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Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; full name: Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861, when he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. Borrowing from the old Latin title Pater Patriae of the Roman emperors, the Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland (Italian: Padre della Patria).

Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel c. 1861, by Disdéri
King of Italy
Reign17 March 1861 – 9 January 1878
PredecessorNapoleon (1814)
SuccessorUmberto I
Prime Ministers
King of Sardinia
Reign23 March 1849 – 17 March 1861
PredecessorCharles Albert
Prime Ministers
Born14 March 1820
Palazzo Carignano, Turin, Sardinia
Died9 January 1878(1878-01-09) (aged 57)
Quirinal Palace, Rome, Italy
Burial
Spouse
(m. 1842; died 1855)​
(m. 1869)​
Issue
see details...
Names
Italian: Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso
English:Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand Thomas
HouseSavoy
FatherCharles Albert of Sardinia
MotherMaria Theresa of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Signature

Born in Turin as the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, and Maria Theresa of Austria, he fought in the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849) before being made King of Piedmont-Sardinia following his father's abdication. He appointed Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, as his Prime Minister, and he consolidated his position by suppressing the republican left. In 1855, he sent an expeditionary corps to side with French and British forces during the Crimean War; the deployment of Italian troops to the Crimea, and the gallantry shown by them in the Battle of the Chernaya (16 August 1855) and in the siege of Sevastopol led the Kingdom of Sardinia to be among the participants at the peace conference at the end of the war, where it could address the issue of the Italian unification to other European powers. This allowed Victor Emmanuel to ally himself with Napoleon III, Emperor of France. France had supported Sardinia in the Second Italian War of Independence, resulting in liberating Lombardy from Austrian rule.

Victor Emmanuel supported the Expedition of the Thousand (1860–1861) led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. However, Victor Emmanuel halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, as it was under French protection. In 1860, Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont, and Victor Emmanuel then marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces. He subsequently met Garibaldi at Teano, receiving from him the control of southern Italy and becoming the first King of Italy on 17 March 1861.

In 1866, the Third Italian War of Independence allowed Italy to annex Veneto. In 1870, Victor Emmanuel also took advantage of the Prussian victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War to conquer the Papal States after the French withdrew. He entered Rome on 20 September 1870 and set up the new capital there on 2 July 1871. He died in Rome in 1878, and was buried in the Pantheon.

The Italian national Victor Emmanuel II monument in Rome, containing the Altare della Patria, was built in his honor.

Contents

Victor Emmanuel II in 1849
Portrait of Victor Emmanuel, with a battle in the background (1848)

Victor Emmanuel was born as the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, and Maria Theresa of Austria. His father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military, and sports. In 1842, he married his cousin, Adelaide of Austria. He was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont.

He took part in the First Italian War of Independence (1848–1849) under his father, King Charles Albert, fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo, Santa Lucia, Goito and Custoza.

He became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne, after being defeated by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara. Victor Emmanuel was immediately able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander, Radetzky. The treaty, however, was not ratified by the Piedmontese lower parliamentary house, the Chamber of Deputies, and Victor Emmanuel retaliated by firing his Prime Minister, Claudio Gabriele de Launay, replacing him with Massimo D'Azeglio. After new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849, Victor Emmanuel also fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a "vile and infected race of canailles."

In 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour ("Count Cavour") as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. This turned out to be a wise choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind and a major player in the Italian unification in his own right. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the "Risorgimento", the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and early 60s. He was especially popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms.

Portrait of Victor Emmanuel II by Giuseppe Ugolini

Crimean War

Victor Emmanuel reviews the troops for the Crimean War

Following Victor Emmanuel's advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so. Victor Emmanuel, however, was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and, more importantly, France.

After successfully seeking British support and ingratiating himself with France and Napoleon III at the Congress of Paris in 1856 at the end of the war, Count Cavour arranged a secret meeting with the French emperor. In 1858, they met at Plombières-les-Bains (in Lorraine), where they agreed that if the French were to help Piedmont combat Austria, which still reigned over the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia in northern Italy, France would be awarded Nice and Savoy.

