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Video assistant referee

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(April 2021) ()

The video assistant referee (VAR) is a match official in association football who reviews decisions made by the head referee with the use of video footage and headsets for communication. This is specifically in order to minimize human errors causing substantial influence on match results.

The VAR symbol used at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, appearing on the screens during the review process

Following extensive trialling in a number of major competitions, VAR was first written into the Laws of the Game by the International Football Association Board (IFAB) in 2018. Operating under the philosophy of "minimal interference, maximum benefit", the VAR system seeks to provide a way for "clear and obvious errors" and "serious missed incidents" to be corrected.

Contents

There are four categories of decisions that can be reviewed:

  • Goal/no goalattacking team commits an offence, ball out of play, ball entering goal, offside, handball, offences and encroachment during penalty kicks.
  • Penalty/no penaltyattacking team commits an offence, ball out of play, location of offence, incorrect awarding, offence not penalised.
  • Direct red card – denial of obvious goal-scoring opportunity, serious foul play, violent conduct/biting/spitting, using offensive/insulting/abusive language or gestures. All straight red cards are subject to review.
  • Mistaken identity in awarding a red or yellow card.

Check

A VAR decision during an FA Cup match at the Etihad Stadium, Manchester.

The VAR team, stationed in the video operation room (VOR), automatically checks every on-field referee decision falling under the four reviewable categories. If the VAR does not identify any mistake during the check, this is communicated to the referee. This is called a "silent check" and requires no further action, usually not causing any delay to the game. At other times, a VAR check may cause the game to be delayed while the VAR ascertains whether or not a possible mistake has occurred. The referee may delay the restart of play for this to occur, and indicates an ongoing check by pointing to their ear.

Where the VAR does identify a possible clear and obvious error, there are three possible scenarios:

  • Decision overturned on advice of VAR
  • On-field review (OFR) recommended
  • Referee chooses to ignore VAR advice

A decision can generally be overturned without an OFR where it relates to a factual matter. For example, offside decisions or whether a foul occurred inside or outside the penalty area can be determined by the VAR to the referee without a review. An OFR is generally recommended[by whom?] where there is a subjective decision to make, such as whether a foul was committed in the first place or whether a red card is warranted for a certain offence. In all cases, the final decision rests with the referee, and they can choose to ignore the advice of the VAR altogether.

On-field review (OFR)

A Major League Soccer referee reviewing a play using a sideline monitor

An OFR can only be conducted on the recommendation of the VAR. This ensures that the referee always makes an on-field ruling and does not rely on OFRs for every close decision. An OFR can be conducted when the ball is out of play, or where the referee stops play for the express purpose of conducting one.[citation needed]

The referee signals an OFR by making the outline of a rectangle, indicating a video screen. The OFR takes place in a designated referee review area (RRA), adjacent to the field of play and in public view to ensure transparency. Slow motion replays are only used to establish point of contact for physical offences and handball, while full-speed replays are shown to determine the intensity of an offence or whether a handball occurred in the first place.[citation needed] During an OFR, the VAR transmits several video replays from different camera angles to allow the referee to make their decision.

Once an OFR is completed, the referee makes the TV signal again, before indicating the decision made. If the ball was out of play, it restarts with either the original decision or the new decision if the on-field one was changed. If play was stopped to conduct an OFR and the decision was not changed, a dropped ball occurs.

Offences

A number of offences relating to the VAR process are codified within the Laws of the Game. Both players and team officials excessively making the TV signal are cautioned. Any player or team official entering the RRA are also cautioned. Finally, entering the VOR will cause a player or team official to be sent off.[citation needed]

Assistant video assistant referee

Assistant video assistant referees in action during a Saudi Professional League match

The assistant video assistant referee (AVAR) is a current or former referee appointed to assist the VAR in the video operation room. The responsibilities of the AVAR include watching the live action on the field while the VAR is undertaking a "check" or a "review", to keep a record of reviewable incidents, and to communicate the outcome of a review to broadcasters.

A number of technical terms and abbreviations are used in reference to the VAR system. These include:[citation needed]

  • Check – Process by which the VAR automatically inspects all reviewable decisions. A check can result in confirmation of the on-field decision (a "silent check"), a change in decision for factual matters (e.g. offside/not offside) or the recommendation of an OFR.
  • Clear and obvious error – Degree required for an on-field decision to be overturned.
  • OFR – On-field review; review process that occurs following recommendation by the VAR. Used where a clear and obvious mistake may have been made in regards to a subjective decision.
  • RO – Replay operator; non-referee official who assists video officials by managing the broadcast and finding the best angles to allow for the right decision to be made
  • RRA – Referee review area; area where an OFR is conducted, located adjacent to the field of play and in sight at all times
  • VAR – Video Assistant Referee; main video official whose main role is to check all reviewable incidents and recommend an OFR where a possible clear and obvious error has occurred. The VAR is a current or former qualified referee.
    • AVAR – Assistant VAR; official that assists the VAR by watching the live action on the field while the VAR is undertaking a "check" or a "review".
      • Offside VAR – AVAR official that anticipates and checks any potential offside situations in game-changing situations.
      • Support VAR – AVAR official that coordinates communication between VAR officials and focuses on the television programme feed.
  • Video official – Category of match official, alongside on-field officials. Consists of VAR and any AVARs.
  • VOR – Video operation room; room where the VAR team is located. The VOR can be located in or near the stadium, or in a centralised location such as a broadcast centre.

VAR was conceived by the Refereeing 2.0 project in the early 2010s, under the direction of the Royal Netherlands Football Association (KNVB). The system was tested through mock trials during the 2012–13 season of the Eredivisie, the country's top football league. In 2014, the KNVB petitioned the International Football Association Board (IFAB) to amend its laws of the games to allow the system to be used during more extensive trials. The IFAB approved trials and a pathway to full implementation during its 2016 general meeting. Lukas Brud, IFAB secretary, said "With all the 4G and Wi-Fi in stadia today...we knew we had to protect referees from making mistakes that everyone can see immediately", such as Thierry Henry’s handball that eliminated Ireland from qualifying for the 2010 FIFA World Cup where the on-field referees were not in a position to view the infraction. Then-FIFA president Sepp Blatter, who was strongly against introducing new technology in football, was forced out of his post due to a corruption scandal in 2015, and the VAR proposal received a warm reception under his successor Gianni Infantino.

