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Wikipedia

Video game industry

This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.(January 2018)

The video game industry is the industry involved in the development, marketing, and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide.

The video game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream in the recent years. As of 2018, July, video games generated sales of US$134.9 billion annually worldwide. In the US, it took in about US$ 9.5 billion in 2007, 11.7 billion in 2008, and 25.1 billion in[update] 2010, according to the ESA annual report.[needs update]

Modern personal computers owe many advances and innovations to the game industry: sound cards, graphics cards and 3D graphic accelerators, faster CPUs, and dedicated co-processors like PhysX are a few of the more notable improvements.[citation needed] Sound cards, for example, were originally developed for an addition of digital-quality sound to games and only later were they improved for the music industry.[citation needed] Graphics cards were originally developed to provide more screen colors; and later on to support graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and games. This drove the need for higher resolutions and 3D acceleration.[citation needed]

Contents

Size

In 2017 in the United States, which represented about a third of the global video game market, the Entertainment Software Association estimated that there were over 2,300 development companies and over 525 publishing companies (including those involved in hardware and software manufacturing, service providers, and distributors). These companies in total have nearly 66,000 direct employed workers. When including indirect employment, such as a developer using the services of a graphics design package from a different firm, the total number of employees involved in the video game industry rises to over 220,000.

Value chain

Traditionally, the video game industry has had six connected layers in its value chain based on the retail distribution of games:

  1. Game development, representing programmers, designers and artists, as well as their leadership, with support of middleware and other development tools.
  2. Publishing, which typically include both the source of funding the development of a video game, as well as providing the marketing and advertising for a game.
  3. Distribution, whether through retail or digital channels. Distribution typically includes manufacturing and duplication of game media and packaging for retail games.
  4. Retailer, storefront where the game is sold.
  5. Customers and consumers, the purchasers and players of video games
  6. Hardware/platform manufacturers, which can own and place limitations for content on the platform they have made, requiring developers or publishers to pay a license fee to publish games on that system.

As games have transitioned from the retail to more digital market, parts of this value chain have become redundant. For example, the distributor may be redundant as a function of either the publisher or the retailer, or even in some cases as the case of indie games, the function of the developer themselves.

Roles

Ben Sawyer of Digitalmill observes that the development side of the industry is made up of six connected and distinctive layers:

  1. Capital and publishing layer: involved in paying for development of new titles and seeking returns through licensing of the titles.
  2. Product and talent layer: includes developers, designers and artists, who may be working under individual contracts or as part of in-house development teams.
  3. Production and tools layer: generates content production tools, game development middleware, customizable game engines, and production management tools.
  4. Distribution layer: or the "publishing" industry, involved in generating and marketing catalogs of games for retail and online distribution.
  5. Hardware (or Virtual Machine or Software Platform) layer: or the providers of the underlying platform, which may be console-based, accessed through online media, or accessed through mobile devices such as smartphones. This layer now includes network infrastructure and non-hardware platforms such as virtual machines (e.g. Java or Flash), or software platforms such as browsers or even further Facebook, etc.
  6. End-users layer: or the users/players of the games.

The game industry employs those experienced in other traditional businesses, but some have experience tailored to the game industry. Some of the disciplines specific to the game industry include: game programmer, game designer, level designer, game producer, game artist and game tester. Most of these professionals are employed by video game developers or video game publishers. However, many hobbyists also produce computer games and sell them commercially.[citation needed] Game developers and publishers sometimes employ those with extensive or long-term experience within the modding communities.

This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards, as Section should focus on the history of segments of the industry (developers, publishers, etc.) as well as major events, which may be tied to hardware/software, but this should be less about reiterating the hardware/generations.. You can help. The talk page may contain suggestions.(March 2021)

1940s–1960s

Prior to the 1970s, there was no significant commercial aspect of the video game industry, but many advances in computing would set the stage for the birth of the industry.

Many early publicly available interactive computer-based game machines used or other mechanisms to mimic a display; while technically not "video games", they had elements of interactivity between the player and the machine. Some examples of these included the 1940 "Nimatron", an electromagnetic relay-based Nim-playing device designed by Edward Condon and built by Westinghouse Electric for the New York World's Fair, Bertie the Brain, an arcade game of tic-tac-toe, built by Josef Kates for the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition, and Nimrod created by engineering firm Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain.

The development of cathode ray tube—the core technology behind televisions—created several of the first true video games. In 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a patent for a "cathode ray tube amusement device". Their game, which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display, challenges players to fire a gun at target.

Between the 1950s and 1960s, with mainframe computers becoming available to campus colleges, students and others started to develop games that could be played at terminals that accessed the mainframe. One of the first known examples is Spacewar!, developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen. The introduction of easy-to-program languages like BASIC for mainframes allowed for more simplistic games to be developed.

The arcade video game industry grew out of the pre-existing arcade game industry, which was previously dominated by electro-mechanical games (EM games). Following the arrival of Sega's EM game Periscope (1966), the arcade industry was experiencing a "technological renaissance" driven by "audio-visual" EM novelty games, establishing the arcades as a healthy environment for the introduction of commercial video games in the early 1970s. In the late 1960s, a college student named Nolan Bushnell had a part-time job at an arcade where he became familiar with EM games such as Chicago Coin's racing game Speedway (1969), watching customers play and helping to maintain the machinery, while learning how it worked and developing his understanding of how the game business operates.

1970s

The Magnavox Odyssey, released in 1972, was the first home video game console.

In 1971, the first commercial arcade video game, Computer Space, was released. The following year, Atari, Inc. released the first commercially successful video game, Pong, the original arcade version of which sold over 19,000 arcade cabinets. That same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of the early video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey. However, both the arcade and home markets would be dominated by Pong clones, which flooded the market and led to the video game crash of 1977. The crash eventually came to an end with the success of Taito's Space Invaders, released in 1978, sparking a renaissance for the video game industry and paving the way for the golden age of video arcade games. The game's success inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts, restaurants and convenience stores during the golden age. Space Invaders would go on to sell over 360,000 arcade cabinets worldwide, and by 1982, generate a revenue of $2 billion in quarters, equivalent to $4.6 billion in 2011.

Soon after, Space Invaders was licensed for the Atari VCS (later known as Atari 2600), becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales. The success of the Atari 2600 in turn revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the video game crash of 1983. By the end of the 1970s, the personal computer game industry began forming from a hobby culture.

1980s

The Nintendo Entertainment System, released in 1985, helped to revive the American video games industry after the video game crash of 1983.

The early 1980s saw the golden age of video arcade games reach its zenith. The total sales of arcade video game machines in North America increased significantly during this period, from $50 million in 1978 to $900 million by 1981, with the arcade video game industry's revenue in North America tripling to $2.8 billion in 1980. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was generating an annual revenue of $5 billion in North America, equivalent to $12.3 billion in 2011. In 1982, the arcade video game industry reached its peak, generating $8 billion in quarters, equivalent to over $18.5 billion in 2011, surpassing the annual gross revenue of both pop music ($4 billion) and Hollywood films ($3 billion) combined at that time. This was also nearly twice as much revenue as the $3.8 billion generated by the home video game industry that same year; both the arcade and home markets combined add up to a total revenue of $11.8 billion for the video game industry in 1982, equivalent to over $27.3 billion in 2011. The arcade video game industry would continue to generate an annual revenue of $5 billion in quarters through to 1985. The most successful game of this era was Namco's Pac-Man, released in 1980, which would go on to sell over 350,000 cabinets, and within a year, generate a revenue of more than $1 billion in quarters; in total, Pac-Man is estimated to have grossed over 10 billion quarters ($2.5 billion) during the 20th century, equivalent to over $3.4 billion in 2011.

The early part of the decade saw the rise of 8-bit home computing, and home-made games, especially in Europe (with the ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64) and Asia (with the NEC PC-88 and MSX). This time also saw the rise of video game journalism, which was later expanded to include covermounted cassettes and CDs. In 1983, the North American industry crashed due to the production of too many badly developed games (quantity over quality), resulting in the fall of the North American industry. The industry would eventually be revitalized by the release of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which resulted in the home console market being dominated by Japanese companies such as Nintendo, while a professional European video game industry also began taking shape with companies such as Ocean Software and Gremlin Interactive. The latter part of the decade saw the rise of the Game Boy handheld system. In 1987, Nintendo lost a legal challenge against Blockbuster Entertainment, which enabled games rentals in the same way as movies.

1990s

The PlayStation was the most popular video game console of the fifth generation, which saw the common adoption of CD media.

The 1990s saw advancements in game related technology. Among the significant advancements were:

Aside from technology, in the early part of the decade, licensed games became more popular, as did video game sequels.

The video game industry generated worldwide sales of $19.8 billion in 1993 (equivalent to $31 billion in 2011), $20.8 billion in 1994 (equivalent to $32 billion in 2011), and an estimated $30 billion in 1998 (equivalent to $41.5 billion in 2011). In the United States alone, in 1994, arcades were generating $7 billion in quarters (equivalent to $11 billion in 2011) while home console game sales were generating revenues of $6 billion (equivalent to $9 billion in 2011). Combined, this was nearly two and a half times the $5 billion revenue generated by movies in the United States at the time.

There was also a transition away from arcades to home systems. Up until about 1996-1997, arcade video games represented the largest sector of the global video game industry, before arcades declined and the console market surpassed arcade video games for the first time around 1997-1998. Arcade systems such as the Sega Model 3 remained more technologically advanced than home systems in the late 1990s, but the gap between arcade and home systems began narrowing in the late 1990s.

2000s

The sixth-generation PlayStation 2 is the best selling console of all time.

In 2000s, the video game industry is a juggernaut of development; profit still drives technological advancement which is then used by other industry sectors. Technologies such as Smartphones, virtual reality and augmented reality are major drivers for game hardware and gameplay development. Though maturing, the video game industry was still very volatile, with third-party video game developers quickly cropping up, and just as quickly, going out of business.[citation needed] Nevertheless, many casual games and indie games were developed and become popular and successful, such as Braid and Limbo. Game development for mobile phones (such as iOS and Android devices) and social networking sites emerged. For example, a Facebook game developer, Zynga, has raised in excess of $300 million.[clarification needed]

2010s

Though not the main driving force, indie games continue to have a significant impact on the industry, with sales of some of these titles such as Spelunky, Fez, Don't Starve, Castle Crashers, and Minecraft, exceeding millions of dollars and over a million users.[unreliable source?] The 2010s have seen a larger shift to casual and mobile gaming; in 2016, the mobile video game market is estimated to have taken $38 billion in revenues, compared to $6 billion for the console market and $33 billion for personal computing gaming. Games centered on virtual reality and augmented reality equipment also arose during this decade. As of 2014, newer game companies arose that vertically integrate live operations and publishing such as crowdfunding and other direct-to-consumer efforts, rather than relying on a traditional publishers, and some of these have grown to substantial size. Spurred by some initial events in the late 2000s, eSports centered around professional players in organized competitions and leagues for prize money, grew greatly over this decade, drawing hundreds of millions of viewers and reaching nearly $500 million in revenue by 2016 and expected to break $1 billion by 2019.

