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Video game journalism

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Video game journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of video games, typically based on a core "reveal–preview–review" cycle. With the prevalence and rise of independent media online, online publications and blogs have grown.

Contents

Print-based

The first magazine to cover the arcade game industry was the subscription-only trade periodical, Play Meter magazine, which began publication in 1974 and covered the entire coin-operated entertainment industry (including the video game industry). Consumer-oriented video game journalism began during the golden age of arcade video games, soon after the success of 1978 hit Space Invaders, leading to hundreds of favourable articles and stories about the emerging video game medium being aired on television and printed in newspapers and magazines. In North America, the first regular consumer-oriented column about video games, "Arcade Alley" in Video magazine, began in 1979 and was penned by Bill Kunkel along with Arnie Katz and Joyce Worley. The late 1970s also marked the first coverage of video games in Japan, with columns appearing in personal computer and manga magazines. The earliest journals exclusively covering video games emerged in late 1981, but early column-based coverage continued to flourish in North America and Japan with prominent examples like video game designer Yuji Horii's early 1980s column in Weekly Shōnen Jump and Rawson Stovall's nationally syndicated column, "The Vid Kid" running weekly ran from 1982 to 1992.

The first consumer-oriented print magazine dedicated solely to video gaming was Computer and Video Games, which premiered in the U.K. in November 1981. This was two weeks ahead of the U.S. launch of the next oldest video gaming publication, Electronic Games magazine, founded by "Arcade Alley" writers Bill Kunkel and Arnie Katz. As of 2015[update], the oldest video game publications still in circulation are Famitsu, founded in 1986, and The Games Machine (Italy), founded in 1988.

The video game crash of 1983 badly hurt the market for video game magazines in North America. Computer Gaming World (CGW) reported in a 1987 article that there were eighteen color magazines covering computer games before the crash but by 1984 CGW was the only surviving magazine in the region. Expanding on this in a discussion about the launch of the NES in North America, Nintendo of America's PR runner Gail Tilden noted that "I don't know that we got any coverage at that time that we didn't pay for". Video game journalism in Japan experienced less disruption as the first magazines entirely dedicated to video games began appearing in 1982, beginning with ASCII's LOGiN, followed by several SoftBank publications and Kadokawa Shoten's Comptiq. The first magazine dedicated to console games, or a specific video game console, was Tokuma Shoten's Family Computer Magazine (also known as Famimaga), which began in 1985 and was focused on Nintendo's 8-bit Family Computer. This magazine later spawned famous imitators such as Famitsū (originally named Famicom Tsūshin) in 1986 and Nintendo Power in 1988. Famimaga had a circulation of 600,000 copies per issue by December 1985, increasing to1 million in 1986.

By 1992, British video game magazines had a circulation of1 million copies per month in the United Kingdom. During the early 1990s, the practice of video game journalism began to spread east from Europe and west of Japan alongside the emergence of video game markets in countries like China and Russia. Russia's first consumer-oriented gaming magazine, Velikij Drakon, was launched in 1993, and China's first consumer-oriented gaming magazines, Diànzǐ Yóuxì Ruǎnjiàn and Play, launched in mid-1994.

Web-based

There are conflicting claims regarding which of the first two electronic video game magazines was the "first to be published regularly" online. Originally starting as a print fanzine in April 1992, Game Zero magazine, claims to have launched a web page in November 1994, with the earliest formal announcement of the page occurring in April 1995. Game Zero's web site was based upon a printed bi-monthly magazine based in Central Ohio with a circulation of 1500 that developed into a CD-ROM based magazine with a circulation of 150,000 at its peak. The website was updated weekly during its active period from 1994–1996.

Another publication, Intelligent Gamer Online ("IG Online"), debuted a complete web site in April 1995, commencing regular updates to the site on a daily basis despite its "bi-weekly" name. Intelligent Gamer had been publishing online for years prior to the popularization of the web, originally having been based upon a downloadable "Intelligent Gamer" publication developed by Joe Barlow and Jeremy Horwitz in 1993. This evolved further under Horwitz and Usenet-based publisher Anthony Shubert into "Intelligent Gamer Online" interactive online mini-sites for America Online (AOL) and the Los Angeles Times' TimesLink/Prodigy online services in late 1994 and early 1995. At the time, it was called "the first national videogame magazine found only online".

Game Zero Magazine ceased active publication at the end of 1996 and is maintained as an archive site. Efforts by Horwitz and Shubert, backed by a strong library of built up web content eventually allowed IG Online to be acquired by Sendai Publishing and Ziff Davis Media, the publishers of then-leading United States print publication Electronic Gaming Monthly who transformed the publication into a separate print property in February 1996.

New media

Future Publishing exemplifies the old media's decline in the games sector. In 2003 the group saw multi-million GBP profits and strong growth, but by early 2006 were issuing profit warnings and closing unprofitable magazines (none related to gaming). Then, in late November 2006, the publisher reported both a pre-tax loss of £49 million ($96 million USD) and the sale—in order to reduce its level of bank debt—of Italian subsidiary Future Media Italy.