The first live trial of the VAR system was in July 2016 in a friendly match between PSV and FC Eindhoven

The next live trial of the VAR system began in August 2016 with a United Soccer League match between two Major League Soccer reserve sides. Match referee Ismail Elfath reviewed two fouls during the match and, after consultation with video assistant referee Allen Chapman, decided to issue a red card and a yellow card in the respective incidents.

Video reviews were introduced the following month during an international friendly between France and Italy.

The first professional "non-friendly" game was an official first round KNVB beker national Cup tie between Ajax and Willem II on 21 September 2016. This match was the first match to include a "pitchside monitor". The pitchside monitor would allow the referee to review footage from the field. Based on VAR but not using the available pitchside monitor, a yellow card was turned into a red card and thus this was the first ever VAR based expulsion in a professional game. Interestingly, this professional and official Cup game was played before the official FIFA rule changes. Although viewers watching the match on television were made aware of the decision, the public in the stadium and to a lesser extent, the players were confused as to what had happened. The major lesson from the confusion around this first major decisions change was that VAR decisions needed to be clearly communicated to the player, the watching public inside the stadium and on TV.

The next event that VAR was used, including a "pitchside monitor" was at the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup.Kashima Antlers was awarded a penalty after a video review in the 3–0 win of semi-final against Atlético Nacional.

The A-League in Australia became the first to use a VAR system in a top flight professional club competition on 7 April 2017, when Melbourne City played Adelaide United though this game was completed without the VAR being called upon. The first intervention by a VAR in a professional league game was seen on 8 April when Wellington Phoenix hosted Sydney FC. The VAR identified an illegal handball in the penalty area and awarded Sydney FC a penalty. The game finished in a 1–1 draw.

Major League Soccer in the United States introduced VARs in competitive matches during its 2017 season after the 2017 MLS All-Star Game on 2 August 2017. Its first official use came during a match between the Philadelphia Union and FC Dallas, invalidating a goal from the latter over contact made between a Dallas player and Philadelphia's goalkeeper. VAR was used at an international level in the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in June, where it was praised, but its usefulness was questioned after a referee decision in the final match.

Also in 2017, Portuguese Football Federation (FPF) made its first official match using VAR, during Portuguese Cup Final between SL Benfica and Vitoria SC at Jamor Stadium on the 28 May 2017. Portuguese Football Federation was also the first country in the world to use VAR in a Women's competition: one week after men's Cup final, in the same stadium, VAR was officially used in a Women's match between Sporting CP and SC Braga.

After the 2016 introduction in CUP football in Europe, the VAR system was introduced in top flight European football league competitions by Bundesliga and the Serie A at the beginning of the 2017–18 season and by La Liga at the beginning of the 2018–19 season. The system was also used at the 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup in October. On 8 January 2018, VAR was trialled for the first time in England in the 2017–18 FA Cup game between Brighton & Hove Albion and Crystal Palace, and the following day it was trialled for the first time in France in the Côte d'Azur derby game in the 2017–18 French League Cup. It was said to have worked well.

Italy opened the world's first VAR training centre in Coverciano in January 2018.

On 3 March 2018, the IFAB wrote the VARs into the Laws of the Game on a permanent basis. Their use remains optional for competitions, and the English Premier League and the UEFA Champions League were not expected to implement VAR for their 2018–19 season. However Premier League executive chairman Richard Scudamore has described it as "inevitable" that VAR will be introduced to the Premier League. On 27 September 2018, UEFA announced that from the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League season, VARs will be used in the competition. Although VAR was not implemented in the group stages of the 2018–19 season, UEFA announced on 3 December 2018, that VAR would be used in the knockout stages, which commenced in February 2019.

On 15 November 2018, Premier League teams voted in principle to bring Video Assistant Referees to the Premier League from the 2019–20 season onwards pending approval of IFAB and FIFA; this comes after a controversial decision from referee Simon Hooper to disallow a goal scored by Southampton F.C. striker Charlie Austin.

On 1 January 2020, the Emperor's Cup Final was the first Japanese football match to use VAR, and, at the same time, to prepare the introduction of VAR into Olympic football.

2018 FIFA World Cup

FIFA officially approved the use of VAR for the 2018 FIFA World Cup during the FIFA Council meeting on 16 March 2018 in Bogotá. This tournament became the first competition to use VAR in full (at all matches and in all venues).

Cristiano Ronaldo (Portugal) being shown a yellow card after a challenge with Iranian player that was reviewed by referee Enrique Cáceres as a potential red card incident

The 2018 World Cup marked the system's World Cup debut. A total of 335 incidents were checked by the VAR over the course of the group stage, averaging seven per match, and fourteen calls made by referees were changed or overruled after being reviewed by the VAR. According to FIFA, the VAR system had a success rate of 99.3 percent, up from the 95 percent of correct calls by referees without VAR. The first VAR decision at the World Cup came on 16 June 2018 in a group stage match between France and Australia, where referee Andres Cunha awarded a penalty to France after consulting with the VAR. In the final, referee Néstor Pitana used the VAR to review a defensive foul for handling in the penalty area, awarding France a penalty, which gave them a 2–1 lead over Croatia. The final eventually ended with France prevailing 4–2.

The use of VAR has been credited with assisting the 2018 edition's status as the cleanest World Cup since 1986, after no red cards were issued in the opening 11 games and only four players were sent off in the entire tournament which was the fewest since 1978. 22 goals were scored from 29 awarded penalty kicks, beating the previous record of 17 penalty kick goals set in the 1998 tournament; the dramatic increase in the number of penalties awarded at the 2018 World Cup has been attributed to VAR catching fouls which would otherwise have remained unpunished. IFAB technical director and former Premier League referee David Elleray stated a belief that the presence of VAR meant that players would know that they would not be able to get away with anything under the new system.

