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Victor Hugo

For other uses, see Victor Hugo (disambiguation).

Victor-Marie Hugo (French: (); 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, essayist, playwright, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years, he wrote abundantly in an exceptional variety of genres: lyrics, satires, epics, philosophical poems, epigrams, novels, history, critical essays, political speeches, funeral orations, diaries, letters public and private, as well as dramas in verse and prose.

Victor Hugo
Hugo by Étienne Carjat, 1876
BornVictor-Marie Hugo
(1802-02-26)26 February 1802
Besançon, France
Died22 May 1885(1885-05-22) (aged 83)
Paris, France
Resting placePanthéon, Paris and Coupvray
OccupationPoet, novelist, dramatist, essayist, politician
GenreNovel, poetry, theatre
Literary movementRomanticism
Notable works
Years active1829–1883
Spouse
(m. 1822; died 1868)​
Children5
Parents
Offices held1841–1885
Senator for Seine
In office
30 January 1876 – 22 May 1885
ConstituencyParis
Member of the National Assembly
for Gironde
In office
9 February 1871 – 1 March 1871
ConstituencyBordeaux
Member of the National Assembly
for Seine
In office
24 April 1848 – 3 December 1851
ConstituencyParis
Peer of France
In office
13 April 1845 – February 1848
Member of the Académie française
Seat 14
In office
7 January 1841 – 22 May 1885
Preceded byNépomucène Lemercier
Succeeded byLeconte de Lisle
Personal details
Political party

Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. Outside France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (French: Notre-Dame de Paris), 1831. In France, Hugo is renowned for his poetry collections, such as Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) and La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages). Hugo was at the forefront of the Romantic literary movement with his play Cromwell and drama Hernani. Many of his works have inspired music, both during his lifetime and after his death, including the musicals Les Misérables and Notre-Dame de Paris. He produced more than 4,000 drawings in his lifetime, and campaigned for social causes such as the abolition of capital punishment.

Though a committed royalist when he was young, Hugo's views changed as the decades passed, and he became a passionate supporter of republicanism serving in politics as both deputy and senator. His work touched upon most of the political and social issues and the artistic trends of his time. His opposition to absolutism and his colossal literary achievement established him as a national hero. He was honoured by interment in the Panthéon.

Contents

Victor-Marie Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 inBesançon in Eastern France. The youngest son of Joseph Léopold Sigisbert Hugo (1774–1828) a general in the Napoleonic army, and Sophie Trébuchet (1772–1821); the couple had two more sons:Abel Joseph (1798–1855) andEugène (1800–1837). The Hugo family came from Nancy in Lorraine where Victor Hugo's grandfather was a wood merchant. Léopold enlisted in the army of Revolutionary France at fourteen, he was an atheist and an ardent supporter of the republic created following the abolition of the monarchy in 1792. Victor's mother Sophie was a devout Catholic who remained loyal to the deposed dynasty. They met in Châteaubriant, a few miles from Nantes in 1796 and married the following year.

Since Hugo's father was an officer in Napoleon's army, the family moved frequently from posting to posting, Sophie had three children in four years. Léopold Hugo wrote to his son that he had been conceived on one of the highest peaks in the Vosges Mountains, on a journey from Lunéville to Besançon. "This elevated origin", he went on, "seems to have had effects on you so that your muse is now continually sublime." Hugo believed himself to have been conceived on 24 June 1801, which is the origin of Jean Valjean's prisoner number 24601.

In 1810 Hugo's father was created Count Hugo de Cogolludo y Sigüenza by then King of Spain Joseph Bonaparte, though it seems that the Spanish title was not legally recognized in France. Hugo later titled himself as a viscount, and it was as "Vicomte Victor Hugo" that he was appointed a peer of France on 13 April 1845.

Weary of the constant moving required by military life, Sophie separated temporarily from Léopold and settled in Paris in 1803 with her sons; she began seeing General Victor Fanneau de La Horie, Hugo's godfather who had been a comrade of General Hugo's during the campaign in Vendee. In October 1807 the family rejoined Leopold, now Colonel Hugo, Governor of the province of Avellino. In that city, Victor was taught math by Giuseppe de Samuele Cagnazzi, elder brother of Italian scientist Luca de Samuele Cagnazzi. Sophie found out that Leopold had been living in secret with an Englishwoman called Catherine Thomas.

Soon Hugo's father was called to Spain to fight the Peninsular War. Madame Hugo and her children were sent back to Paris in 1808, where they moved to an old convent, 12Impasse des Feuillantines, an isolated mansion in a deserted quarter of the left bank of the Seine. Hiding in a chapel at the back of the garden, was Victor Fanneau de La Horie, who had conspired to restore the Bourbons and had been condemned to death a few years earlier. He became a mentor to Victor and his brothers.

In 1811 the family joined their father in Spain, Victor and his brothers were sent to school in Madrid at the Real Colegio de San Antonio de Abad while Sophie returned to Paris on her own, now officially separated from her husband. In 1812 Victor Fanneau de La Horie was arrested and executed. In February 1815 Victor and Eugene were taken away from their mother and placed by their father in the Pension Cordier, a private boarding school in Paris, where Victor and Eugène remained three years while also attending lectures at Lycée Louis le Grand.

On 10 July 1816, Hugo wrote in his diary: “I shall be Chateaubriand or nothing”. In 1817 he wrote a poem for a competition organised by the Academie Française, for which he received an honorable mention. The Academicians refused to believe that he was only fifteen. Victor moved in with his mother 18rue des Petits-Augustins the following year and began attending law school. Victor fell in love and secretly became engaged, against his mother's wishes, to his childhood friend Adèle Foucher. In June 1821 Sophie Trebuchet died, and Léopold married his long time mistress Catherine Thomas a month later. Victor married Adèle the following year. In 1819, Victor and his brothers began publishing a periodical called Le Conservateur littéraire.

Hugo published his first novel the year following his marriage (Han d'Islande, 1823), and his second three years later (Bug-Jargal, 1826). Between 1829 and 1840, he published five more volumes of poetry (Les Orientales, 1829; Les Feuilles d'automne, 1831; Les Chants du crépuscule, 1835; Les Voix intérieures, 1837; and Les Rayons et les Ombres, 1840), cementing his reputation as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time.

Like many young writers of his generation, Hugo was profoundly influenced byFrançois-René de Chateaubriand, the famous figure in the literary movement of Romanticism and France's pre-eminent literary figure during the early 19th century. In his youth, Hugo resolved to be "Chateaubriand or nothing", and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor in many ways. LikeChateaubriand, Hugo furthered the cause of Romanticism, became involved in politics (though mostly as a champion of Republicanism), and was forced into exile due to his political stances.

The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo's early work brought success and fame at an early age. His first collection of poetry (Odes et poésies diverses) was published in 1822 when he was only 20 years old and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII. Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency, the collection that followed four years later in 1826 (Odes et Ballades) revealed Hugo to be a great poet, a natural master of lyric and creative song.

Victor Hugo in 1829, lithograph by Achille Devéria in the collection of the National Gallery of Art

Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction was first published in February 1829 by Charles Gosselin without the author's name and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.Claude Gueux, a documentary short story about a real-life murderer who had been executed in France, appeared in 1834 and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice, Les Misérables.

Hugo became the figurehead of the Romantic literary movement with the plays Cromwell (1827) and Hernani (1830). Hernani announced the arrival of French romanticism: performed at the Comédie-Française, it was greeted with several nights of rioting as romantics and traditionalists clashed over the play's deliberate disregard for neo-classical rules. Hugo's popularity as a playwright grew with subsequent plays, such as Marion Delorme (1831), The King Amuses Himself (1832), and Ruy Blas (1838). Hugo's novel Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame) was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across Europe. One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the much-neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame, which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel. The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre-Renaissance buildings, which thereafter began to be actively preserved.

Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but a full 17 years were needed for Les Misérables to be realised and finally published in 1862. Hugo had used the departure of prisoners for the Bagne of Toulon in one of his early stories, "Le Dernier Jour d'un condamné" He went to Toulon to visit the Bagne in 1839 and took extensive notes, though he did not start writing the book until 1845. On one of the pages of his notes about the prison, he wrote in large block letters a possible name for his hero: " JEAN TRÉJEAN". When the book was finally written, Tréjean became Jean Valjean.

Hugo was acutely aware of the quality of the novel, as evidenced in a letter he wrote to his publisher, Albert Lacroix, on 23 March 1862, "My conviction is that this book is going to be one of the peaks, if not the crowning point of my work." Publication of Les Misérables went to the highest bidder. The Belgian publishing houseLacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time, issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch. It also initially published only the first part of the novel ("Fantine"), which was launched simultaneously in major cities. Installments of the book sold out within hours and had enormous impact on French society.

Illustration by Émile Bayard from the original edition of Les Misérables (1862)
Illustration by Luc-Olivier Merson for Notre-Dame de Paris (1881)

The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel;Taine found it insincere,Barbey d'Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity,Gustave Flaubert found within it "neither truth nor greatness", the Goncourt brothers lambasted its artificiality, andBaudelaire – despite giving favourable reviews in newspapers – castigated it in private as "repulsive and inept". Les Misérables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the National Assembly of France. Today, the novel remains his most well-known work. It is popular worldwide and has been adapted for cinema, television, and stage shows.

An apocryphal tale about the shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in 1862. Hugo was on vacation when Les Misérables was published. He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single-character telegram to his publisher, asking?. The publisher replied with a single ! to indicate its success. Hugo turned away from social/political issues in his next novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), published in 1866. The book was well received, perhaps due to the previous success of Les Misérables. Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey, where he spent 15 years of exile, Hugo tells of a man who attempts to win the approval of his beloved's father by rescuing his ship, intentionally marooned by its captain who hopes to escape with a treasure of money it is transporting, through an exhausting battle of human engineering against the force of the sea and a battle against an almost mythical beast of the sea, a giant squid. Superficially an adventure, one of Hugo's biographers calls it a "metaphor for the 19th century–technical progress, creative genius and hard work overcoming the immanent evil of the material world."

The word used in Guernsey to refer to squid (pieuvre, also sometimes applied to octopus) was to enter the French language as a result of its use in the book. Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel, L'Homme Qui Rit (The Man Who Laughs), which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy. The novel was not as successful as his previous efforts, and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such asFlaubert andÉmile Zola, whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work.

His last novel, Quatre-vingt-treize (Ninety-Three), published in 1874, dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided: the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. Though Hugo's popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication, many now consider Ninety-Three to be a work on par with Hugo's better-known novels.

After three unsuccessful attempts, Hugo was finally elected to the Académie française in 1841, solidifying his position in the world of French arts and letters. A group of French academicians, particularlyÉtienne de Jouy, were fighting against the "romantic evolution" and had managed to delay Victor Hugo's election. Thereafter, he became increasingly involved in French politics.

On the nomination of KingLouis-Philippe, Hugo entered the Upper Chamber of Parliament as a pair de France in 1845, where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice, and in favour of freedom of the press and self-government for Poland.

In 1848, Hugo was elected to the National Assembly of the Second Republic as a conservative. In 1849, he broke with the conservatives when he gave a noted speech calling for the end of misery and poverty. Other speeches called for universal suffrage and free education for all children. Hugo's advocacy to abolish the death penalty was renowned internationally.

Among the Rocks on Jersey (1853–1855)

These parliamentary speeches are published in Œuvres complètes: actes et paroles I : avant l'exil, 1841–1851. Scroll down to the Assemblée Constituante 1848 heading and subsequent pages. When Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) seized complete power in 1851, establishing an anti-parliamentary constitution, Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France. He moved to Brussels, then Jersey, from which he was expelled for supporting a Jersey newspaper that had criticised Queen Victoria. He finally settled with his family at Hauteville House in Saint Peter Port, Guernsey, where he would live in exile from October 1855 until 1870.

While in exile, Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III, Napoléon le Petit and Histoire d'un crime. The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there. He also composed or published some of his best work during his period in Guernsey, including Les Misérables, and three widely praised collections of poetry (Les Châtiments, 1853; Les Contemplations, 1856; and La Légende des siècles, 1859).