2020s

While a new generation of home consoles, the Xbox Series X/S and PlayStation 5, was planned in 2020, the video game industry was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic that had a worldwide impact starting in March 2020 due to forced stay-at-home orders by governmental regulations. While there were similar impacts to the video game industry as with other industries, such as cancellation of in-person trade shows, conventions and esports events, and the delay of many games into late 2020, 2021, or beyond, the industry was also one of the few to actually thrive from people stuck at home using video games as a means to overcome social distancing. The market had a 20% year-to-year growth from 2019, reaching over$179 billion in global revenue in both hardware and software for 2020. Simple-to-learn games with high social interactions found high popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic, including Animal Crossing: New Horizons, Fall Guys and Among Us.

As the pandemic wore on from 2020 into 2021, the industry was impacted by a secondary effect of COVID-19, the impact of the global semiconductor chip shortage on hardware manufacturing. All three console vendors, Nintendo, Microsoft, and Sony, were impacted by availability of supply of core components, and for the latter two, made the launch of their new consoles difficult to manage with only limited supplies available at launch. The chip supply shortage also affected personal computer gamers, coupled with demand for computer parts to be used in cryptocurrency mining, which artificially raised prices and made it difficult to purchase newer components.

Global revenue estimates of the video game industry from 1971 to 2018, not adjusted for inflation, according to market research firm Pelham Smithers.
The chart shows the impacts of the 1977 crash, the golden age of arcade games (1978–1983), the video game crash of 1983, the console revival (late 1980s), and the rise of mobile gaming since 2008.

Early on, development costs were minimal, and video games could be quite profitable. Games developed by a single programmer, or by a small team of programmers and artists, could sell hundreds of thousands of copies each. Many of these games only took a few months to create, so developers could release multiple titles per year. Thus, publishers could often be generous with benefits, such as royalties on the games sold. Many early game publishers started from this economic climate, such as Origin Systems, Sierra Entertainment, Capcom, Activision and Electronic Arts.

As computing and graphics power increased, so too did the size of development teams, as larger staffs were needed to address the ever-increasing technical and design complexities. The larger teams consist of programmers, artists, game designers, and producers. Their salaries can range anywhere from $50,000 to $120,000 generating large labor costs for firms producing video games which can often take between one and three years to develop. Now budgets typically reach millions of dollars despite the growing popularity of middleware and pre-built game engines. In addition to growing development costs, marketing budgets have grown dramatically, sometimes consisting of two to three times of the cost of development.

The game development team has to select a profitable and suitable method to sell or earn money from the finished game. Traditionally, the game monetization method is to sell hard copies in retail store. Now some developers are turning to alternative production and distribution methods, such as online distribution, to reduce costs and increase revenue.

In the 2010s, the video game industry had a major impact on the economy through the sales of major systems and games such as Call of Duty: Black Ops, which took in over $650 USD million of sales in the game's first five days and which set a five-day global record for a movie, book or video game. The game's income was more than the opening weekend of Spider-Man 3 and the previous title holder for a video game Halo 3. Many individuals have also benefited from the economic success of video games including the former chairman of Nintendo and Japan's third richest man: Hiroshi Yamauchi. By 2014, the global video game market was valued at over $93 billion.

The industry wide adoption of high-definition graphics during the seventh generation of consoles greatly increased development teams' sizes and reduced the number of high-budget, high-quality titles under development. In 2013 Richard Hilleman of Electronic Arts estimated that only 25 developers were working on such titles for the eighth console generation, compared to 125 at the same point in the seventh generation-console cycle seven or eight years earlier.

By 2018, the United States video game industry had matched that of the United States film industry on basis of revenue, with both industries having made aroundUS$43 billion that year.

Retail

GameStop videogame store at the Isokatu street in Oulu

The games industry's shift from brick and mortar retail to digital downloads led to a severe sales decline at video game retailers such as GameStop, following other media retailers superseded by Internet delivery, such as Blockbuster, Tower Records, and Virgin Megastores. GameStop diversified its services by purchasing chains that repair wireless devices and expanding its trade-in program through which customers trade used games for credit towards new games. The company began to produce its own merchandise and games. In Britain, the games retailer Game revamped its stores so customers would spend time playing games there. It built a gaming arena for events and tournaments. The shift to digital marketplaces, especially for smartphones, led to an influx of inexpensive and disposable titles, as well as lower engagement among gamers who otherwise purchased new games from retail. Customers also shifted away from the tradition of buying games on their first day of release.

Publishers often funded trade-in deals to encourage consumers to purchase new games. Trade-in customers at the Australia retailer Game would purchase twice the games per year as non-trade-in customers. The sale of pre-owned games kept retailers in business, and composed about a third of Game's revenue. Retailers also saved on the UK's value-added tax, which only taxed the retailer's profit on pre-owned games, rather than the full sale on regular games. The former trade-in retail executives behind the trade-in price comparison site Trade In Detectives estimated that the United Kingdom's trade-in industry was about a third of the size of its new games business. They figured that sites such as eBay, which convert used games into cash, compose about a quarter of the UK's trade-in market, but do not keep the credit within the industry. While consumers might appear to receive better offers on these sites, they also take about 15 percent of the selling price in fees. Alternatively, some retailers will match the trade-in values offered by their competitors. Microsoft's original plan for the Xbox One attempted to translate trade-in deals for the digital marketplace, with a database of product licenses that shops would be able to resell with publisher permission, though the plan was poorly received or poorly sold.

Video game industry practices are similar to those of other entertainment industries (e.g., the music recording industry), but the video game industry in particular has been accused of treating its development talent poorly. This promotes independent development, as developers leave to form new companies and projects. In some notable cases, these new companies grow large and impersonal, having adopted the business practices of their forebears, and ultimately perpetuate the cycle.

However, unlike the music industry, where modern technology has allowed a fully professional product to be created extremely inexpensively by an independent musician, modern games require increasing amounts of manpower and equipment. This dynamic makes publishers, who fund the developers, much more important than in the music industry.

Breakaways

In the video game industry, it is common for developers to leave their current studio and start their own. A particularly famous case is the "original" independent developer Activision, founded by former Atari developers. Activision grew to become the world's second largest game publisher. In the meantime, many of the original developers left to work on other projects. For example, founder Alan Miller left Activision to start another video game development company, Accolade (now Atari née Infogrames).

Activision was popular among developers for giving them credit in the packaging and title screens for their games, while Atari disallowed this practice. As the video game industry took off in the mid-1980s, many developers faced the more distressing problem of working with fly-by-night or unscrupulous publishers that would either fold unexpectedly or run off with the game profits.

Piracy

The industry claims software piracy to be a big problem, and take measures to counter this.Digital rights management have proved to be the most unpopular with gamers, as a measure to counter piracy. The most popular and effective strategy to counter piracy is to change the business model to freemium, where gamers pay for their in-game needs or service. Strong server-side security is required for this, to properly distinguish authentic transactions from hacked transactions.

Creative control

On various Internet forums, some gamers have expressed disapproval of publishers having creative control since publishers are more apt to follow short-term market trends rather than invest in risky but potentially lucrative ideas. On the other hand, publishers may know better than developers what consumers want. The relationship between video game developers and publishers parallels the relationship between recording artists and record labels in many ways. But unlike the music industry, which has seen flat or declining sales in the early 2000s, the video game industry continues to grow.

In the computer games industry, it is easier to create a startup, resulting in many successful companies. The console games industry is a more closed one, and a game developer must have up to three licenses from the console manufacturer:

  1. A license to develop games for the console
  2. The publisher must have a license to publish games for the console
  3. A separate license for each game

In addition, the developer must usually buy development systems from the console manufacturer in order to even develop a game for consideration, as well as obtain concept approval for the game from the console manufacturer. Therefore, the developer normally has to have a publishing deal in place before starting development on a game project, but in order to secure a publishing deal, the developer must have a track record of console development, something which few startups will have.

Alternatives

An alternative method for publishing video games is to self-publish using the shareware or open source model over the Internet.

Gaming conventions

Gaming conventions are an important showcase of the industry. The major annual video game conventions include Gamescom in Cologne (Germany), the E3 in Los Angeles (USA), the Penny Arcade Expo, and others.

Regional distribution

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2018)

As with other forms of media, video games have often been released in different world regions at different times. The practice has been used where localization is not done in parallel with the rest of development or where the game must be encoded differently, as in PAL vs. NTSC. It has also been used to provide price discrimination in different markets or to focus limited marketing resources. Developers may also stagger digital releases so as not to overwhelm the servers hosting the game.

The video game industry had its primary roots in the United States following the introduction of arcade games and console systems, with Japan soon following. With the introduction of the personal computer, Western Europe also became a major center for video game development. Since then, the industry is primarily led by companies in North American, Europe, and Japan, but other regions, including Australia/New Zealand, and other southeast Asian countries including China and South Korea, have become significant sectors for the industry.

World trends

International video game revenue is estimated to be $81.5B in 2014. This is more than double the revenue of the international film industry in 2013. In 2015, it was estimated atUS$91.5 billion.

The largest nations by estimated video game revenues in 2016 are China ($24.4B), the United States ($23.5B) and Japan ($12.4B). The largest regions in 2015 were Asia-Pacific ($43.1B), North America ($23.8B), and Western Europe ($15.6B).

In 2018, the global video games market was valued at around $134.9bn.

Largest markets

According to market research firm Newzoo, the following countries are the largest video game markets by annual revenue, as of 2020[update].

Rank Country Revenue (millionUS$)
1 China 44,263
2 United States 42,107
3 Japan 20,615
4 South Korea 7,325
5 Germany 6,084
6 United Kingdom 5,533
7 France 4,351
8 Canada 3,836
9 Italy 3,482
10 Spain 2,460

North America

Canada

Canada has the third largest video game industry in terms of employment numbers. The video game industry has also been booming in Montreal since 1997, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal. Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as Ubisoft, EA, Eidos Interactive, Artificial Mind and Movement, BioWare, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment and Strategy First, mainly because video games jobs have been heavily subsidized by the provincial government. Every year, this industry generates billions of dollars and thousands of jobs in the Montreal area. Vancouver has also developed a particularly large cluster of video game developers, the largest of which, Electronic Arts, employs over two thousand people. The Assassin's Creed series, along with the Tom Clancy series have all been produced in Canada and have achieved worldwide success. For consumers, the largest video games convention in Canada is the Enthusiast Gaming Live Expo (EGLX).

