minh Militaria in French No 180 Histoire amp Collections July 2000 p 16 Windrow Martin 1997 The Algerian War 1954 62 Men at Arms 312 London Osprey Publishing p 21 ISBN 978 1 85532 658 3 Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 p 854 a b Byrne Ciaran 27 July 2016 The True Story of the Heroic Battle That Inspired the New Netflix Film The Siege of Jadotville Time com 1 Archived 1 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Hogg Ian V Batchelor John 1976 Weapons amp War Machines London Phoebus p 62 ISBN 978 0 7026 0008 1 The Vickers gun accompanied the BEF to France in 1914 and in the years that followed proved itself to be the most reliable weapon on the battlefield Pegler 2013 p 28 Pegler 2013 p 29 Driver Hugh 1997 The Birth of Military Aviation Britain 1903 1914 Boydell amp Brewer Ltd p 126 ISBN 978 0 86193 234 4 Retrieved 27 November 2014 Metal Belt Links For WW1 U S M1915 Vickers Aircraft Gun Phosphate Finish International Military Antiques 2015 Archived from the original on 31 January 2015 Retrieved 20 February 2015 Frank C Barnes Cartridges of the World 15th ed Gun Digest Books Iola 2016 ISBN 978 1 4402 4642 5 Imperial War Museums 11x59R 11mm Gras Machine Gun amp 11mm Vickers iwm org uk retrieved 4 June 2018 Chorlton Martyn 2012 Hawker Hurricane Mk I V Oxford Osprey Publishing 2012 Air Vanguard No 6 ISBN 978 1 78096 603 8 Rickard J 21 March 2007 Gloster Gladiator Military History Encyclopedia on the Web Retrieved 20 February 2015 Bishop Chris 2002 The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II Metrobooks p 403 ISBN 978 1 58663 762 0 Konstankiewicz Andrzej 1986 Bron strzelecka Wojska Polskiego 1918 39 Warsaw ISBN 83 11 07266 3 p 141 in Polish a b c Fisher Richard E The Vickers Machine Gun Vickers Machine Gun Collection amp Research Association Retrieved 27 November 2014 a b di Difilippo Max 2006 Le mitragliatrici italiane della Grande Guerra Italian machine guns of the Great War Peaks and Trenches Historical Association in Italian Retrieved 20 February 2015 a b Lohnstein Marc 23 August 2018 Royal Netherlands East Indies Army 1936 42 Men at Arms 521 pp 12 21 ISBN 9781472833754 a b c d e Steenkamp Willem 2006 1985 Borderstrike South Africa Into Angola 1975 1980 Third ed Durban Just Done Productions Publishing pp 52 93 ISBN 978 1 920169 00 8 a b Pegler 2013 p 33 a b c d e f Segel Robert G 6 January 2012 U S Colt Vickers Model of 1915 Small Arms Defense Journal Retrieved 20 February 2015 CHIPYONG NI KOREA 1951 02 VICKERS 303 MACHINE GUN ENGAGED IN COMBAT WITH THE CHINESE ON ONE www awm gov au Retrieved 9 October 2019 CHIPYONG NI KOREA 1951 02 VICKERS 303 MACHINE GUN ENGAGED IN COMBAT WITH THE CHINESE ON ONE www awm gov au Retrieved 9 October 2019 Steenkamp Willem Helmoed Romer Heitman September 2016 Mobility Conquers The Story Of 61 Mechanised Battalion Group 1978 2005 Solihull Helion amp Company p 731 ISBN 978 1 911096 52 8 Bloomfield Lincoln P Leiss Amelia Catherine 30 June 1967 The Control of local conflict a design study on arms control and limited war in the developing areas PDF 3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for International Studies p 325 hdl 2027 uiug 30112064404368 Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 p 706 a b Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 p 711 Goldsmith 1994 p 229 Goldsmith Dolph L 1994 The Grand Old Lady of No Man s Land Collector Grade Publications p Part III Chapter Seven pp 188 ISBN 978 0889351479 Vickers Mk I machine gun Royal Armouries Retrieved 26 September 2012 Weeks Alan 2009 Tea rum amp fags sustaining Tommy 1914 18 History Press p 19 ISBN 978 0752450001 Pegler 