Like most of his contemporaries, Victor Hugo justified colonialism in terms of a civilizing mission and putting an end to the slave trade on the Barbary coast. In a speech delivered on 18 May 1879, during a banquet to celebrate the abolition of slavery, in the presence of the French abolitionist writer and parliamentarian Victor Schœlcher, Hugo declared that the Mediterranean Sea formed a natural divide between " ultimate civilisation and […] utter barbarism," adding "God offers Africa to Europe, Take it," to civilise its indigenous inhabitants.

This might partly explain why in spite of his deep interest and involvement in political matters he remained silent on the Algerian issue. He knew about the atrocities committed by the French Army during the French conquest of Algeria as evidenced by his diary but he never denounced them publicly; however in Les Misérables, Hugo wrote: "Algeria too harshly conquered, and, as in the case of India by the English, with more barbarism than civilization".

After coming in contact with Victor Schœlcher, a writer who fought for the abolition of slavery and French colonialism in the Caribbean, he started strongly campaigning against slavery. In a letter to American abolitionist Maria Weston Chapman, on 6 July 1851, Hugo wrote: Slavery in the United States! It is the duty of this republic to set such a bad example no longer.... The United States must renounce slavery, or they must renounce liberty. In 1859 he wrote a letter asking the United States government, for the sake of their own reputation in the future, to spare abolitionist John Brown's life, Hugo justified Brown's actions by these words: "Assuredly, if insurrection is ever a sacred duty, it must be when it is directed against Slavery". Hugo agreed to diffuse and sell one of his best known drawings, "Le Pendu", an homage to John Brown, so one could "keep alive in souls the memory of this liberator of our black brothers, of this heroic martyr John Brown, who died for Christ just as Christ".

Only one slave on Earth is enough to dishonour the freedom of all men. So the abolition of slavery is, at this hour, the supreme goal of the thinkers

Victor Hugo, 17 January 1862,

Victor Hugo fought a lifelong battle for the abolition of the death penalty as a novelist, diarist, and member of Parliament. The Last Day of a Condemned Man published in 1829 analyses the pangs of a man awaiting execution; several entries of Things Seen (Choses vues), the diary he kept between 1830 and 1885, convey his firm condemnation of what he regarded as a barbaric sentence; on 15 September 1848, seven months after the Revolution of 1848, he delivered a speech before the Assembly and concluded, "You have overthrown the throne. […] Now overthrow the scaffold." His influence was credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva, Portugal, and Colombia. He had also pleaded for Benito Juárez to spare the recently captured emperor Maximilian I of Mexico but to no avail.

Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859, Hugo declined, as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government. It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870, where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate.

He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian Army in 1870, famously eating animals given to him by the Paris Zoo. As the siege continued, and food became ever more scarce, he wrote in his diary that he was reduced to "eating the unknown".

Communards defending a barricade on the Rue de Rivoli

During the Paris Commune – the revolutionary government that took power on 18 March 1871 and was toppled on 28 May – Victor Hugo was harshly critical of the atrocities committed on both sides. On 9 April, he wrote in his diary, "In short, this Commune is as idiotic as the National Assembly is ferocious. From both sides, folly." Yet he made a point of offering his support to members of the Commune subjected to brutal repression. He had been in Brussels since 22 March 1871 when in the 27 May issue of the Belgian newspaper l’Indépendance Victor Hugo denounced the government's refusal to grant political asylum to the Communards threatened with imprisonment, banishment or execution. This caused so much uproar that in the evening a mob of fifty to sixty men attempted to force their way into the writer's house shouting "Death to Victor Hugo! Hang him! Death to the scoundrel!".

Victor Hugo, who said "A war between Europeans is a civil war", was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe. He expounded his views on the subject in a speech he delivered during the International Peace Congress which took place in Paris in 1849. The Congress, of which Hugo was the President, proved to be an international success, attracting such famous philosophers as Frederic Bastiat, Charles Gilpin, Richard Cobden, and Henry Richard. The conference helped establish Hugo as a prominent public speaker and sparked his international fame, and promoted the idea of the "United States of Europe". On 14 July 1870 he planted the "oak of the United States of Europe" in the garden of Hauteville House where he stayed during his exile on Guernsey from 1856 to 1870. The massacres of Balkan Christians by the Turks in 1876 inspired him to write Pour la Serbie (For Serbia) in his sons' newspaper Le Rappel. This speech is today considered one of the founding acts of the European ideal.

Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright, he was a founding member of the Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. However, inPauvert's published archives, he states strongly that "any work of art has two authors: the people who confusingly feel something, a creator who translates these feelings, and the people again who consecrate his vision of that feeling. When one of the authors dies, the rights should totally be granted back to the other, the people". He was one of the earlier supporters of the concept of domaine public payant, under which a nominal fee would be charged for copying or performing works in the public domain, and this would go into a common fund dedicated to helping artists, especially young people.

Hugo's religious views changed radically over the course of his life. In his youth and under the influence of his mother, he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority. From there he became a non-practising Catholic and increasingly expressed anti-Catholic and anti-clerical views. He frequented spiritism during his exile (where he participated also in many séances conducted by Madame Delphine de Girardin) and in later years settled into a rationalist deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire. A census-taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic, and he replied, "No. A Freethinker".

After 1872, Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Catholic Church. He felt the Church was indifferent to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy. Perhaps he also was upset by the frequency with which his work appeared on the Church's list of banned books. Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Misérables in the Catholic press. When Hugo's sons Charles andFrançois-Victor died, he insisted that they be buried without a crucifix or priest. In his will, he made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral.

Yet he believed in life after death and prayed every single morning and night, convinced as he wrote in The Man Who Laughs that "Thanksgiving has wings and flies to its right destination. Your prayer knows its way better than you do".

Hugo's rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada (1869, about religious fanaticism), The Pope (1878, anti-clerical), Religions and Religion (1880, denying the usefulness of churches) and, published posthumously, The End of Satan and God (1886 and 1891 respectively, in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and rationalism as an angel). Vincent van Gogh ascribed the saying "Religions pass away, but God remains", actually by Jules Michelet, to Hugo.

Although Hugo's many talents did not include exceptional musical ability, he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world through the inspiration that his works provided for composers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Hugo himself particularly enjoyed the music of Gluck and Weber. In Les Misérables, he calls the huntsman's chorus in Weber's Euryanthe, "perhaps the most beautiful piece of music ever composed". He also greatly admired Beethoven, and rather unusually for his time, he also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as Palestrina and Monteverdi.

Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo: Hector Berlioz and Franz Liszt. The latter played Beethoven in Hugo's home, and Hugo joked in a letter to a friend that, thanks to Liszt's piano lessons, he learned how to play a favourite song on the piano – with only one finger. Hugo also worked with composer Louise Bertin, writing the libretto for her 1836 opera La Esmeralda, which was based on the character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Although for various reasons the opera closed soon after its fifth performance and is little known today, it has enjoyed a modern revival, both in a piano/song concert version by Liszt at theFestival international Victor Hugo et Égaux 2007 and in a full orchestral version presented in July 2008 atLe Festival de Radio France et Montpellier Languedoc-Roussillon.

On the other hand, he had low esteem for Richard Wagner, whom he described as "a man of talent coupled with imbecility."

Well over one thousand musical compositions have been inspired by Hugo's works from the 19th century until the present day. In particular, Hugo's plays, in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre in favour of romantic drama, attracted the interest of many composers who adapted them into operas. More than one hundred operas are based on Hugo's works and among them are Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia (1833), Verdi's Rigoletto (1851) and Ernani (1844), and Ponchielli's La Gioconda (1876).

Hugo's novels, as well as his plays, have been a great source of inspiration for musicians, stirring them to create not only opera and ballet but musical theatre such as Notre-Dame de Paris and the ever-popular Les Misérables, London West End's longest running musical. Additionally, Hugo's beautiful poems have attracted an exceptional amount of interest from musicians, and numerous melodies have been based on his poetry by composers such asBerlioz,Bizet,Fauré,Franck,Lalo,Liszt,Massenet,Saint-Saëns, Rachmaninoff, andWagner.

Today, Hugo's work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions. For example, Hugo's novel against capital punishment, The Last Day of a Condemned Man, was adapted into an opera byDavid Alagna, with a libretto byFrédérico Alagna and premièred by their brother, tenorRoberto Alagna, in 2007. In Guernsey, every two years, the Victor Hugo International Music Festival attracts a wide range of musicians and the premiere of songs specially commissioned from such composers asGuillaume Connesson,Richard Dubugnon,Olivier Kaspar, andThierry Escaich and based on Hugo's poetry.

Remarkably, not only Hugo's literary production has been the source of inspiration for musical works, but also his political writings have received attention from musicians and have been adapted to music. For instance, in 2009, Italian composer Matteo Sommacal was commissioned by Festival "Bagliori d'autore" and wrote a piece for speaker and chamber ensemble entitled Actes et paroles, with a text elaborated by Chiara Piola Caselli after Victor Hugo's last political speech addressed to the Assemblée législative, "Sur la Revision de la Constitution" (18 July 1851), and premiered in Rome on 19 November 2009, in the auditorium of the Institut français, Centre Saint-Louis, French Embassy to the Holy See, by Piccola Accademia degli Specchi featuring the composer Matthias Kadar.

Hugo on his deathbed by Nadar
Tomb of Victor Hugo at thePanthéon

When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870, the country hailed him as a national hero. He was confident that he would be offered the dictatorship, as shown by the notes he kept at the time: "Dictatorship is a crime. This is a crime I am going to commit", but he felt he had to assume that responsibility. Despite his popularity, Hugo lost his bid for re-election to the National Assembly in 1872.

Throughout his life Hugo kept believing in unstoppable humanistic progress. In his last public address on 3 August 1879 he prophesied in an over-optimistic way, "In the twentieth century war will be dead, the scaffold will be dead, hatred will be dead, frontier boundaries will be dead, dogmas will be dead; man will live."

Within a brief period, he suffered a mild stroke, his daughter Adèle was interned in an insane asylum, and his two sons died. (Adèle's biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H.) His wife Adèle had died in 1868.

His faithful mistress, Juliette Drouet, died in 1883, only two years before his own death. Despite his personal loss, Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change. On 30 January 1876, he was elected to the newly created Senate. This last phase of his political career was considered a failure. Hugo was a maverick and achieved little in the Senate.

Hugo suffered a mild stroke on 27 June 1878.

To honour the fact that he was entering his 80th year, one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held. The celebrations began on 25 June 1881, when Hugo was presented with a Sèvres vase, the traditional gift for sovereigns. On 27 June, one of the largest parades in French history was held.

Marchers stretched from theAvenue d'Eylau, where the author was living, down theChamps-Élysées, and all the way to the centre of Paris. The paraders marched for six hours past Hugo as he sat at the window at his house. Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo; the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Fantine's song in Les Misérables. On 28 June, the city of Paris changed the name of the Avenue d'Eylau to Avenue Victor-Hugo. Letters addressed to the author were from then on labelled "To Mister Victor Hugo, In his avenue, Paris".

Two days before dying, he left a note with these last words: "To love is to act".

On 20 May 1885, le Petit Journal published the official medical bulletin on Hugo's health condition. "The illustrious patient" was fully conscious and aware that there was no hope for him. They also reported from a reliable source that at one point in the night he had whispered the following alexandrin, "En moi c’est le combat du jour et de la nuit" – "In me, this is the battle between day and night". Le Matin published a slightly different version, "Here is the battle between day and night."

The Catafalque of Victor Hugo under the Arc de Triomphe on 1 June 1885.

Hugo's death from pneumonia on 22 May 1885, at the age of 83, generated intense national mourning. He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature, he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France. All his life he remained a defender of liberty, equality and fraternity as well as an adamant champion of French culture. In 1877, aged 75, he wrote, "I am not one of these sweet-tempered old men. I am still exasperated and violent. I shout and I feel indignant and I cry. Woe to anyone who harms France! I do declare I will die a fanatic patriot".