Wars of Italian Unification

The Italo-French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully. However, sickened by the casualties of the war and worried about the mobilisation of Prussian troops, Napoleon III secretly made a treaty with Franz Joseph of Austria at Villafranca whereby Piedmont would only gain Lombardy. France did not as a result receive the promised Nice and Savoy, but Austria did keep Venetia, a major setback for the Piedmontese, in no small part because the treaty had been prepared without their knowledge. After several quarrels about the outcome of the war, Cavour resigned, and the king had to find other advisors. France indeed only gained Nice and Savoy after the Treaty of Turin was signed in March 1860, after Cavour had been reinstalled as Prime Minister, and a deal with the French was struck for plebiscites to take place in the Central Italian Duchies.

Later that same year, Victor Emmanuel II sent his forces to fight the papal army at Castelfidardo and drove the Pope into Vatican City. His success at these goals led him to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church. Then, Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples, and Sardinia-Piedmont grew even larger. On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was officially established and Victor Emmanuel II became its king.

Victor Emmanuel supported Giuseppe Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand (1860–1861), which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. However, the king halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, as it was under French protection. In 1860, through local plebiscites, Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel then marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo (1860) over the Papal forces.

The king subsequently met with Garibaldi at Teano, receiving from him the control of southern Italy. Another series of plebiscites in the occupied lands resulted in the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel as the first King of Italy by the new Parliament of unified Italy, on 17 March 1861. He did not renumber himself after assuming the new royal title, however. Turin became the capital of the new state. Only Rome, Veneto, and Trentino remained to be conquered.

Victor Emmanuel meets Giuseppe Garibaldi in Teano

Completion of the unification

Tomb of Victor Emmanuel II in the Pantheon

In 1866 Victor Emmanuel allied himself with Prussia in the Third Italian War of Independence. Although not victorious in the Italian theater, he managed anyway to receive Veneto after the Austrian defeat in Germany. The British Foreign Secretary, Lord Clarendon, visited Florence in December 1867 and reported to London after talking to various Italian politicians: "There is universal agreement that Victor Emmanuel is an imbecile; he is a dishonest man who tells lies to everyone; at this rate he will end up losing his crown and ruining both Italy and his dynasty." In 1870, after two failed attempts by Garibaldi, he also took advantage of the Prussian victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War to capture Rome after the French withdrew. He entered Rome on 20 September 1870 and set up the new capital there on 2 July 1871, after a temporary move to Florence in 1864. The new Royal residence was the Quirinal Palace.

The rest of Victor Emmanuel II's reign was much quieter. After the Kingdom of Italy was established he decided to continue on as King Victor Emmanuel II instead of Victor Emmanuel I of Italy. This was a terrible move as far as public relations went as it was not indicative of the fresh start that the Italian people wanted and suggested that Sardinia-Piedmont had taken over the Italian Peninsula, rather than unifying it. Despite this mishap, the remainder of Victor Emmanuel II's reign was consumed by wrapping up loose ends and dealing with economic and cultural issues. His role in day-to-day governing gradually dwindled, as it became increasingly apparent that a king could no longer keep a government in office against the will of Parliament. As a result, while the wording of the Statuto Albertino stipulating that ministers were solely responsible to the crown remained unchanged, in practice they were now responsible to Parliament.

Victor Emmanuel died in Rome in 1878, after meeting with Pope Pius IX's envoys, who had reversed the excommunication, and received last rites. He was buried in the Pantheon. His successor was his son Umberto I.

In 1842 he married his first cousin once removed Adelaide of Austria (1822–1855). With her, he had eight children:

Victor Emmanuel II in Venice

In 1869 he married morganatically his principal mistress Rosa Vercellana (3 June 1833 – 26 December 1885). Popularly known in Piedmontese as "Bela Rosin", she was born a commoner but made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda in 1858. Their offspring were:

  • Vittoria Guerrieri (2 December 1848 – 29 December 1905), married three times: to Giacomo Spinola, Luigi Spinola and Paolo DeSimone. She had issue.
  • Emanuele Alberto Guerrieri (16 March 1851 – 24 December 1894), Count of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, married and had issue.
Brooklyn Museum – Caricature of King Victor Emmanuel II – Thomas Nast – overall

In addition to his morganatic second wife, Victor Emmanuel II had several other mistresses:

1) Laura Bon at Stupinigi, who bore him one daughter:

  • Emanuela Alberta Maria Vittoria Guerriero di Roverbella (6 September 1853 – 1890).