The use of video technology at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup was criticised after several contentious moments involving VAR at the tournament. It was accused of "creating as much confusion as clarity".

Further criticism was leveled at VAR after it suffered issues preventing its use, for example in a Portuguese match where a supporter's flag had been obscuring the VAR camera, or in the 2018 A-League Grand Final between Newcastle Jets and Melbourne Victory where the VAR software suffered a technical malfunction which prevented the assistant referee from viewing the replay.

After the introduction of VAR in the 2018 World Cup, FIFA deemed it a success. Nevertheless, the use (or lack of use) of VAR has been criticised. Independent assessments note that while most decisions were made correctly as a result of VAR, some were wrong despite VAR review and some decisions which were called incorrectly were not even reviewed. The Guardian concludes that VAR has been most effective for factual decisions such as offsides and mistaken identities, while subjective decisions such as penalties or the disciplining of players have fared much worse. Lack of clarity and consistency are two main areas of weakness.

Another line of criticism has been targeted at the effectiveness of the system in achieving its goal. In the opinion of Scott Stinson from the National Post, VAR, like any other replay system, fails to correct human error and instead only adds to the controversies because human judgment is still necessary. Lack of transparency is another contentious point, as teams have no way to know which incidents were reviewed by the VAR team. At a press conference held after the group stage, FIFA referees committee chairman Pierluigi Collina showed footage of the decision-making process accompanied with audio of the conversations between VAR officials and the referees. Asked if this audio could be made publicly available, as it is in rugby and cricket, Collina answered enthusiastically but cautioned that it might still be too early.

Others have pointed to the game-changing nature of VAR. Initial fears that using the system would lengthen the game considerably have not been confirmed, with every VAR review taking up an average of only 80 seconds. The dramatic increase in the number of penalties awarded at the 2018 World Cup has been attributed to VAR catching fouls which would otherwise have remained unpunished. Of the 169 goals scored in the tournament, 22 were from penalty kicks (with 29 being awarded in total), beating the previous record of 17 set in the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Jonathan Liew of The Independent compares the situation to the introduction of the Decision Review System in cricket and notes the changes it had on that sport, and suggests that it might lead to changes of a similar nature in football.

In February 2019, UEFA issued guidance which stated that players who made a 'TV-screen' hand gesture should result in a yellow card. "Excessively using the 'review' (TV screen) signal" is now listed as a caution for which a player may receive a yellow card in the Laws of the Game. Early uses of VAR in the Premier League, at the beginning of the 2019–20 season, were described as confusing to both coaches and fans with the decision making often inconsistent.

VAR in use in the UEFA Champions League group stage in 2019

Competitions which include VAR confirmed matches are "live" matches, i.e. where the VARs have contact with the referee on the field of play and therefore may have an impact on the decision making.

There is also an idea of implementing VAR in futsal matches.

Club competitions

Domestic leagues

Domestic cups

Continental

International

VAR in use at the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup in France.