Although he had requested a pauper's funeral, he was awarded a state funeral by decree of President Jules Grévy. More than two million people joined his funeral procession in Paris from the Arc de Triomphe to thePanthéon, where he was buried. He shares a crypt within thePanthéon withAlexandre Dumas andÉmile Zola. Most large French towns and cities have a street or square named after him.

Hugo left five sentences as his last will, to be officially published:

Je donne cinquante mille francs aux pauvres. Je veux être enterré dans leur corbillard.
Je refuse l'oraison de toutes les Églises. Je demande une prière à toutes les âmes.
Je crois en Dieu.

I leave 50,000 francs to the poor. I wish to be buried in their hearse.
I refuse [funeral] orations from all Churches. I ask [for] a prayer to all souls.
I believe in God.

Hugo produced more than 4,000 drawings. Originally pursued as a casual hobby, drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile when he made the decision to stop writing to devote himself to politics. Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet between 1848 and 1851.

Hugo worked only on paper, and on a small scale; usually in dark brown or black pen-and-ink wash, sometimes with touches of white, and rarely with colour. The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and "modern" in their style and execution, foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract expressionism.

He would not hesitate to use his children's stencils, ink blots, puddles and stains, lace impressions, "pliage" or folding (e.g. Rorschach blots), "grattage" or rubbing, often using the charcoal from matchsticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush. Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted. It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page, or during Spiritist séances, to access his unconscious mind, a concept only later popularised by Sigmund Freud.

Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye, fearing it would overshadow his literary work. However, he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends, often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards, many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile. Some of his work was shown to, and appreciated by, contemporary artists such as van Gogh andDelacroix; the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer, he would have outshone the artists of their century.

Family

Marriage

Hugo married Adèle Foucher in October 1822. Despite their respective affairs, they lived together for nearly 46 years until she died in August 1868. Hugo, who was still banished from France, was unable to attend her funeral in Villequier where their daughter Léopoldine was buried. From 1830 to 1837 Adèle had an affair with Charles-Augustin Sainte Beuve, a reviewer and writer.

Children

Adèle and Victor Hugo had their first child, Léopold, in 1823, but the boy died in infancy. On 28 August 1824, the couple's second child, Léopoldine was born, followed by Charles on 4 November 1826, François-Victor on 28 October 1828, and Adèle on 28 July 1830.

Hugo's eldest and favourite daughter, Léopoldine, died in 1843 at the age of 19, shortly after her marriage to Charles Vacquerie. On 4 September, she drowned in the Seine at Villequier when the boat she was in overturned. Her young husband died trying to save her. The death left her father devastated; Hugo was travelling at the time, in the south of France, when he first learned about Léopoldine's death from a newspaper that he read in a café.

Léopoldine reading. Drawing by her mother Adèle Foucher, 1837

He describes his shock and grief in his famous poem "À Villequier":

Hélas ! vers le passé tournant un œil d'envie,
Sans que rien ici-bas puisse m'en consoler,
Je regarde toujours ce moment de ma vie
Où je l'ai vue ouvrir son aile et s'envoler!

Je verrai cet instant jusqu'à ce que je meure,
L'instant, pleurs superflus !
Où je criai : L'enfant que j'avais tout à l'heure,
Quoi donc ! je ne l'ai plus !

Alas! My envious eye, turning toward the past,
Without anything else down here able to console me,
I look continually at that moment of my life
Where I saw her spread her wings and fly away!

I will see that instant until I die,
That instant, nothing beyond!
Where I cried: "The child I had a short time ago,
What! I have her no more!"

He wrote many poems afterward about his daughter's life and death, and at least one biographer[who?] claims he never completely recovered from it. His most famous poem is undeniably "Demain, dès l'aube" (Tomorrow, at Dawn), in which he describes visiting her grave.

Exile

Hugo decided to live in exile after Napoleon III's coup d'état at the end of 1851. After leaving France, Hugo lived in Brussels briefly in 1851, and then moved to the Channel Islands, first to Jersey (1852–1855) and then to the smaller island of Guernsey in 1855, where he stayed until Napoleon III's fall from power in 1870. Although Napoleon III proclaimed a general amnesty in 1859, under which Hugo could have safely returned to France, the author stayed in exile, only returning when Napoleon III was removed from power by the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870, as a result of the French defeat at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco-Prussian War. After the Siege of Paris from 1870 to 1871, Hugo lived again in Guernsey from 1872 to 1873, and then finally returned to France for the remainder of his life. In 1871, after the death of his son Charles, Hugo took custody of his grandchildren Jeanne and Georges-Victor.

Other relationships

Juliette Drouet

Juliette Drouet

From February 1833 until her death in 1883, Juliette Drouet devoted her whole life to Victor Hugo, who never married her even after his wife died in 1868. He took her on his numerous trips and she followed him in exile on Guernsey. There Hugo rented a house for her near Hauteville House, his family home. She wrote some 20,000 letters in which she expressed her passion or vented her jealousy on her womanizing lover. On 25 September 1870 during the Siege of Paris (19 September 1870 – 28 January 1871) Hugo feared the worst. He left his children a note reading as follows:

"J.D. She saved my life in December 1851. For me she underwent exile. Never has her soul forsaken mine. Let those who have loved me love her. Let those who have loved me respect her. She is my widow." V.H.

Léonie d’Aunet

For more than seven years, Léonie d’Aunet, who was a married woman, was involved in a love relationship with Hugo. Both were caught in adultery on 5 July 1845. Hugo, who had been a Member of the Chamber of Peers since April, avoided condemnation whereas his mistress had to spend two months in prison and six in a convent. Many years after their separation, Hugo made a point of supporting her financially.

Others

Hugo gave free rein to his sensuality until a few weeks before his death. He sought a wide variety of women of all ages, be they courtesans, actresses, prostitutes, admirers, servants or revolutionaries like Louise Michel for sexual activity. Both a graphomaniac and erotomaniac, he systematically reported his casual affairs using his own code, as Samuel Pepys did, to make sure they would remain secret. For instance, he resorted to Latin abbreviations (osc. for kisses) or to Spanish (Misma. Mismas cosas: The same. Same things). Homophones are frequent: Seins (Breasts) becomes Saint; Poële (Stove) actually refers to Poils (Pubic hair). Analogy also enabled him to conceal the real meaning: A woman's Suisses (Swiss) are her breasts – due to the fact that Switzerland is renowned for its milk. After a rendezvous with a young woman named Laetitia he would write Joie (Happiness) in his diary. If he added t.n. (toute nue) he meant she stripped naked in front of him. The initials S.B. discovered in November 1875 may refer to Sarah Bernhardt.

Victor Hugo's drawings
  • Ville avec le pont de Tumbledown, ("Town with Tumbledown Bridge"), 1847.

  • Pieuvre avec les initiales V.H., ("Octopus with the initials V.H."), 1866.

  • Le Rocher de l'Ermitage dans un paysage imaginaire ("Ermitage Rock in an imaginary landscape")

  • Le phare ("The Lighthouse")

  • Gavroche a onze ans, ("Gavroche at eleven years old").

Portraits of Victor Hugo
Statue of Victor Hugo in Rome, Italy. It is across from the Museo Carlo Bilotti on Viale Fiorello La Guardia.

His legacy has been honoured in many ways, including his portrait being placed on French currency.

The people of Guernsey erected a statue by sculptor Jean Boucher in Candie Gardens (Saint Peter Port) to commemorate his stay in the islands. The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House, Guernsey, and 6, Place des Vosges, Paris, as museums. The house where he stayed in Vianden, Luxembourg, in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum.

The Avenue Victor-Hugo in the 16th arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo's name and links thePlace de l'Étoile to the vicinity of theBois de Boulogne by way of thePlace Victor-Hugo. This square is served by a Paris Métro stop also named in his honour. In the town ofBéziers there is a main street, a school, hospital and several cafés named after Hugo, and a number of streets and avenues throughout France are named after him. The schoolLycée Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth,Besançon in France.Avenue Victor-Hugo, located in Shawinigan, Quebec, was named to honour him. A street in San Francisco, Hugo Street, is named for him.

A 1959 French banknote featuring Hugo

In the city of Avellino, Italy, Victor Hugo lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale when reuniting with his father, Leopold Sigisbert Hugo, in 1808. Hugo would later write about his brief stay here, quoting"C'était un palais de marbre..." ("It was a palace of marble").

There is a statue of Hugo across from the Museo Carlo Bilotti in Rome, Italy.

Victor Hugo is the namesake of the city of Hugoton, Kansas.

In Havana, Cuba, there is a park named after him.

A bust of Hugo stands near the entrance of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing.

A mosaic commemorating Hugo is located on the ceiling of the Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress.

The London and North Western Railway named a 'Prince of Wales' Class 4-6-0 No 1134 after Hugo. British Railways perpetuated this memorial, naming Class 92 Electric Unit 92001 after him.

Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Đài, a new religion established in Vietnam in 1926.