In mid-2006 Eurogamer's business development manager Pat Garratt wrote a criticism of those in print games journalism who had not adapted to the web, drawing on his own prior experience in print to offer an explanation of both the challenges facing companies like Future Publishing and why he believed they had not overcome them.

With the rise of eSport popularity, traditional sport reporting websites such ESPN and Yahoo launched their own eSport dedicated sections in early 2016. This move came with controversy, especially in the case of ESPN whose president, John Skipper, stated eSports were a competition instead of a sport. The response to the shift was either great interest or great distaste. However, as of January 2017, ESPN and Yahoo continue their online coverage of eSports. Yahoo eSports ended on June 21, 2017

In addition, ESPN and Yahoo, other contemporary eSport dedicated news sites, like The Score Esports or Dot Esports, cover some of the most widely followed games like Counter-Strike, League of Legends, and Dota 2.

Independent

While self-made print fanzines about games have been around since the first home consoles, the rise of the internet gave independent gaming journalist a new platform.

At first ignored by most major game publishers, it was not until the communities developed an influential and dedicated readership, and increasingly produced professional (or near-professional) writing that the sites gained the attention of these larger companies.

Independent video game websites are generally non-profit, with any revenue going back towards hosting costs and, occasionally, paying its writers. As their name suggests, they are not affiliated with any companies or studios, though bias is inherent in the unregulated model to which they subscribe. While many independent sites take the form of blogs (the vast majority in fact, depending on how low down the ladder you look), the 'user-submitted' model, where readers write stories that are moderated by an editorial team, is also popular.

In recent times some of the larger independent sites have begun to be bought up by larger media companies, most often Ziff Davis Media, who now own a string of independent sites.

In 2013–2014, IGN and GameSpot announced significant layoffs.

The rise of reviews on video-oriented sites

According to a 2014 article by Mike Rose in Gamasutra: "The publicity someone like TotalBiscuit ... can bring you compared to mainstay consumer websites like IGN, GameSpot and Game Informer is becoming increasingly significant. A year ago, I would have advised any developer to get in touch with as many press outlets as possible, as soon as possible. I still advise this now, but with the following caveat: You're doing so to get the attention of YouTubers." Rose interviewed several game developers and publishers and concluded that the importance of popular YouTube coverage was most pronounced for indie games, dwarfing that of the dedicated gaming publications.

David Auerbach wrote in Slate that the influence of the video games press is waning. "Game companies and developers are now reaching out directly to quasi-amateur enthusiasts as a better way to build their brands, both because the gamers are more influential than the gaming journalists, and because these enthusiasts have far better relationships with their audiences than gaming journalists do. ... Nintendo has already been shutting out the video game press for years." He concluded that gaming journalists' audience, gamers, is leaving them for video-oriented review sites.

Journalism in the computer and video game media industry has been a subject of debate since at least 2002.

Conflicts of interest and pressure from game publishers

Publications reviewing a game often receive advertising revenue and entertainment from the game's publishers, which can lead to perceived conflicts of interest. Reviews by 'official' platform-specific magazines such as Nintendo Power, Official PlayStation Magazine or the Official Xbox Magazine typically have direct financial ties to their respective platform holders.[citation needed]

In 2001, The 3DO Company's president sent an email to GamePro threatening to reduce their advertising spend following a negative review.

In 2007, Jeff Gerstmann was fired from GameSpot after posting a review on Kane & Lynch: Dead Men that was deemed too negative by its publisher, which also advertised heavily on the website. Due to non-disclosure agreements, Gerstmann was not able to talk about the topic publicly until 2012.

In a 2012 article for Eurogamer, Robert Florence criticised the relationship between the video games press and publishers, characterising it as "almost indistinguishable from PR", and questioned the integrity of a games journalist, Lauren Wainwright. In the controversy that followed, dubbed "Doritogate" (after a video of Geoff Keighley emerged of him sitting in front of bottles of Mountain Dew, bags of Doritos and an ad banner for Halo 4), the threat of legal action—the result of broad libel laws in the UK—caused Eurogamer to self-censor. Florence was forced to amend his article, and he consequently retired from games journalism.

According to a July 2014 survey by Mike Rose in Gamasutra, approximately a quarter of high-profile YouTube gaming channels receive pay from the game publishers or developers for their coverage, especially those in the form of Let's Play videos.

Following the Gamergate controversy that started in August 2014, both Destructoid and The Escapist tightened their disclosure and conflict of interest policies. Kotaku editor-in-chief Stephen Totilo said writers were no longer allowed to donate to Patreon campaigns of developers. Kotaku later disclosed that journalist Patricia Hernandez, who had written for them, was friends with developers Anna Anthropy and Christine Love, as well as being Anthropy's former housemate. Polygon announced that they would disclose previous and future Patreon contributions.

