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Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation

The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation (VOC) is a non-profit anti-communist organization in the United States, authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of "educating Americans about the ideology, history and legacy of communism."

Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation
Founded1994
Founders
TypeNon-profit
52-1920858
FocusAnti-communism
Location
Key people
Websitevictimsofcommunism.org

The organization was responsible for building the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, D.C. It is a member of the European Union's Platform of European Memory and Conscience.

Contents

In 1991, Senator Steve Symms and Representative Dana Rohrabacher, both of whom are from the Republican Party, introduced concurring resolutions in the United States Congress urging the construction of "an International Memorial to the Victims of Communism at an appropriate location within the boundaries of the District of Columbia and for the appointment of a commission to oversee the design, construction and all other pertinent details of the memorial."

In 1993, Rohrabacher and fellow Republican Senator Jesse Helms sponsored amendments to the FRIENDSHIP Act of 1993 which authorized such construction. The act was signed into law by Democratic President Bill Clinton on December 17, 1993. It cited "the deaths of over 100,000,000 victims in an unprecedented imperial holocaust" and resolved that "the sacrifices of these victims should be permanently memorialized so that never again will nations and peoples allow so evil a tyranny to terrorize the world."

The Victims of Communism Memorial is a recreation of the "Goddess of Democracy", which was destroyed in Tiananmen Square by the government of the People's Republic of China

According to Title IX, Section 905 of Public Law 103–199, an independent organization was to be established to construct, maintain, and operate the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington, D.C., as well as to collect the contributions for the establishment of the memorial and to encourage the participation of all groups suffered under Communist regimes. In 2007, the foundation completed the Victims of Communism Memorial, which was dedicated by Republican President George W. Bush. In 2016, the foundation released a list of 51 prisoners of conscience in Cuba just before Democratic President Barack Obama visit and meeting with Cuban leader Raúl Castro. In 2020, the organization released a report calling attention to organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners and Uyghurs in China.

In 2016, the Dissident blog of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation made an effort to compile updated ranges of estimates and concluded that the overall range "spans from 42,870,000 to 161,990,000" killed, with 100 million the most commonly cited figure. According to anthropologist Kristen Ghodsee and professor Scott Sehon, the 100 million estimate favored by the organization is dubious, as their source for this is the controversial introduction to The Black Book of Communism by Stéphane Courtois. Ghodsee and Sehon write that while "quibbling about numbers is unseemly. What matters is that many, many people were killed by communist regimes." They then say that anti-communist arguments can be equally applied to capitalism.

According to Ghodsee and Sehon, the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation is a conservative and anti-communist organization in the United States which seeks to equate communism with murder, such as by erecting billboards in Times Square which declare "100 years, 100 million killed" and "Communism kills"; Ghodsee posits that the foundation, along with counterpart conservative and anti-communist organizations in Eastern Europe, seeks to institutionalize the "Victims of Communism" narrative as a double genocide theory, or the moral equivalence between the Nazi Holocaust (race murder) and those killed by Communist regimes (class murder). In her view, these are suspect efforts to distract from the global financial crisis and the failures of neoliberalism.

In April 2020, the organization announced they would be adding the global victims of the COVID-19 pandemic to their death toll of Communism, blaming the Chinese government for the outbreak and every death caused by it.

Victims of Communism Memorial

The memorial was dedicated on June 12, 2007, the 20th anniversary of Republican President Ronald Reagan's "Tear down this wall" speech in Berlin. The unveiling of the statue in Washington DC earned international press attention.

The land was a gift of the United States Parks Service, and the remaining cost, over $1 million, was raised from private sources. Sculpted by Thomas Marsh, it is a 10-foot bronze replica of the Papier-mâché Goddess of Democracy statue made by student democracy protesters leading up to the Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989.

Museum

The foundation aims to build a museum in Washington, D.C. The foundation is working on a proposed budget for a museum near the National Mall, and has received a $1 million grant toward the museum from the government of Hungary. Plans for the museum include exhibit space, an auditorium, archives, and resident scholars.

Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom

The Foundation annually presents its Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom at an event which honors opponents of communism and has been used to raise funds for the construction of the memorial. Past recipients include Myroslav Marynovych, Chen Guangcheng, Tom Lantos, Pope John Paul II, Vaclav Havel, Yang Jianli, Thadeus Nguyễn Văn Lý, Yelena Bonner, William F. Buckley Jr., Richard Pipes, Guillermo Fariñas, Lane Kirkland, Armando Valladares, János Horváth, Lech Wałęsa, Anna Walentynowicz, National Endowment for Democracy, and Henry M. Jackson.