Novels, Novellas, and Short Stories

Other Works Published during Hugo's lifetime

Poems of Victor Hugo

Published posthumously

  • Théâtre en liberté (1886)
  • La Fin de Satan (1886)
  • Choses vues (1887)
  • Toute la lyre (1888), (The Whole Lyre)
  • Amy Robsart (1889)
  • Les Jumeaux (1889)
  • Actes et Paroles – Depuis l'exil, 1876–1885 (1889)
  • Alpes et Pyrénées (1890), (Alps and Pyrenees)
  • Dieu (1891)
  • France et Belgique (1892)
  • Toute la lyre – dernière série (1893)
  • Les fromages (1895)
  • Correspondences – Tome I (1896)
  • Correspondences – Tome II (1898)
  • Les années funestes (1898)
  • Choses vues – nouvelle série (1900)
  • Post-scriptum de ma vie (1901)
  • Dernière Gerbe (1902)
  • Mille francs de récompense (1934)
  • Océan. Tas de pierres (1942)
  • L'Intervention (1951)
  • Conversations with Eternity (1998)
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  7. Vicenti, p. 46
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  15. Le Bagne de Toulon (1748–1873), Académie du Var, Autres Temps Editions (2010), ISBN 978-2-84521-394-4
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  20. On the role of E. de Jouy against V. Hugo, see Les aventures militaires, littéraires et autres de Etienne de Jouy de l'Académie française byMichel Faul (Editions Seguier, France, 2009 ISBN 978-2-84049-556-7)
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  22. Hugo, Victor (1972). Choses Vues. Paris: Gallimard. pp. 286–87. ISBN 2-07-040217-7.
  23. Les Misérables, Random House Publishing Group, 2000, 1280 pages, ISBN 9780679641551, p. 720.
  24. Hugo & American Anti-Slavery Society 1860, p. 7.
  25. l'Esclavage.
  26. Herrington 2005, p. 131.
  27. Langellier 2014, p. 117.
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  29. Hugo, Victor (15 September 1848). "Speech on the death penalty". Wikisource.org. Retrieved31 January 2017.
  30. "Victor Hugo, l'homme océan".Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved19 July 2012.
  31. "Victor Hugo's diary tells how Parisians dined on zoo animals". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. 7 February 1915. p. 3.
  32. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972, ISBN 2-07-036141-1, p. 164
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  35. Hugo, Victor, Choses vues, Gallimard, 1972, ISBN 2-07-036141-1, p. 258
  36. Peace Congress, 2d, Paris, 1849. Report of the proceedings of the second general Peace Congress, held in Paris on the 22nd, 23rd, and 24 August 1849. Compiled from authentic documents under the superintendence of the Peace Congress Committee. London, Charles Gilpin, 1849
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  38. Malgras, J. (1906). Les Pionniers du Spiritisme en France: Documents pour la formation d'un livre d'Or des Sciences Psychiques. Paris.
  39. Chez Victor Hugo. Les tables tournantes de Jersey. Extracts from meeting minutes published byGustave Simon in 1923
  40. Gjelten, Tom (2008). Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba. Penguin. p. 48. ISBN 9780670019786.
  41. Robb, Graham (1997). Victor Hugo. London: Picador. p. 32. ISBN 9780393318999.
  42. Petrucelli, Alan (2009). Morbid Curiosity: The Disturbing Demises of the Famous and Infamous. Penguin. p. 152. ISBN 9781101140499.
  43. Hugo, Victor, The Man Who Laughs, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014, ISBN 978-1495441936, p. 132
  44. "Vincent van Gogh to Theo van Gogh. The Hague, between about Wednesday, 13 & about Monday, 18 December 1882". Van Gogh Museum. Retrieved31 January 2012.
  45. Hugo, V., Les misérables, Volume 2, Penguin Books, 1 December 1980, p. 103.
  46. "Hugo à l'Opéra", ed. Arnaud Laster, L'Avant-Scène Opéra, no. 208 (2002).
  47. Cette page use des cadres Archived 8 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.Festival international Victor Hugo et Égaux. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  48. "Mercredi 23 juillet – 20h – Opéra Berlioz / Le Corum". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved13 April 2008.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
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  50. "Hugo et la musique" in Pleins feux sur Victor Hugo,Arnaud Laster,Comédie-Française (1981)
  51. "Festival Victor Hugo & Egaux 2008". Archived from the original on 29 April 2008.
  52. V. Hugo, Actes et paroles: Avant l'exile, 1875, Discours à l’Assemblée législative 1849–1851, J. Hetzel, Maison Quantin, Paris, 1875
  53. C. Pulsoni, "L'orazione di Victor Hugo trasformata in musica", Il Corriere dell'Umbria, Vivere d'Umbria, Perugia (IT), 19 November 2009
  54. Hugo Victor, Choses vues, 1870–1885, Gallimard, 1972, 2-07-036141-1, p. 257.
  55. Victor, Hugo (18 February 2014). La Fin de Satan: Nouvelle édition augmentée. Arvensa editions. ISBN 9782368413029. Retrieved3 April 2017 – via Google Books.
  56. Robb, Graham Victor Hugo (1997) p. 506
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  58. Acte de décès de Victor Hugo Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  59. "Le Petit journal". Gallica. 21 May 1885. Retrieved17 December 2020.
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  61. Foucher-Hugo Adèle, Victor Hugo raconté par Adèle Hugo, Plon, 1985, 861 p., ISBN 2259012884, p. 41.
  62. Victor Hugo, tome 1: Je suis une force qui va by Max Gallo, pub.Broché (2001)
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  69. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. United States Government Publishing Office. pp. 163.
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  • Azurmendi, Joxe, (1985). Victor Hugo Euskal Herrian, Jakin, 37: 137–66. Website: Jakingunea.
  • Bates, Alfred (1906). “Victor Hugo”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 11–13.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bates, Alfred (1906). “Hernani”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 20–23.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bates, Alfred (1906). “Hugo's Cromwell”. Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in The Drama: Its History, Literature and Influence on Civilization, vol. 9. ed. Alfred Bates. London: Historical Publishing Company, 1906. pp. 18–19.) Retrieved November 2005.
  • Bittleston, Misha. "Drawings of Victor Hugo". Website: Misha Bittleston. Retrieved November 2005.
  • Burnham, I.G. (1896). "Amy Robsart". Website: Theatre History. (Originally published in Victor Hugo: Dramas. Philadelphia: The Rittenhouse Press, 1896. pp. 203–06, 401–02.) Retrieved November 2005.
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  • Barbou, Alfred (1882). Victor Hugo and His Times. University Press of the Pacific: 2001 paperback edition. ISBN 0-89875-478-X
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  • Davidson, A.F. (1912). Victor Hugo: His Life and Work. University Press of the Pacific: 2003 paperback edition. ISBN 1-4102-0778-1
  • Dow, Leslie Smith (1993). Adele Hugo: La Miserable. Fredericton: Goose Lane Editions. ISBN 0-86492-168-3
  • Falkayn, David (2001). Guide to the Life, Times, and Works of Victor Hugo. University Press of the Pacific. ISBN 0-89875-465-8
  • Feller, Martin (1988). Der Dichter in der Politik. Victor Hugo und der Deutsch-Französische Krieg von 1870/71. Untersuchungen zum französischen Deutschlandbild und zu Hugos Rezeption in Deutschland. Marburg: Doctoral Dissertation.
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  • Hart, Simon Allen (2004). Lady in the Shadows: The Life and Times of Julie Drouet, Mistress, Companion and Muse to Victor Hugo. Publish American. ISBN 1-4137-1133-2
  • Houston, John Porter (1975). Victor Hugo. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-2443-5
  • Hovasse, Jean-Marc (2001), Victor Hugo: Avant l'exil. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2-213-61094-0
  • Hovasse, Jean-Marc (2008), Victor Hugo: Pendant l'exil I. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2-213-62078-4
  • Ireson, J.C. (1997). Victor Hugo: A Companion to His Poetry. Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-815799-1
  • Maurois, Andre (1956). Olympio: The Life of Victor Hugo. New York: Harper & Brothers.
  • Maurois, Andre (1966). Victor Hugo and His World. London: Thames and Hudson. Out of print.
  • O'Neill, J, ed. (2000). Romanticism & the school of nature : nineteenth-century drawings and paintings from the Karen B. Cohen collection. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. (contains information on Hugo's drawings)
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Victor Hugo