National team competitions

Continental

International

  1. Two matches per round and final stages only
  2. Starting in the 2020–21 season
  3. Finals only
  4. Since the 2017–18 season
  5. Since the 2021–22 season
  6. Starting in 2021
  7. First time in the 2017–18 season; Quarter-finals onward
  8. Since the 2017 match
  9. Quarter-finals until the finals only
  10. Knockout stages and the finals only
  11. Knockout stages and the finals only
  12. Play-off rounds and competition proper only
  13. Knockout stages until finals for the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 seasons, group stages introduced in the 2021-22 season.
  14. Knock-out stage onward only
  15. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it wasn't used in 2021
  16. Final four only, all matches introduced in the 2022-23 season
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Video assistant referee
Video assistant referee Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Video assistant referee news newspapers books scholar JSTOR April 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message The video assistant referee VAR is a match official in association football who reviews decisions made by the head referee with the use of video footage and headsets for communication This is specifically in order to minimize human errors causing substantial influence on match results VAR monitor at the Estadio Monumental David Arellano The VAR symbol used at the 2018 FIFA World Cup appearing on the screens during the review process Following extensive trialling in a number of major competitions VAR was first written into the Laws of the Game by the International Football Association Board IFAB in 2018 1 Operating under the philosophy of minimal interference maximum benefit 2 3 the VAR system seeks to provide a way for clear and obvious errors and serious missed incidents to be corrected 4 Contents 1 Procedure 1 1 Check 1 2 On field review OFR 1 3 Offences 1 4 Assistant video assistant referee 2 Glossary 3 History 3 1 2018 FIFA World Cup 4 Criticism 5 Competitions using VAR 5 1 Club competitions 5 1 1 Domestic leagues 5 1 2 Domestic cups 5 1 3 Continental 5 1 4 International 5 2 National team competitions 5 2 1 Continental 5 2 2 International 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksProcedure EditThere are four categories of decisions that can be reviewed 4 Goal no goal attacking team commits an offence ball out of play ball entering goal offside handball offences and encroachment during penalty kicks Penalty no penalty attacking team commits an offence ball out of play location of offence incorrect awarding offence not penalised Direct red card denial of obvious goal scoring opportunity serious foul play violent conduct biting spitting using offensive insulting abusive language or gestures All straight red cards are subject to review Mistaken identity in awarding a red or yellow card Check Edit A VAR decision during an FA Cup match at the Etihad Stadium Manchester The VAR team stationed in the video operation room VOR automatically checks every on field referee decision falling under the four reviewable categories If the VAR does not identify any mistake during the check this is communicated to the referee This is called a silent check and requires no further action usually not causing any delay to the game At other times a VAR check may cause the game to be delayed while the VAR ascertains whether or not a possible mistake has occurred The referee may delay the restart of play for this to occur and indicates an ongoing check by pointing to their ear Where the VAR does identify a possible clear and obvious error there are three possible scenarios 5 Decision overturned on advice of VAR On field review OFR recommended Referee chooses to ignore VAR advice A decision can generally be overturned without an OFR where it relates to a factual matter For example offside decisions or whether a foul occurred inside or outside the penalty area can be determined by the VAR to the referee without a review An OFR is generally recommended by whom where there is a subjective decision to make such as whether a foul was committed in the first place or whether a red card is warranted for a certain offence In all cases the final decision rests with the referee and they can choose to ignore the advice of the VAR altogether 6 On field review OFR Edit A Major League Soccer referee reviewing a play using a sideline monitor An OFR can only be conducted on the recommendation of the VAR This ensures that the referee always makes an on field ruling and does not rely on OFRs for every close decision An OFR can be conducted when the ball is out of play or where the referee stops play for the express purpose of conducting one citation needed The referee signals an OFR by making the outline of a rectangle indicating a video screen The OFR takes place in a designated referee review area RRA adjacent to the field of play and in public view to ensure transparency Slow motion replays are only used to establish point of contact for physical offences and handball while full speed replays are shown to determine the intensity of an offence or whether a handball occurred in the first place citation needed During an OFR the VAR transmits several video replays from different camera angles to allow the referee to make their decision Once an OFR is completed the referee makes the TV signal again before indicating the decision made If the ball was out of play it restarts with either the original decision or the new decision if the on field one was changed If play was stopped to conduct an OFR and the decision was not changed a dropped ball occurs 7 Offences Edit A number of offences relating to the VAR process are codified within the Laws of the Game Both players and team officials excessively making the TV signal are cautioned Any player or team official entering the RRA are also cautioned Finally entering the VOR will cause a player or team official to be sent off citation needed Assistant video assistant referee Edit Assistant video assistant referees in action during a Saudi Professional League match The assistant video assistant referee AVAR is a current or former referee appointed to assist the VAR in the video operation room The responsibilities of the AVAR include watching the live action on the field while the VAR is undertaking a check or a review to keep a record of reviewable incidents and to communicate the outcome of a review to broadcasters 4 Glossary EditA number of technical terms and abbreviations are used in reference to the VAR system These include citation needed Check Process by which the VAR automatically inspects all reviewable decisions 8 A check can result in confirmation of the on field decision a silent check a change in decision for factual matters e g offside not offside or the recommendation of an OFR Clear and obvious error Degree required for an on field decision to be overturned 9 OFR On field review review process that occurs following recommendation by the VAR Used where a clear and obvious mistake may have been made in regards to a subjective decision RO Replay operator non referee official who assists video officials by managing the