United States

Activision (now Activision Blizzard) is the first independent/third-party video game developer.

The video game industry got its start in the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s with the creation of arcade games like Pong and the first home console, the Magnavox Odyssey. Several factors, including loss of publishing control, a flooded market, and competition from personal computers, led to the 1983 video game crash in the U.S., affecting both arcades and home game systems. Nintendo's introduction of the Nintendo Entertainment System helped to revitalize the industry, but until Microsoft's introduction of the Xbox in the early 2000s, the hardware side was dominated by mostly Japanese-developed systems. Instead, much of the industry's growth in the U.S. was on game development, implementing new game technologies and gameplay concepts, as well as creating the large-scale publisher model used by companies like Electronic Arts to support marketing and distribution of games.

The United States has the largest video games presence in the world in terms of total industry employees. In 2017, the U.S. game industry as a whole was worth US$18.4 billion and consisted of roughly 2457 companies that had a rough total of 220,000 people employed. U.S. video game revenue is forecast to reach $230 billion by 2022, making it the largest video game market in the world. Over 150 million Americans play video games, with an average age of 35 and a gender breakdown of 59 percent male and 41 percent female. American gamers are more likely to vote than non-gamers, feel that the economy is the most important political issue, and lean conservative, however party demographics are split evenly with 38% identifying as Democrats, 38% identifying as Republicans, and 24% identifying as Independents.

Europe

Germany

The Gamescom in Cologne is the world's leading game trade fair.

Germany has the largest video games market in Europe, with revenues of $4.1 billion forecast for 2017. The annual Gamescom in Cologne is Europe's largest video game expo.

One of the earliest internationally successful video game companies was Gütersloh-based Rainbow Arts (founded in 1984) who were responsible for publishing the popular Turrican series of games. The Anno series and The Settlers series are globally popular strategy game franchises since the 1990s. The Gothic series, SpellForce and Risen are established RPG franchises. The X series by Egosoft is the best-selling space simulation. The FIFA Manager series was also developed in Germany. The German action game Spec Ops: The Line (2012) was successful in the markets and received largely positive reviews. One of the most famed titles to come out of Germany is Far Cry (2004) by Frankfurt-based Crytek, who also produced the topseller Crysis and its sequels later.

Other well-known current and former developers from Germany include Ascaron, Blue Byte, Deck13, Phenomic, Piranha Bytes, Radon, Related, Spellbound and Yager Development. Publishers include Deep Silver (Koch Media), dtp entertainment, Kalypso and Nintendo Europe. Bigpoint Games, Gameforge, Goodgame Studios and Wooga are among the world's leading browser game and social network game developers/distributors.

United Kingdom

The UK industry is the third largest in the World in terms of developer success and sales of hardware and software by country alone but fourth behind Canada in terms of people employed. The size of the UK game industry is comparable to its film or music industries.

Like most European countries, the UK entered the video game industry through personal computers rather than video game consoles. Low-cost computers like the ZX Spectrum and Amiga 500 led to numerous "bedroom coders" that would make and sell games through mail-order or to distributors that helped to mass-produce them. Coupled with quirky british humour, the "Britsoft" wave of popular titles led to a number of influential people and studios in the 1990s. As game programming became more complex and costly in the early 2000s, more traditional studio structures arose to support both personal computers and consoles, with several studios that, in some form or another, remain highly regarded and influential in the present.

In recent years some of the studios have become defunct or been purchased by larger companies such as LittleBigPlanet developer, Media Molecule and Codemasters. The country is home to some of the world's most successful video game franchises, such as Tomb Raider, Grand Theft Auto, Fable, Colin McRae Dirt and Total War.

The country also went without tax relief until March 21, 2012 when the British government changed its mind on tax relief for UK developers, which without, meant most of the talented development within the UK may move overseas for more profit, along with parents of certain video game developers which would pay for having games developed in the UK. The industry trade body TIGA estimates that it will increase the games development sector's contribution to UK GDP by £283 million, generate £172 million in new and protected tax receipts to HM Treasury, and could cost just £96 million over five years. Before the tax relief was introduced there was a fear that the UK games industry could fall behind other leading game industries around the world such as France and Canada, of which Canada overtook the UK in terms of job numbers in the industry in 2010.

Asia

China

Main article: Video gaming in China
Tencent is the largest company in the world by video game revenue.

China had early on not been a major factor in the global video game market early on due to economic factors, governmental oversight, and a black market for foreign products. The government initiated a ban on video game consoles in 2000 that lasted through 2014, during which China's video game market grew for personal computer games, particularly subscription-based and microtransaction-based ones that were amenable to use in PC cafes, and later into mobile games. Media publishers like Tencent and NetEase focused on these types of games, growing successfully during the 2010s to become leading international companies. As of 2015, China's video game market revenue exceeds that of the United States, and is the largest country by both revenue and number of players. China is also the largest contributor towards esports in both revenue and in the number of professional players from the country. The industry, like most media in China, is tightly controlled by the government, with strong restrictions on what content may be in games, and incorporation of anti-addiction measures to limit playtime. It is home to Asia Game Show, the largest game convention in the world by attendance.

Japan

Main article: Video gaming in Japan
Headquarters of Nintendo in Kyoto, Japan, 2006.

The Japanese video game industry is markedly different from the industry in North America, Europe and Australia. Japan initially trailed the United States in entering the video game sector as its companies followed trends set by their American partners, but started to pioneer their own ideas soon after. Several Japanese-developed arcade games, such as Space Invaders, helped to usher in the golden age of arcade video games from 1978 to 1982. The 1983 video game crash that affected the North American market did have small but short-term effects in Japan, as most companies involved in the business were well-established and could weather the disruption. Nintendo took the opportunity to push the Nintendo Entertainment System, a rebranding of its Famicom system, into the Western markets after the crash, implementing technical and business practices to avoid the factors that created the 1983 crash but also secured its control on what games were published for the system. Japan became the dominate home for consoles and console games through the early 2000s, challenged only by the incorporation of large publishers in the West and the Xbox line of consoles from Microsoft. Nintendo along with companies like Sega, Sony Interactive Entertainment, and Capcom are dominant leaders in the Japanese video game industry.

Nintendo themselves are recognized for having created some of the best-selling and positively-reviewed video game series such as the Mario, Donkey Kong, The Legend of Zelda, Metroid and Pokémon.

In recent years, consoles and arcade games have both been overtaken by downloadable free-to-play games on the PC and mobile platforms.

South Korea

The video game industry in South Korea generally followed the same early trends as the Japanese market, but players started focusing on massively-multiplayer online games (MMO) and other games that could be played at PC bangs (Internet cafes). South Korea was one of the first major regions involved in esports in the 1990s and 2000s, and today a large number of professional esports players originate from South Korea.

Others

Africa

The video game industry is still in its infancy throughout the African continent, but due to the continent's young population and increasing technological literacy, the sector is growing rapidly. African countries such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya have been making rapid advances in mobile game development, both within their country and internationally, but due to limited funding and a market overcrowded with Western games, success has thus far been minimal.

Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand have an active video game industry, with several standalone developers as well as additional studios from other major developers across the globe.

The Gamescom in Cologne, the major video game fair by attendance.

Gaming conventions are an important showcase of the industry. These typically provide the means for developers and publishers to demonstrate their games directly to video game players and consumers and obtain feedback. New games are frequently introduced during these events. Some examples of each conventions include the annual Gamescom in Cologne, and numerous PAX events. Some publishers, developers and technology producers also have their own regular conventions, with BlizzCon, QuakeCon, Nvision and the X shows being prominent examples.

National trade groups that support their local video game industry often will hold trade shows aimed for developers and publishers to interact more directly with the video game media, and with retailers and distributors for planning future sales of products. The largest such trade show is the E3 in Los Angeles, California is held by the Entertainment Software Association. Other similar trade shows include Tokyo Game Show (Japan), Brasil Game Show (Brazil), EB Games Expo (Australia), KRI (Russia), ChinaJoy (China) and the annual Game Developers Conference.

The development of video games is also a topic of academic and professional interest, leading to a number of conferences for developers to share their knowledge with others. Two of the major professional conferences include the Game Developers Conference (GDC), which holds multiple events through the year but with its main annual conference held in March in San Francisco, and the D.I.C.E. Summit run by the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences in February of each year at Las Vegas, Nevada.

The coverage of the video game industry started off with several magazines covering the topic, but as the Internet became widely available to support new media, much of the dedicated coverage of the video game industry has transitioned to detected websites, including Gamasutra, IGN, Eurogamer, Polygon and GameSpot. More recently, the effect of social media influencers, video game players that create online videos or stream themselves playing games through services like Twitch, have also become a significant source for coverage of video game news from the consumer point of view.

Another facet of tracking the history of the video game industry is video game preservation, a process that is complicated due to game hardware technology that can become obsolete, dependencies on decommissioned online servers, and issues over intellectual property that legally restricts preservation efforts. Much of the industry's history prior to the 1983 crash has been lost, as companies affected by the crash simply threw material away, leaving little to recover today. There is better awareness of video game preservation into the 21st century, and several groups and museums have been established to collect and preserve hardware and software for the industry.

The video game industry has a number of annual award ceremonies, commonly associated with the above conventions, trade shows, and conferences, as well as standalone award shows. Many of the dedicated video game journalism websites also have their own set of awards. Most commonly, these ceremonies are capped by the top prize, the "Game of the Year".

Players become fourth-party developers, allowing for more open source models of game design, development and engineering. Players also create modifications (mods), which in some cases become just as popular as the original game for which they were created. An example of this is the game Counter-Strike, which began as a mod of the video game Half-Life and eventually became a very successful, published game in its own right.

While this "community of modifiers" may only add up to approximately 1% of a particular game's user base, the number of those involved will grow as more games offer modifying opportunities (such as, by releasing source code) and the video user base swells. According to Ben Sawyer, as many as 600,000 established online game community developers existed as of 2012. This effectively added a new component to the game industry value chain and if it continues to mature, it will integrate itself into the overall industry.

The industry has seen a shift towards games with multiplayer facilities. A larger percentage of games on all types of platforms include some type of competitive online multiplayer capability.

