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Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a multilateral environmental agreement signed in 1985 that provided frameworks for international reductions in the production of chlorofluorocarbons due to their contribution to the destruction of the ozone layer, resulting in an increased threat of skin cancer.

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Signed22 March 1985
LocationVienna, Austria
Effective22 September 1988
Conditionratification by 20 states
Signatories28
Ratifiers197
DepositarySecretary-General of the United Nations
LanguagesArabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish

Contents

During the 1970s, research indicated that man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) reduce and convert ozone molecules in the atmosphere. CFCs are stable molecules composed of carbon, fluorine, and chlorine that were used prominently in products such as refrigerators. The threats associated with reduced ozone pushed the issue to the forefront of global climate issues and gained promotion through organizations such as the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations. The Vienna Convention was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of 1985 and entered into force in 1988. The Vienna Convention provided the framework necessary to create regulatory measures in the form of the Montreal Protocol.

In terms of universality, it is one of the most successful treaties of all time, having been ratified by 197 states (all United Nations members as well as the Holy See, Niue and the Cook Islands) as well as the European Union. While not a binding agreement, it acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer; however, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion.

The Indian Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Shri Prakash Javadekar, addressing at the 21st International Day for the preservation of the ozone layer and the 30th anniversary of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone layer, in New Delhi on September 16, 2015.

The treaty's provisions include the international sharing of climate and atmospheric research to promote knowledge of the effects on the ozone layer. In addition, the treaty calls for the adoption of international agencies to assess the harmful effects of depleted ozone and the promotion of policies that regulate the production of harmful substances that influence the ozone layer. One of the outcomes of the Vienna Convention was the creation of a panel of governmental atmospheric experts known as the Meeting of Ozone Research Managers, which assesses ozone depletion and climate change research and produces a report for the Conference of Parties (COP). Additionally, the COP utilizes the data assessed to suggest new policies aimed at limiting CFC emissions.

Currently, the COP meets every three years and coordinates with the timing of a similar meeting rendered under the Montreal Protocol. The Ozone Secretariat functions as an administrator of the COP, Montreal Meeting of Parties (MOP), and Open-Ended Working Groups that help facilitate functions under the convention. A Multilateral Fund exists to aid developing nations transition from ozone-depleting chemicals using guidelines under the convention, which is administered by a Multilateral Fund Secretariat. The Multilateral Fund has aided thousands of projects in nearly 150 countries, preventing the usage of roughly 250,000 tons of ozone-depleting chemicals.

  1. "Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved17 January 2012.
  2. Nolan, C.V.; Amanatidis, G.T. (1995). "European commission research on the fluxes and effects of environmental UVB radiation". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 31 (1–2): 3–7. doi:10.1016/1011-1344(95)07161-2. ISSN 1011-1344.
  3. Jachtenfuchs, M. (1990). "The European Community and the Protection of the Ozone Layer". JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. 28 (3): 261–277. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5965.1990.tb00367.x. ISSN 0021-9886.
  4. Slaper, H.; Velders, G. J. M.; Daniel, J. S.; de Gruijl, F. R.; van der Leun, J. C. (1996). "Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements". Nature. 384 (6606): 256–258. Bibcode:1996Natur.384..256S. doi:10.1038/384256a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 8918873. S2CID 4305136.
  5. Wettestad, J. (2001). Environmental Regime Effectiveness: Confronting Theory with Evidence. MIT Press. p. 150. ISBN 9780262263726.
  6. Wexler, P. (2012). Chemicals, environment, health : a global management perspective. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420084696. OCLC 747903390.

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Language Watch Edit The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a multilateral environmental agreement signed in 1985 that provided frameworks for international reductions in the production of chlorofluorocarbons due to their contribution to the destruction of the ozone layer resulting in an increased threat of skin cancer 2 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone LayerSigned22 March 1985LocationVienna AustriaEffective22 September 1988Conditionratification by 20 statesSignatories28 1 Ratifiers197 1 DepositarySecretary General of the United NationsLanguagesArabic Chinese English French Russian and Spanish Contents 1 Background 2 Provisions 3 References 4 External linksBackground EditDuring the 1970s research indicated that man made chlorofluorocarbons CFCs reduce and convert ozone molecules in the atmosphere 3 CFCs are stable molecules composed of carbon fluorine and chlorine that were used prominently in products such as refrigerators The threats associated with reduced ozone pushed the issue to the forefront of global climate issues and gained promotion through organizations such as the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations The Vienna Convention was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of 1985 and entered into force in 1988 The Vienna Convention provided the framework necessary to create regulatory measures in the form of the Montreal Protocol 4 In terms of universality it is one of the most successful treaties of all time having been ratified by 197 states all United Nations members as well as the Holy See Niue and the Cook Islands as well as the European Union 1 While not a binding agreement it acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer however it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion The Indian Minister of State for Environment Forest and Climate Change Shri Prakash Javadekar addressing at the 21st International Day for the preservation of the ozone layer and the 30th anniversary of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone layer in New Delhi on September 16 2015 Provisions EditThe treaty s provisions include the international sharing of climate and atmospheric research to promote knowledge of the effects on the ozone layer 1 In addition the treaty calls for the adoption of international agencies to assess the harmful effects of depleted ozone and the promotion of policies that regulate the production of harmful substances that influence the ozone layer 1 One of the outcomes of the Vienna Convention was the creation of a panel of governmental atmospheric experts known as the Meeting of Ozone Research Managers which assesses ozone depletion and climate change research and produces a report for the Conference of Parties COP 5 Additionally the COP utilizes the data assessed to suggest new policies aimed at limiting CFC emissions Currently the COP meets every three years and coordinates with the timing of a similar meeting rendered under the Montreal Protocol 6 The Ozone Secretariat functions as an administrator of the COP Montreal Meeting of Parties MOP and Open Ended Working Groups that help facilitate functions under the convention 6 A Multilateral Fund exists to aid developing nations transition from ozone depleting chemicals using guidelines under the convention which is administered by a Multilateral Fund Secretariat 6 The Multilateral Fund has aided thousands of projects in nearly 150 countries preventing the usage of roughly 250 000 tons of ozone depleting chemicals 6 References Edit a b c d e Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer United Nations Treaty Series Retrieved 17 January 2012 Nolan C V Amanatidis G T 1995 European commission research on the fluxes and effects of environmental UVB radiation Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 31 1 2 3 7 doi 10 1016 1011 1344 95 07161 2 ISSN 1011 1344 Jachtenfuchs M 1990 The European Community and the Protection of the Ozone Layer JCMS Journal of Common Market Studies 28 3 261 277 doi 10 1111 j 1468 5965 1990 tb00367 x ISSN 0021 9886 Slaper H Velders G J M Daniel J S de Gruijl F R van der Leun J C 1996 Estimates of ozone depletion and skin cancer incidence to examine the Vienna Convention achievements Nature 384 6606 256 258 Bibcode 1996Natur 384 256S doi 10 1038 384256a0 ISSN 0028 0836 PMID 8918873 S2CID 4305136 Wettestad J 2001 Environmental Regime Effectiveness Confronting Theory with Evidence MIT Press p 150 ISBN 9780262263726 a b c d Wexler P 2012 Chemicals environment health a global management perspective CRC Press ISBN 9781420084696 OCLC 747903390 External links EditUNEP The Ozone Secretariat website Ratifications Treaty text Introductory note by Edith Brown Weiss procedural history note and audiovisual material on the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Treaty available in ECOLEX the gateway to environmental law English Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer amp oldid 1044986828, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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