Online works

Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo Language Watch Edit For other uses see Victor Hugo disambiguation Victor Marie Hugo French viktɔʁ maʁi yɡo listen 26 February 1802 22 May 1885 was a French poet novelist essayist playwright and dramatist of the Romantic movement During a literary career that spanned more than sixty years he wrote abundantly in an exceptional variety of genres lyrics satires epics philosophical poems epigrams novels history critical essays political speeches funeral orations diaries letters public and private as well as dramas in verse and prose Victor HugoHugo by Etienne Carjat 1876BornVictor Marie Hugo 1802 02 26 26 February 1802 Besancon FranceDied22 May 1885 1885 05 22 aged 83 Paris FranceResting placePantheon Paris and CoupvrayOccupationPoet novelist dramatist essayist politicianGenreNovel poetry theatreLiterary movementRomanticismNotable worksLes MiserablesRuy BlasThe Hunchback of Notre DameYears active1829 1883SpouseAdele Foucher m 1822 died 1868 wbr Children5ParentsJoseph Leopold HugoSophie TrebuchetOffices held 1841 1885Senator for SeineIn office 30 January 1876 22 May 1885ConstituencyParisMember of the National Assembly for GirondeIn office 9 February 1871 1 March 1871ConstituencyBordeauxMember of the National Assembly for SeineIn office 24 April 1848 3 December 1851ConstituencyParisPeer of FranceIn office 13 April 1845 February 1848Member of the Academie francaise Seat 14In office 7 January 1841 22 May 1885Preceded byNepomucene LemercierSucceeded byLeconte de LislePersonal detailsPolitical partyParty of Order 1848 1851 Independent liberal 1871 Republican Union 1876 1885 Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best known French writers Outside France his most famous works are the novels Les Miserables 1862 and The Hunchback of Notre Dame French Notre Dame de Paris 1831 In France Hugo is renowned for his poetry collections such as Les Contemplations The Contemplations and La Legende des siecles The Legend of the Ages Hugo was at the forefront of the Romantic literary movement with his play Cromwell and drama Hernani Many of his works have inspired music both during his lifetime and after his death including the musicals Les Miserables and Notre Dame de Paris He produced more than 4 000 drawings in his lifetime and campaigned for social causes such as the abolition of capital punishment Though a committed royalist when he was young Hugo s views changed as the decades passed and he became a passionate supporter of republicanism serving in politics as both deputy and senator His work touched upon most of the political and social issues and the artistic trends of his time His opposition to absolutism and his colossal literary achievement established him as a national hero He was honoured by interment in the Pantheon Contents 1 Early life 2 Career 3 Political life and exile 4 Religious views 5 Relationship with music 6 Declining years and death 7 Drawings 8 Personal life 8 1 Family 8 1 1 Marriage 8 1 2 Children 8 2 Exile 8 3 Other relationships 8 3 1 Juliette Drouet 8 3 2 Leonie d Aunet 8 3 3 Others 9 Gallery 10 Memorials 11 Works 11 1 Novels Novellas and Short Stories 11 2 Other Works Published during Hugo s lifetime 11 3 Published posthumously 12 References 13 Additional sources 14 Further reading 15 External links 15 1 Online worksEarly life EditVictor Marie Hugo was born on 26 February 1802 in Besancon in Eastern France The youngest son of Joseph Leopold Sigisbert Hugo 1774 1828 a general in the Napoleonic army and Sophie Trebuchet 1772 1821 the couple had two more sons Abel Joseph 1798 1855 and Eugene 1800 1837 The Hugo family came from Nancy in Lorraine where Victor Hugo s grandfather was a wood merchant Leopold enlisted in the army of Revolutionary France at fourteen he was an atheist and an ardent supporter of the republic created following the abolition of the monarchy in 1792 Victor s mother Sophie was a devout Catholic who remained loyal to the deposed dynasty They met in Chateaubriant a few miles from Nantes in 1796 and married the following year 1 Since Hugo s father was an officer in Napoleon s army the family moved frequently from posting to posting Sophie had three children in four years Leopold Hugo wrote to his son that he had been conceived on one of the highest peaks in the Vosges Mountains on a journey from Luneville to Besancon This elevated origin he went on seems to have had effects on you so that your muse is now continually sublime 2 Hugo believed himself to have been conceived on 24 June 1801 which is the origin of Jean Valjean s prisoner number 24601 3 In 1810 Hugo s father was created Count Hugo de Cogolludo y Siguenza by then King of Spain Joseph Bonaparte 4 though it seems that the Spanish title was not legally recognized in France Hugo later titled himself as a viscount and it was as Vicomte Victor Hugo that he was appointed a peer of France on 13 April 1845 5 6 Weary of the constant moving required by military life Sophie separated temporarily from Leopold and settled in Paris in 1803 with her sons she began seeing General Victor Fanneau de La Horie Hugo s godfather who had been a comrade of General Hugo s during the campaign in Vendee In October 1807 the family rejoined Leopold now Colonel Hugo Governor of the province of Avellino In that city Victor was taught math by Giuseppe de Samuele Cagnazzi elder brother of Italian scientist Luca de Samuele Cagnazzi 7 Sophie found out that Leopold had been living in secret with an Englishwoman called Catherine Thomas 8 Sophie Trebuchet mother of Victor Hugo General Joseph Leopold Hugo father of Victor Hugo Soon Hugo s father was called to Spain to fight the Peninsular War Madame Hugo and her children were sent back to Paris in 1808 where they moved to an old convent 12 Impasse des Feuillantines an isolated mansion in a deserted quarter of the left bank of the Seine Hiding in a chapel at the back of the garden was Victor Fanneau de La Horie who had conspired to restore the Bourbons and had been condemned to death a few years earlier He became a mentor to Victor and his brothers 9 In 1811 the family joined their father in Spain Victor and his brothers were sent to school in Madrid at the Real Colegio de San Antonio de Abad while Sophie returned to Paris on her own now officially separated from her husband In 1812 Victor Fanneau de La Horie was arrested and executed In February 1815 Victor and Eugene were taken away from their mother and placed by their father in the Pension Cordier a private boarding school in Paris where Victor and Eugene remained three years while also attending lectures at Lycee Louis le Grand 10 On 10 July 1816 Hugo wrote in his diary I shall be Chateaubriand or nothing In 1817 he wrote a poem for a competition organised by the Academie Francaise for which he received an honorable mention The Academicians refused to believe that he was only fifteen 11 Victor moved in with his mother 18 rue des Petits Augustins the following year and began attending law school Victor fell in love and secretly became engaged against his mother s wishes to his childhood friend Adele Foucher In June 1821 Sophie Trebuchet died and Leopold married his long time mistress Catherine Thomas a month later Victor married Adele the following year In 1819 Victor and his brothers began publishing a periodical called Le Conservateur litteraire 12 Career EditHugo published his first novel the year following his marriage Han d Islande 1823 and his second three years later Bug Jargal 1826 Between 1829 and 1840 he published five more volumes of poetry Les Orientales 1829 Les Feuilles d automne 1831 Les Chants du crepuscule 1835 Les Voix interieures 1837 and Les Rayons et les Ombres 1840 cementing his reputation as one of the greatest elegiac and lyric poets of his time Like many young writers of his generation Hugo was profoundly influenced by Francois Rene de Chateaubriand the famous figure in the literary movement of Romanticism and France s pre eminent literary figure during the early 19th century In his youth Hugo resolved to be Chateaubriand or nothing and his life would come to parallel that of his predecessor in many ways Like Chateaubriand Hugo furthered the cause of Romanticism became involved in politics though mostly as a champion of Republicanism and was forced into exile due to his political stances The precocious passion and eloquence of Hugo s early work brought success and fame at an early age His first collection of poetry Odes et poesies diverses was published in 1822 when he was only 20 years old and earned him a royal pension from Louis XVIII Though the poems were admired for their spontaneous fervor and fluency the collection that followed four years later in 1826 Odes et Ballades revealed Hugo to be a great poet a natural master of lyric and creative song Victor Hugo in 1829 lithograph by Achille Deveria in the collection of the National Gallery of Art Victor Hugo s first mature work of fiction was first published in February 1829 by Charles Gosselin without the author s name and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work Le Dernier jour d un condamne The Last Day of a Condemned Man would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus Charles Dickens and Fyodor Dostoyevsky Claude Gueux a documentary short story about a real life murderer who had been executed in France appeared in 1834 and was later considered by Hugo himself to be a precursor to his great work on social injustice Les Miserables Hugo became the figurehead of the Romantic literary movement with the plays Cromwell 1827 and Hernani 1830 13 Hernani announced the arrival of French romanticism performed at the Comedie Francaise it was greeted with several nights of rioting as romantics and traditionalists clashed over the play s deliberate disregard for neo classical rules Hugo s popularity as a playwright grew with subsequent plays such as Marion Delorme 1831 The King Amuses Himself 1832 and Ruy Blas 1838 14 Hugo s novel Notre Dame de Paris The Hunchback of Notre Dame was published in 1831 and quickly translated into other languages across Europe One of the effects of the novel was to shame the City of Paris into restoring the much neglected Cathedral of Notre Dame which was attracting thousands of tourists who had read the popular novel The book also inspired a renewed appreciation for pre Renaissance buildings which thereafter began to be actively preserved Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s but a full 17 years were needed for Les Miserables to be realised and finally published in 1862 Hugo had used the departure of prisoners for the Bagne of Toulon in one of his early stories Le Dernier Jour d un condamne He went to Toulon to visit the Bagne in 1839 and took extensive notes though he did not start writing the book until 1845 On one of the pages of his notes about the prison he wrote in large block letters a possible name for his hero JEAN TREJEAN When the book was finally written Trejean became Jean Valjean 15 Hugo was acutely aware of the quality of the novel as evidenced in a letter he wrote to his publisher Albert Lacroix on 23 March 1862 My conviction is that this book is going to be one of the peaks if not the crowning point of my work 16 Publication of Les Miserables went to the highest bidder The Belgian publishing house Lacroix and Verboeckhoven undertook a marketing campaign unusual for the time issuing press releases about the work a full six months before the launch It also initially published only the first part of the novel Fantine which was launched simultaneously in major cities Installments of the book sold out within hours and had enormous impact on French society Illustration by Emile Bayard from the original edition of Les Miserables 1862 Illustration by Luc Olivier Merson for Notre Dame de Paris 1881 The critical establishment was generally hostile to the novel Taine found it insincere Barbey d Aurevilly complained of its vulgarity Gustave Flaubert found within it neither truth nor greatness the Goncourt brothers lambasted its artificiality and Baudelaire despite giving favourable reviews in newspapers castigated it in private as repulsive and inept Les Miserables proved popular enough with the masses that the issues it highlighted were soon on the agenda of the National Assembly of France Today the novel remains his most well known work It is popular worldwide and has been adapted for cinema television and stage shows An apocryphal tale 17 about the shortest correspondence in history is said to have been between Hugo and his publisher Hurst and Blackett in 1862 Hugo was on vacation when Les Miserables was published He queried the reaction to the work by sending a single character telegram to his publisher asking The publisher replied with a single to indicate its success 18 Hugo turned away from social political issues in his next novel Les Travailleurs de la Mer Toilers of the Sea published in 1866 The book was well received perhaps due to the previous success of Les Miserables Dedicated to the channel island of Guernsey where he spent 15 years of exile Hugo tells of a man who attempts to win the approval of his beloved s father by rescuing his ship intentionally marooned by its captain who hopes to escape with a treasure of money it is transporting through an exhausting battle of human engineering against the force of the sea and a battle against an almost mythical beast of the sea a giant squid Superficially an adventure one of Hugo s biographers calls it a metaphor for the 19th century technical progress creative genius and hard work overcoming the immanent evil of the material world 19 The word used in Guernsey to refer to squid pieuvre also sometimes applied to octopus was to enter the French language as a result of its use in the book Hugo returned to political and social issues in his next novel L Homme Qui Rit The Man Who Laughs which was published in 1869 and painted a critical picture of the aristocracy The novel was not as successful as his previous efforts and Hugo himself began to comment on the growing distance between himself and literary contemporaries such as Flaubert and Emile Zola whose realist and naturalist novels were now exceeding the popularity of his own work His last novel Quatre vingt treize Ninety Three published in 1874 dealt with a subject that Hugo had previously avoided the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution Though Hugo s popularity was on the decline at the time of its publication many now consider Ninety Three to be a work on par with Hugo s better known novels Political life and exile EditAfter three unsuccessful attempts Hugo was finally elected to the Academie francaise in 1841 solidifying his position in the world of French arts and letters A group of French academicians particularly Etienne de Jouy were fighting against the romantic evolution and had managed to delay Victor Hugo s election 20 