In addition, the industry is experiencing further significant change driven by convergence, with technology and player comfort being the two primary reasons for this wave of industry convergence. Video games and related content can now be accessed and played on a variety of media, including: cable television, dedicated consoles, handheld devices and smartphones, through social networking sites or through an ISP, through a game developer's website, and online through a game console and/or home or office personal computer. In fact, 12% of U.S. households already make regular use of game consoles for accessing video content provided by online services such as Hulu and Netflix. In 2012, for the first time, entertainment usage passed multiplayer game usage on Xbox, meaning that users spent more time with online video and music services and applications than playing multiplayer games. This rapid type of industry convergence has caused the distinction between video game console and personal computers to disappear. A game console with high-speed microprocessors attached to a television set is, for all intents and purposes, a computer and monitor.

As this distinction has been diminished, players' willingness to play and access content on different platforms has increased. The growing video gamer demographic accounts for this trend, as former president of the Entertainment Software Association Douglas Lowenstein explained at the 10th E3 expo, "Looking ahead, a child born in 1995, E3's inaugural year, will be 19 years old in 2014. And according to Census Bureau data, by the year 2020, there will be 174 million Americans between the ages of 5 and 44. That's 174 million Americans who will have grown up with PlayStations, Xboxes, and GameCubes from their early childhood and teenage years...What this means is that the average gamer will be both older and, given their lifetime familiarity with playing interactive games, more sophisticated and discriminating about the games they play."

Evidence of the increasing player willingness to play video games across a variety of media and different platforms can be seen in the rise of casual gaming on smartphones, tablets, and social networking sites as 92% of all smartphone and tablet owners play games at least once a week, 45% play daily, and industry estimates predict that, by 2016, one-third of all global mobile video game revenue will come from tablets alone. Apple's App Store alone has more than 90,000 game apps, a growth of 1,400% since it went online. In addition, game revenues for iOS and Android mobile devices now exceed those of both Nintendo and Sony handheld video game systems combined.