Review scores and aggregate ratings

Reviews performed by major video game print sources, websites, and mainstream newspapers that sometimes carry video game such as The New York Times and The Washington Post are generally collected for consumers at sites like Metacritic, Game Rankings, and Rotten Tomatoes. If the reviews are scored or graded, these sites will convert that to a numerical score and use a calculation to come out with an aggregate score. In the case of Metacritic, these scores are further weighted by an importance factor associated with the publication. Metacritic also is known to evaluate unscored reviews and assign a numeric score for this as well based on the impression the site editors get about the review.

Within the industry, Metacritic has become a measure of the critical success of a game by game publishers, frequently used in its financial reports to impress investors. The video game industry typically does not pay on residuals but instead on critical performance. Prior to release, a publisher may include contractual bonuses to a developer if they achieve a minimum Metacritic score. In one of the more recognized examples, members of Obsidian Entertainment were to have gotten bonuses from Bethesda Softworks for their work on Fallout: New Vegas if they obtained a Metacritic score of 85 or better out of 100. After release, the game only obtained an 84 aggregate score from Metacritic, one point away, and Bethesda refused to pay them.

Video game reviewers are aware of their impact on the Metacritic score and subsequent effect on bonus payment schemes. Eurogamer, prior 2014, were aware that they generally graded games on a scoring scale lower than other websites, and would pull down the overall Metacritic score. For this reason, the site dropped review scores in 2014, and their scores are no longer included in these aggregate scores. Kotaku also dropped review scores for the same reason.

Frequently, publishers will enforce a embargo on reviews of a game until a certain date, commonly on the day of release or a few days ahead of that date. Such embargos are intended to prevent tarnishing the game's reputation prior to release and affecting pre-release and first-day sales. Similar embargoes are used in other entertainment industries, but the nature of interactivity with video games creates unique challenges in how these embargos are executed. In agreements with publishers, media outlets will get advance copies of the game to prepare their review to have ready for this date. However, embargo agreement may include other terms such as specific content that may not be discussed in the review. This has led to some publications purposely holding off reviews until after the embargo as to be able to include specific criticism towards features that were marked off-limits in the embargo agreement, such as for 2013's SimCity. Additionally, modern lengthier games can offer more than 20 hours of content, and the amount of time journalists have to review these advance copies prior to the embargo date is limited. It has become a concern of these journalists that they are knowingly publishing reviews that cover only a fraction of the game's content, but waiting any longer beyond the embargo date will harm viewership of their site.

Rumors, confidential information, and blacklisting

A good deal of information in the video game industry is kept under wraps by developers and publishers until the game's release; even information regarding the selection of voice actors is kept under high confidential agreements. However, rumors and leaks of such information still fall into the hands of video game journalists, often from anonymous sources from within game development companies, and it becomes a matter of journalistic integrity whether to publish this information or not.

Kotaku has self-reported on the downsides of reporting unrevealed information and dealing with subsequent video game publisher backlash as a result. In 2009, the site published information about the upcoming PlayStation Home before Sony had announced it, and Sony severed its relationship with Kotaku. When Kotaku reported this on their site, readers complained to Sony about this, and Sony reversed its decision. Kotaku has also published significant detailed histories on troubled game development for titles such as for Doom 4 and Prey 2, as well as announcing titles months in advance from the publisher. In November 2015, the site reported they had been "blacklisted" by Bethesda and Ubisoft for at least a year; they no longer got review copies, nor received press information from the publishers, nor can interact with any of their company's representatives.

New Games Journalism (NGJ) is a video game journalism term, coined by journalist Kieron Gillen in 2004, in which personal anecdotes, references to other media, and creative analyses are used to explore game design, play, and culture. It is a model of New Journalism applied to video game journalism. A 2010 article in the New Yorker claimed that the term New Games Journalism "never caught on, but the impulse—that video games deserved both observational and personal approaches—is quite valid." It cites author Tom Bissell and his book Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter as a good example of this type of gaming journalism.

As retrogaming grew in popularity, so did reviews and examinations of older video games. This is primarily due to feelings of nostalgia to video games people have grown up with, which, according to professor Clay Routledge, may be more powerful than similar nostalgic emotions caused by other artforms, such as music.

This also includes the remasterization and review of older video games, with such, as reviewing the critical aspects of the game and how it is delivered to a modern aspect.

