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Victor Jaclard

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Charles Victor Jaclard (1840–1903) was a French revolutionary socialist, a member of the First International and of the Paris Commune.

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Victor Jaclard

Charles Victor Jaclard came from a humble working-class family, but, as a precocious student, he was given a good education, obtaining degrees in mathematics as well as medicine. However, during his studies, he became involved in the radical republican opposition to Napoléon III. After working as a mathematics teacher, he moved to Paris in 1864 to pursue further studies in pharmacology. He soon fell in with the followers of the veteran revolutionary Louis Auguste Blanqui and joined the Blanquists' secret society. In 1865 he helped organise Blanqui's escape from prison to Belgium. That year, Jaclard attended the International Student Congress in Liège, where he gave a speech expounding atheism, materialism and socialism. The speech led the French Council of Universities to ban him from all French universities.

Jaclard was one of the earliest French Blanquists to join the First International, which had been founded in 1864. Other Blanquists initially remained aloof from the organisation because its French section was dominated by followers of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, whom they considered insufficiently revolutionary. Jaclard, however, seems to have moved easily among the factions of contemporary revolutionary socialism. While he remained involved in the Blanquist organisation, he was on friendly terms with Proudhonist Internationalists like Benoît Malon. In 1866, Jaclard was imprisoned for six months for participating in a demonstration. After his release, he was one of Six Blanquists from Paris who appeared at the 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association held in Geneva, Switzerland from September 3 to 8, 1866. They tried to denounce the French representatives as emissaries of Napoleon III, but were thrown out as unaccredited. In 1868, Jaclard was one of the founding members of the International Alliance of Socialist Democracy in Geneva, an organisation created by the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. It was affiliated with the International Workingmen's Association (the First International), but Bakunin's International Alliance soon came into conflict with the London leadership of the International Association, dominated by Karl Marx. Jaclard's involvement with the Bakuninist Alliance once again demonstrated his ability to transcend factional disputes; in general, the Blanquists were wary of anarchism.

Jaclard remained in exile in Geneva until the fall of Napoléon III in 1870. He returned to France to take part in the revolution and in the defence of France against the Germans, who were winning the Franco-Prussian War. In early September 1870, Victor Jaclard seems to have been involved in the uprising of the Lyons Commune, which proclaimed the Republic even before Paris did. Bakunin arrived in Lyons on September 16. Jaclard went on to Paris, charged with establishing a liaison between the Commune of Lyons and the Paris Commune. Sometime earlier, he had met the Russian feminist and revolutionary socialist Anna Vasilevna Korvin-Kurkovskaya (1843–1887) who, after leaving Russia in 1869 "chaperoned" by her newly married sister Sofia Kovalevskaya and her husband Vladimir Kovalevsky had clandestinely gone to Paris. Victor and Anna remained in Paris for the duration of the Franco-Prussian war, and played an active part in the Commune. They contributed to several revolutionary journals and acted as representatives of the First International (Victor was among the representatives of the French section, Anna represented the Russian section). Victor Jaclard was elected commander of the 158th battalion of the National Guard and took part in the insurrection of October 31. In November he became deputy mayor of the 18th district (arrondissement); the mayor was the republican Georges Clemenceau. In February 1871, Jaclard ran unsuccessfully as a Socialist-Revolutionary candidate in the elections to the National Assembly. During the 'Bloody Week' Jaclard fought on the barricades at Batignolles and Château d'eau. With the fall of the Paris Commune, Jaclard was captured and imprisoned by Thiers' forces, and condemned to death. Anna managed however to escape the country, to London, where she stayed for a time at the home of Karl Marx.

Anna's parents were alerted to the crisis, probably by her sister Sofia and her husband Vladimir Kovalevsky. The father of Anna and Sofia, retired artillery General Vasily Vasilievich Korvin-Krukovsky, came to Paris from Switzerland, and sent a plea for clemency to Thiers though a mutual acquaintance. Thiers replied that he could not liberate the condemned prisoner, but gave some information as to the subsequent whereabouts of the prisoners, who were to be moved through the streets of Paris at a specific time. With this knowledge, on October 1, someone (possibly Vladimir Kovalevsky) rescued him from the armed guard and helped spirit him out of the country, to Switzerland, where he was joined by Anna and her parents, and where, they finally officially married.