broadcast and finding the best angles to allow for the right decision to be made RRA Referee review area area where an OFR is conducted located adjacent to the field of play and in sight at all times VAR Video Assistant Referee main video official whose main role is to check all reviewable incidents and recommend an OFR where a possible clear and obvious error has occurred The VAR is a current or former qualified referee 4 AVAR Assistant VAR official that assists the VAR by watching the live action on the field while the VAR is undertaking a check or a review 4 Offside VAR AVAR official that anticipates and checks any potential offside situations in game changing situations 10 11 Support VAR AVAR official that coordinates communication between VAR officials and focuses on the television programme feed 10 11 Video official Category of match official alongside on field officials Consists of VAR and any AVARs VOR Video operation room room where the VAR team is located The VOR can be located in or near the stadium or in a centralised location such as a broadcast centre History EditVAR was conceived by the Refereeing 2 0 project in the early 2010s under the direction of the Royal Netherlands Football Association KNVB 12 The system was tested through mock trials during the 2012 13 season of the Eredivisie the country s top football league In 2014 the KNVB petitioned the International Football Association Board IFAB to amend its laws of the games to allow the system to be used during more extensive trials The IFAB approved trials and a pathway to full implementation during its 2016 general meeting 12 13 Lukas Brud IFAB secretary said With all the 4G and Wi Fi in stadia today we knew we had to protect referees from making mistakes that everyone can see immediately such as Thierry Henry s handball that eliminated Ireland from qualifying for the 2010 FIFA World Cup where the on field referees were not in a position to view the infraction Then FIFA president Sepp Blatter who was strongly against introducing new technology in football was forced out of his post due to a corruption scandal in 2015 and the VAR proposal received a warm reception under his successor Gianni Infantino 12 The first live trial of the VAR system was in July 2016 in a friendly match between PSV and FC Eindhoven 14 The next live trial of the VAR system began in August 2016 with a United Soccer League match between two Major League Soccer reserve sides 15 Match referee Ismail Elfath reviewed two fouls during the match and after consultation with video assistant referee Allen Chapman decided to issue a red card and a yellow card in the respective incidents 16 Video reviews were introduced the following month during an international friendly between France and Italy 17 The first professional non friendly game was an official first round KNVB beker national Cup tie between Ajax and Willem II on 21 September 2016 18 This match was the first match to include a pitchside monitor The pitchside monitor would allow the referee to review footage from the field Based on VAR but not using the available pitchside monitor a yellow card was turned into a red card and thus this was the first ever VAR based expulsion in a professional game 19 Interestingly this professional and official Cup game was played before the official FIFA rule changes Although viewers watching the match on television were made aware of the decision the public in the stadium and to a lesser extent the players were confused as to what had happened The major lesson from the confusion around this first major decisions change was that VAR decisions needed to be clearly communicated to the player the watching public inside the stadium and on TV 19 The next event that VAR was used including a pitchside monitor was at the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup 20 Kashima Antlers was awarded a penalty after a video review in the 3 0 win of semi final against Atletico Nacional The A League in Australia became the first to use a VAR system in a top flight professional club competition on 7 April 2017 when Melbourne City played Adelaide United 21 though this game was completed without the VAR being called upon 22 The first intervention by a VAR in a professional league game was seen on 8 April when Wellington Phoenix hosted Sydney FC The VAR identified an illegal handball in the penalty area and awarded Sydney FC a penalty The game finished in a 1 1 draw 23 24 Major League Soccer in the United States introduced VARs in competitive matches during its 2017 season after the 2017 MLS All Star Game on 2 August 2017 25 26 Its first official use came during a match between the Philadelphia Union and FC Dallas invalidating a goal from the latter over contact made between a Dallas player and Philadelphia s goalkeeper 27 VAR was used at an international level in the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in June where it was praised but its usefulness was questioned after a referee decision in the final match 28 29 Also in 2017 Portuguese Football Federation FPF made its first official match using VAR during Portuguese Cup Final between SL Benfica and Vitoria SC at Jamor Stadium on the 28 May 2017 Portuguese Football Federation was also the first country in the world to use VAR in a Women s competition one week after men s Cup final in the same stadium VAR was officially used in a Women s match between Sporting CP and SC Braga After the 2016 introduction in CUP football in Europe the VAR system was introduced in top flight European football league competitions by Bundesliga and the Serie A at the beginning of the 2017 18 season 30 and by La Liga at the beginning of the 2018 19 season 31 The system was also used at the 2017 FIFA U 20 World Cup in October 32 On 8 January 2018 VAR was trialled for the first time in England in the 2017 18 FA Cup game between Brighton amp Hove Albion and Crystal Palace 33 and the following day it was trialled for the first time in France in the Cote d Azur derby game in the 2017 18 French League Cup It was said to have worked well 34 Italy opened the world s first VAR training centre in Coverciano in January 2018 35 On 3 March 2018 the IFAB wrote the VARs into the Laws of the Game on a permanent basis 36 Their use remains optional for competitions and the English Premier League and the UEFA Champions League were not expected to implement VAR for their 2018 19 season 37 However Premier League executive chairman Richard Scudamore has described it as inevitable that VAR will be introduced to the Premier League 38 On 27 September 2018 UEFA announced that from the 2019 20 UEFA Champions League season VARs will be used in the competition 39 Although VAR was not implemented in the group stages of the 2018 19 season UEFA announced on 3 December 2018 that VAR would be used in the knockout stages which commenced in February 2019 40 On 15 November 2018 Premier League teams voted in principle to bring Video Assistant Referees to the Premier League from the 2019 20 season onwards pending approval of IFAB and FIFA this comes after a controversial decision from referee Simon Hooper to disallow a goal scored by Southampton F C striker Charlie Austin 41 On 1 January 2020 the Emperor s Cup Final