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Video game journalism
Video game journalism Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Video game journalist This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information July 2015 This article s lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article February 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message Video game journalism is a branch of journalism concerned with the reporting and discussion of video games typically based on a core reveal preview review cycle With the prevalence and rise of independent media online online publications and blogs have grown Contents 1 History 1 1 Print based 1 2 Web based 1 2 1 New media 1 2 2 Independent 1 2 3 The rise of reviews on video oriented sites 2 Ethics 2 1 Conflicts of interest and pressure from game publishers 2 2 Review scores and aggregate ratings 2 3 Rumors confidential information and blacklisting 3 New Games Journalism 4 Retro game reviews 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory EditPrint based Edit The first magazine to cover the arcade game industry was the subscription only trade periodical Play Meter magazine which began publication in 1974 and covered the entire coin operated entertainment industry including the video game industry 1 Consumer oriented video game journalism began during the golden age of arcade video games soon after the success of 1978 hit Space Invaders leading to hundreds of favourable articles and stories about the emerging video game medium being aired on television and printed in newspapers and magazines 2 In North America the first regular consumer oriented column about video games Arcade Alley in Video magazine began in 1979 and was penned by Bill Kunkel along with Arnie Katz and Joyce Worley 3 The late 1970s also marked the first coverage of video games in Japan with columns appearing in personal computer and manga magazines 4 The earliest journals exclusively covering video games emerged in late 1981 but early column based coverage continued to flourish in North America and Japan with prominent examples like video game designer Yuji Horii s early 1980s column in Weekly Shōnen Jump 5 and Rawson Stovall s nationally syndicated column The Vid Kid running weekly ran from 1982 to 1992 The first consumer oriented print magazine dedicated solely to video gaming was Computer and Video Games which premiered in the U K in November 1981 This was two weeks ahead of the U S launch of the next oldest video gaming publication Electronic Games magazine founded by Arcade Alley writers Bill Kunkel and Arnie Katz 3 As of 2015 update the oldest video game publications still in circulation are Famitsu founded in 1986 and The Games Machine Italy founded in 1988 The video game crash of 1983 badly hurt the market for video game magazines in North America Computer Gaming World CGW reported in a 1987 article that there were eighteen color magazines covering computer games before the crash but by 1984 CGW was the only surviving magazine in the region 6 Expanding on this in a discussion about the launch of the NES in North America Nintendo of America s PR runner Gail Tilden noted that I don t know that we got any coverage at that time that we didn t pay for 7 Video game journalism in Japan experienced less disruption as the first magazines entirely dedicated to video games began appearing in 1982 beginning with ASCII s LOGiN followed by several SoftBank publications and Kadokawa Shoten s Comptiq The first magazine dedicated to console games or a specific video game console was Tokuma Shoten s Family Computer Magazine also known as Famimaga which began in 1985 and was focused on Nintendo s 8 bit Family Computer This magazine later spawned famous imitators such as Famitsu originally named Famicom Tsushin in 1986 and Nintendo Power in 1988 4 Famimaga had a circulation of 600 000 copies per issue by December 1985 8 increasing to 1 million in 1986 9 By 1992 British video game magazines had a circulation of 1 million copies per month in the United Kingdom 10 During the early 1990s the practice of video game journalism began to spread east from Europe and west of Japan alongside the emergence of video game markets in countries like China and Russia Russia s first consumer oriented gaming magazine Velikij Drakon was launched in 1993 11 and China s first consumer oriented gaming magazines Dianzǐ Youxi Ruǎnjian and Play launched in mid 1994 12 Web based Edit There are conflicting claims regarding which of the first two electronic video game magazines was the first to be published regularly online Originally starting as a print fanzine in April 1992 13 Game Zero magazine claims to have launched a web page in November 1994 14 with the earliest formal announcement of the page occurring in April 1995 Game Zero s web site was based upon a printed bi monthly magazine based in Central Ohio with a circulation of 1500 that developed into a CD ROM based magazine with a circulation of 150 000 at its peak The website was updated weekly during its active period from 1994 1996 Another publication Intelligent Gamer Online IG Online debuted a complete web site in April 1995 commencing regular updates to the site on a daily basis despite its bi weekly name 15 Intelligent Gamer had been publishing online for years prior to the popularization of the web originally having been based upon a downloadable Intelligent Gamer publication developed by Joe Barlow and Jeremy Horwitz in 1993 16 This evolved further under Horwitz and Usenet based publisher Anthony Shubert 17 into Intelligent Gamer Online interactive online mini sites for America Online AOL and the Los Angeles Times TimesLink Prodigy online services in late 1994 and early 1995 At the time it was called the first national videogame magazine found only online 18 Game Zero Magazine