2) Unknown mistress at Mondovì, mother of:

  • Donato Etna (1858-1938) who became a soldier during the First World War.

3) Virginia Rho at Turin, mother of two children:

  • Vittorio di Rho (1861 – Turin, 10 October 1913). He became a notable photographer.
  • Maria Pia di Rho (25 February 1866 – Vienna, 19 April 1947). Married to count Alessandro Montecuccoli.

4) Rosalinda Incoronata De Domenicis (1846-1916), mother of one daughter:

  • Vittoria De Domenicis (1869-1935) who married doctor Alberto Benedetti (1870-1920), with issue.

5) Baroness Vittoria Duplessis, who bore him:

  • A daughter, perhaps named Savoiarda.
  • Alberta Duplesis (1853-1895) who married Giuseppe Siccardi (1852-1896).

6) Angela Rosa De Filippo, mother of:

  • Actor Domenico Scarpetta (1876-1952)
Styles of
King Victor Emmanuel II
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Arms of Victor Emmanuel II as knight of the Golden Fleece

Italian

Foreign

  1. Arnold, Guy (2002). Historical Dictionary of the Crimean War. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866133.
  2. Chisholm 1911.
  3. Mack Smith, Denis Italy and its Monarchy, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989 p. 42
  4. "Excommunicating Politicians". 27 September 2004.
  5. Genealogical data from the Savoia page of the Genealogie delle famiglie nobili italiane website.
  6. Luigi Cibrario (1869). Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata. Sunto degli statuti, catalogo dei cavalieri. Eredi Botta. p. 107.
  7. Almanacco Toscano per l'anno 1855. Stamperia Granducale. 1840. p. 275.
  8. Boettger, T. F. "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or - Knights of the Golden Fleece". La Confrérie Amicale. Retrieved25 June 2019.
  9. "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1865), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 55, 66
  11. Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Bayern (1873), "Königliche Orden" p. 8
  12. Ferdinand Veldekens (1858). Le livre d'or de l'ordre de Léopold et de la croix de fer. lelong. p. 214.
  13. Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 466. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  14. "The Royal Order of Kamehameha". crownofhawaii.com. Official website of the Royal Family of Hawaii. Retrieved2 December 2019.
  15. "Seccion IV: Ordenes del Imperio", Almanaque imperial para el año 1866 (in Spanish), 1866, p. 242, retrieved29 April 2020
  16. Königlich Preussische Ordensliste (in German), 1, Berlin, 1877, pp. 12, 24
  17. Sachsen (1866). Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen: 1865/66. Heinrich. p. 4.
  18. Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1877, p. 368, retrieved2 May 2020 – via runeberg.org
  19. "Nichan ad-Dam, ou ordre du Sang, institué... - Lot 198".
  20. Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 59

In Italian

  • Del Boca, Lorenzo (1998). Maledetti Savoia. Casale Monferrato: Piemme.
  • Gasparetto, Pier Francesco (1984). Vittorio Emanuele II. Milan: Rusconi.
  • Mack Smith, Denis (1995). Vittorio Emanuele II. Milan: Mondadori.
  • Pinto, Paolo (1997). Vittorio Emanuele II: il re avventuriero. Milan: Mondadori.
  • Rocca, Gianni (1993). Avanti, Savoia!: miti e disfatte che fecero l'Italia, 1848–1866. Milan: Mondadori.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toVittorio Emanuele II.
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Born: 14 March 1820 Died: 9 January 1878
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Sardinia
23 March 1849 – 17 March 1861
Succeeded by
Himself
as King of Italy
Preceded by
Duke of Savoy
23 March 1849 – 9 January 1878
Succeeded by
Vacant
Title last held by
Napoleon I
King of Italy
17 March 1861 – 9 January 1878
Succeeded by

Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Victor Emmanuel II Victor Emmanuel II Italian Vittorio Emanuele II full name Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia 14 March 1820 9 January 1878 was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861 when he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century a title he held until his death in 1878 Borrowing from the old Latin title Pater Patriae of the Roman emperors the Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland Italian Padre della Patria Victor Emmanuel IIVictor Emmanuel c 1861 by DisderiKing of Italy more Reign17 March 1861 9 January 1878PredecessorNapoleon 1814 SuccessorUmberto IPrime MinistersSee list Camillo CavourBettino RicasoliUrbano RattazziLuigi Carlo FariniMarco MinghettiAlfonso Ferrero la MarmoraLuigi Federico MenabreaGiovanni LanzaAgostino DepretisKing of SardiniaReign23 March 1849 17 March 1861PredecessorCharles AlbertPrime MinistersSee list Agostino ChiodoClaudio Gabriele de LaunayMassimo D AzeglioCamillo CavourAlfonso Ferrero La MarmoraBorn14 March 1820 Palazzo Carignano Turin SardiniaDied9 January 1878 1878 01 09 aged 57 Quirinal Palace Rome ItalyBurialPantheon RomeSpouseAdelaide of Austria m 1842 died 1855 wbr Rosa Vercellana m 1869 wbr Issue see details Maria Clotilde Princess Napoleon Umberto I of Italy Amadeo I of Spain Oddone Duke of Montferrat Maria Pia Queen of PortugalNamesItalian Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso English Victor Emmanuel Mario Albert Eugene Ferdinand ThomasHouseSavoyFatherCharles Albert of SardiniaMotherMaria Theresa of AustriaReligionRoman CatholicismSignature Born in Turin as the eldest son of Charles Albert Prince of Carignano and Maria Theresa of Austria he fought in the First Italian War of Independence 1848 1849 before being made King of Piedmont Sardinia following his father s abdication He appointed Camillo Benso Count of Cavour as his Prime Minister and he consolidated his position by suppressing the republican left In 1855 he sent an expeditionary corps to side with French and British forces during the Crimean War the deployment of Italian troops to the Crimea and the gallantry shown by them in the Battle of the Chernaya 16 August 1855 and in the siege of Sevastopol led the Kingdom of Sardinia to be among the participants at the peace conference at the end of the war where it could address the issue of the Italian unification to other European powers 1 This allowed Victor Emmanuel to ally himself with Napoleon III Emperor of France France had supported Sardinia in the Second Italian War of Independence resulting in liberating Lombardy from Austrian rule Victor Emmanuel supported the Expedition of the Thousand 1860 1861 led by Giuseppe Garibaldi which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy However Victor Emmanuel halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome still under the Papal States as it was under French protection In 1860 Tuscany Modena Parma and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia Piedmont and Victor Emmanuel then marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces He subsequently met Garibaldi at Teano receiving from him the control of southern Italy and becoming the first King of Italy on 17 March 1861 In 1866 the Third Italian War of Independence allowed Italy to annex Veneto In 1870 Victor Emmanuel also took advantage of the Prussian victory over France in the Franco Prussian War to conquer the Papal States after the French withdrew He entered Rome on 20 September 1870 and set up the new capital there on 2 July 1871 He died in Rome in 1878 and was buried in the Pantheon The Italian national Victor Emmanuel II monument in Rome containing the Altare della Patria was built in his honor Contents 1 Biography 1 1 Crimean War 1 2 Wars of Italian Unification 1 3 Completion of the unification 2 Family and children 3 Honours 3 1 Italian 3 2 Foreign 4 Ancestry 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 7 1 In Italian 8 External linksBiography Edit Victor Emmanuel II in 1849 Portrait of Victor Emmanuel with a battle in the background 1848 Victor Emmanuel was born as the eldest son of Charles Albert Prince of Carignano and Maria Theresa of Austria His father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia Piedmont in 1831 He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics the military and sports In 1842 he married his cousin Adelaide of Austria He was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia Piedmont He took part in the First Italian War of Independence 1848 1849 under his father King Charles Albert fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo Santa Lucia Goito and Custoza 2 He became King of Sardinia Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne after being defeated by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara Victor Emmanuel was immediately