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Look up video game industry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Video game industry
Video game industry Language Watch Edit This article s lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article January 2018 The video game industry is the industry involved in the development marketing and monetization of video games It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide 1 The video game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream in the recent years 2 As of 2018 July video games generated sales of US 134 9 billion annually worldwide 3 In the US it took in about US 9 5 billion in 2007 11 7 billion in 2008 and 25 1 billion in update 2010 4 according to the ESA annual report needs update Modern personal computers owe many advances and innovations to the game industry sound cards graphics cards and 3D graphic accelerators faster CPUs and dedicated co processors like PhysX are a few of the more notable improvements citation needed Sound cards for example were originally developed for an addition of digital quality sound to games and only later were they improved for the music industry citation needed Graphics cards were originally developed to provide more screen colors and later on to support graphical user interfaces GUIs and games This drove the need for higher resolutions and 3D acceleration citation needed Contents 1 Industry overview 1 1 Size 1 2 Value chain 1 3 Roles 2 History 2 1 1940s 1960s 2 2 1970s 2 3 1980s 2 4 1990s 2 5 2000s 2 6 2010s 2 7 2020s 3 Economics 3 1 Retail 4 Practices 4 1 Breakaways 4 2 Piracy 4 3 Creative control 4 4 Alternatives 4 5 Gaming conventions 4 6 Regional distribution 5 International practices 5 1 World trends 5 2 Largest markets 5 3 North America 5 3 1 Canada 5 3 2 United States 5 4 Europe 5 4 1 Germany 5 4 2 United Kingdom 5 5 Asia 5 5 1 China 5 5 2 Japan 5 5 3 South Korea 5 6 Others 5 6 1 Africa 5 6 2 Australia and New Zealand 6 Conventions trade shows and conferences 7 Media coverage and archiving 8 Recognition within the industry 9 Trends 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksIndustry overview EditSize Edit In 2017 in the United States which represented about a third of the global video game market the Entertainment Software Association estimated that there were over 2 300 development companies and over 525 publishing companies including those involved in hardware and software manufacturing service providers and distributors These companies in total have nearly 66 000 direct employed workers When including indirect employment such as a developer using the services of a graphics design package from a different firm the total number of employees involved in the video game industry rises to over 220 000 5 Value chain Edit Traditionally the video game industry has had six connected layers in its value chain based on the retail distribution of games Game development representing programmers designers and artists as well as their leadership with support of middleware and other development tools Publishing which typically include both the source of funding the development of a video game as well as providing the marketing and advertising for a game Distribution whether through retail or digital channels Distribution typically includes manufacturing and duplication of game media and packaging for retail games Retailer storefront where the game is sold Customers and consumers the purchasers and players of video games Hardware platform manufacturers which can own and place limitations for content on the platform they have made requiring developers or publishers to pay a license fee to publish games on that system As games have transitioned from the retail to more digital market parts of this value chain have become redundant For example the distributor may be redundant as a function of either the publisher or the retailer or even in some cases as the case of indie games the function of the developer themselves 6 Roles Edit Ben Sawyer of Digitalmill observes that the development side of the industry is made up of six connected and distinctive layers Capital and publishing layer involved in paying for development of new titles and seeking returns through licensing of the titles Product and talent layer includes developers designers and artists who may be working under individual contracts or as part of in house development teams Production and tools layer generates content production tools game development middleware customizable game engines and production management tools Distribution layer or the publishing industry involved in generating and marketing catalogs of games for retail and online distribution Hardware or Virtual Machine or Software Platform layer or the providers of the underlying platform which may be console based accessed through online media or accessed through mobile devices such as smartphones This layer now includes network infrastructure and non hardware platforms such as virtual machines e g Java or Flash or software platforms such as browsers or even further Facebook etc End users layer or the users players of the games 7 The game industry employs those experienced in other traditional businesses but some have experience tailored to the game industry Some of the disciplines specific to the game industry include game programmer game designer level designer game producer game artist and game tester Most of these professionals are employed by video game developers or video game publishers However many hobbyists also produce computer games and sell them commercially citation needed Game developers and publishers sometimes employ those with extensive or long term experience within the modding communities 8 History EditThis section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia s quality standards as Section should focus on the history of segments of the industry developers publishers etc as well as major events which may be tied to hardware software but this should be less about reiterating the hardware generations You can help The talk page may contain suggestions March 2021 Further information History of video games History of arcade video games and History of video game consoles 1940s 1960s Edit Further information Early history of video games and Early mainframe games Prior to the 1970s there was no significant commercial aspect of the video game industry but many advances in computing would set the stage for the birth of the industry Many early publicly available interactive computer based game machines used or other mechanisms to mimic a display while technically not video games they had elements of interactivity between the player and the machine Some examples of these included the 1940 Nimatron an electromagnetic relay based Nim playing device designed by Edward Condon and built by Westinghouse Electric for the New York World s Fair 9 Bertie the Brain an arcade game of tic tac toe built by Josef Kates for the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition 10 and Nimrod created by engineering firm Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain 11 The development of cathode ray tube the core technology behind televisions created several of the first true video games In 1947 Thomas T Goldsmith Jr and Estle Ray Mann filed a patent for a cathode ray tube amusement device Their game which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display challenges players to fire a gun at target 12 Between the 1950s and 1960s with mainframe computers becoming available to campus colleges students and others started to develop games that could be played at terminals that accessed the mainframe One of the first known examples is Spacewar developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin Graetz Steve Russell and Wayne Wiitanen 13 The introduction of easy to program languages like BASIC for mainframes allowed for more simplistic games to be developed The arcade video game industry grew out of the pre existing arcade game industry which was previously dominated by electro mechanical games EM games Following the arrival of Sega s EM game Periscope 1966 the arcade industry was experiencing a technological renaissance driven by audio visual EM novelty games establishing the arcades as a healthy environment for the introduction of commercial video games in the early 1970s 14 In the late 1960s a college student named Nolan Bushnell had a part time job at an arcade where he became familiar with EM games such as Chicago Coin s racing game Speedway 1969 watching customers play and helping to maintain the machinery while learning how it worked and developing his understanding of how the game business operates 15 1970s Edit The Magnavox Odyssey released in 1972 was the first home video game console See also First generation of video game consoles Video game crash of 1977 Golden age of video arcade games and Second generation of video game consoles In 1971 the first commercial arcade video game Computer Space was released 16 The following year Atari Inc released the first commercially successful video game Pong the original arcade version of which sold over 19 000 arcade cabinets 17 That same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of the early video game console the Magnavox Odyssey However both the arcade and home markets would be dominated by Pong clones which flooded the market and led to the video game crash of 1977 The crash eventually came to an end with the success of Taito s Space Invaders released in 1978 sparking a renaissance for the video game industry and paving the way for the golden age of video arcade games 18 The game s success inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls traditional storefronts restaurants and convenience stores during the golden age 19 Space Invaders would go on to sell over 360 000 arcade cabinets worldwide 20 and by 1982 generate a revenue of 2 billion in quarters 21 22 equivalent to 4 6 billion in 2011 23 Soon after Space Invaders was licensed for the Atari VCS later known as Atari 2600 becoming the first killer app and quadrupling the console s sales 24 The success of the Atari 2600 in turn revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles up until the video game crash of 1983 25 By the end of the 1970s the personal computer game industry began forming from a hobby culture 1980s Edit The Nintendo Entertainment System released in 1985 helped to revive the American video games industry after the video game crash of 1983 See also Golden age of video arcade games Second generation of video game consoles Video game crash of 1983 Third generation of video game consoles and Fourth generation of video game consoles The early 1980s saw the golden age of video arcade games reach its zenith The total sales of arcade video game machines in North America increased significantly during this period from 50 million in 1978 to 900 million by 1981 26 with the arcade video game industry s revenue in North America tripling to 2 8 billion in 1980 27 By 1981 the arcade video game industry was generating an annual revenue of 5 billion in North America 18 28 equivalent to 12 3 billion in 2011 23 In 1982 the arcade video game industry reached its peak generating 8 billion in quarters 29 equivalent to over 18 5 billion in 2011 23 surpassing the annual gross revenue of both pop music 4 billion and Hollywood films 3 billion combined at that time 29 This was also nearly twice as much revenue as the 3 8 billion generated by the home video game industry that same year both the arcade and home markets combined add up to a total revenue of 11 8 billion for the video game industry in 1982 29 equivalent to over 27 3 billion in 2011 23 The arcade video game industry would continue to generate an annual revenue of 5 billion in quarters through to 1985 30 The most successful game of this era was Namco s Pac Man released in 1980 which would go on to sell over 350 000 cabinets 31 and within a year generate a revenue of more than 1 billion in quarters 32 in total Pac Man is estimated to have grossed over 10 billion quarters 2 5 billion during the 20th century 32 33 equivalent to over 3 4 billion in 2011 23 The early part of the decade saw the rise of 8 bit home computing and home made games especially in Europe with the ZX Spectrum and Commodore 64 and Asia with the NEC PC 88 and MSX This time also saw the rise of video game journalism which was later expanded to include covermounted cassettes and CDs In 1983 the North American industry crashed due to the production of too many badly developed games quantity over quality resulting in the fall of the North American industry The industry would eventually be revitalized by the release of the Nintendo Entertainment System which resulted in the home console market being dominated by Japanese companies such as Nintendo 7 while a professional European video game industry also began taking shape with companies such as Ocean Software and Gremlin Interactive 34 The latter part of the decade saw the rise of the Game Boy handheld system In 1987 Nintendo lost a legal challenge against Blockbuster Entertainment which enabled games rentals in the same way as movies 1990s Edit The PlayStation was the most popular video game console of the fifth generation which saw the common adoption of CD media See also Fourth generation of video game consoles Fifth generation of video game consoles and Sixth generation of video game consoles The 1990s saw advancements in game related technology Among the significant advancements were The 3D Revolution where 3D polygon graphics became the de facto standard for video game visual presentation initially in the arcades during the early 1990s 35 and then on home systems with 3D consoles and PC graphics cards in the mid 1990s The widespread adoption of CD based storage and software distribution Continuing advancement of CPU speed and sophistication Widespread adoption of GUI based operating systems such as the series of Amiga OS Microsoft Windows and Mac OS Miniaturisation of hardware with handheld game consoles and mobile phones which enabled mobile gaming The emergence of the internet which in the latter part of the decade enabled online co operative play and competitive gaming Aside from technology in the early part of the decade licensed games became more popular 36 37 as did video game sequels 38 The video game industry generated worldwide sales of 19 8 billion in 1993 39 equivalent to 31 billion in 2011 23 20 8 billion in 1994 39 equivalent to 32 billion in 2011 23 and an estimated 30 billion in 1998 40 equivalent to 41 5 billion in 2011 23 In the United States alone in 1994 arcades were generating 7 billion 41 in quarters equivalent to 11 billion in 2011 23 while home console game sales were generating revenues of 6 billion 41 equivalent to 9 billion in 2011 23 Combined this was nearly two and a half times the 5 billion revenue generated by movies in the United States at the time 41 There was also a transition away from arcades to home systems Up until about 1996 1997 arcade video games represented the largest sector of the global video game industry before arcades declined and the console market surpassed arcade video games for the first time around 1997 1998 42 Arcade systems such as the Sega Model 3 remained more technologically advanced than home systems in the late 1990s 43 44 but the gap between arcade and home systems began narrowing in the late 1990s 2000s Edit The sixth generation PlayStation 2 is the best selling console of all time See also Sixth generation of video game consoles and Seventh generation of video game consoles In 2000s the video game industry is a juggernaut of development profit still drives technological advancement which is then used by other industry sectors Technologies such as Smartphones virtual reality and augmented reality are major drivers for game hardware and gameplay development Though maturing the video game industry was still very volatile with third party video game developers quickly cropping up and just as quickly going out of business citation needed Nevertheless many casual games and indie games were developed and become popular and successful such as Braid and Limbo Game development for mobile phones such as iOS and Android devices and social networking sites emerged For example a Facebook game