ceased active publication at the end of 1996 and is maintained as an archive site Efforts by Horwitz and Shubert backed by a strong library of built up web content eventually allowed IG Online to be acquired by Sendai Publishing and Ziff Davis Media the publishers of then leading United States print publication Electronic Gaming Monthly who transformed the publication into a separate print property in February 1996 19 20 21 New media Edit Future Publishing exemplifies the old media s decline in the games sector In 2003 the group saw multi million GBP profits and strong growth 22 but by early 2006 were issuing profit warnings 23 and closing unprofitable magazines none related to gaming 24 Then in late November 2006 the publisher reported both a pre tax loss of 49 million 96 million USD and the sale in order to reduce its level of bank debt of Italian subsidiary Future Media Italy 25 In mid 2006 Eurogamer s business development manager Pat Garratt wrote a criticism of those in print games journalism who had not adapted to the web drawing on his own prior experience in print to offer an explanation of both the challenges facing companies like Future Publishing and why he believed they had not overcome them 26 With the rise of eSport popularity traditional sport reporting websites such ESPN and Yahoo launched their own eSport dedicated sections in early 2016 27 28 This move came with controversy especially in the case of ESPN whose president John Skipper stated eSports were a competition instead of a sport 29 The response to the shift was either great interest or great distaste 30 However as of January 2017 ESPN and Yahoo continue their online coverage of eSports Yahoo eSports ended on June 21 2017 31 In addition ESPN and Yahoo other contemporary eSport dedicated news sites like The Score Esports or Dot Esports cover some of the most widely followed games like Counter Strike League of Legends and Dota 2 32 Independent Edit While self made print fanzines about games have been around since the first home consoles the rise of the internet gave independent gaming journalist a new platform At first ignored by most major game publishers it was not until the communities developed an influential and dedicated readership and increasingly produced professional or near professional writing that the sites gained the attention of these larger companies Independent video game websites are generally non profit with any revenue going back towards hosting costs and occasionally paying its writers As their name suggests they are not affiliated with any companies or studios though bias is inherent in the unregulated model to which they subscribe While many independent sites take the form of blogs the vast majority in fact depending on how low down the ladder you look the user submitted model where readers write stories that are moderated by an editorial team is also popular In recent times some of the larger independent sites have begun to be bought up by larger media companies most often Ziff Davis Media who now own a string of independent sites In 2013 2014 IGN and GameSpot announced significant layoffs 33 34 The rise of reviews on video oriented sites Edit According to a 2014 article by Mike Rose in Gamasutra The publicity someone like TotalBiscuit can bring you compared to mainstay consumer websites like IGN GameSpot and Game Informer is becoming increasingly significant A year ago I would have advised any developer to get in touch with as many press outlets as possible as soon as possible I still advise this now but with the following caveat You re doing so to get the attention of YouTubers Rose interviewed several game developers and publishers and concluded that the importance of popular YouTube coverage was most pronounced for indie games dwarfing that of the dedicated gaming publications 35 David Auerbach wrote in Slate that the influence of the video games press is waning Game companies and developers are now reaching out directly to quasi amateur enthusiasts as a better way to build their brands both because the gamers are more influential than the gaming journalists and because these enthusiasts have far better relationships with their audiences than gaming journalists do Nintendo has already been shutting out the video game press for years He concluded that gaming journalists audience gamers is leaving them for video oriented review sites 36 Ethics EditSee also Journalism ethics and standards Journalism in the computer and video game media industry has been a subject of debate since at least 2002 37 Conflicts of interest and pressure from game publishers Edit Publications reviewing a game often receive advertising revenue and entertainment from the game s publishers which can lead to perceived conflicts of interest 38 Reviews by official platform specific magazines such as Nintendo Power Official PlayStation Magazine or the Official Xbox Magazine typically have direct financial ties to their respective platform holders citation needed In 2001 The 3DO Company s president sent an email to GamePro threatening to reduce their advertising spend following a negative review 39 In 2007 Jeff Gerstmann was fired from GameSpot after posting a review on Kane amp Lynch Dead Men that was deemed too negative by its publisher which also advertised heavily on the website 39 40 Due to non disclosure agreements Gerstmann was not able to talk about the topic publicly until 2012 41 In a 2012 article for Eurogamer Robert Florence criticised the relationship between the video games press and publishers characterising it as almost indistinguishable from PR and questioned the integrity of a games journalist Lauren Wainwright 36 40 42 In the controversy that followed dubbed Doritogate after a video of Geoff Keighley emerged of him sitting in front of bottles of Mountain Dew bags of Doritos and an