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Victim mentality

Victim mentality is an acquired personality trait in which a person tends to recognize or consider themselves as a victim of the negative actions of others, and to behave as if this were the case in the face of contrary evidence of such circumstances. Victim mentality depends on clear thought processes and attribution. In some cases, those with a victim mentality have in fact been the victim of wrongdoing by others or have otherwise suffered misfortune through no fault of their own. However, such misfortune does not necessarily imply that one will respond by developing a pervasive and universal victim mentality where one frequently or constantly perceives oneself to be a victim.

The term is also used in reference to the tendency for blaming one's misfortunes on somebody else's misdeeds, which is also referred to as victimism.

Victim mentality is primarily developed, for example, from family members and situations during childhood. Similarly, criminals often engage in victim thinking, believing themselves to be moral and engaging in crime only as a reaction to an immoral world and furthermore feeling that authorities are unfairly singling them out for persecution.

Contents

In the most general sense, a victim is anyone who experiences injury, loss, or misfortune as a result of some event or series of events. This negative experience, however, is insufficient for the emergence of a sense of victimhood. Individuals may identify as a victim if they believe that:

  • they were harmed;
  • they were not the cause of the occurrence of the harmful act;
  • they were under no obligation to prevent the harm;
  • the harm constituted an injustice in that it violated their rights (if inflicted by a person), or they possessed qualities (e.g., strength or goodness of character) making them persons whom that harm did not befit;
  • they deserve sympathy.

The desire for empathy is crucial in that the mere experience of a harmful event is not enough for the emergence of the sense of being a victim. In order to have this sense, there is the need to perceive the harm as undeserved, unjust and immoral, an act that could not be prevented by the victim. The need to obtain empathy and understanding can then emerge.

Individuals harbouring a victim mentality would believe that:

  • their lives are a series of challenges directly aimed at them;
  • most aspects of life are negative and beyond their control;
  • because of the challenges in their lives, they deserve sympathy;
  • as they have little power to change things, little action should be taken to improve their problems.

Victim mentality is often the product of violence. Those who have it usually had an experiences of crisis or trauma at its roots. In essence, it is a method of avoiding responsibility and criticism, receiving attention and compassion, and evading feelings of genuine anger.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(November 2013) ()

A victim mentality may manifest itself in a range of different behaviours or ways of thinking and talking:

  • Identifying others as the cause for an undesired situation and denying a personal responsibility for one's own life or circumstances.
  • Exhibiting heightened attention levels (hypervigilance) when in the presence of others.
  • Awareness of negative intentions of other people.
  • Believing that other people are generally more fortunate.
  • Gaining relief from feeling pity for oneself or receiving sympathy from others.

It has been typically characterized by attitudes of pessimism, self-pity, and repressed anger. People with victim mentality may develop convincing and sophisticated explanations in support of such ideas, which they then use to explain to themselves and others of their situation.

People with victim mentality may also be generally:

  • exhibiting a general tendency to realistically perceive a situation; yet may lack an awareness or curiosity about the root of actual powerlessness in a situation
  • introspective
  • likely to display entitlement and selfishness.
  • defensive: In conversation, reading a negative intention into a neutral question and reacting with a corresponding accusation, hindering the collective solution of problems by recognizing the inherent conflict.
  • categorizing: tending to divide people into "good" and "bad" with no gray zone between them.
  • unadventurous: generally unwilling to take even small and calculated risks; exaggerating the importance or likelihood of possible negative outcomes.
  • exhibiting learned helplessness: underestimating one's ability or influence in a given situation; feeling powerless.
  • self-abasing: Putting oneself down even further than others are doing.

A victim mentality may be reflected by linguistic markers or habits, such as pretending

  • not to be able to do something ("I can't..."),
  • not to have choices ("I must...", "I have no choice..."), or
  • epistemological humility ("I don't know").