Jaclard's recent entanglements with Bakunin apparently did not stand in the way of friendly relations with Marx. In 1874, the Jaclards moved back to Anna's native Russia, where Victor became a teacher of French at a gymnasium for young women. Through Anna he was introduced to Russian Narodnik circles. He contributed to the Russian oppositional journals Slovo and Delo. The couple also maintained friendly relations with Anna's former suitor, Dostoevsky. This demonstrated broad-mindedness on both sides; not only could Anna's past relationship with Dostoevsky have made things awkward, but Dostoevsky was also, by this time, deeply religious and politically conservative. The Jaclards meanwhile were professed atheists, materialists and communists, or, in the Russian terminology of the time, 'nihilists'.

In 1880, a general amnesty of Communards enabled the Jaclards returned to France. Jaclard resumed his association with the Blanquists but, characteristically, also remained on good terms with several other political factions. He seems to have been involved in founding the Marxist French Workers' Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue while simultaneously maintaining good relations with Clemenceau. While republicans like Clemenceau were shedding whatever socialist sympathies they may once have had and moving into positions of power in the Third Republic, the French Blanquists and Marxists firmly opposed socialist participation in 'bourgeois' republican governments and furiously denounced reformist socialists like Alexandre Millerand who sought power. Jaclard was once again able to straddle that divide.

In the 1880s, Jaclard edited the journal La Justice. This was Clemenceau's paper. In 1889 he was elected to the city council of Alfortville, where he had settled after Anna's death in 1887. Apparently, Jaclard's capacity for broad sympathy with all sorts of radical causes led him to sympathize with General Georges Boulanger's campaign for a revision of the constitution in the late 1880s. Many French socialists and republicans suspected Boulanger of monarchist designs, but the General professed himself a sincere republican and social reformer. Jaclard was not the only veteran Blanquist to sympathize with Boulangism; in fact the Blanquist Central Revolutionary Committee had split over it, with Ernest Granger leading the Boulangist minority on a long march to the far right, while Édouard Vaillant led the anti-Boulangists into an alliance with Marxism. Jaclard, meanwhile, apparently remained on good terms with all concerned.

The First International had expired in the 1870s, due to the factional conflict between Marxists and Bakuninists. The anarchists had kept their own International going for some time, but the socialist International was practically defunct. In the late 1880s, efforts were made to revive it, which led eventually to the creation of the Second International in 1889. Jaclard was actively involved in these endeavours. He was a French delegate to the International congresses of 1889, 1891 and 1893, held in Paris, Brussels and Zurich, respectively. Jaclard was also a member of the Union of Socialist Journalists, serving as its (1843- general secretary. He was also the author of the pamphlet Tactiques Socialistes (1893). Although Jaclard had not spent much of his time practising medicine, he seems to have remained a doctor in good standing in the eyes of his profession. At any rate, the British Medical Journal of May 2, 1903, noted his recent death. What is striking about Jaclard is his political adaptability and the ease with which he maintained good personal as well as political relations with representatives of very different, and in some cases mutually hostile, ideological tendencies: Blanquism, Proudhonism, Bakuninism, Marxism, Clemenceauvian Radicalism and Boulangism.

  • http://chipluvrio.free.fr/yin-yang-terre/terrep2/terre2-vf-2.html
  • http://www.leksikon.org/art.php?n=4573
  • Wolfe, R., 'The Parisian Club de la Revolution of the 18th Arrondissement 1870-1871.' Past & Present. No. 39, April 1968.
  • Doty, S., 'Parliamentary Boulangism After 1889.' In: The Historian, Vol. 32, Issue 2, February 1970.
  • Frank, J., Dostoevsky: The Mantle of the Prophet, 1871-1881. Princeton, 2002, pp. 362 ff.
  • Lantz, K.A., 'Korvin-Krukovskaia, Anna Vailevna (1843–1887).' In: The Dostoevsky Encyclopedia. pp. 219–221.
  1. "Dr. Victor Jaclard, of Paris, who had a stormy career as a politician, and was for a long time associated with M. Clemenceau (himself a member of the medical profession)..." British Medical Journal, 1903 Vol. 1 (May 2, 1903), p. 1062.