Thereafter he became increasingly involved in French politics On the nomination of King Louis Philippe Hugo entered the Upper Chamber of Parliament as a pair de France in 1845 where he spoke against the death penalty and social injustice and in favour of freedom of the press and self government for Poland In 1848 Hugo was elected to the National Assembly of the Second Republic as a conservative In 1849 he broke with the conservatives when he gave a noted speech calling for the end of misery and poverty Other speeches called for universal suffrage and free education for all children Hugo s advocacy to abolish the death penalty was renowned internationally Among the Rocks on Jersey 1853 1855 These parliamentary speeches are published in Œuvres completes actes et paroles I avant l exil 1841 1851 Scroll down to the Assemblee Constituante 1848 heading and subsequent pages 21 When Louis Napoleon Napoleon III seized complete power in 1851 establishing an anti parliamentary constitution Hugo openly declared him a traitor to France He moved to Brussels then Jersey from which he was expelled for supporting a Jersey newspaper that had criticised Queen Victoria He finally settled with his family at Hauteville House in Saint Peter Port Guernsey where he would live in exile from October 1855 until 1870 While in exile Hugo published his famous political pamphlets against Napoleon III Napoleon le Petit and Histoire d un crime The pamphlets were banned in France but nonetheless had a strong impact there He also composed or published some of his best work during his period in Guernsey including Les Miserables and three widely praised collections of poetry Les Chatiments 1853 Les Contemplations 1856 and La Legende des siecles 1859 Like most of his contemporaries Victor Hugo justified colonialism in terms of a civilizing mission and putting an end to the slave trade on the Barbary coast In a speech delivered on 18 May 1879 during a banquet to celebrate the abolition of slavery in the presence of the French abolitionist writer and parliamentarian Victor Schœlcher Hugo declared that the Mediterranean Sea formed a natural divide between ultimate civilisation and utter barbarism adding God offers Africa to Europe Take it to civilise its indigenous inhabitants This might partly explain why in spite of his deep interest and involvement in political matters he remained silent on the Algerian issue He knew about the atrocities committed by the French Army during the French conquest of Algeria as evidenced by his diary 22 but he never denounced them publicly however in Les Miserables Hugo wrote Algeria too harshly conquered and as in the case of India by the English with more barbarism than civilization 23 After coming in contact with Victor Schœlcher a writer who fought for the abolition of slavery and French colonialism in the Caribbean he started strongly campaigning against slavery In a letter to American abolitionist Maria Weston Chapman on 6 July 1851 Hugo wrote Slavery in the United States It is the duty of this republic to set such a bad example no longer The United States must renounce slavery or they must renounce liberty 24 In 1859 he wrote a letter asking the United States government for the sake of their own reputation in the future to spare abolitionist John Brown s life Hugo justified Brown s actions by these words Assuredly if insurrection is ever a sacred duty it must be when it is directed against Slavery 25 Hugo agreed to diffuse and sell one of his best known drawings Le Pendu an homage to John Brown so one could keep alive in souls the memory of this liberator of our black brothers of this heroic martyr John Brown who died for Christ just as Christ 26 Only one slave on Earth is enough to dishonour the freedom of all men So the abolition of slavery is at this hour the supreme goal of the thinkers Victor Hugo 17 January 1862 27 Victor Hugo fought a lifelong battle for the abolition of the death penalty as a novelist diarist and member of Parliament The Last Day of a Condemned Man published in 1829 analyses the pangs of a man awaiting execution several entries of Things Seen Choses vues the diary he kept between 1830 and 1885 convey his firm condemnation of what he regarded as a barbaric sentence 28 on 15 September 1848 seven months after the Revolution of 1848 he delivered a speech before the Assembly and concluded You have overthrown the throne Now overthrow the scaffold 29 His influence was credited in the removal of the death penalty from the constitutions of Geneva Portugal and Colombia 30 He had also pleaded for Benito Juarez to spare the recently captured emperor Maximilian I of Mexico but to no avail Although Napoleon III granted an amnesty to all political exiles in 1859 Hugo declined as it meant he would have to curtail his criticisms of the government It was only after Napoleon III fell from power and the Third Republic was proclaimed that Hugo finally returned to his homeland in 1870 where he was promptly elected to the National Assembly and the Senate He was in Paris during the siege by the Prussian Army in 1870 famously eating animals given to him by the Paris Zoo As the siege continued and food became ever more scarce he wrote in his diary that he was reduced to eating the unknown 31 Communards defending a barricade on the Rue de Rivoli During the Paris Commune the revolutionary government that took power on 18 March 1871 and was toppled on 28 May Victor Hugo was harshly critical of the atrocities committed on both sides On 9 April he wrote in his diary In short this Commune is as idiotic as the National Assembly is ferocious From both sides folly 32 Yet he made a point of offering his support to members of the Commune subjected to brutal repression He had been in Brussels since 22 March 1871 when in the 27 May issue of the Belgian newspaper l Independance Victor Hugo denounced the government s refusal to grant political asylum to the Communards threatened with imprisonment banishment or execution 33 This caused so much uproar that in the evening a mob of fifty to sixty men attempted to force their way into the writer s house shouting Death to Victor Hugo Hang him Death to the scoundrel 34 Victor Hugo who said A war between Europeans is a civil war 35 was an enthusiastic advocate for the creation of the United States of Europe He expounded his views on the subject in a speech he delivered during the International Peace Congress which took place in Paris in 1849 The Congress of which Hugo was the President proved to be an international success attracting such famous philosophers as Frederic Bastiat Charles Gilpin Richard Cobden and Henry Richard The conference helped establish Hugo as a prominent public speaker and sparked his international fame and promoted the idea of the United States of Europe 36 On 14 July 1870 he planted the oak of the United States of Europe in the garden of Hauteville House where he stayed during his exile on Guernsey from 1856 to 1870 The massacres of Balkan Christians by the Turks in 1876 inspired him to write Pour la Serbie For Serbia in his sons newspaper Le Rappel This speech is today considered one of the founding acts of the European ideal 37 Because of his concern for the rights of artists and copyright he was a founding member of the Association Litteraire et Artistique Internationale which led to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works However in Pauvert s published archives he states strongly that any work of art has two authors the people who confusingly feel something a creator who translates these feelings and the people again who consecrate his vision of that feeling When one of the authors dies the rights should totally be granted back to the other the people He was one of the earlier supporters of the concept of domaine public payant under which a nominal fee would be charged for copying or performing works in the public domain and this would go into a common fund dedicated to helping artists especially young people Religious views EditHugo s religious views changed radically over the course of his life In his youth and under the influence of his mother he identified as a Catholic and professed respect for Church hierarchy and authority From there he became a non practising Catholic and increasingly expressed anti Catholic and anti clerical views He frequented spiritism during his exile where he participated also in many seances conducted by Madame Delphine de Girardin 38 39 and in later years settled into a rationalist deism similar to that espoused by Voltaire A census taker asked Hugo in 1872 if he was a Catholic and he replied No A Freethinker 40 After 1872 Hugo never lost his antipathy towards the Catholic Church He felt the Church was indifferent to the plight of the working class under the oppression of the monarchy Perhaps he also was upset by the frequency with which his work appeared on the Church s list of banned books Hugo counted 740 attacks on Les Miserables in the Catholic press 41 When Hugo s sons Charles and Francois Victor died he insisted that they be buried without a crucifix or priest In his will he made the same stipulation about his own death and funeral 42 Yet he believed in life after death and prayed every single morning and night convinced as he wrote in The Man Who Laughs that Thanksgiving has wings and flies to its right destination Your prayer knows its way better than you do 43 Hugo s rationalism can be found in poems such as Torquemada 1869 about religious fanaticism The Pope 1878 anti clerical Religions and Religion 1880 denying the usefulness of churches and published posthumously The End of Satan and God 1886 and 1891 respectively in which he represents Christianity as a griffin and rationalism as an angel Vincent van Gogh ascribed the saying Religions pass away but God remains actually by Jules Michelet to Hugo 44 Relationship with music EditAlthough Hugo s many talents did not include exceptional musical ability he nevertheless had a great impact on the music world through the inspiration that his works provided for composers of the 19th and 20th centuries Hugo himself particularly enjoyed the music of Gluck and Weber In Les Miserables he calls the huntsman s chorus in Weber s Euryanthe perhaps the most beautiful piece of music ever composed 45 He also greatly admired Beethoven and rather unusually for his time he also appreciated works by composers from earlier centuries such as Palestrina and Monteverdi 46 Two famous musicians of the 19th century were friends of Hugo Hector Berlioz and Franz Liszt The latter played Beethoven in Hugo s home and Hugo joked in a letter to a friend that thanks to Liszt s piano lessons he learned how to play a favourite song on the piano with only one finger Hugo also worked with composer Louise Bertin writing the libretto for her 1836 opera La Esmeralda which was based on the character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame 46 Although for various reasons the opera closed soon after its fifth performance and is little known today it has enjoyed a modern revival both in a piano song concert version by Liszt at the Festival international Victor Hugo et Egaux 2007 47 and in a full orchestral version presented in July 2008 at Le Festival de Radio France et Montpellier Languedoc Roussillon 48 On the other hand he had low esteem for Richard Wagner whom he described as a man of talent coupled with imbecility 49 Well over one thousand musical compositions have been inspired by Hugo s works from the 19th century until the present day In particular Hugo s plays in which he rejected the rules of classical theatre in favour of romantic drama attracted the interest of many composers who adapted them into operas More than one hundred operas are based on Hugo s works and among them are Donizetti s Lucrezia Borgia 1833 Verdi s Rigoletto 1851 and Ernani 1844 and Ponchielli s La Gioconda 1876 50 Hugo s novels as well as his plays have been a great source of inspiration for musicians stirring them to create not only opera and ballet but musical theatre such as Notre Dame de Paris and the ever popular Les Miserables London West End s longest running musical Additionally Hugo s beautiful poems have attracted an exceptional amount of interest from musicians and numerous melodies have been based on his poetry by composers such as Berlioz Bizet Faure Franck Lalo Liszt Massenet Saint Saens Rachmaninoff and Wagner 50 Today Hugo s work continues to stimulate musicians to create new compositions For example Hugo s novel against capital punishment The Last Day of a Condemned Man was adapted into an opera by David Alagna with a libretto by Frederico Alagna and premiered by their brother tenor Roberto Alagna in 2007 51 In Guernsey every two years the Victor Hugo International Music Festival attracts a wide range of musicians and the premiere of songs specially commissioned from such composers as Guillaume Connesson Richard Dubugnon Olivier Kaspar and Thierry Escaich and based on Hugo s poetry Remarkably not only Hugo s literary production has been the source of inspiration for musical works but also his political writings have received attention from musicians and have been adapted to music For instance in 2009 Italian composer Matteo Sommacal was commissioned by Festival Bagliori d autore and wrote a piece for speaker and chamber ensemble entitled Actes et paroles with a text elaborated by Chiara Piola Caselli after Victor Hugo s last political speech addressed to the Assemblee legislative Sur la Revision de la Constitution 18 July 1851 52 and premiered in Rome on 19 November 2009 in the auditorium of the Institut francais Centre Saint Louis French Embassy to the Holy See by Piccola Accademia degli Specchi featuring the composer Matthias Kadar 53 Declining years and death Edit Hugo on his deathbed by Nadar Tomb of Victor Hugo at the Pantheon When Hugo returned to Paris in 1870 the country hailed him as a national hero He was confident that he would be offered the dictatorship as shown by the notes he kept at the time Dictatorship is a crime This is a crime I am going to commit but he felt he had to assume that responsibility 54 Despite his popularity Hugo lost his bid for re election to the National Assembly in 1872 Throughout his life Hugo kept believing in unstoppable humanistic progress In his last public address on 3 August 1879 he prophesied in an over optimistic way In the twentieth century war will be dead the scaffold will be dead hatred will be dead frontier boundaries will be dead dogmas will be dead man will live 55 Within a brief period he suffered a mild stroke his daughter Adele was interned in an insane asylum and his two sons died Adele s biography inspired the movie The Story of Adele H His wife Adele had died in 1868 His faithful mistress Juliette Drouet died in 1883 only two years before his own death Despite his personal loss Hugo remained committed to the cause of political change On 30 January 