Other features of a victim mentality include:

  • Need for recognition – the desire for individuals to have their victimhood recognized and affirmed by others. This recognition helps reaffirm positive basic assumptions held by the individual about themselves, others and the world in general. This also implies that offenders recognize their wrongdoing. At a collective level this can encourage people to have a positive well-being with regards to traumatic events and to encourage conciliatory attitudes in group conflicts.
  • Moral elitism – the perception of the moral superiority of the self and the immorality of the other side, at both individual and group levels. At an individual level this tends to involve a "black and white" view of morality and the actions of individuals. The individual denies their own aggressiveness and sees the self as weak and persecuted by the morally impure, while the other person is seen as threatening, persecuting and immoral, preserving the image of a morally pure self. At a collective level, moral elitism means that groups emphasize the harm inflicted on them, while also seeing themselves as morally superior. This also means that individuals see their own violence as justified and moral, while the outgroup's violence is unjustified and morally wrong.
  • Lack of empathy – because individuals are concerned with their own suffering, they tend to be unwilling to divert interest to the suffering of others. They will either ignore the suffering others or act more selfishly. At the collective level, groups preoccupied with their own victimhood are unwilling to see the outgroup's perspective and show less empathy to their adversaries, while being less likely to accept responsibility for harms they commit. This results in the group being collectively egoistic.
  • Rumination – victims tend to focus attention on their distress and its causes and consequences rather than solutions. This causes aggression in response to insults or threats and decreases a desire for forgiveness by including a desire for revenge against the perpetrator. Similar dynamics play out at the collective level.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(November 2012)

Victims of abuse and manipulation often get trapped into a self-image of victimisation. The psychological profile of victimisation includes a pervasive sense of helplessness, passivity, loss of control, pessimism, negative thinking, strong feelings of guilt, shame, self-blame and depression. This way of thinking can lead to hopelessness and despair. It may take a long period of time for therapists to build a trusting relationship with a victim. There frequently exists a distrust of authority figures, and the expectation of being hurt or exploited.

In 2005, a study led by psychologist Charles R. Snyder indicated that if a victim mentality sufferer forgives themself or the situation leading to that mental state, symptoms of PTSD or hostility can be mediated.

For adolescent victims, group support and psychodrama techniques can help people gain a realistic view of past traumas. These techniques emphasize the victims' feelings and expressing those feelings. Support groups are useful in allowing others to practice assertiveness techniques, and warmly supporting others in the process.

Successful identified techniques have included therapeutic teaching methods regarding concepts of normative decision theory, emotional intelligence, cognitive therapy, and psychological locus of control. These methods have proven helpful in allowing individuals with a victim mentality mindset to both recognize and release the mindset.

Trauma can undermine individual's assumptions about the world as a just and reasonable place and scientific studies have found that validation of trauma is important for therapeutic recovery. It is normal for victims to want perpetrators to take responsibility for their wrongdoing and studies conducted on patients and therapists indicate that they consider the validation of trauma and victimization as important for therapeutic recovery. De Lint and Marmo identify an 'antivictimism' mentality existing within society as a whole, and those who choose to use the label victim mentality. Expecting individuals to only be "true victims" by showing fortitude and refusing to show pain, with displays of pain being seen as a sign of weakness. This will create an environment where a victim is expected to share their emotions, only to be judged for displaying them.: 55

Victimology has studied the perceptions of victims from sociological and psychological perspective. People who are victims of crime have a complicated relationship with the label of victim, they may feel that they are required to accept it to receive aid or for legal processes; they may feel accepting the label is necessary to avoid blame; they may want to reject it to avoid stigmatization, or give themselves a sense of agency; they may accept the label due to a desire for justice rather than sympathy. There can be a false dichotomy between the roles victim and survivor which either does not acknowledge the agency that victims exerted (for example leaving abusers) or the fact that others behaviour caused them harm.

Political psychologists Bar-Tal and Chernyak-Hai write that collective victim mentality develops from a progression of self-realization, social recognition, and eventual attempts to maintain victimhood status.