ad banner for Halo 4 the threat of legal action the result of broad libel laws in the UK caused Eurogamer to self censor 43 Florence was forced to amend his article and he consequently retired from games journalism 40 44 45 According to a July 2014 survey by Mike Rose in Gamasutra approximately a quarter of high profile YouTube gaming channels receive pay from the game publishers or developers for their coverage especially those in the form of Let s Play videos 46 Following the Gamergate controversy that started in August 2014 both Destructoid and The Escapist tightened their disclosure and conflict of interest policies 47 Kotaku editor in chief Stephen Totilo said writers were no longer allowed to donate to Patreon campaigns of developers 48 Kotaku later disclosed that journalist Patricia Hernandez who had written for them was friends with developers Anna Anthropy and Christine Love as well as being Anthropy s former housemate 49 50 Polygon announced that they would disclose previous and future Patreon contributions 51 Review scores and aggregate ratings Edit Reviews performed by major video game print sources websites and mainstream newspapers that sometimes carry video game such as The New York Times and The Washington Post are generally collected for consumers at sites like Metacritic Game Rankings and Rotten Tomatoes If the reviews are scored or graded these sites will convert that to a numerical score and use a calculation to come out with an aggregate score In the case of Metacritic these scores are further weighted by an importance factor associated with the publication Metacritic also is known to evaluate unscored reviews and assign a numeric score for this as well based on the impression the site editors get about the review 52 Within the industry Metacritic has become a measure of the critical success of a game by game publishers frequently used in its financial reports to impress investors The video game industry typically does not pay on residuals but instead on critical performance 53 Prior to release a publisher may include contractual bonuses to a developer if they achieve a minimum Metacritic score In one of the more recognized examples members of Obsidian Entertainment were to have gotten bonuses from Bethesda Softworks for their work on Fallout New Vegas if they obtained a Metacritic score of 85 or better out of 100 After release the game only obtained an 84 aggregate score from Metacritic one point away and Bethesda refused to pay them 52 54 Video game reviewers are aware of their impact on the Metacritic score and subsequent effect on bonus payment schemes Eurogamer prior 2014 were aware that they generally graded games on a scoring scale lower than other websites and would pull down the overall Metacritic score For this reason the site dropped review scores in 2014 and their scores are no longer included in these aggregate scores Kotaku also dropped review scores for the same reason 52 Frequently publishers will enforce a embargo on reviews of a game until a certain date commonly on the day of release or a few days ahead of that date Such embargos are intended to prevent tarnishing the game s reputation prior to release and affecting pre release and first day sales 55 Similar embargoes are used in other entertainment industries but the nature of interactivity with video games creates unique challenges in how these embargos are executed In agreements with publishers media outlets will get advance copies of the game to prepare their review to have ready for this date However embargo agreement may include other terms such as specific content that may not be discussed in the review This has led to some publications purposely holding off reviews until after the embargo as to be able to include specific criticism towards features that were marked off limits in the embargo agreement such as for 2013 s SimCity 56 Additionally modern lengthier games can offer more than 20 hours of content and the amount of time journalists have to review these advance copies prior to the embargo date is limited It has become a concern of these journalists that they are knowingly publishing reviews that cover only a fraction of the game s content but waiting any longer beyond the embargo date will harm viewership of their site 57 58 Rumors confidential information and blacklisting Edit A good deal of information in the video game industry is kept under wraps by developers and publishers until the game s release even information regarding the selection of voice actors is kept under high confidential agreements 59 However rumors and leaks of such information still fall into the hands of video game journalists often from anonymous sources from within game development companies and it becomes a matter of journalistic integrity whether to publish this information or not Kotaku has self reported on the downsides of reporting unrevealed information and dealing with subsequent video game publisher backlash as a result 60 In 2009 the site published information about the upcoming PlayStation Home before Sony had announced it and Sony severed its relationship with Kotaku When Kotaku reported this on their site readers complained to Sony about this and Sony reversed its decision Kotaku has also published significant detailed histories on troubled game development for titles such as for Doom 4 and Prey 2 as well as announcing titles months in advance from the publisher In November 2015 the site reported they had been blacklisted by Bethesda and Ubisoft for at least a year they no longer got review copies nor received press information from the publishers nor can interact with any of their company s representatives 61 New Games Journalism EditNew Games Journalism NGJ is a video game journalism term coined by journalist Kieron Gillen 62 in 2004 in which personal anecdotes references to