1876 he was elected to the newly created Senate This last phase of his political career was considered a failure Hugo was a maverick and achieved little in the Senate Hugo suffered a mild stroke on 27 June 1878 56 57 To honour the fact that he was entering his 80th year one of the greatest tributes to a living writer was held The celebrations began on 25 June 1881 when Hugo was presented with a Sevres vase the traditional gift for sovereigns On 27 June one of the largest parades in French history was held Marchers stretched from the Avenue d Eylau where the author was living down the Champs Elysees and all the way to the centre of Paris The paraders marched for six hours past Hugo as he sat at the window at his house Every inch and detail of the event was for Hugo the official guides even wore cornflowers as an allusion to Fantine s song in Les Miserables On 28 June the city of Paris changed the name of the Avenue d Eylau to Avenue Victor Hugo 58 Letters addressed to the author were from then on labelled To Mister Victor Hugo In his avenue Paris Two days before dying he left a note with these last words To love is to act On 20 May 1885 le Petit Journal published the official medical bulletin on Hugo s health condition The illustrious patient was fully conscious and aware that there was no hope for him They also reported from a reliable source that at one point in the night he had whispered the following alexandrin En moi c est le combat du jour et de la nuit In me this is the battle between day and night 59 Le Matin published a slightly different version Here is the battle between day and night The Catafalque of Victor Hugo under the Arc de Triomphe on 1 June 1885 Hugo s death from pneumonia on 22 May 1885 at the age of 83 generated intense national mourning He was not only revered as a towering figure in literature he was a statesman who shaped the Third Republic and democracy in France All his life he remained a defender of liberty equality and fraternity as well as an adamant champion of French culture In 1877 aged 75 he wrote I am not one of these sweet tempered old men I am still exasperated and violent I shout and I feel indignant and I cry Woe to anyone who harms France I do declare I will die a fanatic patriot 60 Although he had requested a pauper s funeral he was awarded a state funeral by decree of President Jules Grevy More than two million people joined his funeral procession in Paris from the Arc de Triomphe to the Pantheon where he was buried He shares a crypt within the Pantheon with Alexandre Dumas and Emile Zola Most large French towns and cities have a street or square named after him Hugo left five sentences as his last will to be officially published Je donne cinquante mille francs aux pauvres Je veux etre enterre dans leur corbillard Je refuse l oraison de toutes les Eglises Je demande une priere a toutes les ames Je crois en Dieu I leave 50 000 francs to the poor I wish to be buried in their hearse I refuse funeral orations from all Churches I ask for a prayer to all souls I believe in God Drawings EditHugo produced more than 4 000 drawings Originally pursued as a casual hobby drawing became more important to Hugo shortly before his exile when he made the decision to stop writing to devote himself to politics Drawing became his exclusive creative outlet between 1848 and 1851 Hugo worked only on paper and on a small scale usually in dark brown or black pen and ink wash sometimes with touches of white and rarely with colour The surviving drawings are surprisingly accomplished and modern in their style and execution foreshadowing the experimental techniques of Surrealism and Abstract expressionism He would not hesitate to use his children s stencils ink blots puddles and stains lace impressions pliage or folding e g Rorschach blots grattage or rubbing often using the charcoal from matchsticks or his fingers instead of pen or brush Sometimes he would even toss in coffee or soot to get the effects he wanted It is reported that Hugo often drew with his left hand or without looking at the page or during Spiritist seances to access his unconscious mind a concept only later popularised by Sigmund Freud Hugo kept his artwork out of the public eye fearing it would overshadow his literary work However he enjoyed sharing his drawings with his family and friends often in the form of ornately handmade calling cards many of which were given as gifts to visitors when he was in political exile Some of his work was shown to and appreciated by contemporary artists such as van Gogh and Delacroix the latter expressed the opinion that if Hugo had decided to become a painter instead of a writer he would have outshone the artists of their century Personal life EditFamily Edit Marriage Edit Hugo married Adele Foucher in October 1822 Despite their respective affairs they lived together for nearly 46 years until she died in August 1868 Hugo who was still banished from France was unable to attend her funeral in Villequier where their daughter Leopoldine was buried From 1830 to 1837 Adele had an affair with Charles Augustin Sainte Beuve a reviewer and writer 61 Children Edit Adele and Victor Hugo had their first child Leopold in 1823 but the boy died in infancy On 28 August 1824 the couple s second child Leopoldine was born followed by Charles on 4 November 1826 Francois Victor on 28 October 1828 and Adele on 28 July 1830 Hugo s eldest and favourite daughter Leopoldine died in 1843 at the age of 19 shortly after her marriage to Charles Vacquerie On 4 September she drowned in the Seine at Villequier when the boat she was in overturned Her young husband died trying to save her The death left her father devastated Hugo was travelling at the time in the south of France when he first learned about Leopoldine s death from a newspaper that he read in a cafe 62 Leopoldine reading Drawing by her mother Adele Foucher 1837 He describes his shock and grief in his famous poem A Villequier Helas vers le passe tournant un œil d envie Sans que rien ici bas puisse m en consoler Je regarde toujours ce moment de ma vie Ou je l ai vue ouvrir son aile et s envoler Je verrai cet instant jusqu a ce que je meure L instant pleurs superflus Ou je criai L enfant que j avais tout a l heure Quoi donc je ne l ai plus Alas My envious eye turning toward the past Without anything else down here able to console me I look continually at that moment of my life Where I saw her spread her wings and fly away I will see that instant until I die That instant nothing beyond Where I cried The child I had a short time ago What I have her no more He wrote many poems afterward about his daughter s life and death and at least one biographer who claims he never completely recovered from it His most famous poem is undeniably Demain des l aube Tomorrow at Dawn in which he describes visiting her grave Exile Edit Hugo decided to live in exile after Napoleon III s coup d etat at the end of 1851 After leaving France Hugo lived in Brussels briefly in 1851 and then moved to the Channel Islands first to Jersey 1852 1855 and then to the smaller island of Guernsey in 1855 where he stayed until Napoleon III s fall from power in 1870 Although Napoleon III proclaimed a general amnesty in 1859 under which Hugo could have safely returned to France the author stayed in exile only returning when Napoleon III was removed from power by the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870 as a result of the French defeat at the Battle of Sedan in the Franco Prussian War After the Siege of Paris from 1870 to 1871 Hugo lived again in Guernsey from 1872 to 1873 and then finally returned to France for the remainder of his life In 1871 after the death of his son Charles Hugo took custody of his grandchildren Jeanne and Georges Victor Other relationships Edit Juliette Drouet Edit Juliette Drouet From February 1833 until her death in 1883 Juliette Drouet devoted her whole life to Victor Hugo who never married her even after his wife died in 1868 He took her on his numerous trips and she followed him in exile on Guernsey 63 There Hugo rented a house for her near Hauteville House his family home She wrote some 20 000 letters in which she expressed her passion or vented her jealousy on her womanizing lover 64 On 25 September 1870 during the Siege of Paris 19 September 1870 28 January 1871 Hugo feared the worst He left his children a note reading as follows J D She saved my life in December 1851 For me she underwent exile Never has her soul forsaken mine Let those who have loved me love her Let those who have loved me respect her She is my widow V H 65 Leonie d Aunet Edit For more than seven years Leonie d Aunet who was a married woman was involved in a love relationship with Hugo Both were caught in adultery on 5 July 1845 Hugo who had been a Member of the Chamber of Peers since April avoided condemnation whereas his mistress had to spend two months in prison and six in a convent Many years after their separation Hugo made a point of supporting her financially 66 Others Edit Hugo gave free rein to his sensuality until a few weeks before his death He sought a wide variety of women of all ages be they courtesans actresses prostitutes admirers servants or revolutionaries like Louise Michel for sexual activity Both a graphomaniac and erotomaniac he systematically reported his casual affairs using his own code as Samuel Pepys did to make sure they would remain secret For instance he resorted to Latin abbreviations osc for kisses or to Spanish Misma Mismas cosas The same Same things Homophones are frequent Seins Breasts becomes Saint Poele Stove actually refers to Poils Pubic hair Analogy also enabled him to conceal the real meaning A woman s Suisses Swiss are her breasts due to the fact that Switzerland is renowned for its milk After a rendezvous with a young woman named Laetitia he would write Joie Happiness in his diary If he added t n toute nue he meant she stripped naked in front of him The initials S B discovered in November 1875 may refer to Sarah Bernhardt 67 Gallery EditVictor Hugo s drawings Ville avec le pont de Tumbledown Town with Tumbledown Bridge 1847 Pieuvre avec les initiales V H Octopus with the initials V H 1866 Le Rocher de l Ermitage dans un paysage imaginaire Ermitage Rock in an imaginary landscape Le phare The Lighthouse Gavroche a onze ans Gavroche at eleven years old Portraits of Victor Hugo Victor Hugo with his son Francois Victor by Auguste de Chatillon 1836 Marble bust of Victor Hugo by Auguste Rodin Victor Hugo by Charles Hugo c 1853 PhotogravureMemorials Edit Avenue Victor Hugo in Paris Statue of Victor Hugo in Rome Italy It is across from the Museo Carlo Bilotti on Viale Fiorello La Guardia His legacy has been honoured in many ways including his portrait being placed on French currency The people of Guernsey erected a statue by sculptor Jean Boucher in Candie Gardens Saint Peter Port to commemorate his stay in the islands The City of Paris has preserved his residences Hauteville House Guernsey and 6 Place des Vosges Paris as museums The house where he stayed in Vianden Luxembourg in 1871 has also become a commemorative museum The Avenue Victor Hugo in the 16th arrondissement of Paris bears Hugo s name and links the Place de l Etoile to the vicinity of the Bois de Boulogne by way of the Place Victor Hugo This square is served by a Paris Metro stop also named in his honour In the town of Beziers there is a main street a school hospital and several cafes named after Hugo and a number of streets and avenues throughout France are named after him The school Lycee Victor Hugo was founded in his town of birth Besancon in France Avenue Victor Hugo located in Shawinigan Quebec was named to honour him A street in San Francisco Hugo Street is named for him 68 A 1959 French banknote featuring Hugo In the city of Avellino Italy Victor Hugo lived briefly stayed in what is now known as Il Palazzo Culturale when reuniting with his father Leopold Sigisbert Hugo in 1808 Hugo would later write about his brief stay here quoting C etait un palais de marbre It was a palace of marble There is a statue of Hugo across from the Museo Carlo Bilotti in Rome Italy Victor Hugo is the namesake of the city of Hugoton Kansas 69 In Havana Cuba there is a park named after him A bust of Hugo stands near the entrance of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing A mosaic commemorating Hugo is located on the ceiling of the Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress The London and North Western Railway named a Prince of Wales Class 4 6 0 No 1134 after Hugo British Railways perpetuated this memorial naming Class 92 Electric Unit 92001 after him Hugo is venerated as a saint in the Vietnamese religion of Cao Đai a new religion established in Vietnam in 1926 70 Works EditNovels Novellas and Short Stories Edit Bug Jargal 1820 Han d Islande 1823 Hans of Iceland Bug Jargal 1826 Le Dernier jour d un condamne The Last Day of a Condemned Man 1829 Notre Dame de Paris The Hunchback of Notre Dame 1831 Claude Gueux 1834 Les Miserables 1862 Les Travailleurs de la Mer Toilers of the Sea 1866 L Homme qui rit The Man Who Laughs 1869 Quatrevingt treize Ninety Three 1874 Other Works Published during Hugo s lifetime Edit Cromwell preface only 1819 Odes et poesies diverses 1822 Odes 1823 Nouvelles Odes 1824 Odes et Ballades 1826 Cromwell 1827 Les Orientales 1829 Hernani 1830 Marion de Lorme 1831 Les Feuilles d automne Autumn Leaves 1831 Le roi s amuse 1832 Lucrezia Borgia 1833 Marie Tudor 1833 Litterature et philosophie melees A Blend of Literature and Philosophy 1834 Angelo Tyrant of Padua 1835 Les Chants du crepuscule Songs of the Half Light 1835 La Esmeralda only libretto of an opera written by Victor Hugo himself 1836 Les Voix interieures 1837 Ruy Blas 1838 Les Rayons et les Ombres 1840 Le Rhin 1842 Les Burgraves 1843 Napoleon le Petit Napoleon the Little 1852 Les Chatiments 1853 The Poor People 1854 Les Contemplations The Contemplations 1856 Les TRYNE 1856 La Legende des siecles The Legend of the Ages 1859 William Shakespeare 1864 Les Chansons des rues et des bois Songs of Street and Wood 1865 La voix de Guernsey 1867 L Annee terrible 1872 Mes Fils 1874 Actes et paroles Avant l exil 1875 Actes et paroles Pendant l exil Deeds and Words 1875 Actes et paroles Depuis l exil 1876 La Legende des Siecles 2e serie 1877 L Art d etre grand pere The Art of Being a Grandfather 1877 Histoire d un crime 1re partie History of a Crime 1877 Histoire d un crime 2e partie 1878 Le Pape 1878 La Pitie supreme 1879 Religions et religion Religions and Religion 1880 L Ane 1880 Les Quatres vents de l esprit The Four Winds of the Spirit 1881 Torquemada 1882 La Legende des siecles Tome III 1883 L Archipel de la Manche 1883 Poems of Victor Hugo Published posthumously Edit Theatre en liberte 1886 La Fin de Satan 1886 Choses vues 1887 Toute la lyre 1888 The Whole Lyre Amy Robsart 1889 Les Jumeaux 1889 Actes et Paroles Depuis l exil 1876 