was the first Japanese football match to use VAR and at the same time to prepare the introduction of VAR into Olympic football 2018 FIFA World Cup Edit FIFA officially approved the use of VAR for the 2018 FIFA World Cup during the FIFA Council meeting on 16 March 2018 in Bogota 42 37 43 44 This tournament became the first competition to use VAR in full at all matches and in all venues 45 Cristiano Ronaldo Portugal being shown a yellow card after a challenge with Iranian player that was reviewed by referee Enrique Caceres as a potential red card incident The 2018 World Cup marked the system s World Cup debut A total of 335 incidents were checked by the VAR over the course of the group stage averaging seven per match and fourteen calls made by referees were changed or overruled after being reviewed by the VAR According to FIFA the VAR system had a success rate of 99 3 percent up from the 95 percent of correct calls by referees without VAR 46 The first VAR decision at the World Cup came on 16 June 2018 in a group stage match between France and Australia where referee Andres Cunha awarded a penalty to France after consulting with the VAR 47 48 In the final referee Nestor Pitana used the VAR to review a defensive foul for handling in the penalty area awarding France a penalty which gave them a 2 1 lead over Croatia The final eventually ended with France prevailing 4 2 49 The use of VAR has been credited with assisting the 2018 edition s status as the cleanest World Cup since 1986 after no red cards were issued in the opening 11 games and only four players were sent off in the entire tournament which was the fewest since 1978 50 22 goals were scored from 29 awarded penalty kicks beating the previous record of 17 penalty kick goals set in the 1998 tournament the dramatic increase in the number of penalties awarded at the 2018 World Cup has been attributed to VAR catching fouls which would otherwise have remained unpunished 51 IFAB technical director and former Premier League referee David Elleray stated a belief that the presence of VAR meant that players would know that they would not be able to get away with anything under the new system 52 Criticism EditThe use of video technology at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup was criticised after several contentious moments involving VAR at the tournament It was accused of creating as much confusion as clarity 53 54 Further criticism was leveled at VAR after it suffered issues preventing its use for example in a Portuguese match where a supporter s flag had been obscuring the VAR camera 55 56 or in the 2018 A League Grand Final between Newcastle Jets and Melbourne Victory where the VAR software suffered a technical malfunction which prevented the assistant referee from viewing the replay 57 58 After the introduction of VAR in the 2018 World Cup FIFA deemed it a success Nevertheless the use or lack of use of VAR has been criticised 59 60 Independent assessments note that while most decisions were made correctly as a result of VAR some were wrong despite VAR review and some decisions which were called incorrectly were not even reviewed 61 59 The Guardian concludes that VAR has been most effective for factual decisions such as offsides and mistaken identities while subjective decisions such as penalties or the disciplining of players have fared much worse Lack of clarity and consistency are two main areas of weakness 62 Another line of criticism has been targeted at the effectiveness of the system in achieving its goal In the opinion of Scott Stinson from the National Post VAR like any other replay system fails to correct human error and instead only adds to the controversies because human judgment is still necessary 63 Lack of transparency is another contentious point as teams have no way to know which incidents were reviewed by the VAR team 64 At a press conference held after the group stage FIFA referees committee chairman Pierluigi Collina showed footage of the decision making process accompanied with audio of the conversations between VAR officials and the referees Asked if this audio could be made publicly available as it is in rugby and cricket Collina answered enthusiastically but cautioned that it might still be too early 65 66 Others have pointed to the game changing nature of VAR Initial fears that using the system would lengthen the game considerably have not been confirmed with every VAR review taking up an average of only 80 seconds 67 The dramatic increase in the number of penalties awarded at the 2018 World Cup has been attributed to VAR catching fouls which would otherwise have remained unpunished Of the 169 goals scored in the tournament 22 were from penalty kicks with 29 being awarded in total beating the previous record of 17 set in the 1998 FIFA World Cup 51 Jonathan Liew of The Independent compares the situation to the introduction of the Decision Review System in cricket and notes the changes it had on that sport and suggests that it might lead to changes of a similar nature in football 68 In February 2019 UEFA issued guidance which stated that players who made a TV screen hand gesture should result in a yellow card 69 Excessively using the review TV screen signal is now listed as a caution for which a player may receive a yellow card in the Laws of the Game 70 Early uses of VAR in the Premier League at the beginning of the 2019 20 season were described as confusing to both coaches and fans with the decision making often inconsistent 71 Competitions using VAR Edit VAR in use in the UEFA Champions League group stage in 2019 Competitions which include VAR confirmed matches are live matches i e where the VARs have contact with the referee on the field of play and therefore may have an impact on the decision making 72 There is also an idea of implementing VAR in futsal matches 73 Club competitions Edit Domestic leagues Edit A League Admiral Bundesliga Pro League Brasileirao Brasileirao Feminino A1 semi final onward only First Professional Football League in a few stadiums Chilean Primera Division 74 Chinese Super League Categoria Primera A a Prva HNL Czech First League Superliga b Egyptian Premier League Premier League Ligue 1 Bundesliga 2 Bundesliga Super League 1 Nemzeti Bajnoksag I Israeli Premier League Serie A Serie B c J1 League Football Superleague of Kosovo Liga MX Botola Eredivisie Paraguayan Primera Division Liga 1 d Ekstraklasa e I Liga f Primeira Liga Qatar Stars League Russian Premier League Saudi Professional League Serbian SuperLiga K League 1 K League 2 Fortuna liga g La Liga Segunda Division Swiss Super League Thai League 1 Super Lig UAE Pro League Ukrainian Premier League Ukrainian First League Major League Soccer Uruguayan Primera Division Domestic cups Edit Copa do Brasil round of 16 ties until the finals only 77 FA Cup third fourth and fifth round ties Premier League stadiums only until the finals only 78 79 EFL Cup semifinals and finals only 80 FA Community Shield 81 Coupe de France round of 16 ties until the finals only Trophee des Champions DFB Pokal round of 16 ties until the finals only 82 DFL Supercup 83 Greek Football Cup round of 16 ties until the finals only Coppa Italia no preliminary round 84 Supercoppa Italiana 85 Emperor s Cup