developer Zynga has raised in excess of 300 million clarification needed 45 2010s Edit See also Eighth generation of video game consoles Though not the main driving force indie games continue to have a significant impact on the industry with sales of some of these titles such as Spelunky Fez Don t Starve Castle Crashers and Minecraft exceeding millions of dollars and over a million users 46 unreliable source The 2010s have seen a larger shift to casual and mobile gaming in 2016 the mobile video game market is estimated to have taken 38 billion in revenues compared to 6 billion for the console market and 33 billion for personal computing gaming 47 Games centered on virtual reality and augmented reality equipment also arose during this decade As of 2014 newer game companies arose that vertically integrate live operations and publishing such as crowdfunding and other direct to consumer efforts rather than relying on a traditional publishers and some of these have grown to substantial size 48 Spurred by some initial events in the late 2000s eSports centered around professional players in organized competitions and leagues for prize money grew greatly over this decade drawing hundreds of millions of viewers and reaching nearly 500 million in revenue by 2016 and expected to break 1 billion by 2019 49 2020s Edit See also Ninth generation of video game consoles and Impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on the video game industry While a new generation of home consoles the Xbox Series X S and PlayStation 5 was planned in 2020 the video game industry was affected by the COVID 19 pandemic that had a worldwide impact starting in March 2020 due to forced stay at home orders by governmental regulations While there were similar impacts to the video game industry as with other industries such as cancellation of in person trade shows conventions and esports events and the delay of many games into late 2020 2021 or beyond the industry was also one of the few to actually thrive from people stuck at home using video games as a means to overcome social distancing The market had a 20 year to year growth from 2019 reaching over 179 billion in global revenue in both hardware and software for 2020 50 Simple to learn games with high social interactions found high popularity during the COVID 19 pandemic including Animal Crossing New Horizons 51 Fall Guys and Among Us 52 53 54 55 As the pandemic wore on from 2020 into 2021 the industry was impacted by a secondary effect of COVID 19 the impact of the global semiconductor chip shortage on hardware manufacturing All three console vendors Nintendo Microsoft and Sony were impacted by availability of supply of core components and for the latter two made the launch of their new consoles difficult to manage with only limited supplies available at launch The chip supply shortage also affected personal computer gamers coupled with demand for computer parts to be used in cryptocurrency mining which artificially raised prices and made it difficult to purchase newer components 56 Economics EditGlobal revenue estimates of the video game industry from 1971 to 2018 not adjusted for inflation according to market research firm Pelham Smithers 42 The chart shows the impacts of the 1977 crash the golden age of arcade games 1978 1983 the video game crash of 1983 the console revival late 1980s and the rise of mobile gaming since 2008 Early on development costs were minimal and video games could be quite profitable Games developed by a single programmer or by a small team of programmers and artists could sell hundreds of thousands of copies each Many of these games only took a few months to create so developers could release multiple titles per year Thus publishers could often be generous with benefits such as royalties on the games sold Many early game publishers started from this economic climate such as Origin Systems Sierra Entertainment Capcom Activision and Electronic Arts As computing and graphics power increased so too did the size of development teams as larger staffs were needed to address the ever increasing technical and design complexities The larger teams consist of programmers artists game designers and producers Their salaries can range anywhere from 50 000 to 120 000 generating large labor costs for firms producing video games 57 which can often take between one and three years to develop Now budgets typically reach millions of dollars despite the growing popularity of middleware and pre built game engines In addition to growing development costs marketing budgets have grown dramatically sometimes consisting of two to three times of the cost of development 58 The game development team has to select a profitable and suitable method to sell or earn money from the finished game Traditionally the game monetization method is to sell hard copies in retail store Now some developers are turning to alternative production and distribution methods such as online distribution to reduce costs and increase revenue 59 In the 2010s the video game industry had a major impact on the economy through the sales of major systems and games such as Call of Duty Black Ops which took in over 650 USD million of sales in the game s first five days and which set a five day global record for a movie book or video game 60 The game s income was more than the opening weekend of Spider Man 3 and the previous title holder for a video game Halo 3 61 Many individuals have also benefited from the economic success of video games including the former chairman of Nintendo and Japan s third richest man Hiroshi Yamauchi 62 By 2014 the global video game market was valued at over 93 billion 63 The industry wide adoption of high definition graphics during the seventh generation of consoles greatly increased development teams sizes and reduced the number of high budget high quality titles under development In 2013 Richard Hilleman of Electronic Arts estimated that only 25 developers were working on such titles for the eighth console generation compared to 125 at the same point in the seventh generation console cycle seven or eight years earlier 64 By 2018 the United States video game industry had matched that of the United States film industry on basis of revenue with both industries having made around US 43 billion that year 65 66 Retail Edit GameStop videogame store at the Isokatu street in Oulu The games industry s shift from brick and mortar retail to digital downloads led to a severe sales decline at video game retailers such as GameStop following other media retailers superseded by Internet delivery such as Blockbuster Tower Records and Virgin Megastores GameStop diversified its services by purchasing chains that repair wireless devices and expanding its trade in program through which customers trade used games for credit towards new games 67 The company began to produce its own merchandise and games In Britain the games retailer Game revamped its stores so customers would spend time playing games there It built a gaming arena for events and tournaments 68 The shift to digital marketplaces especially for smartphones led to an influx of inexpensive and disposable titles 69 as well as lower engagement among gamers who otherwise purchased new games from retail 70 Customers also shifted away from the tradition of buying games on their first day of release 71 Publishers often funded trade in deals to encourage consumers to purchase new games Trade in customers at the Australia retailer Game would purchase twice the games per year as non trade in customers The sale of pre owned games kept retailers in business and composed about a third of Game s revenue Retailers also saved on the UK s value added tax which only taxed the retailer s profit on pre owned games rather than the full sale on regular games The former trade in retail executives behind the trade in price comparison site Trade In Detectives estimated that the United Kingdom s trade in industry was about a third of the size of its new games business 72 They figured that sites such as eBay which convert used games into cash compose about a quarter of the UK s trade in market 73 but do not keep the credit within the industry While consumers might appear to receive better offers on these sites they also take about 15 percent of the selling price in fees Alternatively some retailers will match the trade in values offered by their competitors Microsoft s original plan for the Xbox One attempted to translate trade in deals for the digital marketplace with a database of product licenses that shops would be able to resell with publisher permission though the plan was poorly received or poorly sold 72 Practices EditVideo game industry practices are similar to those of other entertainment industries e g the music recording industry but the video game industry in particular has been accused of treating its development talent poorly This promotes independent development as developers leave to form new companies and projects In some notable cases these new companies grow large and impersonal having adopted the business practices of their forebears and ultimately perpetuate the cycle However unlike the music industry where modern technology has allowed a fully professional product to be created extremely inexpensively by an independent musician modern games require increasing amounts of manpower and equipment This dynamic makes publishers who fund the developers much more important than in the music industry Breakaways Edit In the video game industry it is common for developers to leave their current studio and start their own A particularly famous case is the original independent developer Activision founded by former Atari developers Activision grew to become the world s second largest game publisher 74 In the meantime many of the original developers left to work on other projects For example founder Alan Miller left Activision to start another video game development company Accolade now Atari nee Infogrames Activision was popular among developers for giving them credit in the packaging and title screens for their games while Atari disallowed this practice As the video game industry took off in the mid 1980s many developers faced the more distressing problem of working with fly by night or unscrupulous publishers that would either fold unexpectedly or run off with the game profits Piracy Edit The industry claims software piracy to be a big problem and take measures to counter this 75 Digital rights management have proved to be the most unpopular with gamers as a measure to counter piracy 76 The most popular and effective strategy to counter piracy is to change the business model to freemium where gamers pay for their in game needs or service Strong server side security is required for this to properly distinguish authentic transactions from hacked transactions Creative control Edit On various Internet forums some gamers have expressed disapproval of publishers having creative control since publishers are more apt to follow short term market trends rather than invest in risky but potentially lucrative ideas On the other hand publishers may know better than developers what consumers want The relationship between video game developers and publishers parallels the relationship between recording artists and record labels in many ways But unlike the music industry which has seen flat or declining sales in the early 2000s 77 78 79 the video game industry continues to grow 80 In the computer games industry it is easier to create a startup resulting in many successful companies The console games industry is a more closed one and a game developer must have up to three licenses from the console manufacturer A license to develop games for the console The publisher must have a license to publish games for the console A separate license for each game In addition the developer must usually buy development systems from the console manufacturer in order to even develop a game for consideration as well as obtain concept approval for the game from the console manufacturer Therefore the developer normally has to have a publishing deal in place before starting development on a game project but in order to secure a publishing deal the developer must have a track record of console development something which few startups will have Alternatives Edit An alternative method for publishing video games is to self publish using the shareware or open source model over the Internet Gaming conventions Edit Gaming conventions are an important showcase of the industry The major annual video game conventions include Gamescom in Cologne Germany the E3 in Los Angeles USA 81 the Penny Arcade Expo and others Regional distribution Edit See also Regional lockout Video games This section needs expansion You can help by adding to it June 2018 As with other forms of media video games have often been released in different world regions at different times 82 The practice has been used where localization is not done in parallel with the rest of development 83 or where the game must be encoded differently as in PAL vs NTSC 84 It has also been used to provide price discrimination in different markets or to focus limited marketing resources 82 Developers may also stagger digital releases so as not to overwhelm the servers hosting the game 85 International practices EditThe video game industry had its primary roots in the United States following the introduction of arcade games and console systems with Japan soon following With the introduction of the personal computer Western Europe also became a major center for video game development Since then the industry is primarily led by companies in North American Europe and Japan but other regions including Australia New Zealand and other southeast Asian countries including China and South Korea have become significant sectors for the industry World trends Edit International video game revenue is estimated to be 81 5B in 2014 86 This is more than double the revenue of the international film industry in 2013 87 In 2015 it was estimated at US 91 5 billion 88 The largest nations by estimated video game revenues in 2016 are China 24 4B the United States 23 5B and Japan 12 4B 89 The largest regions in 2015 were Asia Pacific 43 1B North America 23 8B and Western Europe 15 6B 88 In 2018 the global video games market was valued at around 134 9bn 90 Largest markets Edit According to market research firm Newzoo the following countries are the largest video game markets by annual revenue as of 2020 update 91 Rank Country Revenue million US 1 China 44 2632 United States 42 1073 Japan 20 6154 South Korea 7 3255 Germany 6 0846 United Kingdom 5 5337 France 4 3518 Canada 3 8369 Italy 3 48210 Spain 2 460North America Edit Canada Edit Ubisoft Montreal Main article Video gaming in Canada Canada has the third largest video game industry in terms of employment numbers 92 The video game industry has also been booming in Montreal since 1997 coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal 93 Recently the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as Ubisoft EA Eidos Interactive Artificial Mind and Movement BioWare Warner Bros Interactive Entertainment and Strategy First mainly because video games jobs have been heavily subsidized by the provincial government Every year this industry generates billions of dollars and thousands of jobs in the Montreal area 94 Vancouver has also developed a particularly large cluster of video game developers the largest of which Electronic Arts employs over two thousand people The Assassin s Creed series along with the Tom Clancy series have all been produced in Canada and have achieved worldwide success For consumers the largest video games convention in Canada is the Enthusiast Gaming Live Expo EGLX 95 United States Edit Main article Video gaming in the United States Activision now Activision Blizzard is the first independent third party video game developer The video game industry got its start in the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s with the creation of arcade games like Pong and the first home console the Magnavox Odyssey Several factors including loss of publishing control a flooded market and competition from personal computers led to the 1983 video game crash in the U S affecting both arcades and home game systems Nintendo s introduction