Projects

In 2015, the foundation released a biopic video series called Witness Project, featuring interviews with witnesses of communism. Other projects include national seminars for high-school teachers and for college campuses.

Lobbying

The foundation opposed the Foreign Cultural Exchange Jurisdictional Immunity Clarification Act on the grounds that it would protect unlawfully acquired artwork held by Russian museums.

VOC's chairman is Edwin Feulner, founder and former president of the American conservative think tank the Heritage Foundation. Its chairman emeritus and co-founder is scholar Lee Edwards, a founding member of Young Americans for Freedom and distinguished fellow at the American conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation. Lev Dobriansky previously served as chairman emeritus. The national advisory council includes Dennis DeConcini, Paul Hollander, John K. Singlaub, John Earl Haynes, and George Weigel. Former or deceased members include Robert Conquest, Richard Pipes, Rudolph Rummel, and Jack Kemp.

The international advisory council includes Sali Berisha, Vladimir Bukovsky, Emil Constantinescu, Mart Laar, Vytautas Landsbergis, Guntis Ulmanis, Armando Valladares, and Lech Walesa. Former members include Yelena Bonner, Brian Crozier, Árpád Göncz, and Václav Havel.

Jay K. Katzen was the Foundation's president from June 2003 until his death in April 2020. As of January 2021, VOC launched a search for a new president and CEO.

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  2. "Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Announces New Board Leadership". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. December 30, 2020. Archived from the original on February 5, 2021.
  3. Rauch, Jonathan (December 2003). "The Forgotten Millions". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. RetrievedNovember 4, 2009.
  4. "S. Con. Res. 55". thomas.loc.gov. Library of Congress. July 26, 1991. Archived from the original on July 4, 2016. RetrievedNovember 5, 2009.
  5. "H. Con. Res. 228". thomas.loc.gov. Library of Congress. 1991. RetrievedNovember 5, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  6. "U.S. Laws Catch Up to the New Russia". The New York Times. November 29, 1993. Archived from the original on May 26, 2015. RetrievedNovember 5, 2009.
  7. "Bill Summary and Status". Library of Congress. December 17, 1993. RetrievedNovember 5, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  8. "Public Law 103-199". United States Congress. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. RetrievedNovember 3, 2009 – via Mega.nu.
  9. "China Blasts Bush Tribute to Victims of Communism". Reuters. June 13, 2007. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  10. Rhodan, Maya (March 21, 2016). "Advocates List Cuba's Political Prisoners After Castro Says There Are None". Time. Archived from the original on May 17, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  11. Lipes, Joshua (March 12, 2020). "Uyghur, Falun Gong Detainees Likely Source for China's Organ Market: Report". Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on March 16, 2020. RetrievedMarch 16, 2020.
  12. "Victims by the Numbers". Archived March 14, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Dissident. Victims of Communist Memorial Foundation. July 28, 2016. Retrieved November 14, 2020.
  13. Ghodsee, Kristen; Sehon, Scott; Dresser, Sam, ed. (March 22, 2018). "The merits of taking an anti-anti-communism stance". Archived September 25, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Aeon. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  14. Ghodsee, Kristen (Fall 2014). "A Tale of 'Two Totalitarianisms': The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism". Archived November 22, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. History of the Present: A Journal of Critical History. 4 (2): 116–117, 136. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115.
  15. "Blame the Chinese Communist Party for the Coronavirus Crisis". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. April 5, 2020. Archived from the original on April 11, 2020. RetrievedNovember 14, 2020.
  16. Smith, Marion (February 18, 2020). "Rising Coronavirus Death Toll Proves Communism Kills". Victims of Communism Foundation. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. RetrievedMarch 1, 2021.
  17. "Bush Blames 100 Million Deaths on Communists". Kommersant. June 13, 2007. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  18. Butler, Don (March 6, 2015). "A tale of Two Monuments: Washington vs. Ottawa". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on May 3, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  19. Miller, John (December 12, 2005). "Memorial Day: Honoring the victims of Communism". The National Review. Archived from the original on September 18, 2009. RetrievedNovember 4, 2009.
  20. Kilmas, Jacqueline (June 17, 2014). "Cold War Casualties of Communism Seek Museum on National Mall". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  21. Last, Jonathan (December 1, 2014). "First a Memorial, Then a Museum". The Weekly Standard. Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  22. Kirchick, James (August 25, 2014). "Communism's Victims Deserve a Museum". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  23. Clyne, Meghan (December 13, 2005). "D.C. Monument To Be Built In Honor of Victims of Communism". The New York Sun. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. RetrievedNovember 4, 2009.
  24. Nordlinger, Jay (July 25, 2014). "Sweet Solidarity, Part II". National Review. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  25. "Truman-Reagan Medal of Freedom". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  26. "Chinese Dissident Receives Political Award in Washington". Asia Times. November 16, 2015. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  27. McMorris, Bill (June 14, 2013). "Feature: Chinese dissident Yang Jianli awarded Reagan-Truman Medal of Freedom at sixth anniversary of Victims of Communism Memorial". Washington Free Beacon. Archived from the original on March 24, 2019. RetrievedMarch 24, 2019.
  28. Abigail Clevenger (May 8, 2014). "What About Communism". Philanthropy Daily. RetrievedMay 24, 2016.[permanent dead link]
  29. "Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Programs". www.guidestar.org. Archived from the original on August 2, 2019. RetrievedAugust 2, 2019.
  30. Gwoździewicz-Matan, Paulina; Jakubowski, Andrzej (2019). "Enhancing the mobility of collections and access to cultural heritage: immunity of cultural objects from seizure in Poland". International Journal of Cultural Policy. 25 (3): 350–362. doi:10.1080/10286632.2017.1284827. S2CID 157736409.
  31. Olmstead, Gracy. "Lee Edwards: When the 'New Right' Was New". The American Conservative. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. RetrievedJune 6, 2020.
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  33. "Board & Advisory Councils". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2016.
  34. "Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Launches Search for New CEO". Victims of Communism. January 20, 2021. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. RetrievedJanuary 31, 2021.
  • Neumayer, Laure (2018). "Introduction". The Criminalisation of Communism in the European Political Space after the Cold War. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781351141741.

Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation
Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Language Watch Edit The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation VOC is a non profit anti communist organization in the United States authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of educating Americans about the ideology history and legacy of communism 3 Victims of Communism Memorial FoundationFounded1994FoundersLee EdwardsLev DobrianskyZbigniew Brzezinski 1 TypeNon profitTax ID no 52 1920858FocusAnti communismLocationWashington D C Key peopleEdwin J Feulner ChairmanElizabeth Spalding Vice Chairman 2 Websitevictimsofcommunism wbr org The organization was responsible for building the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington D C It is a member of the European Union s Platform of European Memory and Conscience Contents 1 History 2 Programs 2 1 Victims of Communism Memorial 2 2 Museum 2 3 Truman Reagan Medal of Freedom 2 4 Projects 2 5 Lobbying 3 People 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory EditIn 1991 Senator Steve Symms and Representative Dana Rohrabacher both of whom are from the Republican Party introduced concurring resolutions in the United States Congress urging the construction of an International Memorial to the Victims of Communism at an appropriate location within the boundaries of the District of Columbia and for the appointment of a commission to oversee the design construction and all other pertinent details of the memorial 4 5 In 1993 Rohrabacher and fellow Republican Senator Jesse Helms sponsored amendments to the FRIENDSHIP Act of 1993 which authorized such construction 6 The act was signed into law by Democratic President Bill Clinton on December 17 1993 7 It cited the deaths of over 100 000 000 victims in an unprecedented imperial holocaust and resolved that the sacrifices of these victims should be permanently memorialized so that never again will nations and peoples allow so evil a tyranny to terrorize the world 3 The Victims of Communism Memorial is a recreation of the Goddess of Democracy which was destroyed in Tiananmen Square by the government of the People s Republic of China According to Title IX Section 905 of Public Law 103 199 an independent organization was to be established to construct maintain and operate the Victims of Communism Memorial in Washington D C as well as to collect the contributions for the establishment of the memorial and to encourage the participation of all groups suffered under Communist regimes 8 In 2007 the foundation completed the Victims of Communism Memorial which was dedicated by Republican President George W Bush 9 In 2016 the foundation released a list of 51 prisoners of conscience in Cuba just before Democratic President Barack Obama visit and meeting with Cuban leader Raul Castro 10 In 2020 the organization released a report calling attention to organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners and Uyghurs in China 11 In 2016 the Dissident blog of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation made an effort to compile updated ranges of estimates and concluded that the overall range spans from 42 870 000 to 161 990 000 killed with 100 million the most commonly cited figure 12 According to anthropologist Kristen Ghodsee and professor Scott Sehon the 100 million estimate favored by the organization is dubious as their source for this is the controversial introduction to The Black Book of Communism by Stephane Courtois 13 Ghodsee and Sehon write that while quibbling about numbers is unseemly What matters is that many many people were killed by communist regimes They then say that anti communist arguments can be equally applied to capitalism 13 According to Ghodsee and Sehon the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation is a conservative and anti communist organization in the United States which seeks to equate communism with murder such as by erecting billboards in Times Square which declare 100 years 100 million killed and Communism kills 13 Ghodsee posits that the foundation along with counterpart conservative and anti communist organizations in Eastern Europe seeks to institutionalize the Victims of Communism narrative as a double genocide theory or the moral equivalence between the Nazi Holocaust race murder and those killed by Communist regimes class murder 13 14 In her view these are suspect efforts to distract from the global financial crisis and the failures of neoliberalism 14 In April 2020 the organization announced they would be adding the global victims of the COVID 19 pandemic to their death toll of Communism blaming the Chinese government for