semi final and final only J League Cup quarterfinals and beyond Japanese Super Cup Moroccan Throne Cup semi final onward only Polish Cup h Polish SuperCup i Russian Cup round of 16 ties until the finals only Russian Super Cup Copa del Rey round of 16 ties until the finals only 86 Supercopa de Espana 87 Ukrainian CupContinental Edit AFC Champions League j CAF Champions League j CAF Super Cup CONCACAF Champions League g CONMEBOL Libertadores k CONMEBOL Sudamericana l CONMEBOL Recopa 88 UEFA Champions League m UEFA Europa League n 89 UEFA Europa Conference League final only UEFA Super Cup 90 UEFA Women s Champions League d 91 International Edit VAR in use at the 2019 FIFA Women s World Cup in France FIFA Club World CupNational team competitions Edit Continental Edit AFC Asian Cup o CAF Africa Cup of Nations o CONCACAF Gold Cup g 92 CONCACAF Nations League g 93 CONMEBOL Copa America UEFA European Championship g UEFA European Under 21 Championship p 94 UEFA Nations League q UEFA Women s Championship African Nations Championship International Edit FIFA World Cup FIFA Confederations Cup FIFA Women s World Cup FIFA U 20 World Cup FIFA U 17 World Cup Football at the Summer OlympicsSee also EditGoal line technology Instant replay describes other sports using video referees Notes Edit Two matches per round and final stages only Starting in the 2020 21 season 75 76 a b Finals only Since the 2017 18 season Since the 2021 22 season a b c d e Starting in 2021 First time in the 2017 18 season Quarter finals onward Since the 2017 match a b Quarter finals until the finals only Knockout stages and the finals only Knockout stages and the finals only Play off rounds and competition proper only Knockout stages until finals for the 2019 2020 and 2020 2021 seasons group stages introduced in the 2021 22 season a b Knock out stage onward only Due to the COVID 19 pandemic it wasn t used in 2021 Final four only all matches introduced in the 2022 23 seasonReferences Edit Historic step for greater fairness in football International Football Association Board 3 March 2018 Retrieved 3 March 2018 Staff writers 20 June 2018 World Cup 2018 VAR helps tournament reach 10 penalties so is it working BBC Sport Staff S V G EVS Xeebra Replay System Facilitates VAR Implementation for Copa do Brasil Tournament Sports Video Group a b c d e video assistant referees vars Protocol International Football Association Board 26 April 2017 Retrieved 26 April 2017 VIDEO ASSISTANT REFEREES VAR FIFA 22 July 2021 Retrieved 22 July 2021 VAR at the 2018 FIFA World Cup FIFA 22 July 2021 Retrieved 22 July 2021 The Start and Restart of Play IFAB www theifab com Retrieved 12 September 2021 Video Review Answering all your Frequently Asked Questions Major League Soccer 2 August 2017 Retrieved 23 September 2019 VAR Willian dive Iheanacho goal how does the system work BBC Sport 18 January 2018 Retrieved 17 July 2019 a b Monioudis Perikles August 2018 The technology of football Coaching and officiating tools for the big stage FIFA 1904 FIFA p 15 Retrieved 21 February 2021 a b VAR at the 2018 FIFA World Cup FIFA Retrieved 21 February 2021 a b c Medeiros Joao 23 June 2018 The inside story of how FIFA s controversial VAR system was born Wired UK Conde Nast Britain Retrieved 30 June 2018 Minutes of the 130th Annual General Meeting of the International Football Association Board IFAB pp 13 17 Retrieved 3 March 2018 KNVB Media 20 December 2016 HET JAAR VAN DE VIDEOSCHEIDSRECHTER The Year of the Video Referee KNVB Press release Retrieved 11 March 2020 Alvarez Liana 19 August 2016 MLS makes soccer history with debut of video assistant referees Sports Illustrated Retrieved 19 December 2016 Williams Bob 13 August 2016 Video assistant referees edge closer after successful trial in United States The Daily Telegraph Retrieved 19 December 2016 Rumsby Ben 2 September 2016 Video replays used for first time during France s 3 1 friendly win over Italy as football history made The Daily Telegraph Retrieved 19 December 2016 Reuters 22 September 2016 Video replays Referees to use pitch side monitors at Fifa s Club World Cup The Guardian Retrieved 11 March 2020 a b Highlights Ajax Willem II Min 3 00 4 00 YouTube KNVB 22 September 2016 Retrieved 11 March 2020 Video replays Referees to use pitch side monitors at Fifa s Club World Cup BBC Sport 7 December 2016 Retrieved 19 December 2016 Hyundai A League first to use Video Assistant Referees Hyundai A League 3 April 2017 Retrieved 26 April 2017 Video Assistant Referee Australia s A League uses system during trial BBC Sport 8 April 2017 Retrieved 28 June 2018 Wellington Phoenix v Sydney FC video highlights Sky Blues concede late after VAR call Fox Sports 8 April 2017 Retrieved 26 April 2017 World first as video assistant referee called into action in Wellington and Sydney FC stalemate The Guardian 8 April 2017 Retrieved 26 April 2017 Borg Simon 10 December 2016 MLS will seek to introduce Video Assistant Referees VAR during 2017 Major League Soccer Retrieved 19 December 2016 Goldberg Jamie 14 March 2017 MLS leads the way among soccer leagues worldwide as it prepares to roll out video replay The Oregonian Retrieved 15 March 2017 Video review debuts in MLS rules out goal in Dallas first ever loss to Union ESPN FC 5 August 2017 Retrieved 6 August 2017 Ogden Mark 2 July 2017 VAR creates as much confusion as clarity in Confederations Cup final ESPN Retrieved 4 March 2018 Russia 2017 VAR praised at closing press conference Press release FIFA 1 July 2017 Archived from the original on 1 July 2017 Retrieved 4 March 2018 Kohli Siddharth 17 August 2017 VAR The good the bad and the ugly CNN International WarnerMedia Retrieved 4 March 2018 via CNN Sport Casamayor Jordi Winterburn Chris LaLiga Santander Tebas With VAR there will be more fairness in football Marca Unidad Editorial Retrieved 19 August 2018 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Football poised to change forever with the introduction of Video Assistant Referee system The Independent Independent Print Limited 9 March 2017 Retrieved 27 June 2017 FA Cup trial for Video Assistant Referee RTE News 7 December 2017 via www rte ie Nice Monaco la video a tres bien fonctionne Eurosport in French Discovery Inc and AFP 10 January 2018 Retrieved 4 March 2018 Italy host first VAR training centre Football Italia 19 December 2017 Retrieved 4 March 2018 Historic step for greater fairness in football The IFAB IFAB 3 March 2018 Retrieved 6 July 2018 a b Conway Richard 3 March 2018 VAR Video assistant referees set to be used at 2018 World Cup in Russia BBC Sport Retrieved 4 March 2018 Staff writers 6 May 2018 VAR in Premier League is inevitable says Richard Scudamore BBC Sport Conway Richard 27 September 2018 Champions League VAR to be introduced in 2019 20 season BBC Sport VAR to be used in UEFA Champions League knockout phase UEFA Press release 3 December 2018 Staff writers 15 November 2018 VAR Video assistant referees set to be used in Premier League next season BBC Sport IFAB comes to landmark decision about VAR FIFA com Federation Internationale de Football Association 3 March 2018 Archived from the original on 3 March 2018 Retrieved 3 March 2018 VAR discussed at IFAB media briefing FIFA 3 March 2018 Archived from the original on 4 