Victor Jaclard
Victor Jaclard Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Victor Jaclard news newspapers books scholar JSTOR February 2013 Learn how and when to remove this template message Charles Victor Jaclard 1840 1903 was a French revolutionary socialist a member of the First International and of the Paris Commune Contents 1 Early life 2 First International and exile 3 The Paris Commune 4 Second exile 5 Return to France 6 The Second International 7 Sources and Links 8 NotesEarly life Edit Victor Jaclard Charles Victor Jaclard came from a humble working class family but as a precocious student he was given a good education obtaining degrees in mathematics as well as medicine However during his studies he became involved in the radical republican opposition to Napoleon III After working as a mathematics teacher he moved to Paris in 1864 to pursue further studies in pharmacology He soon fell in with the followers of the veteran revolutionary Louis Auguste Blanqui and joined the Blanquists secret society In 1865 he helped organise Blanqui s escape from prison to Belgium That year Jaclard attended the International Student Congress in Liege where he gave a speech expounding atheism materialism and socialism The speech led the French Council of Universities to ban him from all French universities First International and exile EditJaclard was one of the earliest French Blanquists to join the First International which had been founded in 1864 Other Blanquists initially remained aloof from the organisation because its French section was dominated by followers of Pierre Joseph Proudhon whom they considered insufficiently revolutionary Jaclard however seems to have moved easily among the factions of contemporary revolutionary socialism While he remained involved in the Blanquist organisation he was on friendly terms with Proudhonist Internationalists like Benoit Malon In 1866 Jaclard was imprisoned for six months for participating in a demonstration After his release he was one of Six Blanquists from Paris who appeared at the 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen s Association held in Geneva Switzerland from September 3 to 8 1866 They tried to denounce the French representatives as emissaries of Napoleon III but were thrown out as unaccredited In 1868 Jaclard was one of the founding members of the International Alliance of Socialist Democracy in Geneva an organisation created by the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin It was affiliated with the International Workingmen s Association the First International but Bakunin s International Alliance soon came into conflict with the London leadership of the International Association dominated by Karl Marx Jaclard s involvement with the Bakuninist Alliance once again demonstrated his ability to transcend factional disputes in general the Blanquists were wary of anarchism The Paris Commune EditJaclard remained in exile in Geneva until the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 He returned to France to take part in the revolution and in the defence of France against the Germans who were winning the Franco Prussian War In early September 1870 Victor Jaclard seems to have been involved in the uprising of the Lyons Commune which proclaimed the Republic even before Paris did Bakunin arrived in Lyons on September 16 Jaclard went on to Paris charged with establishing a liaison between the Commune of Lyons and the Paris Commune Sometime earlier he had met the Russian feminist and revolutionary socialist Anna Vasilevna Korvin Kurkovskaya 1843 1887 who after leaving Russia in 1869 chaperoned by her newly married sister Sofia Kovalevskaya and her husband Vladimir Kovalevsky had clandestinely gone to Paris Victor and Anna remained in Paris for the duration of the Franco Prussian war and played an active part in the Commune They contributed to several revolutionary journals and acted as representatives of the First International Victor was among the representatives of the French section Anna represented the Russian section Victor Jaclard was elected commander of the 158th battalion of the National Guard and took part in the insurrection of October 31 In November he became deputy mayor of the 18th district arrondissement the mayor was the republican Georges Clemenceau In February 1871 Jaclard ran unsuccessfully as a Socialist Revolutionary candidate in the elections to the National Assembly During the Bloody Week Jaclard fought on the barricades at Batignolles and Chateau d eau With the fall of the Paris Commune Jaclard was captured and imprisoned by Thiers forces and condemned to death Anna managed however to escape the country to London where she stayed for a time at the home of Karl Marx Anna s parents were alerted to the crisis probably by her sister Sofia and her husband Vladimir Kovalevsky The father of Anna and Sofia retired artillery General Vasily Vasilievich Korvin Krukovsky came to Paris from Switzerland and sent a plea for clemency to Thiers though a mutual acquaintance Thiers replied that he could not liberate the condemned prisoner but gave some information