2013 pp 70 The Vickers Machine Gun Range Tables a b c d e TAB Episode 52 Vickers Gun Disassembly accessed 14 July 2021 a b c d e Vickers Mk1 1914 accessed 14 July 2021 a b c d e Vickers MG study H 5529 and the Vickers machine gun mechanism accessed 4 July 2021 Pegler 2013 pp 48 49 Smith 1969 p 203 Arms for freedom 29 December 2017 Retrieved 31 August 2019 Smith 1969 p 212 British Empire Colonies and Protectorates PDF Armaments year book general and statistical information Series of League of Nations publications IX Disarmament A 37 1924 IX Geneva League of Nations 1924 p 126 League of Nations 1924 p 156 League of Nations 1924 p 163 League of Nations 1924 p 173 League of Nations 1924 p 185 League of Nations 1924 p 196 Chartrand Rene 15 December 2001 Canadian Forces in World War II Men at Arms 359 p 14 ISBN 9781841763026 Jowett Philip 10 September 2010 Chinese Warlord Armies 1911 1930 Men at Arms 463 Osprey Publishing pp 22 23 ISBN 978 1 84908 402 4 a b Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 p 861 a b Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 p 863 a b Tucker Spencer C Roberts Priscilla Mary eds May 2008 Machine guns The Encyclopedia of the Arab Israeli Conflict A Political Social and Military History ABC CLIO p 653 ISBN 978 1 85109 841 5 Smith 1969 p 613 Pegler 2013 pp 32 33 Other machineguns 7 62 mm and 7 70 mm Vickers Machineguns Adams Gregg 22 September 2016 King s African Rifles Soldier vs Schutztruppe Soldier East Africa 1917 18 Combat 20 p 61 ISBN 9781472813275 Smith 1969 p 450 a b Chris Bishop 2002 Vickers machine guns The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II Sterling Publishing Company p 244 ISBN 978 1 58663 762 0 Smith 1969 p 460 Smith 1969 p 461 Smith 1969 pp 464 amp 467 Young Peter 1972 The Arab Legion Men at Arms Osprey Publishing p 24 ISBN 978 0 85045 084 2 Thomas Nigel Caballero Jurado Carlos 25 January 2002 Germany s Eastern Front Allies 2 Baltic Forces Men at Arms 363 Osprey Publishing pp 46 47 ISBN 9781841761930 RaRe amp Klasik Anggota Tentera dari Regimen Askar Melayu di Singapura 1941 Facebook in Malay Smith 1969 p 147 Bloomfield amp Leiss 1967 pp 79 89 Stack Wayne O Sullivan Barry 20 March 2013 The New Zealand Expeditionary Force in World War II Men at Arms 486 Osprey Publishing p 44 ISBN 9781780961118 Smith 1969 p 530 World Infantry Weapons Sierra Leone 2013 Archived from the original on 24 November 2016 Capie David 2004 Under the Gun The Small Arms Challenge in the Pacific Wellington Victoria University Press pp 66 69 ISBN 978 0864734532 References EditGoldsmith Dolf L 1994 The Grand Old Lady of No Man s Land The Vickers Machinegun Cobourg Ontario Collector Grade Publications ISBN 978 0889351479 Pegler Martin 20 May 2013 The Vickers Maxim Machine Gun Weapon 25 Osprey Publishing ISBN 9781780963822 Smith Joseph E 1969 Small Arms of the World 11 ed Harrisburg Pennsylvania The Stackpole Company Further reading EditRichardson A 1902 Vickers Sons and Maxim Limited Their Works and Manufactures Engineering OCLC 457878220 Plates showing the mechanism of the forerunner of the Vickers gun the Vickers Maxim gun as well as numerous plates of the factories in which they and other arms were made External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Vickers machine gun Handbook of the Vickers machine gun model of 1915 with pack outfits and accessories 19 March 1917 British Vickers Gun tactics during the Great War Spartacus Educational Vickers machine gun YouTube animation showing mechanism of Vickers machine gun Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title 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