  1. "The Victim Mentality – What It Is & Why You Use It". Counselling Blog. HarleyTherapy.co.uk (Harley Therapy Ltd.- Psychotherapy & Counselling in London). April 26, 2016 [2006]. RetrievedAugust 7, 2018. Lay summary.
  2. Harvey, Annelie J.; Callan, Mitchell J. (July 18, 2014). "Getting "Just Deserts" or Seeing the "Silver Lining": The Relation between Judgments of Immanent and Ultimate Justice". Abstract. PLOS ONE. 9 (7): e101803. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j1803H. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101803. PMC4103766. PMID 25036011. Observers engaged in more ultimate justice reasoning for a "good" victim & greater immanent justice reasoning for a "bad" victim. Participants' construals of their bad breaks varied as a function of their self-worth, w/ greater immanent justice reasoning for participants with lower self-esteem.
  3. Kaminer, Wendy (July 30, 2010). "The Culture of 'Victimism' Gives Way to a Culture of Bullying". The Atlantic. RetrievedAugust 7, 2018.
  4. Bar-Tal, Daniel; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; Schori, Noa; Gundar, Ayelet (June 2009). "A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts"(PDF). Sequential stages: the process of victimization; Victim-to-victimizer cycle. International Review of the Red Cross. 91 (874): 234, 256. doi:10.1017/S1816383109990221. S2CID 53594158. RetrievedAugust 7, 2018. those who perceive themselves as a victim attempt to gain social validation by persuading others (family, friends, authorities, etc.) to recognize that the harm occurred & that they are victims...the sense of collective victimhood is related to negative affective consequences of fear, reduced empathy & anger, to cognitive biases such as interpretation of ambiguous information as hostile & threatening, to emergence of the belief that violent action taken is morally justified, to reduced moral accountability & finally to a tendency to seek revenge.
  5. Aquino, K.; Byron, K. (2002). "Dominating interpersonal behavior and perceived victimization in groups: Evidence for a curvilinear relationship". Journal of Management. 28 (1): 71. doi:10.1177/014920630202800105. S2CID 143406831.
  6. Sykes, C. J. (1992).A nation of victims: The decay of the American character. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312098827.[page needed]
  7. "International Review of the Red Cross: Volume 91 - War victims - Cambridge Core". Cambridge Core.
  8. Coicaud, Jean-Marc (2016)."Victim Mentality & Violence: Anatomy of a Relationship". In Jacob, Edwin Daniel (ed.). Rethinking Security in the Twenty-First Century: A Reader. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 245–264. ISBN 978-1137525413. Retrieved2019-07-02.
  9. de Vries, Manfred F.R. Kets (July 24, 2012). "Are You a Victim of the Victim Syndrome?". Mindful Leadership Coaching. London: INSEAD Business Press, Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2116238.
  10. Shirin, Dr. Kim K. "The Victim Mentality". Articles. DrShirin.com. Archived from the original on March 27, 2007. RetrievedAugust 9, 2018.
  11. Colier, Nancy (January 12, 2018). "Are You Ready to Stop Feeling Like a Victim?". Psychology Today. RetrievedAugust 9, 2018.
  12. Zitek, E. M.; Jordan, A. H.; Monin, B.; Leach, F. R. (2010). "Victim entitlement to behave selfishly"(PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 98 (2): 245–55. doi:10.1037/a0017168. PMID 20085398. S2CID 9760588. Retrieved2019-08-07.
  13. Gabay, Rahav, Boaz Hameiri, Tammy Rubel-Lifschitz, and Arie Nadler. "The Tendency to Feel Victimized in Interpersonal and Intergroup Relationships." The Social Psychology of Collective Victimhood (2020): 361.