able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander Radetzky The treaty however was not ratified by the Piedmontese lower parliamentary house the Chamber of Deputies and Victor Emmanuel retaliated by firing his Prime Minister Claudio Gabriele de Launay replacing him with Massimo D Azeglio After new elections the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies In 1849 Victor Emmanuel also fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa defining the rebels as a vile and infected race of canailles In 1852 he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour Count Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont Sardinia This turned out to be a wise choice since Cavour was a political mastermind and a major player in the Italian unification in his own right Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the Risorgimento the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and early 60s 2 He was especially popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms Portrait of Victor Emmanuel II by Giuseppe Ugolini Crimean War Edit Victor Emmanuel reviews the troops for the Crimean War Following Victor Emmanuel s advice Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so Victor Emmanuel however was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and more importantly France After successfully seeking British support and ingratiating himself with France and Napoleon III at the Congress of Paris in 1856 at the end of the war Count Cavour arranged a secret meeting with the French emperor In 1858 they met at Plombieres les Bains in Lorraine where they agreed that if the French were to help Piedmont combat Austria which still reigned over the Kingdom of Lombardy Venetia in northern Italy France would be awarded Nice and Savoy Wars of Italian Unification Edit Main article Second Italian War of Independence The Italo French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully However sickened by the casualties of the war and worried about the mobilisation of Prussian troops Napoleon III secretly made a treaty with Franz Joseph of Austria at Villafranca whereby Piedmont would only gain Lombardy France did not as a result receive the promised Nice and Savoy but Austria did keep Venetia a major setback for the Piedmontese in no small part because the treaty had been prepared without their knowledge After several quarrels about the outcome of the war Cavour resigned and the king had to find other advisors France indeed only gained Nice and Savoy after the Treaty of Turin was signed in March 1860 after Cavour had been reinstalled as Prime Minister and a deal with the French was struck for plebiscites to take place in the Central Italian Duchies Later that same year Victor Emmanuel II sent his forces to fight the papal army at Castelfidardo and drove the Pope into Vatican City His success at these goals led him to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church Then Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples and Sardinia Piedmont grew even larger On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was officially established and Victor Emmanuel II became its king Victor Emmanuel supported Giuseppe Garibaldi s Expedition of the Thousand 1860 1861 which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy However the king halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome still under the Papal States as it was under French protection In 1860 through local plebiscites Tuscany Modena Parma and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia Piedmont Victor Emmanuel then marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo 1860 over the Papal forces The king subsequently met with Garibaldi at Teano receiving from him the control of southern Italy Another series of plebiscites in the occupied lands resulted in the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel as the first King of Italy by the new Parliament of unified Italy on 17 March 1861 He did not renumber himself after assuming the new royal title however Turin became the capital of the new state Only Rome Veneto and Trentino remained to be conquered Victor Emmanuel meets Giuseppe Garibaldi in Teano Completion of the unification Edit Tomb of Victor Emmanuel II in the Pantheon Main article Third Italian War of Independence In 1866 Victor Emmanuel allied himself with Prussia in the Third Italian War of Independence Although not victorious in the Italian theater he managed anyway to receive Veneto after the Austrian defeat in Germany The British Foreign Secretary Lord Clarendon visited Florence in December 1867 and reported to London after talking to various Italian politicians There is universal agreement that Victor Emmanuel is an imbecile he is a dishonest man who tells lies to everyone at this rate he will end up losing his crown and ruining both Italy and his dynasty 3 In 1870 after two