other media and creative analyses are used to explore game design play and culture 63 It is a model of New Journalism applied to video game journalism 62 63 A 2010 article in the New Yorker claimed that the term New Games Journalism never caught on but the impulse that video games deserved both observational and personal approaches is quite valid It cites author Tom Bissell and his book Extra Lives Why Video Games Matter as a good example of this type of gaming journalism 64 Retro game reviews EditAs retrogaming grew in popularity so did reviews and examinations of older video games 65 This is primarily due to feelings of nostalgia to video games people have grown up with which according to professor Clay Routledge may be more powerful than similar nostalgic emotions caused by other artforms such as music 66 This also includes the remasterization and review of older video games with such as reviewing the critical aspects of the game and how it is delivered to a modern aspect See also EditList of books about video games List of video game magazinesReferences Edit Play Meter Play Meter Archived from the original on 7 February 2012 Retrieved 1 March 2012 Players Guide To Electronic Science Fiction Games Electronic Games 1 2 35 45 36 March 1982 Archived from the original on 2 April 2012 Retrieved 1 February 2012 a b Kohler Chris September 6 2011 Bill Kunkel Original Gaming Journalist Dies at 61 Wired Archived from the original on 19 December 2013 Retrieved 1 March 2012 a b Gifford Kevin April 27 2008 Game Mag Weaseling Japan Mag Roundup 2008 GameSetWatch Archived from the original on 11 October 2012 Retrieved 1 March 2012 Fujii Daiji 2003 Entrepreneurial Choices of Strategic Options in Japan s RPG Development PDF p 13 Archived from the original PDF on 2008 12 30 Retrieved 2006 08 12 Sipe Russell December 1987 Editorial Computer Gaming World p 4 Cifaldi Frank 28 March 2012 Sad But True We Can t Prove When Super Mario Bros Came Out Gamasutra p 2 Archived from the original on 19 October 2014 Retrieved 8 October 2014 Overseas Readers Column Super Mario Bros Boom Bringing Best Selling Book PDF Game Machine No 275 Amusement Press Inc 15 January 1986 p 24 The Video Game With Media Potential Japan Quarterly The Asahi Shimbun 295 296 296 1986 A magazine introducing game software for the Famikon called Family Computer Magazine has also appeared selling over 1 million copies of each semimonthly issue Warr Simon Morgan 22 August 1992 Game war heroes Sega v Nintendo The Independent Retrieved 24 September 2021 Gifford Kevin COLUMN Game Mag Weaseling Where The Magazines Read You Archived 2012 10 12 at the Wayback Machine GameSetWatch 29 June 2010 Staff 电子游戏软件 期刊简介 Archived 2015 01 11 at the Wayback Machine 中文科技期刊数据库 Chinese Scientific Journals Database at CQVIP com Retrieved 10 January 2015 On line reprint of main article from first issue with reprint notice at foot of page April 1992 Archived from the original on 2008 05 09 Retrieved 2008 04 25 Earliest Game Zero website reference notice found in Usenet 8 January 1995 Retrieved 2007 01 20 needs better citation IGO web launch and GZ s formal web launches mentioned 8 April 1995 Retrieved 2007 01 20 Earliest Intelligent Gamer reference found in Usenet 13 January 1994 Retrieved 2007 08 23 Game Master Journal 34 9 November 1993 Retrieved 2007 08 23 The first national videogame magazine found ONLY online via Prodigy and TimesLink 3 March 1995 Retrieved 2007 08 23 IGF announcement of Sendai Publishing agreement 7 January 1996 Retrieved 2007 01 20 IGF staff member indicates the magazine is coming soon 18 February 1996 Retrieved 2007 01 20 IGF staff member announces sighting of first print issue on stands 22 February 1996 Retrieved 2007 01 20 Future reports strong results for 2003 GamesIndustry biz 10 March 2003 Archived from the original on 2007 03 27 Retrieved 2006 10 03 Future slips to three year low on profit warning GamesIndustry biz 10 March 2006 Archived from the original on 2007 11 12 Retrieved 2006 10 03 Future Publishing confirms magazine closures but games titles safe GamesIndustry biz 20 September 2006 Archived from the original on 2007 03 27 Retrieved 2006 10 03 Future posts pre tax loss of 49m GamesIndustry biz 29 November 2006 Archived from the original on 2007 11 12 Retrieved 2006 11 29 Paper Trails GamesIndustry biz 18 August 2006 Archived from the original on 2007 03 27 Retrieved 2006 10 03 Dave Paresh ESPN com to cover e sports with same rigor as it does the big leagues Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on 2017 01 03 Retrieved 2017 02 01 Yahoo Launches New Experience Dedicated to Esports Archived from the original on 2016 10 06 Retrieved 2017 02 01 Chmielewski Dawn 2014 09 04 Sorry Twitch ESPN s Skipper Says eSports Not a Sport Recode Archived from the original on 2017 02 25 Retrieved 2017 02 01 Wynne Jared 2015 06 23 ESPN courts esports but is it just playing games Dot Esports Retrieved 2017 02 01 https www youtube com watch v FaY1BayFlAQ Top games on Twitch by hours viewed 2016 Statistic Statista Archived from the original on 2017 03 10 Retrieved 2017 02 01 IGN hit with layoffs 1UP UGO and GameSpy shutting down Polygon 2013 02 21 Archived from the original on 2013 12 17 Massive Layoffs at GameSpot Industry Shifts Toward Livestreaming and Video CraveOnline 2014 07 30 Archived from the original on 12 September 2014 Retrieved 26 September 2014 Mike Rose 18 June 2014 Gamasutra Is YouTube killing the traditional games press Archived from the original on 23 September 2014 Retrieved 26 September 2014 a b David Auerbach 2014 09 04 Gaming Journalism Is Over Slate Archived from the original on 2014 09 13 Retrieved 2014 09 26 Hall Justin 4 April 2003 Ethics in Video Game Journalism Online Journalism Review Archived from the original on 29 September 2006 Retrieved 2006 10 08 Mike Musgrove 2007 07 03 An Inside Play