  14. Braiker, Harriet B. (October 3, 2004). Who's Pulling Your Strings? How to Break The Cycle of Manipulation. McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0071446723.(2006)
  15. Knittle, Beverly J.; Tuana, Susan J. (January 1, 1980). "Group therapy as primary treatment for adolescent victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse". Helpless Victim Mentality. Clinical Social Work Journal. Human Sciences Press. 8 (4): 237–238. doi:10.1007/BF00758579. S2CID 71450173. Therapists...have noted the long period of time needed to build a trusting relationship. There is frequently distrust of...authority figures as well as the expectation of being hurt or exploited.
  16. Snyder, Charles R.; Heinze, Laura S. (April 1, 2005). "Forgiveness as a mediator of the relationship between PTSD & hostility in survivors of childhood abuse". Discussion. Cognition and Emotion. Taylor & Francis. 19 (3): 413–31. doi:10.1080/02699930441000175. PMID 22686650. S2CID 1485398. ...overall forgiveness, as well as forgiveness of self and situations, mediate the PTSD-hostility relationship.
  17. Knittle, Beverly J.; Tuana, Susan J. (January 1, 1980). "Group therapy as primary treatment for adolescent victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse". Helpless Victim Mentality. Clinical Social Work Journal. Human Sciences Press. 8 (4): 240. doi:10.1007/BF00758579. S2CID 71450173. The same incident would then be reenacted, only this time the victim would stop the assault by means of verbalizations, physically overpowering the offender, obtaining assistance from the other parent, or some other method. The group members develop a sense of mastery over situations in which they were once helpless. They use the group to practice assertiveness skills, and they warmly support each other in the process.
  18. Danziger, Sanford (2010)."The Educational Benefits of Releasing "Victim Mentality": An Approach from the Fields of Business and Psychology"(PDF). Developments. Journal of Developmental Education. 34 (2): 43. RetrievedAugust 10, 2018.
  19. Kaufman, Scott Barry. "Unraveling the Mindset of Victimhood". Scientific American. Retrieved2020-12-31.
  20. Lint, Willem de; Marmo, Marinella (2018-07-03). Narrating Injustice Survival: Self-medication by Victims of Crime. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-93494-5.
  21. Leisenring, Amy (2006). "Confronting "Victim" Discourses: The Identity Work of Battered Women". Symbolic Interaction. 29 (3): 307–330. doi:10.1525/si.2006.29.3.307. ISSN 1533-8665.
  22. Bar-Tal, Daniel; Chernyak-Hai, Lily; Schori, Noa; Gundar, Ayelet (June 2009). "A sense of self-perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts"(PDF). Foundations. International Review of the Red Cross. 91 (874): 233. doi:10.1017/S1816383109990221. S2CID 53594158. RetrievedAugust 21, 2018→ Sense of Victimhood has 3 foundations: (1) rooted in a Realization of Harm Experienced either directly or indirectly (2) 'Victim': a social label → result of Social Recognition of an act as illegitimate harm (3) Individuals Perceive Themselves as Victims → often attempt to maintain this statusCS1 maint: postscript (link)
  • Caroline M Luke Butiz Butera (2010). The causes, prevalence, and treatment of obesity revisited in 2009: what have we learned so far? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91, 277S-279S.
  • Christopher Peterson (2006). A Primer in Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press.
  • Thomas J. Nevitt: The Victim Mentality. https://web.archive.org/web/20121014034523/http://aaph.org/node/214