of the Nintendo Entertainment System helped to revitalize the industry but until Microsoft s introduction of the Xbox in the early 2000s the hardware side was dominated by mostly Japanese developed systems Instead much of the industry s growth in the U S was on game development implementing new game technologies and gameplay concepts as well as creating the large scale publisher model used by companies like Electronic Arts to support marketing and distribution of games The United States has the largest video games presence in the world in terms of total industry employees 92 96 In 2017 the U S game industry as a whole was worth US 18 4 billion and consisted of roughly 2457 companies that had a rough total of 220 000 people employed 97 98 U S video game revenue is forecast to reach 230 billion by 2022 99 making it the largest video game market in the world 86 Over 150 million Americans play video games with an average age of 35 and a gender breakdown of 59 percent male and 41 percent female 100 American gamers are more likely to vote than non gamers feel that the economy is the most important political issue and lean conservative however party demographics are split evenly with 38 identifying as Democrats 38 identifying as Republicans and 24 identifying as Independents 101 Europe Edit Main articles Video gaming in Russia Video gaming in France Video gaming in Italy and Video gaming in Spain Germany Edit The Gamescom in Cologne is the world s leading game trade fair Main article Video gaming in Germany Germany has the largest video games market in Europe with revenues of 4 1 billion forecast for 2017 102 The annual Gamescom in Cologne is Europe s largest video game expo One of the earliest internationally successful video game companies was Gutersloh based Rainbow Arts founded in 1984 who were responsible for publishing the popular Turrican series of games The Anno series and The Settlers series are globally popular strategy game franchises since the 1990s The Gothic series SpellForce and Risen are established RPG franchises The X series by Egosoft is the best selling space simulation The FIFA Manager series was also developed in Germany The German action game Spec Ops The Line 2012 was successful in the markets and received largely positive reviews One of the most famed titles to come out of Germany is Far Cry 2004 by Frankfurt based Crytek who also produced the topseller Crysis and its sequels later Other well known current and former developers from Germany include Ascaron Blue Byte Deck13 Phenomic Piranha Bytes Radon Related Spellbound and Yager Development Publishers include Deep Silver Koch Media dtp entertainment Kalypso and Nintendo Europe Bigpoint Games Gameforge Goodgame Studios and Wooga are among the world s leading browser game and social network game developers distributors United Kingdom Edit Main article Video gaming in the United Kingdom The UK industry is the third largest in the World in terms of developer success and sales of hardware and software by country alone but fourth behind Canada in terms of people employed 92 The size of the UK game industry is comparable to its film or music industries 103 Like most European countries the UK entered the video game industry through personal computers rather than video game consoles Low cost computers like the ZX Spectrum and Amiga 500 led to numerous bedroom coders that would make and sell games through mail order or to distributors that helped to mass produce them 104 Coupled with quirky british humour the Britsoft wave of popular titles led to a number of influential people and studios in the 1990s 105 As game programming became more complex and costly in the early 2000s more traditional studio structures arose to support both personal computers and consoles with several studios that in some form or another remain highly regarded and influential in the present 106 In recent years some of the studios have become defunct or been purchased by larger companies such as LittleBigPlanet developer Media Molecule 107 and Codemasters 108 The country is home to some of the world s most successful video game franchises such as Tomb Raider Grand Theft Auto Fable Colin McRae Dirt and Total War The country also went without tax relief until March 21 2012 109 when the British government changed its mind on tax relief for UK developers which without meant most of the talented development within the UK may move overseas for more profit along with parents of certain video game developers which would pay for having games developed in the UK The industry trade body TIGA estimates that it will increase the games development sector s contribution to UK GDP by 283 million generate 172 million in new and protected tax receipts to HM Treasury and could cost just 96 million over five years 110 Before the tax relief was introduced there was a fear that the UK games industry could fall behind other leading game industries around the world such as France and Canada of which Canada overtook the UK in terms of job numbers in the industry in 2010 111 Asia Edit China Edit Main article Video gaming in China Tencent is the largest company in the world by video game revenue 112 China had early on not been a major factor in the global video game market early on due to economic factors governmental oversight and a black market for foreign products The government initiated a ban on video game consoles in 2000 that lasted through 2014 during which China s video game market grew for personal computer games particularly subscription based and microtransaction based ones that were amenable to use in PC cafes and later into mobile games Media publishers like Tencent and NetEase focused on these types of games growing successfully during the 2010s to become leading international companies As of 2015 China s video game market revenue exceeds that of the United States and is the largest country by both revenue and number of players 113 114 China is also the largest contributor towards esports in both revenue and in the number of professional players from the country 115 The industry like most media in China is tightly controlled by the government with strong restrictions on what content may be in games 116 and incorporation of anti addiction measures to limit playtime 117 It is home to Asia Game Show the largest game convention in the world by attendance 118 Japan Edit Main article Video gaming in Japan Headquarters of Nintendo in Kyoto Japan 2006 The Japanese video game industry is markedly different from the industry in North America Europe and Australia Japan initially trailed the United States in entering the video game sector as its companies followed trends set by their American partners but started to pioneer their own ideas soon after Several Japanese developed arcade games such as Space Invaders helped to usher in the golden age of arcade video games from 1978 to 1982 The 1983 video game crash that affected the North American market did have small but short term effects in Japan as most companies involved in the business were well established and could weather the disruption Nintendo took the opportunity to push the Nintendo Entertainment System a rebranding of its Famicom system into the Western markets after the crash implementing technical and business practices to avoid the factors that created the 1983 crash but also secured its control on what games were published for the system Japan became the dominate home for consoles and console games through the early 2000s challenged only by the incorporation of large publishers in the West and the Xbox line of consoles from Microsoft Nintendo along with companies like Sega Sony Interactive Entertainment and Capcom are dominant leaders in the Japanese video game industry Nintendo themselves are recognized for having created some of the best selling and positively reviewed video game series such as the Mario Donkey Kong The Legend of Zelda Metroid and Pokemon In recent years consoles and arcade games have both been overtaken by downloadable free to play games on the PC and mobile platforms 119 120 South Korea Edit Main article Video gaming in South Korea The video game industry in South Korea generally followed the same early trends as the Japanese market but players started focusing on massively multiplayer online games MMO and other games that could be played at PC bangs Internet cafes South Korea was one of the first major regions involved in esports in the 1990s and 2000s and today a large number of professional esports players originate from South Korea Others Edit Africa Edit The video game industry is still in its infancy throughout the African continent but due to the continent s young population and increasing technological literacy the sector is growing rapidly African countries such as South Africa Nigeria and Kenya have been making rapid advances in mobile game development both within their country and internationally 121 but due to limited funding and a market overcrowded with Western games success has thus far been minimal 122 Australia and New Zealand Edit Main article Video gaming in Australia Australia and New Zealand have an active video game industry with several standalone developers as well as additional studios from other major developers across the globe Conventions trade shows and conferences Edit The Gamescom in Cologne the major video game fair by attendance Gaming conventions are an important showcase of the industry These typically provide the means for developers and publishers to demonstrate their games directly to video game players and consumers and obtain feedback New games are frequently introduced during these events Some examples of each conventions include the annual Gamescom in Cologne and numerous PAX events Some publishers developers and technology producers also have their own regular conventions with BlizzCon QuakeCon Nvision and the X shows being prominent examples National trade groups that support their local video game industry often will hold trade shows aimed for developers and publishers to interact more directly with the video game media and with retailers and distributors for planning future sales of products The largest such trade show is the E3 in Los Angeles California is held by the Entertainment Software Association Other similar trade shows include Tokyo Game Show Japan Brasil Game Show Brazil EB Games Expo Australia KRI Russia ChinaJoy China and the annual Game Developers Conference The development of video games is also a topic of academic and professional interest leading to a number of conferences for developers to share their knowledge with others Two of the major professional conferences include the Game Developers Conference GDC which holds multiple events through the year but with its main annual conference held in March in San Francisco and the D I C E Summit run by the Academy of Interactive Arts amp Sciences in February of each year at Las Vegas Nevada Media coverage and archiving EditSee also Video game journalism and Video game preservation The coverage of the video game industry started off with several magazines covering the topic but as the Internet became widely available to support new media much of the dedicated coverage of the video game industry has transitioned to detected websites including Gamasutra IGN Eurogamer Polygon and GameSpot More recently the effect of social media influencers video game players that create online videos or stream themselves playing games through services like Twitch have also become a significant source for coverage of video game news from the consumer point of view Another facet of tracking the history of the video game industry is video game preservation a process that is complicated due to game hardware technology that can become obsolete dependencies on decommissioned online servers and issues over intellectual property that legally restricts preservation efforts Much of the industry s history prior to the 1983 crash has been lost as companies affected by the crash simply threw material away leaving little to recover today There is better awareness of video game preservation into the 21st century and several groups and museums have been established to collect and preserve hardware and software for the industry 123 Recognition within the industry EditSee also List of video game awards The video game industry has a number of annual award ceremonies commonly associated with the above conventions trade shows and conferences as well as standalone award shows Many of the dedicated video game journalism websites also have their own set of awards Most commonly these ceremonies are capped by the top prize the Game of the Year Trends EditPlayers become fourth party developers allowing for more open source models of game design development and engineering Players also create modifications mods which in some cases become just as popular as the original game for which they were created An example of this is the game Counter Strike which began as a mod of the video game Half Life and eventually became a very successful published game in its own right While this community of modifiers may only add up to approximately 1 of a particular game s user base the number of those involved will grow as more games offer modifying opportunities such as by releasing source code and the video user base swells According to Ben Sawyer as many as 600 000 established online game community developers existed as of 2012 This effectively added a new component to the game industry value chain and if it continues to mature it will integrate itself into the overall industry 7 The industry has seen a shift towards games with multiplayer facilities A larger percentage of games on all types of platforms include some type of competitive online multiplayer capability In addition the industry is experiencing further significant change driven by convergence with technology and player comfort being the two primary reasons for this wave of industry convergence Video games and related content can now be accessed and played on a variety of media including cable television dedicated consoles handheld devices and smartphones through social networking sites or through an ISP through a game developer s website and online through a game console and or home or office personal computer In fact 12 of U S households already make regular use of game consoles for accessing video content provided by online services such as Hulu and Netflix In 2012 for the first time entertainment usage passed multiplayer game usage on Xbox meaning that users spent more time with online video and music services and applications than playing multiplayer games This rapid type of industry convergence has caused the distinction between video game console and personal computers to disappear A game console with high speed microprocessors attached to a television set is for all intents and purposes a computer and monitor 124 As this distinction has been diminished players willingness to play and access content on different platforms has increased The growing video gamer demographic accounts for this trend as former president of the Entertainment Software Association Douglas Lowenstein explained at the 10th E3 expo Looking ahead a child born in 1995 E3 s inaugural year will be 19 years old in 2014 And according to Census Bureau data by the year 2020 there will be 174 million Americans between the ages of 5 and 44 That s 174 million Americans who will have grown up with PlayStations Xboxes and GameCubes from their early childhood and teenage years What this means is that the average gamer will be both older and given their lifetime familiarity with playing interactive games more sophisticated and discriminating about the games they play 125 Evidence of the increasing player willingness to play video games across a variety of media and different platforms can be seen in the rise of casual gaming on smartphones tablets and social networking sites as 92 of all smartphone and tablet owners play games at least once a week 45 play daily and industry estimates predict that by 2016 one third of all global mobile video game revenue will come from tablets alone Apple s App Store alone has more than 90 000 game apps a growth of 1 400 since it went online In addition game revenues for iOS and Android mobile devices now exceed those of