the outbreak and every death caused by it 15 16 Programs EditVictims of Communism Memorial Edit The memorial was dedicated on June 12 2007 the 20th anniversary of Republican President Ronald Reagan s Tear down this wall speech in Berlin The unveiling of the statue in Washington DC earned international press attention 17 The land was a gift of the United States Parks Service and the remaining cost over 1 million was raised from private sources 18 Sculpted by Thomas Marsh it is a 10 foot bronze replica of the Papier mache Goddess of Democracy statue made by student democracy protesters leading up to the Tiananmen Square massacre in 1989 19 Museum Edit The foundation aims to build a museum in Washington D C 1 The foundation is working on a proposed budget for a museum near the National Mall and has received a 1 million grant toward the museum from the government of Hungary 20 Plans for the museum include exhibit space an auditorium archives and resident scholars 21 22 Truman Reagan Medal of Freedom Edit The Foundation annually presents its Truman Reagan Medal of Freedom at an event which honors opponents of communism and has been used to raise funds for the construction of the memorial 23 Past recipients include Myroslav Marynovych Chen Guangcheng Tom Lantos Pope John Paul II Vaclav Havel Yang Jianli Thadeus Nguyễn Văn Ly Yelena Bonner William F Buckley Jr Richard Pipes Guillermo Farinas Lane Kirkland Armando Valladares Janos Horvath Lech Walesa Anna Walentynowicz National Endowment for Democracy and Henry M Jackson 23 24 25 26 27 Projects Edit In 2015 the foundation released a biopic video series called Witness Project featuring interviews with witnesses of communism 28 Other projects include national seminars for high school teachers and for college campuses 29 Lobbying Edit The foundation opposed the Foreign Cultural Exchange Jurisdictional Immunity Clarification Act on the grounds that it would protect unlawfully acquired artwork held by Russian museums 30 People Edit Chairman Edwin J Feulner VOC s chairman is Edwin Feulner founder and former president of the American conservative think tank the Heritage Foundation Its chairman emeritus and co founder is scholar Lee Edwards 2 a founding member of Young Americans for Freedom 31 and distinguished fellow at the American conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation 32 Lev Dobriansky previously served as chairman emeritus The national advisory council includes Dennis DeConcini Paul Hollander John K Singlaub John Earl Haynes and George Weigel Former or deceased members include Robert Conquest Richard Pipes Rudolph Rummel and Jack Kemp 33 The international advisory council includes Sali Berisha Vladimir Bukovsky Emil Constantinescu Mart Laar Vytautas Landsbergis Guntis Ulmanis Armando Valladares and Lech Walesa Former members include Yelena Bonner Brian Crozier Arpad Goncz and Vaclav Havel 33 Jay K Katzen was the Foundation s president from June 2003 until his death in April 2020 As of January 2021 VOC launched a search for a new president and CEO 34 See also EditMemorial society Museum of Communism Czech Republic Museum of Communism Warsaw Virtual Museum of Soviet Repression in BelarusReferences Edit a b Smith Dinitia December 23 1995 For the Victims of Communism The New York Times Archived from the original on September 24 2019 Retrieved November 4 2009 a b Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Announces New Board Leadership Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation December 30 2020 Archived from the original on February 5 2021 a b Rauch Jonathan December 2003 The Forgotten Millions The Atlantic Archived from the original on October 11 2008 Retrieved November 4 2009 S Con Res 55 thomas loc gov Library of Congress July 26 1991 Archived from the original on July 4 2016 Retrieved November 5 2009 H Con Res 228 thomas loc gov Library of Congress 1991 Retrieved November 5 2009 permanent dead link U S Laws Catch Up to the New Russia The New York Times November 29 1993 Archived from the original on May 26 2015 Retrieved November 5 2009 Bill Summary and Status Library of Congress December 17 1993 Retrieved November 5 2009 permanent dead link Public Law 103 199 United States Congress Archived from the original on June 14 2011 Retrieved November 3 2009 via Mega nu China Blasts Bush Tribute to Victims of Communism Reuters June 13 2007 Archived from the original on March 6 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Rhodan Maya March 21 2016 Advocates List Cuba s Political Prisoners After Castro Says There Are None Time Archived from the original on May 17 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Lipes Joshua March 12 2020 