1885 1889 Alpes et Pyrenees 1890 Alps and Pyrenees Dieu 1891 France et Belgique 1892 Toute la lyre derniere serie 1893 Les fromages 1895 Correspondences Tome I 1896 Correspondences Tome II 1898 Les annees funestes 1898 Choses vues nouvelle serie 1900 Post scriptum de ma vie 1901 Derniere Gerbe 1902 Mille francs de recompense 1934 Ocean Tas de pierres 1942 L Intervention 1951 Conversations with Eternity 1998 References Edit Robb G 1999 Victor Hugo in Lithuanian W W Norton amp Company p 12 ISBN 978 0 393 31899 9 Escholier Raymond Victor Hugo raconte par ceux qui l ont vu Librairie Stock 1931 p 11 Bellos David 2017 The Novel of the Century The extraordinary adventure of Les Miserables Particular Books p 162 ISBN 978 1 846 14470 7 d Hauterive A F B 1845 Annuaire de la pairie et de la noblesse de France et des maisons souveraines de l Europe et de la diplomatie in French Bureau de la Pub Bire Edmond 1891 Victor Hugo apres 1830 Vol II Paris Perrin p 73 Pairs de France Nat Pairs de France HUGO Marie Victor vicomte Hugo Accueil Senat in French Vicenti p 46 Stephens B 2019 Victor Hugo Critical Lives in Lithuanian Reaktion Books p 24 ISBN 978 1 78914 111 5 Causse E Victor Hugo Tout pour briller en societe in French Les Editions de l Ebook malin p 4 Robb G 2017 Victor Hugo in Lithuanian Pan Macmillan p 49 ISBN 978 1 5098 5565 0 King E 1878 French Political Leaders Brief biographies of European public men G P Putnam s sons p 15 Frey J A Laster A Hugo V 1999 A Victor Hugo Encyclopedia ABC Clio ebook in Polish Greenwood Press p 201 ISBN 978 0 313 29896 7 State Library of Victoria Victor Hugo Les Miserables From Page to Stage research guide Archived from the original on 14 July 2014 Brockett Oscar G History of the Theatre Eight Edition Boston Allyn amp Bacon 1999 P 339 Le Bagne de Toulon 1748 1873 Academie du Var Autres Temps Editions 2010 ISBN 978 2 84521 394 4 Les Miserables de Victor Hugo alalettre com Retrieved 3 April 2017 Garson O Toole Briefest Correspondence Question Mark Exclamation Mark 14 June 2014 Norris McWhirter 1981 Guinness Book of World Records 1981 Edition Bantam Books p 216 Robb Graham 1997 Victor Hugo A Biography W W Norton amp Company p 414 ISBN 9780393318999 On the role of E de Jouy against V Hugo see Les aventures militaires litteraires et autres de Etienne de Jouy de l Academie francaise by Michel Faul Editions Seguier France 2009 ISBN 978 2 84049 556 7 Victor Hugo Les Miserables From Page to Stage research guide State Library of Victoria Hugo Victor 1972 Choses Vues Paris Gallimard pp 286 87 ISBN 2 07 040217 7 Les Miserables Random House Publishing Group 2000 1280 pages ISBN 9780679641551 p 720 Hugo amp American Anti Slavery Society 1860 p 7 l Esclavage Herrington 2005 p 131 Langellier 2014 p 117 Hugo Victor 1972 Choses vues Paris Gallimard pp 267 69 ISBN 2 07 040217 7 Hugo Victor 15 September 1848 Speech on the death penalty Wikisource org Retrieved 31 January 2017 Victor Hugo l homme ocean Bibliotheque nationale de France Retrieved 19 July 2012 Victor Hugo s diary tells how Parisians dined on zoo animals The Spokesman Review Spokane Washington 7 February 1915 p 3 Hugo Victor Choses vues 1870 1885 Gallimard 1972 ISBN 2 07 036141 1 p 164 Hugo Victor 1 January 1872 Actes et paroles 1870 1871 1872 Michel Levy freres Retrieved 3 April 2017 via Internet Archive l independance Hugo Victor Choses vues Gallimard 1972 ISBN 2 07 036141 1 pp 176 77 Hugo Victor Choses vues Gallimard 1972 ISBN 2 07 036141 1 p 258 Peace Congress 2d Paris 1849 Report of the proceedings of the second general Peace Congress held in Paris on the 22nd 23rd and 24 August 1849 Compiled from authentic documents under the superintendence of the Peace Congress Committee London Charles Gilpin 1849 Bicentenaire de Victor Hugo 1802 2002 Senat French Government www senat fr Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 23 January 2020 Malgras J 1906 Les Pionniers du Spiritisme en France Documents pour la formation d un livre d Or des Sciences Psychiques Paris Chez Victor Hugo Les tables tournantes de Jersey Extracts from meeting minutes published by Gustave Simon in 1923 Gjelten Tom 2008 Bacardi and the Long Fight for Cuba Penguin p 48 ISBN 9780670019786 Robb Graham 1997 Victor Hugo London Picador p 32 ISBN 9780393318999 Petrucelli Alan 2009 Morbid Curiosity The Disturbing Demises of the Famous and Infamous Penguin p 152 ISBN 9781101140499 Hugo Victor The Man Who Laughs CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform 2014 ISBN 978 1495441936 p 132 Vincent van Gogh to Theo van Gogh The Hague between about Wednesday 13 amp about Monday 18 December 1882 Van Gogh Museum Retrieved 31 January 2012 Hugo V Les miserables Volume 2 Penguin Books 1 December 1980 p 103 a b Hugo a l Opera ed Arnaud Laster L Avant Scene Opera no 208 2002 Cette page use des cadres Archived 8 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine Festival international Victor Hugo et Egaux Retrieved 19 July 2012 Mercredi 23 juillet 20h Opera Berlioz Le Corum Archived from the original on 9 May 2008 Retrieved 13 April 2008 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Hugo Victor Choses vues 1870 1885 Gallimard 1972 p 353 ISBN 2 07 036141 1 a b Hugo et la musique in Pleins feux sur Victor Hugo Arnaud Laster Comedie Francaise 1981 Festival Victor Hugo amp Egaux 2008 Archived from the original on 29 April 2008 V Hugo Actes et paroles Avant l exile 1875 Discours a l Assemblee legislative 1849 1851 J Hetzel Maison Quantin Paris 1875 C Pulsoni L orazione di Victor Hugo trasformata in musica Il Corriere dell Umbria Vivere d Umbria Perugia IT 19 November 2009 Hugo Victor Choses vues 1870 1885 Gallimard 1972 2 07 036141 1 p 257 Victor Hugo 18 February 2014 La Fin de Satan Nouvelle edition augmentee Arvensa editions ISBN 9782368413029 Retrieved 3 April 2017 via Google Books Robb Graham Victor Hugo 1997 p 506 Liukkonen Petri Victor Hugo Books and Writers kirjasto sci fi Finland Kuusankoski Public Library Archived from the original on 24 March 2014 Acte de deces de Victor Hugo Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Le Petit journal Gallica 21 May 1885 Retrieved 17 December 2020 Hugo Victor Choses vues 1870 1885 Gallimard 1972 ISBN 2 07 036141 1 p 411 Foucher Hugo Adele Victor Hugo raconte par Adele Hugo Plon 1985 861 p ISBN 2259012884 p 41 Victor Hugo tome 1 Je suis une force qui va by Max Gallo pub Broche 2001 Victor Hugo s House in Pasaia European Romanticisms in Association Retrieved 17 December 2020 Guillemin Henri Hugo Seuil 1978 191 p ISBN 2020000016 p 55 Seghers Pierre Victor Hugo visionnaire Robert Laffont 95 p ISBN 2221010442 p 10 Hugo Victor Choses vues 1849 1885 Gallimard 1972 1014 pp ISBN 2070402177 p 857 17 Sep 1876 Hugo Victor Choses vues 1870 1885 529 p ISBN 2070361411 pp 371 521 n 1 The Chronicle 12 April 1987 p 6 Gannett Henry 1905 The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States United States Government Publishing Office pp 163 Caodaism A Vietnamese centred religion Retrieved 8 May 2009 Additional sources EditHugo V American Anti Slavery Society 1860 Letters on American Slavery from Victor Hugo de Tocqueville Emile de Girardin Carnot Passy Mazzini Humboldt O Lafayette etc HeinOnline Slavery in America and the world history culture amp law American Anti Slavery Society Herrington E 2005 The Afterlife of John Brown Palgrave Macmillan US ISBN 978 1 4039 7846 2 Langellier J P 2014 Dictionnaire Victor Hugo Dictionnaires Atlas Encyclopedies in French Place des editeurs ISBN 978 2 262 04938 6 l Esclavage Memoires des abolitions de History Road of Abolitions Vincenzo Vicenti 1998 Arcangela Vicenti e Giuseppe Pupillo ed Medaglioni altamurani del 1799 Cassano delle Murge Messaggi pp 45 46 Further reading EditAfran Charles 1997 Victor Hugo French Dramatist Website Discover France Originally published in Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia 1997 v 9 0 1 Retrieved November 2005 Azurmendi Joxe 1985 Victor Hugo Euskal Herrian Jakin 37 137 66 Website Jakingunea Bates Alfred 1906 Victor Hugo Website Theatre History Originally published in The Drama Its History Literature and Influence on Civilization vol 9 ed Alfred Bates London Historical Publishing Company 1906 pp 11 13 Retrieved November 2005 Bates Alfred 1906 Hernani Website Theatre History Originally published in The Drama Its History Literature and Influence on Civilization vol 9 ed Alfred Bates London Historical Publishing Company 1906 pp 20 23 Retrieved November 2005 Bates Alfred 1906 Hugo s Cromwell Website Theatre History Originally published in The Drama Its History Literature and Influence on Civilization vol 9 ed Alfred Bates London Historical Publishing Company 1906 pp 18 19 Retrieved November 2005 Bittleston Misha Drawings of Victor Hugo Website Misha Bittleston Retrieved November 2005 Burnham I G 1896 Amy Robsart Website Theatre History Originally published in Victor Hugo Dramas Philadelphia The Rittenhouse Press 1896 pp 203 06 401 02 Retrieved November 2005 Columbia Encyclopedia 6th Edition 2001 05 Hugo Victor Marie Vicomte Website Bartleby Great Books Online Retrieved November 2005 Retrieved November 2005 Haine W Scott 1997 Victor Hugo Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions Website Ohio University Retrieved November 2005 Karlins N F 1998 Octopus With the Initials V H Website ArtNet Retrieved November 2005 Liukkonen Petri 2000 Petri Liukkonen Victor Hugo Books and Writers Meyer Ronald Bruce 2004 Victor Hugo at the Wayback Machine archived 8 May 2006 Website Ronald Bruce Meyer Retrieved November 2005 Portasio Manoel 2009 Victor Hugo e o Espiritismo Website Sir William Crookes Spiritist Society Portuguese Retrieved August 2010 Robb Graham 1997 A Sabre in the Night Website The New York Times Books Excerpt from Graham Robb 1997 Victor Hugo A Biography New York W W Norton amp Company Retrieved November 2005 Roche Isabel 2005 Victor Hugo Biography Meet the Writers Website Barnes amp Noble From the Barnes amp Noble Classics edition of The Hunchback of Notre Dame 2005 Retrieved November 2005 Schneider Maria do Carmo M 2010 http www miniweb com br Literatura Artigos imagens victor hugo face oculta pdf Archived 29 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine Website MiniWeb Educacao Portuguese Retrieved August 2010 State Library of Victoria 2014 Victor Hugo Les Miserables From Page to Stage Website Retrieved July 2014 Uncited author Victor Hugo Website Spartacus Educational Retrieved November 2005 Uncited author Timeline of Victor Hugo Website BBC Retrieved November 2005 Uncited author 2000 2005 Victor Hugo Website The Literature Network Retrieved November 2005 Uncited author Hugo Caricature Website Presence de la Litterature a l ecole Retrieved November 2005 Barbou Alfred 1882 Victor Hugo and His Times University Press of the Pacific 2001 paperback edition ISBN 0 89875 478 X Barnett Marva A ed 2009 Victor Hugo on Things That Matter A Reader New Haven Connecticut Yale University Press ISBN 0 300 12245 4 Brombert Victor H 1984 Victor Hugo and the Visionary Novel Boston Harvard University Press ISBN 0 674 93550 0 Davidson A F 1912 Victor Hugo His Life and Work University Press of the Pacific 2003 paperback edition ISBN 1 4102 0778 1 Dow Leslie Smith 1993 Adele Hugo La Miserable Fredericton Goose Lane Editions ISBN 0 86492 168 3 Falkayn David 2001 Guide to the Life Times and Works of Victor Hugo University Press of the Pacific ISBN 0 89875 465 8 Feller Martin 1988 Der Dichter in der Politik Victor Hugo und der Deutsch Franzosische Krieg von 1870 71 Untersuchungen zum franzosischen Deutschlandbild und zu Hugos Rezeption in Deutschland Marburg Doctoral Dissertation Frey John Andrew 1999 A Victor Hugo Encyclopedia Greenwood Press ISBN 0 313 29896 3 Grant Elliot 1946 The Career of Victor Hugo Harvard University Press Out of print Halsall A W et al 1998 Victor Hugo and the Romantic Drama University of Toronto Press ISBN 0 8020 4322 4 Hart Simon Allen 2004 Lady in the Shadows The Life and Times of Julie Drouet Mistress Companion and Muse to Victor Hugo Publish American ISBN 1 4137 1133 2 Houston John Porter 1975 Victor Hugo New York Twayne Publishers ISBN 0 8057 2443 5 Hovasse Jean Marc 2001 Victor Hugo Avant l exil Paris Fayard ISBN 2 213 61094 0 Hovasse Jean Marc 2008 Victor Hugo Pendant l exil I Paris Fayard ISBN 2 213 62078 4 Ireson J C 1997 Victor Hugo A Companion to His Poetry Clarendon Press ISBN 0 19 815799 1 Maurois Andre 1956 Olympio The Life of Victor Hugo New York Harper amp Brothers Maurois Andre 1966 Victor Hugo and His World London Thames and Hudson Out of print O Neill J ed 2000 Romanticism amp the school of nature nineteenth century drawings and paintings from the Karen B Cohen collection New York Metropolitan Museum of Art contains information on Hugo s drawings External video Presentation by Graham Robb on Victor Hugo A Biography February 8 1998 C SPANRobb Graham 1997 Victor Hugo A Biography W W Norton amp Company 1999 paperback edition ISBN 0 393 31899 0 description reviews at wwnorton com External links EditThis article s use of external links may not follow Wikipedia s policies or guidelines Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references June 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Wikimedia Commons has media related to Victor Hugo Wikiquote has quotations related to Victor HugoWikisource has original works written by or about Victor HugoTwo poems by Victor Hugo Cordite Poetry Review France of Victor Hugo Guernsey s official Victor Hugo website Guernsey s Victor Hugo International Music Festival Victor Hugo Central Victor Hugo s works text concordances and frequency lists Les Miserables at CliffsNotes com Victor Hugo le dessinateur Official site of the Societe des Amis de Victor Hugo Official site of the Festival international Victor Hugo et Egaux Victor Hugo at the Internet Book List Portrait of Victor Hugo at the University of Michigan Museum of Art Study of Victor Hugo for Le panorama du siecle Panorama of the Century by Alfred Stevens at University of Michigan Museum of Art Victor Hugo Collection General Collection Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Yale University Online works Edit Works by Victor Hugo in eBook form at Standard Ebooks Works by Victor Hugo at Project Gutenberg Works by Victor Hugo at Faded Page Canada Works by or about Victor Hugo at Internet Archive Works by Victor Hugo at LibriVox public domain audiobooks Works by Victor Hugo at Open Library English translation of Hugo s At Dawn Tomorrow Demain des l aube Translation of Victor Hugo note found in Hunchback of Notre Dame french edition Archived 28 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine Les Voix interieures at athena unige ch in French Translation of The legend of Victor Hugo by Paul Lafargue The Century Was Two Years Old Victor Hugo The Lilly Library Bloomington IN Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Victor Hugo amp oldid 1053238946, 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