Victim mentality
Victim mentality Language Watch Edit Victim mentality is an acquired personality trait in which a person tends to recognize or consider themselves as a victim of the negative actions of others and to behave as if this were the case in the face of contrary evidence of such circumstances Victim mentality depends on clear thought processes and attribution In some cases those with a victim mentality have in fact been the victim of wrongdoing by others or have otherwise suffered misfortune through no fault of their own However such misfortune does not necessarily imply that one will respond by developing a pervasive and universal victim mentality where one frequently or constantly perceives oneself to be a victim 1 The term is also used in reference to the tendency for blaming one s misfortunes on somebody else s misdeeds which is also referred to as victimism 2 3 Victim mentality is primarily developed for example from family members and situations during childhood Similarly criminals often engage in victim thinking believing themselves to be moral and engaging in crime only as a reaction to an immoral world and furthermore feeling that authorities are unfairly singling them out for persecution 4 Contents 1 Foundations 2 Features 3 Victims of abuse and manipulation 4 Breaking out 5 Trauma and victimhood 6 Politics 7 See also 8 References 9 BibliographyFoundations EditIn the most general sense a victim is anyone who experiences injury loss or misfortune as a result of some event or series of events 5 This negative experience however is insufficient for the emergence of a sense of victimhood Individuals may identify as a victim 1 if they believe that they were harmed they were not the cause of the occurrence of the harmful act they were under no obligation to prevent the harm the harm constituted an injustice in that it violated their rights if inflicted by a person or they possessed qualities e g strength or goodness of character making them persons whom that harm did not befit they deserve sympathy 6 The desire for empathy is crucial in that the mere experience of a harmful event is not enough for the emergence of the sense of being a victim In order to have this sense there is the need to perceive the harm as undeserved unjust and immoral an act that could not be prevented by the victim The need to obtain empathy and understanding can then emerge 7 Individuals harbouring a victim mentality would believe that 1 their lives are a series of challenges directly aimed at them most aspects of life are negative and beyond their control because of the challenges in their lives they deserve sympathy as they have little power to change things little action should be taken to improve their problems Victim mentality is often the product of violence Those who have it usually had an experiences of crisis or trauma at its roots 8 In essence it is a method of avoiding responsibility and criticism receiving attention and compassion and evading feelings of genuine anger Features EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2013 Learn how and when to remove this template message A victim mentality may manifest itself in a range of different behaviours or ways of thinking and talking Identifying others as the cause for an undesired situation and denying a personal responsibility for one s own life or circumstances 9 Exhibiting heightened attention levels hypervigilance when in the presence of others Awareness of negative intentions of other people Believing that other people are generally more fortunate Gaining relief from feeling pity for oneself or receiving sympathy from others It has been typically characterized by attitudes of pessimism self pity and repressed anger 10 People with victim mentality may develop convincing and sophisticated explanations in support of such ideas which they then use to explain to themselves and others of their situation People with victim mentality may also be generally exhibiting a general tendency to realistically perceive a situation yet may lack an awareness or curiosity about the root of actual powerlessness in a situation 11 introspective likely to display entitlement and selfishness 12 defensive In conversation reading a negative intention into a neutral question and reacting with a corresponding accusation hindering the collective solution of problems by recognizing the inherent conflict categorizing tending to divide people into good and bad with no gray zone between them 9 unadventurous generally unwilling to take even small and calculated risks exaggerating the importance or likelihood of possible negative outcomes exhibiting learned helplessness underestimating one s ability or influence in a given situation feeling powerless self abasing Putting oneself down even further than others are doing A victim mentality may be reflected by linguistic markers or habits such as pretending not to be able to do something I can t not to have choices I must I have no choice or epistemological humility I don t know Other features of a victim mentality include 13 Need for recognition the desire for individuals to have their victimhood recognized and affirmed by others This recognition helps reaffirm positive basic assumptions held by the individual about themselves others and the world in general This also implies that offenders recognize their wrongdoing At a collective level this can encourage people to have a positive well being with regards to traumatic events and to encourage conciliatory attitudes in group conflicts Moral elitism the perception of the moral superiority of the self and the immorality of the other side at both individual and group levels At an individual level this tends to involve a black and white view of morality and the actions of individuals The individual