as to the subsequent whereabouts of the prisoners who were to be moved through the streets of Paris at a specific time With this knowledge on October 1 someone possibly Vladimir Kovalevsky rescued him from the armed guard and helped spirit him out of the country to Switzerland where he was joined by Anna and her parents and where they finally officially married Second exile EditJaclard s recent entanglements with Bakunin apparently did not stand in the way of friendly relations with Marx In 1874 the Jaclards moved back to Anna s native Russia where Victor became a teacher of French at a gymnasium for young women Through Anna he was introduced to Russian Narodnik circles He contributed to the Russian oppositional journals Slovo and Delo The couple also maintained friendly relations with Anna s former suitor Dostoevsky This demonstrated broad mindedness on both sides not only could Anna s past relationship with Dostoevsky have made things awkward but Dostoevsky was also by this time deeply religious and politically conservative The Jaclards meanwhile were professed atheists materialists and communists or in the Russian terminology of the time nihilists Return to France EditIn 1880 a general amnesty of Communards enabled the Jaclards returned to France Jaclard resumed his association with the Blanquists but characteristically also remained on good terms with several other political factions He seems to have been involved in founding the Marxist French Workers Party of Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue while simultaneously maintaining good relations with Clemenceau While republicans like Clemenceau were shedding whatever socialist sympathies they may once have had and moving into positions of power in the Third Republic the French Blanquists and Marxists firmly opposed socialist participation in bourgeois republican governments and furiously denounced reformist socialists like Alexandre Millerand who sought power Jaclard was once again able to straddle that divide In the 1880s Jaclard edited the journal La Justice This was Clemenceau s paper In 1889 he was elected to the city council of Alfortville where he had settled after Anna s death in 1887 Apparently Jaclard s capacity for broad sympathy with all sorts of radical causes led him to sympathize with General Georges Boulanger s campaign for a revision of the constitution in the late 1880s Many French socialists and republicans suspected Boulanger of monarchist designs but the General professed himself a sincere republican and social reformer Jaclard was not the only veteran Blanquist to sympathize with Boulangism in fact the Blanquist Central Revolutionary Committee had split over it with Ernest Granger leading the Boulangist minority on a long march to the far right while Edouard Vaillant led the anti Boulangists into an alliance with Marxism Jaclard meanwhile apparently remained on good terms with all concerned The Second International EditThe First International had expired in the 1870s due to the factional conflict between Marxists and Bakuninists The anarchists had kept their own International going for some time but the socialist International was practically defunct In the late 1880s efforts were made to revive it which led eventually to the creation of the Second International in 1889 Jaclard was actively involved in these endeavours He was a French delegate to the International congresses of 1889 1891 and 1893 held in Paris Brussels and Zurich respectively Jaclard was also a member of the Union of Socialist Journalists serving as its 1843 general secretary He was also the author of the pamphlet Tactiques Socialistes 1893 Although Jaclard had not spent much of his time practising medicine he seems to have remained a doctor in good standing in the eyes of his profession At any rate the British Medical Journal of May 2 1903 noted his recent death 1 What is striking about Jaclard is his political adaptability and the ease with which he maintained good personal as well as political relations with representatives of very different and in some cases mutually hostile ideological tendencies Blanquism Proudhonism Bakuninism Marxism Clemenceauvian Radicalism and Boulangism Sources and Links Edithttp chipluvrio free fr yin yang terre terrep2 terre2 vf 2 html http www leksikon org art php n 4573 Wolfe R The Parisian Club de la Revolution of the 18th Arrondissement 1870 1871 Past amp Present No 39 April 1968 Doty S Parliamentary Boulangism After 1889 In The Historian Vol 32 Issue 2 February 1970 Frank J Dostoevsky The Mantle of the Prophet 1871 1881 Princeton 2002 pp 362 ff Lantz K A Korvin Krukovskaia Anna Vailevna 1843 1887 In The Dostoevsky Encyclopedia pp 219 221 Notes Edit Dr Victor Jaclard of Paris who had a stormy career as a politician and was for a long time associated with M Clemenceau himself a member of the medical profession British Medical Journal 1903 Vol 1 May 2 1903 p 1062 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Victor Jaclard amp oldid 1032311732, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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