both Nintendo and Sony handheld video game systems combined 126 See also EditList of video games List of video game websites Hollywood and the video game industryReferences Edit Zackariasson P and Wilson T L eds 2012 The Video Game Industry Formation Present State and Future New York Routledge New ESA Report Shows Gaming Is No Longer A Niche Market TheGamer July 25 2020 Retrieved December 16 2020 Key Numbers newzoo com Archived from the original on May 9 2019 Retrieved August 21 2021 ESA Facts and figures about the gaming industry in 2010 TechSpot Retrieved December 16 2020 Siwek Stephen E 2017 Video Games in the 21st Century PDF Report Entertainment Software Association Retrieved January 22 2020 Kelly Stephen Klezl Vojtech Israilidis John Malone Neil Butler Stuart 2020 Digital Supply Chain Management in the Videogames Industry A Systematic Literature Review The Computer Games Journal 10 1 4 19 40 doi 10 1007 s40869 020 00118 0 a b c Flew Terry Humphreys Sal 2005 Games Technology Industry Culture New Media an Introduction Second ed Oxford University Press pp 101 114 ISBN 0 19 555149 4 Scacchi Walt 2010 Computer game mods modders modding and the mod scene First Monday University of Chicago 15 5 Archived from the original on October 6 2018 Smith Alexander January 22 2014 The Priesthood At Play Computer Games in the 1950s They Create Worlds Archived from the original on December 22 2015 Retrieved December 18 2015 Simmons Marlene October 9 1975 Bertie the Brain programmer heads science council Ottawa Citizen p 17 Retrieved December 18 2015 Donovan Tristan April 20 2010 Replay The History of Video Games Yellow Ant pp 1 9 ISBN 978 0 9565072 0 4 Video Game History Timeline The Strong Museumofplay org Retrieved June 5 2018 Smith Alexander August 7 2014 One Two Three Four I Declare a Space War They Create Worlds Archived from the original on December 22 2015 Retrieved December 18 2015 Smith Alexander November 19 2019 They Create Worlds The Story of the People and Companies That Shaped the Video Game Industry Vol I 1971 1982 CRC Press pp 119 20 188 91 ISBN 978 0 429 75261 2 The Great Videogame Swindle Next Generation No 23 Imagine Media November 1996 pp 211 229 The Gaming Industry An Introduction Cleverism Ashley S Lipson amp Robert D Brain 2009 Computer and Video Game Law Cases and Materials Carolina Academic Press p 9 ISBN 978 1 59460 488 1 Retrieved April 11 2011 Atari eventually sold more than 19 000 Pong machines giving rise to many imitations Pong made its first appearance in 1972 at Andy Capp s a small bar in Sunnyvale California where the video game was literally overplayed as eager customers tried to cram quarters into an already heavily overloaded coin slot a b Jason Whittaker 2004 The cyberspace handbook Routledge p 122 ISBN 0 415 16835 X Edge Staff August 13 2007 The 30 Defining Moments in Gaming Edge Future plc Archived from the original on October 29 2011 Retrieved September 18 2008 Jiji Gaho Sha inc 2003 Asia Pacific perspectives Japan 1 University of Virginia 57 Retrieved April 9 2011 At that time a game for use in entertainment arcades was considered a hit if it sold 1000 units sales of Space Invaders topped 300 000 units in Japan and 60 000 units overseas Cite journal requires journal help Making millions 25 cents at a time The Fifth Estate Canadian Broadcasting Corporation November 23 1982 Retrieved June 6 2012 Space Invaders vs Star Wars Executive Southam Business Publications 24 9 1982 Retrieved April 30 2011 According to TEC Atari s arcade game Space Invaders has taken in 2 billion with net receipts of 450 million a b c d e f g h i j CPI Inflation Calculator Bureau of Labor Statistics Retrieved March 22 2011 The Definitive Space Invaders Retro Gamer Imagine Publishing 41 24 33 September 2007 Retrieved April 20 2011 Jason Whittaker 2004 The cyberspace handbook Routledge pp 122 3 ISBN 0 415 16835 X Mark J P Wolf 2008 The video game explosion a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond ABC CLIO p 105 ISBN 978 0 313 33868 7 Retrieved April 19 2011 Electronic Education 2 5 8 Electronic Communications 1983 41 Retrieved April 23 2011 In 1980 alone according to Time 2 8 billion in quarters triple the amount of the previous years were fed into video games Cite journal requires journal help Mark J P Wolf 2008 The video game explosion a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond ABC CLIO p 103 ISBN 978 0 313 33868 7 Retrieved April 19 2011 a b c Everett M Rogers amp Judith K Larsen 1984 Silicon Valley fever growth of high technology culture Basic Books p 263 ISBN 0 465 07821 4 Retrieved April 23 2011 Video game machines have an average weekly take of 109 per machine The video arcade industry took in 8 billion in quarters in 1982 surpassing pop music at 4 billion in sales per year and Hollywood films 3 billion 10 billion if cassette sales and rentals are included Those 32 billion arcade games played translate to 143 games for every man woman and child in America A recent Atari survey showed that 86 percent of the US population from 13 to 20 has played some kind of video game and an estimated 8 million US homes have video games hooked up to the television set Sales of home video games were 3 8 billion in 1982 approximately half that of video game arcades Ellen Goodman 1985 Keeping in touch Summit Books p 38 ISBN 0 671 55376 3 Retrieved April 23 2011 There are 95 000 others like him spread across the country getting fed a fat share of the 5 billion in videogame quarters every year Kevin Fragmaster Bowen 2001 Game of the Week Pac Man GameSpy Retrieved April 9 2011 Released in 1980 Pac Man was an immediate success It sold over 350 000 units and probably would of sold more if not for the numerous illegal pirate and bootleg machines that were also sold a b Mark J P Wolf 2008 Video Game Stars Pac Man The video game explosion a history from PONG to Playstation and beyond ABC CLIO p 73 ISBN 978 0 313 33868 7 Retrieved April 10 2011 It would go on to become arguably the most famous video game of all time with the arcade game alone taking in more than a billion dollars and one study estimated that it had been played more than 10 billion times during the twentieth century Chris Morris May 10 2005 Pac Man turns 25 A pizza dinner yields a cultural phenomenon and millions of dollars in quarters CNN Retrieved April 23 2011 In the late 1990s Twin Galaxies which tracks video game world record scores visited used game auctions and counted how many times the average Pac Man machine had been played Based on those findings and the total number of machines that were manufactured the organization said it believed the game had been played more than 10 billion times in the 20th century World of Spectrum Archive YS Top 100 worldofspectrum org Williams Andrew March 16 2017 History of Digital Games Developments in Art Design and Interaction CRC Press pp 143 6 152 4 ISBN 978 1 317 50381 1 Fahs Travis August 8 2008 IGN Presents the History of Madden IGN Retrieved November 9 2010 Hurby Patrick The Franchise ESPN Retrieved November 9 2010 McLaughlin Rus July 7 2010 IGN Presents the History of Street Fighter IGN Retrieved November 9 2010 a b Statistical yearbook cinema television video and new media in Europe Volume 1999 Council of Europe 1996 p 123 ISBN 9789287129048 Statistical yearbook cinema television video and new media in Europe Volume 1999 Council of Europe 1996 p 123 ISBN 9789287129048 a b c Business Week Business Week Bloomberg 3392 3405 58 1994 Retrieved January 25 2012 Hollywood s aim of course is to tap into the 7 billion that Americans pour into arcade games each year and the 6 billion they spend on home versions for Nintendo and Sega game machines Combined it s a market nearly 2 times the size of the 5 billion movie box office a b Nakamura Yuki January 23 2019 Peak Video Game Top Analyst Sees Industry Slumping in 2019 Bloomberg L P Archived from the original on January 30 2019 Retrieved January 29 2019 News Virtua Fighter 3 Computer and Video Games 174 10 1 May 1996 Second Hand Smoke One up two down Tom s Hardware Guide October 22 1999 Retrieved January 8 2018 Zynga Takes 180 Million Venture Round From DST Others Cue Russian Mafia Jokes TechCrunch December 15 2009 Retrieved February 11 2014 The Gaming Industry An Introduction Entrepreneurial Insights van Dreunen Joost October 24 2016 Welcome to the New Era Games as Media GamesIndustry biz Retrieved October 31 2016 Radoff Jon February 10 2014 The Future of Games and How to Stop It medium com medium com Retrieved February 11 2014 Riddell Don May 29 2016 ESports Global revenue expected to smash 1 billion by 2019 CNN Retrieved January 16 2018 Witkowski Wallace December 26 2020 Videogames are a bigger industry than movies and North American sports combined thanks to the pandemic Market Watch Retrieved December 27 2020 Zhu Lin 2021 The psychology behind video games during COVID 19 pandemic A case study of Animal Crossing New Horizons Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies 3 157 159 doi 10 1002 hbe2 221 ISSN 2578 1863 Grayson Nathan September 8 2020 Among Us Improbable Rise To The Top Of Twitch Kotaku Australia Archived from the original on September 9 2020 Retrieved September 8 2020 Grimm Peter September 7 2020 Among Us Hits Impressive Concurrent Player Milestone Game Rant Archived from the original on September 9 2020 Retrieved September 8 2020 Baird Scott September 7 2020 Fall Guys Is Number One On Steam s Bestselling List For Fifth Week In A Row TheGamer Archived from the original on September 9 2020 Retrieved September 8 2020 Matthews Emma August 25 2020 Why Among Us is the best game to watch on Twitch right now PC Gamer Archived from the original on September 9 2020 Retrieved September 8 2020 Antonovici Anatol March 23 2021 Bitcoin Mining Adds to Existing Shortage in Semiconductor Market Chip Prices Surge Yahoo News Retrieved April 20 2021 Top Gaming Studios Schools amp Salaries Big Fish Games Superannuation How Much Does It Cost To Make A Big Video Game Kotaku Gawker Media Retrieved October 30 2014 Kain Erik Why Digital Distribution Is The Future And GameStop Is Not Taking The Long View On Used Games Forbes Retrieved October 30 2014 Call of Duty Black Ops sets record for Activision Archived January 25 2011 at the Wayback Machine Yahoo Games Plugged In December 21 2010 Retrieved on May 19 2011 Variety GTA IV Launch Bigger Than Halo 3 And Then Some Kotaku April 15 2008 Retrieved on April 15 2008 Japan s Richest Man Is Yes Hiroshi Yamauchi Forbes May 7 2008 Archived from the original on 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wrong at UK games retail GamesIndustry biz Retrieved June 30 2017 Dring Christopher November 8 2016 Is the industry s obsession with Day One coming to an end GamesIndustry biz Retrieved June 30 2017 a b Purchese Robert December 18 2013 Myth busting the murky world of video game trade ins Eurogamer Retrieved June 30 2017 Parfitt Ben August 7 2013 Pre owned price comparison site Trade In Detectives goes live MCV Retrieved June 30 2017 Wolverton Troy May 24 2005 Activision Aims for Sweet Spot TheStreet com Archived from the original on March 30 2009 Retrieved March 30 2009 Valjalo David October 4 2010 3DS Will Fight Piracy With Firmware Edge Magazine Next gen biz Archived from the original on February 12 2013 Retrieved November 9 2010 Technology EA dumps DRM for next Sims game BBC News March 31 2009 Retrieved November 9 2010 Global sales of recorded music down 9 2 in the first half of 2002 from IFPI ifpi org Global sales of recorded music down 10 9 in the first half of 2003 from IFPI ifpi org Digital sales triple to 6 of industry retail revenues as global music market falls 1 9 2005 from IFPI ifpi org Szalai Georg June 21 2007 Video game industry growth still strong study Reuters E3 is Obsolete But it Doesn t Matter Forbes June 8 2012 Retrieved October 18 2012 a b Josh Butler August 11 2010 The irritation of staggered release dates Den of Geek Retrieved June 5 2018 Elliman Sarah November 8 2017 East to West The Major Differences in Game Releases Based on Geographic Locations Gameskinny com Retrieved June 5 2018 Region Lock and Video Games Dungeoncrawl com au Retrieved June 5 2018 Jason Rodriguez August 31 2017 Destiny 2 will have a staggered worldwide release Australia and Japan get it first Destructoid com Retrieved June 5 2018 a b Top 100 Countries by Game Revenue newzoo com newzoo January 2017 Percentage of GBO of all films feature exhibited that are national UNESCO Institute for Statistics Retrieved November 1 2013 a b Newzoo s Top 100 Countries by 2015 Game 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Takahashi Dean February 14 2017 The U S game industry has 2 457 companies supporting 220 000 jobs VentureBeat Retrieved April 7 2020 Gough Christina August 12 2019 Video Game Industry Statistics amp Facts Statista Retrieved August 23 2019 Games software hardware 165B in 2018 230B in 5 years record 2B investment last year Digi Capital Retrieved August 24 2019 Industry Facts Entertainment Software Association New Study Finds Video Game Players Are Highly Engaged Politically Entertainment Software Association Top 100 Countries By Game Revenues newzoo com January 2017 Retrieved October 1 2014 The View From the Tower gamesindustry biz Mardsen Rhordi January 25 2015 Geeks Who Rocked The World Documentary Looks Back At Origins Of The Computer games Industry The Independent Retrieved October 3 2019 Stuart Keith January 27 2010 Back to the bedroom how indie gaming is reviving the Britsoft spirit The Guardian Retrieved October 3 2019 How British video games became a billion pound industry BBC December 2014 Retrieved September 30 2019 Media Molecule Officially Joins The PlayStation Family PlayStation Blog Europe Blog eu playstation com March 2 2010 Retrieved January 27 2011 Hinkle David April 5 2010 Reliance Big Entertainment acquires 50 stake in Codemasters Joystiq Retrieved November 9 2010 Henderson Rik March 21 2012 UK tax relief break Retrieved March 31 2012 Game industry tax relief plans are shelved Wired co uk June 22 2010 Archived from the original on June 25 2010 Retrieved November 9 2010 Canada overtakes UK March 31 2012 Retrieved March 31 2012 Game Revenues of Top 25 Companies up 17 Totaling 25Bn newzoo The Global Games Market Reaches 99 6 Billion in 2016 Mobile Generating 37 newzoo com April 21 2016 Retrieved June 3 2016 Xbox One Hits China Today Following 14 Year Console Ban GameSpot Valentine Rebekah February 12 2019 Newzoo Global esports market will exceed 1 billion in 2019 GamesIndustry biz Retrieved September 24 2019 China Freezes Game Approvals Amid Agency Shakeup Bloomberg L P August 14 2018 Retrieved August 15 2018 China targets video gaming to tackle myopia in children BBC August 31 2018 Retrieved November 6 2019 The World s Biggest Games Show Isn t In Germany Not Any More Kotaku Japan fights back The Economist November 17 2012 Market Data Capcom Retrieved October 5 2012 Fripp Charlie October 15 2013 Top 10 African game developers IT News Africa Spooner Samantha January 5 2015 Africa 2030 the next 25 years From video games eco buildings robotics and cycling Mail amp Guardian Africa Whan Christopher August 12 2018 Retro game preservation in limbo after Nintendo files lawsuit Global News Retrieved August 14 2018 University Stanley J Baran Bryant 2014 Introduction to Mass Communication Media Literacy and Culture Eighth ed New York McGraw Hill pp 220 221 ISBN 978 0 07 352621 8 University Stanley J Baran Bryant 2014 Introduction to Mass Communication Media Literacy and Culture Eighth ed New York McGraw Hill p 221 ISBN 978 0 07 352621 8 University Stanley J Baran Bryant 2014 Introduction to Mass Communication Media Literacy and Culture Eighth ed New York McGraw Hill p 222 ISBN 978 0 07 352621 8 Further reading EditLeone Matt July 17 2017 What it costs to run an independent video game store Polygon Retrieved July 17 2017 External links EditLook up video game industry in Wiktionary the free dictionary comp games development industry Google Groups International Game Developers Association Playing the Game The Economics of the Computer Game Industry Cambridge University Press Sloperama Game Biz Advice Tom Sloper Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Video game industry amp oldid 1052451163, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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