denies their own aggressiveness and sees the self as weak and persecuted by the morally impure while the other person is seen as threatening persecuting and immoral preserving the image of a morally pure self At a collective level moral elitism means that groups emphasize the harm inflicted on them while also seeing themselves as morally superior This also means that individuals see their own violence as justified and moral while the outgroup s violence is unjustified and morally wrong Lack of empathy because individuals are concerned with their own suffering they tend to be unwilling to divert interest to the suffering of others They will either ignore the suffering others or act more selfishly At the collective level groups preoccupied with their own victimhood are unwilling to see the outgroup s perspective and show less empathy to their adversaries while being less likely to accept responsibility for harms they commit This results in the group being collectively egoistic Rumination victims tend to focus attention on their distress and its causes and consequences rather than solutions This causes aggression in response to insults or threats and decreases a desire for forgiveness by including a desire for revenge against the perpetrator Similar dynamics play out at the collective level Victims of abuse and manipulation EditThis section needs expansion You can help by adding to it November 2012 Victims of abuse and manipulation often get trapped into a self image of victimisation The psychological profile of victimisation includes a pervasive sense of helplessness passivity loss of control pessimism negative thinking strong feelings of guilt shame self blame and depression This way of thinking can lead to hopelessness and despair 14 It may take a long period of time for therapists to build a trusting relationship with a victim There frequently exists a distrust of authority figures and the expectation of being hurt or exploited 15 Breaking out EditIn 2005 a study led by psychologist Charles R Snyder indicated that if a victim mentality sufferer forgives themself or the situation leading to that mental state symptoms of PTSD or hostility can be mediated 16 For adolescent victims group support and psychodrama techniques can help people gain a realistic view of past traumas These techniques emphasize the victims feelings and expressing those feelings Support groups are useful in allowing others to practice assertiveness techniques and warmly supporting others in the process 17 Successful identified techniques have included therapeutic teaching methods regarding concepts of normative decision theory emotional intelligence cognitive therapy and psychological locus of control These methods have proven helpful in allowing individuals with a victim mentality mindset to both recognize and release the mindset 18 Trauma and victimhood EditTrauma can undermine individual s assumptions about the world as a just and reasonable place and scientific studies have found that validation of trauma is important for therapeutic recovery It is normal for victims to want perpetrators to take responsibility for their wrongdoing and studies conducted on patients and therapists indicate that they consider the validation of trauma and victimization as important for therapeutic recovery 19 De Lint and Marmo identify an antivictimism mentality existing within society as a whole and those who choose to use the label victim mentality Expecting individuals to only be true victims by showing fortitude and refusing to show pain with displays of pain being seen as a sign of weakness This will create an environment where a victim is expected to share their emotions only to be judged for displaying them 20 55 Victimology has studied the perceptions of victims from sociological and psychological perspective People who are victims of crime have a complicated relationship with the label of victim they may feel that they are required to accept it to receive aid or for legal processes they may feel accepting the label is necessary to avoid blame they may want to reject it to avoid stigmatization or give themselves a sense of agency they may accept the label due to a desire for justice rather than sympathy There can be a false dichotomy between the roles victim and survivor which either does not acknowledge the agency that victims exerted for example leaving abusers or the fact that others behaviour caused them harm 21 Politics EditPolitical psychologists Bar Tal and Chernyak Hai write that collective victim mentality develops from a progression of self realization social recognition and eventual attempts to maintain victimhood status 22 See also EditBlame DARVO Learned helplessness Mindset Moral agency Persecutory delusion Social justice warrior Victim blaming Victim complex Victim playing VictimisationReferences Edit a b c The Victim Mentality What It Is amp Why You Use It Counselling Blog HarleyTherapy co uk Harley Therapy Ltd Psychotherapy amp Counselling in London April 26 2016 2006 Retrieved August 7 2018 Lay summary Harvey Annelie J Callan Mitchell J July 18 2014 Getting Just Deserts or Seeing the Silver Lining The Relation between Judgments of Immanent and Ultimate Justice Abstract PLOS ONE 9 7 e101803 Bibcode 2014PLoSO 9j1803H doi 10 1371 journal pone 0101803 PMC 4103766 PMID 25036011 Observers engaged in more ultimate justice reasoning for a good victim amp greater immanent justice reasoning for a bad victim Participants construals of their bad breaks varied as a function of their self worth w greater immanent justice reasoning for participants with lower self esteem Kaminer Wendy July 30 2010 The Culture of Victimism Gives Way to a Culture of Bullying The Atlantic Retrieved August 7 2018 Bar Tal Daniel Chernyak Hai Lily Schori Noa Gundar Ayelet