To Sway Video Gamers The Washington Post Retrieved 2007 07 07 a b Gaming The System How A Gaming Journalist Lost His Job Over A Negative Review Forbes 21 March 2012 Archived from the original on 22 March 2012 Retrieved 26 September 2014 a b c Stephen Totilo The Contemptible Games Journalist Why So Many People Don t Trust The Gaming Press And Why They re Sometimes Wrong Kotaku Archived from the original on 2014 10 08 Retrieved 2014 09 26 Jeff Gerstmann Finally Talks About GameSpot Firing GameFront 14 March 2012 Archived from the original on 24 September 2014 Retrieved 26 September 2014 Zsolt Wilhelm 2012 11 03 Doritogate Sind Videospieljournalisten glaubwurdig Der Standard Archived from the original on 2014 10 06 Retrieved 2014 09 26 Fabien Pionneau 2012 12 06 Doritos gate le scandale qui frappe la presse britannique LesNumeriques Archived from the original on 2014 10 06 Retrieved 2014 09 26 TotalBiscuit Games Journalism Is An Irredeemable Mess 2012 10 26 Archived from the original on 6 October 2014 Retrieved 26 September 2014 Video Game Journalist Robert Florence Leaves Eurogamer After Libel Complaints Forbes 25 October 2012 Archived from the original on 30 September 2014 Retrieved 26 September 2014 Mike Rose 11 July 2014 Gamasutra Pay for Play The ethics of paying for YouTuber coverage Archived from the original on 23 September 2014 Retrieved 26 September 2014 Usher William September 15 2014 The Escapist Destructoid Update Their Policies Ethics In Light Of GamerGate CinemaBlend Archived from the original on September 12 2014 Retrieved September 16 2014 Stephen Totilo 26 August 2014 A brief note about the continued discussion about Kotaku s approach to reporting Archived from the original on 23 June 2017 The Steam Achievement That Nobody Unlocked 28 July 2014 Archived from the original on 18 October 2014 It s Time We Put The Bald Space Marine Away It s Time To Make Games For More People 8 January 2013 Archived from the original on 18 November 2014 Christopher Grant 26 August 2014 On Patreon support Archived from the original on 2 May 2015 a b c Baker Chris February 13 2017 Metacritic Still Matters But For How Long Glixel Archived from the original on February 14 2017 Retrieved February 13 2017 Griner David April 2 2013 Why Aren t Video Game Actors Treated Like Stars Polygon Archived from the original on December 14 2016 Retrieved January 25 2017 Gilbert Ben March 15 2012 Obsidian missed Fallout New Vegas Metacritic bonus by one point Engadget Archived from the original on February 14 2017 Retrieved February 13 2017 Morran Chris November 11 2014 3 Reasons Why Video Game Review Embargoes Are Particularly Anti Consumer The Consumerist Retrieved October 13 2021 Whitehead Dan March 25 2013 Review Embargoes The Subtle Straitjacket GamesIndustry biz Retrieved October 13 2021 Klimentov Mikhail October 12 2021 The video game review process is broken It s bad for readers writers and games The Washington Post Retrieved October 13 2021 Tolito Stephen February 4 2021 Here s How Video Game Embargoes And Other Restrictions Work Kotaku Retrieved October 13 2021 Needlemen Sarah December 4 2016 So You Were the Blue Zombie Actors Play Videogame Characters in the Dark Wall Street Journal Archived from the original on January 1 2017 Retrieved January 26 2017 Totilo Stephen A Price Of Games Journalism Kotaku Retrieved 2018 11 23 Orland Kyle November 20 2015 Analysis Kotaku blacklisting and the independence of the gaming press Ars Technica Archived from the original on February 14 2017 Retrieved February 13 2017 a b Stuart Keith 2005 03 03 Ten unmissable examples of New Games Journalism The Guardian Archived from the original on 2014 10 14 Retrieved 2014 10 07 a b Gillen Kieron 23 March 2004 The New Games Journalism Kieron Gillen s Workblog Archived from the original on 7 October 2014 Retrieved 2014 10 07 Originally published as Gillen Kieron The NGJ Manifesto Archived from the original on October 19 2004 Retrieved 2006 12 30 Five Essential Books on Video Games The New Yorker 7 April 2010 Parrack Dave 2012 08 15 8 Of The Best Retro Gaming YouTube Channels MUO Gaming makeuseof com Archived from the original on 2014 12 31 Retrieved 2014 12 30 McFerran Damien 2012 09 12 Crippled by Nostalgia The Fraud of Retro Gaming Eurogamer Archived from the original on 2014 12 31 Retrieved 2014 12 30 Further reading EditRignall Jaz March 10 2017 The Magazines That Were Video Gaming s Original Clickbait USgamer Retrieved January 21 2021 A Survey of Game Writing Online Online Journalism Review April 4 2003 Retrieved 2006 10 08 Video Game Journalists Share Insider Insights at The Art Institute of California Denver Westword Archived from the original on 2006 05 24 Retrieved 2006 10 10 Game On Video game journalists look for a little respect About com January 6 2003 Retrieved 2006 10 10 The Lester Bangs of Video Games Esquire July 2006 Retrieved 2006 10 10 The Pointlessness of Current Videogame Journalism January 7 2006 Retrieved 2006 10 10 The 5 Problems with Videogame Journalism FiringSquad January 27 2006 Retrieved 2006 10 10 Video Game Journalism Needs An Overhaul Blogcritics org August 21 2005 Archived from the original on November 28 2005 Retrieved 2006 10 10 Gaming s Top 50 Journalists Next Generation October 17 2006 Retrieved 2006 10 23 Game Journalists on Game Journalism The Escapist November 14 2006 Retrieved 2006 11 15 Game News and Reviews Tech News November 14 2006 Retrieved 2006 11 15 The Mainstream Media Is Not Playing Games The Ringer October 25 2019 Retrieved 2019 11 01 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Video game journalism Ten Unmissable Examples of New Games Journalism Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Video game journalism amp oldid 1053416646, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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