failed attempts by Garibaldi he also took advantage of the Prussian victory over France in the Franco Prussian War to capture Rome after the French withdrew He entered Rome on 20 September 1870 and set up the new capital there on 2 July 1871 after a temporary move to Florence in 1864 The new Royal residence was the Quirinal Palace The rest of Victor Emmanuel II s reign was much quieter After the Kingdom of Italy was established he decided to continue on as King Victor Emmanuel II instead of Victor Emmanuel I of Italy This was a terrible move as far as public relations went as it was not indicative of the fresh start that the Italian people wanted and suggested that Sardinia Piedmont had taken over the Italian Peninsula rather than unifying it Despite this mishap the remainder of Victor Emmanuel II s reign was consumed by wrapping up loose ends and dealing with economic and cultural issues His role in day to day governing gradually dwindled as it became increasingly apparent that a king could no longer keep a government in office against the will of Parliament As a result while the wording of the Statuto Albertino stipulating that ministers were solely responsible to the crown remained unchanged in practice they were now responsible to Parliament Victor Emmanuel died in Rome in 1878 after meeting with Pope Pius IX s envoys who had reversed the excommunication and received last rites He was buried in the Pantheon His successor was his son Umberto I 4 Family and children EditIn 1842 he married his first cousin once removed Adelaide of Austria 1822 1855 With her he had eight children 5 Maria Clotilde 1843 1911 who married Napoleon Joseph the Prince Napoleon Their grandson Prince Louis Napoleon was the Bonapartist pretender to the French imperial throne Victor Emmanuel II in Venice Umberto 1844 1900 later King of Italy He married his first cousin Margherita of Savoy Amadeo 1845 1890 later King of Spain He married Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo and later Maria Letizia Bonaparte Oddone Eugenio Maria 1846 1866 Duke of Montferrat Maria Pia 1847 1911 who married King Louis of Portugal Carlo Alberto 2 June 1851 28 June 1854 Duke of Chablais Vittorio Emanuele 6 July 1852 6 July 1852 Vittorio Emanuele 18 January 1855 17 May 1855 Count of Geneva In 1869 he married morganatically his principal mistress Rosa Vercellana 3 June 1833 26 December 1885 Popularly known in Piedmontese as Bela Rosin she was born a commoner but made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda in 1858 Their offspring were Vittoria Guerrieri 2 December 1848 29 December 1905 married three times to Giacomo Spinola Luigi Spinola and Paolo DeSimone She had issue Emanuele Alberto Guerrieri 16 March 1851 24 December 1894 Count of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda married and had issue Brooklyn Museum Caricature of King Victor Emmanuel II Thomas Nast overall In addition to his morganatic second wife Victor Emmanuel II had several other mistresses 1 Laura Bon at Stupinigi who bore him one daughter Emanuela Alberta Maria Vittoria Guerriero di Roverbella 6 September 1853 1890 2 Unknown mistress at Mondovi mother of Donato Etna 1858 1938 who became a soldier during the First World War 3 Virginia Rho at Turin mother of two children Vittorio di Rho 1861 Turin 10 October 1913 He became a notable photographer Maria Pia di Rho 25 February 1866 Vienna 19 April 1947 Married to count Alessandro Montecuccoli 4 Rosalinda Incoronata De Domenicis 1846 1916 mother of one daughter Vittoria De Domenicis 1869 1935 who married doctor Alberto Benedetti 1870 1920 with issue 5 Baroness Vittoria Duplessis who bore him A daughter perhaps named Savoiarda Alberta Duplesis 1853 1895 who married Giuseppe Siccardi 1852 1896 6 Angela Rosa De Filippo mother of Actor Domenico Scarpetta 1876 1952 Honours EditStyles of King Victor Emmanuel II Reference styleHis MajestySpoken styleYour Majesty Arms of Victor Emmanuel II as knight of the Golden Fleece Italian Edit Knight of the Order of the Annunciation 23 December 1836 6 Grand Master 23 March 1849 Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus 1836 Grand Master 23 March 1849 Grand Master of the Military Order of Savoy Grand Master of the Order of the Crown of Italy Grand Master of the Civil Order of Savoy Gold Medal of Military Valour Silver Medal of Military Valour Medal of the Liberation of Rome 1849 1870 Commemorative Medal of Campaigns of Independence Wars Commemorative Medal of the Unity of Italy Tuscan Grand Ducal family Grand Cross of the Order of St Joseph 7 Foreign Edit Austrian Empire Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece 1841 8 Grand Cross of the Order of St Stephen 1869 9 Baden 10 Knight of the House Order of Fidelity 1864 Grand Cross of the Order of the Zahringer Lion 1864 Kingdom of Bavaria Knight of the Order of St Hubert 1869 11 Belgium Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold 25 July 1855 12 Denmark Knight of the Order of the Elephant 2 September 1861 13 French Empire Medaille militaire Commemorative medal of the 1859 Italian Campaign Kingdom of Hawaii Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I 1865 14 Mexican Empire Grand Cross of the Order of the Mexican Eagle with Collar 1865 15 Kingdom of Prussia 16 Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle 12 January 1866 with Collar 1875 Pour le Merite military 29 May 1872 Kingdom of Saxony Knight of the Order of the Rue Crown 1850 17 Sweden Norway Knight of the Order of the Seraphim 30 August 1861 18 Beylik of Tunis Husainid Family Order 19 United Kingdom Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter 5 December 1855 20 Ancestry EditAncestors of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy8 Victor Amadeus II Prince of Carignano4 Charles Emmanuel Prince of Carignano9 Josephine of Lorraine2 Charles Albert of Sardinia10 Charles Duke of Courland5 Maria Christina of Saxony11 Franciszka Krasinska1 Victor Emmanuel II of Italy12 Leopold II Holy Roman Emperor6 Ferdinand III Grand Duke of Tuscany13 Maria Louisa of Spain3 Maria Theresa of Austria14 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies7 Luisa of Naples and Sicily15 Maria Carolina of AustriaSee also EditUnification of Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi Giuseppe Mazzini Count Cavour September Convention Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II List of famous big game huntersReferences Edit Arnold Guy 2002 Historical Dictionary of the Crimean War Scarecrow Press ISBN 9780810866133 a b Chisholm 1911 Mack Smith Denis Italy and its Monarchy New Haven Yale University Press 1989 p 42 Excommunicating Politicians 27 September 2004 Genealogical data from the Savoia page of the Genealogie delle famiglie nobili italiane website Luigi Cibrario 1869 Notizia storica del nobilissimo ordine supremo della santissima Annunziata Sunto degli statuti catalogo dei cavalieri Eredi Botta p 107 Almanacco Toscano per l anno 1855 Stamperia Granducale 1840 p 275 Boettger T F Chevaliers de la Toison d Or Knights of the Golden Fleece La Confrerie Amicale Retrieved 25 June 2019 A Szent Istvan Rend tagjai Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine Hof und Staats Handbuch des Grossherzogtum Baden 1865 Grossherzogliche Orden pp 55 66 Hof und Staats Handbuch des Konigreich Bayern 1873 Konigliche Orden p 8 Ferdinand Veldekens 1858 Le livre d or de l ordre de Leopold et de la croix de fer lelong p 214 Jorgen Pedersen 2009 Riddere af Elefantordenen 1559 2009 in Danish Syddansk Universitetsforlag p 466 ISBN 978 87 7674 434 2 The Royal Order of Kamehameha crownofhawaii com Official website of the Royal Family of Hawaii Retrieved 2 December 2019 Seccion IV Ordenes del Imperio Almanaque imperial para el ano 1866 in Spanish 1866 p 242 retrieved 29 April 2020 Koniglich Preussische Ordensliste in German 1 Berlin 1877 pp 12 24 Sachsen 1866 Staatshandbuch fur den Freistaat Sachsen 1865 66 Heinrich p 4 Sveriges statskalender in Swedish 1877 p 368 retrieved 2 May 2020 via runeberg org Nichan ad Dam ou ordre du Sang institue Lot 198 Shaw Wm A 1906 The Knights of England I London p 59Sources EditChisholm Hugh ed 1911 Victor Emmanuel II Encyclopaedia Britannica 28 11th ed Cambridge University Press Mack Smith Denis 1920 2017 1972 Victor Emanuel Cavour and the Risorgimento Vittorio Emanuele II Traduzione di Jole Bertolazzi Laterza OCLC 504679452 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Thayer William Roscoe 1911 The Life and Times of Cavour vol 1 old interpretations but useful on details vol 1 goes to 1859 volume 2 online covers 1859 62In Italian Edit Del Boca Lorenzo 1998 Maledetti Savoia Casale Monferrato Piemme Gasparetto Pier Francesco 1984 Vittorio Emanuele II Milan Rusconi Mack Smith Denis 1995 Vittorio Emanuele II Milan Mondadori Pinto Paolo 1997 Vittorio Emanuele II il re avventuriero Milan Mondadori Rocca Gianni 1993 Avanti Savoia miti e disfatte che fecero l Italia 1848 1866 Milan Mondadori External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Vittorio Emanuele II Works by or about Victor Emmanuel II of Italy at Internet Archive External link Genealogy of recent members of the House of Savoy View of Venezia Square Victor Emmanuel II monumentVictor Emmanuel II of ItalyHouse of SavoyBorn 14 March 1820 Died 9 January 1878Regnal titlesPreceded by Charles Albert King of Sardinia 23 March 1849 17 March 1861 Succeeded by Himself as King of ItalyPreceded by Charles Albert Duke of Savoy 23 March 1849 9 January 1878 Succeeded by Umberto IVacantTitle last held byNapoleon I King of Italy 17 March 1861 9 January 1878 Succeeded by Umberto I Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Victor Emmanuel II of Italy amp oldid 1051788769, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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