June 2009 A sense of self perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts PDF Sequential stages the process of victimization Victim to victimizer cycle International Review of the Red Cross 91 874 234 256 doi 10 1017 S1816383109990221 S2CID 53594158 Retrieved August 7 2018 those who perceive themselves as a victim attempt to gain social validation by persuading others family friends authorities etc to recognize that the harm occurred amp that they are victims the sense of collective victimhood is related to negative affective consequences of fear reduced empathy amp anger to cognitive biases such as interpretation of ambiguous information as hostile amp threatening to emergence of the belief that violent action taken is morally justified to reduced moral accountability amp finally to a tendency to seek revenge Aquino K Byron K 2002 Dominating interpersonal behavior and perceived victimization in groups Evidence for a curvilinear relationship Journal of Management 28 1 71 doi 10 1177 014920630202800105 S2CID 143406831 Sykes C J 1992 A nation of victims The decay of the American character New York St Martin s Press ISBN 978 0312098827 page needed International Review of the Red Cross Volume 91 War victims Cambridge Core Cambridge Core Coicaud Jean Marc 2016 Victim Mentality amp Violence Anatomy of a Relationship In Jacob Edwin Daniel ed Rethinking Security in the Twenty First Century A Reader Palgrave Macmillan pp 245 264 ISBN 978 1137525413 Retrieved 2019 07 02 a b de Vries Manfred F R Kets July 24 2012 Are You a Victim of the Victim Syndrome Mindful Leadership Coaching London INSEAD Business Press Palgrave Macmillan doi 10 2139 ssrn 2116238 Shirin Dr Kim K The Victim Mentality Articles DrShirin com Archived from the original on March 27 2007 Retrieved August 9 2018 Colier Nancy January 12 2018 Are You Ready to Stop Feeling Like a Victim Psychology Today Retrieved August 9 2018 Zitek E M Jordan A H Monin B Leach F R 2010 Victim entitlement to behave selfishly PDF Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 2 245 55 doi 10 1037 a0017168 PMID 20085398 S2CID 9760588 Retrieved 2019 08 07 Gabay Rahav Boaz Hameiri Tammy Rubel Lifschitz and Arie Nadler The Tendency to Feel Victimized in Interpersonal and Intergroup Relationships The Social Psychology of Collective Victimhood 2020 361 Braiker Harriet B October 3 2004 Who s Pulling Your Strings How to Break The Cycle of Manipulation McGraw Hill Education ISBN 978 0071446723 2006 Knittle Beverly J Tuana Susan J January 1 1980 Group therapy as primary treatment for adolescent victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse Helpless Victim Mentality Clinical Social Work Journal Human Sciences Press 8 4 237 238 doi 10 1007 BF00758579 S2CID 71450173 Therapists have noted the long period of time needed to build a trusting relationship There is frequently distrust of authority figures as well as the expectation of being hurt or exploited Snyder Charles R Heinze Laura S April 1 2005 Forgiveness as a mediator of the relationship between PTSD amp hostility in survivors of childhood abuse Discussion Cognition and Emotion Taylor amp Francis 19 3 413 31 doi 10 1080 02699930441000175 PMID 22686650 S2CID 1485398 overall forgiveness as well as forgiveness of self and situations mediate the PTSD hostility relationship Knittle Beverly J Tuana Susan J January 1 1980 Group therapy as primary treatment for adolescent victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse Helpless Victim Mentality Clinical Social Work Journal Human Sciences Press 8 4 240 doi 10 1007 BF00758579 S2CID 71450173 The same incident would then be reenacted only this time the victim would stop the assault by means of verbalizations physically overpowering the offender obtaining assistance from the other parent or some other method The group members develop a sense of mastery over situations in which they were once helpless They use the group to practice assertiveness skills and they warmly support each other in the process Danziger Sanford 2010 The Educational Benefits of Releasing Victim Mentality An Approach from the Fields of Business and Psychology PDF Developments Journal of Developmental Education 34 2 43 Retrieved August 10 2018 Kaufman Scott Barry Unraveling the Mindset of Victimhood Scientific American Retrieved 2020 12 31 Lint Willem de Marmo Marinella 2018 07 03 Narrating Injustice Survival Self medication by Victims of Crime Springer ISBN 978 3 319 93494 5 Leisenring Amy 2006 Confronting Victim Discourses The Identity Work of Battered Women Symbolic Interaction 29 3 307 330 doi 10 1525 si 2006 29 3 307 ISSN 1533 8665 Bar Tal Daniel Chernyak Hai Lily Schori Noa Gundar Ayelet June 2009 A sense of self perceived collective victimhood in intractable conflicts PDF Foundations International Review of the Red Cross 91 874 233 doi 10 1017 S1816383109990221 S2CID 53594158 Retrieved August 21 2018 Sense of Victimhood has 3 foundations 1 rooted in a Realization of Harm Experienced either directly or indirectly 2 Victim a social label result of Social Recognition of an act as illegitimate harm 3 Individuals Perceive Themselves as Victims often attempt to maintain this status CS1 maint postscript link Bibliography EditCaroline M Luke Butiz Butera 2010 The causes prevalence and treatment of obesity revisited in 2009 what have we learned so far American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 277S 279S Christopher Peterson 2006 A Primer in Positive Psychology Oxford University Press Thomas J Nevitt The Victim Mentality https web archive org web 20121014034523 http aaph org node 214 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Victim mentality amp oldid 1051372399, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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