Uyghur Falun Gong Detainees Likely Source for China s Organ Market Report Radio Free Asia Archived from the original on March 16 2020 Retrieved March 16 2020 Victims by the Numbers Archived March 14 2018 at the Wayback Machine Dissident Victims of Communist Memorial Foundation July 28 2016 Retrieved November 14 2020 a b c d Ghodsee Kristen Sehon Scott Dresser Sam ed March 22 2018 The merits of taking an anti anti communism stance Archived September 25 2018 at the Wayback Machine Aeon Retrieved February 11 2020 a b Ghodsee Kristen Fall 2014 A Tale of Two Totalitarianisms The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism Archived November 22 2020 at the Wayback Machine History of the Present A Journal of Critical History 4 2 116 117 136 doi 10 5406 historypresent 4 2 0115 JSTOR 10 5406 historypresent 4 2 0115 Blame the Chinese Communist Party for the Coronavirus Crisis Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation April 5 2020 Archived from the original on April 11 2020 Retrieved November 14 2020 Smith Marion February 18 2020 Rising Coronavirus Death Toll Proves Communism Kills Victims of Communism Foundation Archived from the original on March 8 2021 Retrieved March 1 2021 Bush Blames 100 Million Deaths on Communists Kommersant June 13 2007 Archived from the original on October 10 2012 Retrieved May 18 2016 Butler Don March 6 2015 A tale of Two Monuments Washington vs Ottawa Ottawa Citizen Archived from the original on May 3 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Miller John December 12 2005 Memorial Day Honoring the victims of Communism The National Review Archived from the original on September 18 2009 Retrieved November 4 2009 Kilmas Jacqueline June 17 2014 Cold War Casualties of Communism Seek Museum on National Mall The Washington Times Archived from the original on June 3 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Last Jonathan December 1 2014 First a Memorial Then a Museum The Weekly Standard Archived from the original on June 1 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Kirchick James August 25 2014 Communism s Victims Deserve a Museum The Daily Beast Archived from the original on April 21 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 a b Clyne Meghan December 13 2005 D C Monument To Be Built In Honor of Victims of Communism The New York Sun Archived from the original on June 14 2011 Retrieved November 4 2009 Nordlinger Jay July 25 2014 Sweet Solidarity Part II National Review Archived from the original on June 10 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Truman Reagan Medal of Freedom Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Archived from the original on April 24 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Chinese Dissident Receives Political Award in Washington Asia Times November 16 2015 Archived from the original on November 7 2015 Retrieved May 18 2016 CS1 maint unfit URL link McMorris Bill June 14 2013 Feature Chinese dissident Yang Jianli awarded Reagan Truman Medal of Freedom at sixth anniversary of Victims of Communism Memorial Washington Free Beacon Archived from the original on March 24 2019 Retrieved March 24 2019 Abigail Clevenger May 8 2014 What About Communism Philanthropy Daily Retrieved May 24 2016 permanent dead link Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Programs www guidestar org Archived from the original on August 2 2019 Retrieved August 2 2019 Gwozdziewicz Matan Paulina Jakubowski Andrzej 2019 Enhancing the mobility of collections and access to cultural heritage immunity of cultural objects from seizure in Poland International Journal of Cultural Policy 25 3 350 362 doi 10 1080 10286632 2017 1284827 S2CID 157736409 Olmstead Gracy Lee Edwards When the New Right Was New The American Conservative Archived from the original on August 14 2020 Retrieved June 6 2020 Lee Edwards Ph D The Heritage Foundation Archived from the original on June 3 2020 Retrieved June 6 2020 a b Board amp Advisory Councils Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Archived from the original on March 25 2016 Retrieved May 18 2016 Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation Launches Search for New CEO Victims of Communism January 20 2021 Archived from the original on January 26 2021 Retrieved January 31 2021 Further reading EditNeumayer Laure 2018 Introduction The Criminalisation of Communism in the European Political Space after the Cold War London Routledge ISBN 9781351141741 External links EditOfficial website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation amp oldid 1051667982, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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