March 2018 Retrieved 3 March 2018 FIFA finally approves video review to use at World Cup The Washington Post 16 March 2018 Archived from the original on 17 March 2018 Retrieved 16 March 2018 Medeiros Joao The inside story of how FIFA s controversial VAR system was born Retrieved 28 June 2018 World Cup 2018 VAR system fine tuned after criticism BBC Sport 29 June 2018 Retrieved 30 June 2018 Grez Matias 16 June 2018 History made as VAR used for first time in World Cup match CNN International WarnerMedia International Retrieved 30 June 2018 Johnson Dale 16 June 2018 How VAR made history with penalty for France ESPN Retrieved 16 June 2018 Taylor Daniel 15 July 2018 France seal second World Cup triumph with 4 2 win over brave Croatia The Guardian Retrieved 15 July 2018 World Cup by the numbers 169 goals 29 penalties 10 late winners 4 red cards ESPN 16 July 2018 Retrieved 17 July 2018 a b Kirk Ashley Scott Patrick 29 June 2018 13 intriguing stats from World Cup 2018 so far The Telegraph Retrieved 4 July 2018 Rumsby Ben 17 June 2018 VAR effect results in cleanest World Cup since 1986 after no red cards are issued in opening 11 games The Telegraph Retrieved 17 July 2018 McNulty Phil 2 July 2017 Confederations Cup Video assistant referee system a shambles BBC Sport Retrieved 9 March 2018 Ogden Phil 2 July 2017 VAR creates as much confusion as clarity in Confederations Cup final BT Sport ESPN ESPN Inc and BT Group Retrieved 9 March 2018 Browne PJ 7 February 2018 Watch Flag Waving Fan Causes VAR Chaos In Portugal Balls ie Retrieved 4 March 2018 VAR and the giant flag how a match in Portugal became the scene of farce The Guardian 7 February 2018 Retrieved 4 March 2018 A League grand final Victory s offside goal inaction due to VAR glitch says FFA ABC News Australian Broadcasting Corporation mobile abc net au 6 May 2018 Retrieved 3 June 2018 Wrongly awarded goal decides Aussie title after VAR failure Arizona Daily Star Retrieved 3 June 2018 a b Belam Martin 22 June 2018 VAR at the World Cup the big decisions game by game The Guardian Retrieved 4 July 2018 Staff writers 29 June 2018 So VAR so good Fifa praises review system in helping referees get 99 3 decisions correct ITV News ITN Retrieved 4 July 2018 Johnson Dale VAR at the World Cup A timeline of the tournament ESPN Retrieved 4 July 2018 Nakrani Sachin 26 June 2018 VAR the World Cup verdict so far some success but more clarity needed The Guardian Retrieved 4 July 2018 Stinson Scott 26 June 2018 VAR is bulls t Video review s honeymoon phase comes to sudden spectacular end at World Cup National Post Retrieved 4 July 2018 All of a sudden VAR had been revealed to be just like any other replay system a process meant to reduce the number of controversies by correcting human error was now only adding to the controversies because there was still human judgment involved And no replay could render that judgment infallible Brazil questions VAR procedures after clear errors by referee in Swiss match CBC Associated Press 18 June 2018 Retrieved 4 July 2018 The confederation says it wants to know whether the plays were reviewed in any way saying transparency is of essence Wood Martyn 29 June 2018 FIFA referees chief pleased but not surprised by VAR success at World Cup IOL Retrieved 4 July 2018 RELIVE Referee media briefing held after group stage FIFA com 28 June 2018 Retrieved 4 July 2018 Sengupta Ayon 2 July 2018 Mixed response for VAR The Hindu Retrieved 4 July 2018 Liew Jonathan 29 June 2018 VAR is going to change football as we know it but we have no idea if that s a good thing or not The Independent Retrieved 4 July 2018 Conway Richard 6 February 2019 Video assistant referee Uefa says TV gesture a bookable offence BBC Sport Laws of The Game International Football Association Board Cite journal requires journal help Bate Adam VAR in the spotlight after Premier League weekend of confusion Sky Sports Retrieved 28 October 2019 VIDEO ASSISTANT REFEREES VARS USED LIVE IN COMPETITIONS AND LEAGUES VAR in futsal Unlikely or expected future futsallfeed com Retrieved 8 April 2020 Nicolas Peric exige sancion para jugadores que simulan aprovechando el VAR Futbol Todo in Spanish 14 March 2020 Retrieved 6 June 2021 La Var e ufficiale anche in Serie B si parte dal prossimo campionato La Gazzetta dello Sport Tutto il rosa della vita in Italian Serie B UFFICIALE dal prossimo campionato ecco il Var Prime prove con playoff e playout Calcio Mercato in Italian 11 February 2021 Retrieved 6 June 2021 Rizzo Marcel 25 July 2019 CBF tem VAR turbinado na Copa do Brasil diferente do usado no Brasileiro in Portuguese Universo Online Retrieved 9 October 2020 Krishnan Joe 3 January 2020 VAR to be used during FA Cup third round but only at Premier League stadiums The Evening Standard Lindsay Jessica 18 May 2019 Will VAR be used in the 2019 FA Cup final Metro DMG Media Retrieved 18 May 2019 Keighley Freddie 6 January 2020 Carabao Cup VAR to be used in semi finals and final The Independent Retrieved 6 January 2020 Challies Josh 30 July 2019 VAR and new rules in effect for Man City v Liverpool FC in Community Shield Manchester Evening News Reach plc Retrieved 30 July 2019 Pokal ab Achtelfinale mit Video Assistent Pokal from Eighthfinals with VAR German Football Association Press release in German 7 August 2019 Retrieved 7 August 2019 BVB gegen Bayern Zwayer leitet Supercup Stieler ist Video Assistent BVB against Bayern Zwayer heads Supercup Stieler is video assistant DFB de in German German Football Association 3 August 2017 Retrieved 3 August 2017 UFFICIALE Coppa Italia cambia regolamento arrivano sorteggio VAR e la 4a sostituzione Fantacalcio in Italian 7 October 2018 Supercoppa Italiana l arbitro sara Banti Al VAR c e Guida Tutto Mercato Web in Italian 14 January 2019 Hay VAR en la Copa del Rey 2019 20 Goal in Spanish DAZN Group 22 January 2020 Las novedades tecnologicas para la Supercopa de Espana Es un dia historico Marca in Spanish 8 January 2020 Branca Ernesto 2 April 2019 Conmebol il Var in arrivo anche in Sudamerica sara la britannica Hawk Eye la societa fornitrice Sport Fair in Italian Retrieved 6 June 2021 Felix Diaz Jose 9 July 2020 No habra VAR en la fase de grupos de la Europa League 2020 2021 Marca in Spanish Unidad Editorial VAR to be introduced in 2019 20 UEFA Champions League UEFA com Union of European Football Associations 27 September 2018 Retrieved 27 September 2018 VAR per la finale di Women s Champions League e Women s EURO 2021 UEFA in Italian 24 September 2019 Retrieved 6 June 2021 CONCACAF confirms plans to rollout VAR in 2021 club and men s national team competitions CONCACAF 6 April 2021 Retrieved 6 April 2021 CONCACAF confirms plans to rollout VAR in 2021 club and men s national team competitions CONCACAF 6 April 2021 Retrieved 6 April 2021 Il VAR in azione dagli ottavi di UEFA Champions League La UEFA UEFA in Italian 11 February 2019 External links EditExperiments with Video Assistant Referees VARs from FIFA Video Assistant Referees VARs Experiment Protocol Summary from IFAB VAR The System Explained from FIFA Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Video assistant referee amp oldid 1054932547, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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